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1.1.1.

ARTICOLUL HOTRAT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)

este the - pronunat [\] - inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o consoan sau semiconsoan the ball [ \ bO-l] the window {\ `wind\u ] - pronunat [I/i] - in faa cuvintelor care incep cu o vocal the eye [i ai] the apple [i `Epl] singular: plural: the girl [\ g|l] = fata the girls [\ g|lz]= fetele the boy [\ Boi] = biatul the boys [\ Boiz] = bieii the tree [\ trI] = copacul the trees [\ trIz] = copacii the cat [\ kEt] = pisica the cats [\ kEts]= pisicile Articolul hotrat apare intr-un mare numr de expresii: on the one side/hand = pe de o parte on the other side/hand = pe de alt parte at the same time = in acelai timp etc Articolul hotrat plasat in faa unor adjective d acestora sensul unor substantive la numrul plural: adj. rich = bogat-bogat, bogai-bogate the rich = cei bogai - cele bogate adj. poor = srac-srac, sraci-srace the poor = cei sraci - cele srace Articolul hotrat apare la gradul superlativ relativ al adjectivelor: the best = cel mai bun, cea mai bun, cei mai buni, cele mai bune the least = cel mai puin, cea mai puin, cei mai puini, cele mai puine the biggest = cel mai mare, cea mai mare, cei mai mari, cele mai mari the most interesting = cel mai interesant, cea mai interesant, cei mai interesani, cele mai interesante etc Articolul hotrat apare i in structura the..., the... = cu cat..., cu atat... (dou comparative juxtapuse) The earlier you come, the better it is. = Cu cat vii/venii mai devreme cu atat e mai bine. The more we are, the easier it is.= Cu cat suntem mai muli, cu atat este mai uor.

The more interesting the book is, the more I like it. = Cu cat cartea este mai interesant, cu atat imi place mai mult. Articolul hotrat se intercaleaz de regul intre un substantiv precedat de o prepoziie i prepoziia respectiv. a house in the forest = o cas in pdure a boat on the lake = o barc pe lac across the road = peste drum at the end = la sfarit at the door = la u in the end = in final in the morning = dimineaa in the village = in sat in the shade = la umbr Articolul hotrat insoete, de obicei, substantivele cand acestea sunt acompaniate/precedate de adjective. in the first/second/third/etc. sentence = in prima/a doua/a treia/etc. propoziie in the course of time = in decursul timpului, de-a lungul timpului in the second half = in a doua jumtate in the days/months that followed = in zilele/lunile care au urmat Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. = Muntele Everest este cel mai inalt munte din lume. Articolul hotrat the se mai traduce in limba roman prin articolele adjectivale cel, cea, cei, cele sau articolele posesive al, a, ai, ale. Alfred the Great = Alfred cel Mare Stephen the Great = tefan cel Mare The Second World War = Cel de al doilea rzboi mondial. 1.1.2. ARTICOLUL NEHOTRAT (THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE) este : - a [\] - inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu consoan sau semiconsoan: a dog [\ `dog]= un caine a wall [\ `wOl]= un zid/perete a flower [\ `flau\]= o floare a year [\ `ji\] = un an - an [\n] - inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu vocal: an apple [\n `Epl]= un mr an eye [\n `ai] = un ochi an ear [\n `i\]= o ureche an idea [\n ai`di\]= o idee Articolul nehotrat introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi intalnit : - in faa substantivelor insoite/precedate de adjective : a good teacher = un profesor bun

a big house = o cas mare a book of proverbs = o carte de proverbe a house on fire = o cas in flcri a little tea = puin/destul ceai - in unele structuri : a tobacconist's = o tutungerie a baker's = o brutrie a greengrocer's = un aprozar a blue - eyed girl = o fat cu ochi albatri a confectioner's = o cofetrie a jeweller's = un magazin de bijuterii a chemist 's = o farmacie a stationer's = o papetrie once upon a time = a fost odat a grocer' s = o bcnie two/three at a time = cate doi/treio dat Articolul nehotrat are in unele cazuri funcie numeric: a hundred = o sut a thousand = o mie two saucers and an ash-tray = dou farfurioare i o scrumier 1.1.3. ARTICOLUL ZERO (THE ZERO ARTICLE) Articolul zero apare: a) in nume de continente, ri, persoane, zilele sptmanii etc. Exemple: Africa, Asia, America, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania, Sunday, Alice, Bob, George, John, Mary, Peter, Richard, William etc. b) in faa subsantivelor folosite in sens general: Children like sweets. = Copiilor le plac dulciurile. Knowledge is power. = tiina inseamn putere. Oil is lighter than water. = Uleiul este mai uor decat apa. Boys like toys and lots of noise.= Bieilor le plac jucriile i mult zgomot. c) in faa subsantivelor nenumrabile (uncountables): Gold is yellow.= Aurul este galben. This house is made of wood.= Aceast cas este fcut din lemn.

d) inaintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: care, death, hatred, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water etc. Salt seasons all things. (prov.) = Sarea d gust tuturor lucrurilor. Multe substantive abstracte apar in proverbe. Hunger is the best sauce. = Foamea este cel mai bun buctar. e) nume de: culori (white, black, yellow, red, green, brown, pink, violet, orange, blue, black), sporturi i jocuri sportive (football, volleyball, basketball, hockey, tennis etc.), limbi (English, Romanian, German, French etc.), mese (breakfast, snack, lunch, tea, dinner, supper). f) in unele expresii / structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greelilor. after dark = dup lsarea intunericului after three o'clock = dup ora trei after dinner = dup cin day by day = zi de zi drop by drop = strop cu strop day after day = zi dup zi, zi de zi from end to end = de la cap la cap from first to last = de la primul la ultimul from place to place = din loc in loc from time to time = din cand in cand good for food = comestibil goods on sale = mrfuri/bunuri de vanzare in general = in general to learn by heart = a inva pe de rost piece by piece = bucat cu bucat Just in time = chiar la timp/moment to leave for school = a pleca la coal to keep in mind = a ine minte to be on duty = a fi de serviciu to go on foot = a merge pe jos to put in order = a pune in ordine to be in parliament = a fi in parlament to go to bed = a merge la culcare from London = de la Londra to look for help/aid = a cuta ajutor to pay on demand = a plti la cerere from morning to night = de dimineaa pan seara from beginning to end = de la inceput la sfarit on certain conditions = cu anumite condiii

1.2. SUSBTANTIVUL (THE NOUN) Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans = substan; sub = sub/dedesubt, stans = aezat) este partea de vorbire care denumete fiine, obiecte, stri, noiuni, insuiri etc. 1.2.1. Clasificare - comune (Common Nouns) dog (caine), cat (pisic), bird (pasre), house (cas), apple (mr), girl (fat), boy (biat), water (ap). - proprii (Proper Nouns) John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain etc.abstracte (Abstract Nouns) friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom (inelepciune), safety ( siguran), theory (teorie), gratitude (recunotin) etc. - inidividuale (Individual Nouns) man (brbat), house (cas), stone (piatr), tree (copac) etc. - colective (Collective Nouns) team (echip), army (armat), family (familie), fleet (flot), crowd (mulime), flock (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup) etc. - nume de materie (Names of Matter) water (ap), air (aer), fire (foc), beer (bere), milk (lapte), steel (oel), silver (argint), gold (aur), snow (zpad), wine (vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc. 1.2.2. Genul substantivelor (The Gender of the Nouns).

masculin (masculine) feminin (feminine) (he = el) (she = ea) actor = actor actress = actri bachelor = celibatar spinster = celibatar barman = barman barmaid = barmani boy = biat girl = fat bridegroom =ginere bride = mireas brother = frate sister = sor dad/daddy =tati/tticu mam/mammy = mami earl = conte countess = contes father = tat mother = mam gentleman = domn gentlewoman = doamn god = zeu goddess = zei grandfather = grandpa = bunic grandmother = grandma =bunic hero = erou heroine = eroin husband = so wife = soie king = rege queen = regin lad = flcu lass = fat landlord =proprietar landlady = proprietreas man = brbat woman = femeie master = stpn mistress = stpn monk = clugr nun = clugri nephew = nepot niece = nepoat papa/daddy = tata mamma/mammy = mama policeman = poliist policewoman = poliist prince = prin princess = prines salesman =vnztor saleswoman = vnztoare sir = domn madam = doamn son = fiu daughter = fiic tutor = tutore governess = guvernant uncle = unchi aunt = mtu neutru (neuter) comun (common)

(it = el/ea) (he/she = el/ea) air = aer associate = asociat/asociat ball = minge architect = arhitect/arhitect book = carte artist = artist/artist box = cutie beginner =nceptor/nceptoare bread = pine author = autor/autoare building = cldire child = copil/copil bus = autobuz buyer =cumprtor/cumprtoare crocodile = crocodil client = client/client error = greeal companion =nsoitor/nsoitoare fish = pete cook = buctar/buctreas flag = drapel cousin = verior/verioar flute = flaut customer = client/client fork = furculi customs officer =vame/vame glory = glorie dancer = dansator/dansatoare helicopter =elicopter doctor = doctor/doctori honour = onoare dreamer = vistor/vistoare house = cas driver = ofer/oferi impression =impresie dyer = vopsitor/vopsitoare indifference =indiferen economist =economist/economist kangaroo = cangur engineer = inginer/inginer land = pmnt examiner=examinator/examinatoare legend = legend fighter = lupttor/lupttoare light = lumin friend = prieten/prieten march = mar guest = musafir/musafir medal = medalie interpreter =interpret/interpret microbe = microb journalist = jurnalist/jurnalist minaret = minaret owner = posesor/posesoare monkey = maimu painter = pictor/pictori mouse = oarece parent = printe mushroom =ciuperc masculin (masculine) feminin (feminine) (he = el) (she = ea) boy friend = prieten girl friend = prieten brother - in - law =cumnat

sister - in - law = cumnat bull = taur cow = vac cock = coco hen = gin dog = cine bitch = cea drake = roi duck = ra father - in - law =socru mother - in - law = soacr fisherman = pescar fox = vulpoi vixen = vulpe gipsy/gypsy = igan gipsy/gypsy woman =iganc grandson = nepot granddaughter = nepoat horse = cal mare = iap host = gazd hostess = gazd lion = leu lioness = leoaic lord = domn lady = doamn man-servant =servitor maid - servant = servitoare Mr. = domnul Miss/Mrs. =domnioara/doamna negro = negru negress = negres ox = bou cow = vac peasant = ran peasant woman = ranc pirate = pirat postman = pota schoolboy = colar schoolgirl = colri soldier = soldat son - in - law =ginere daughter - in - law = nor steward = stevard stewardess = stevardes tom cat = pisoi pussy cat = pisic turkey cock =curcan turkey hen = curc usher = plasator usherette = plasatoare waiter = chelner waitress = chelneri neutru (neuter) comun (common) (it = el/ea) (he/she = el/ea) net = plas photographer = fotograf/fotograf novel = roman physician = doctor/doctori number = numr physicist = fizician/fizician occupation =ocupaie

passenger =pasager/pasager ocean = ocean manager =manager/manager, director/direc- toare oil = ulei philosopher = filozof page = pagin physiologist = fiziolog panic = panic pilot = pilot part = parte player = juctor/juctoare pear = par playwright = dramaturg petal = petal printer = tipograf/tipograf piano = pian prisoner = prizonier/prizonier pig = porc purchaser = cumprtor/cumprtoare pot = oal supporter = suporter/suporter root = rdcin reader = cititor/cititoare scorpion = scorpion reporter = reporter/reporter shark = rechin rival = rival/rival sparrow = vrabie scholar = nvat/nvat sphere = sfer scientist = savant/savant stage = scen smoker = fumtor/fumtoare stick = b spectator =spectator/spectatoare sun = soare spouse = so/soie tea = ceai successor =succesor/succesoare telephone = telefon superintendent =supraveghetor/supraveghetoare theorist =teoretician/teoretician weaver = estor/estoare welder = sudor/sudori worker = muncitor/muncitoare writer = scriitor/scriitoare

1.2.3.1. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor Se formeaz prin adugarea literei s. book - books = carte - cri Litera s semn al pluralului substantivelor , al persoanei a III-a singular a verbelor i al genitivului saxon/sintetic al substantivelor, se citete: [ s ] - cand este precedat de consoane nesonore/surde book - books = carte - cri to speak - he speaks = a vorbi - el vorbete the economist's pen] = stiloul economistului [ z ] - cand este precedat de o consoan sonor chair - chairs = scaun - scaune to receive - he receives = a primi - el primete the girl's flowers =florile fetei ; [ iz ] - cand este precedat de s, z, ch, sh sau consoane uiertoare/sibilante; bench - benches = banc - bnci bus - buses = autobuz - autobuze fox - foxes = vulpoi - vulpoi George' s books = crile lui George to teach - he teaches = a preda/explica - el pred/explic to wash - he washes = a (se) spla - el se spal Unele substantive terminate in y, precedat de consoan primesc s la plural, dar pe y il transform in ie. baby - babies = copila - copilai beauty - beauties = frumusee - frumusei city - cities = ora - orae etc. Substantivele terminate in y formeaz pluralul prin simpla adugare la sfiritul lor a literei s dac in faa lui y se afl o vocal : boy - boys = biat biei day - days = zi - zile play - plays = pies - piese toy - toys = jucrie - jucrii etc

Substantivele care se termin in f sau ff formeaz pluralul prin adugarea lui s : chief - chiefs = ef - efi cliff - cliffs = stanc - stanci grief - griefs = suprare/mahnire - suprri/mahniri Dar iat i excepii: calf - calves = viel - viei half - halves = jumtate - jumti knife - knives = cuit - cuite leaf - leaves = frunz - frunze life - lives = via - viei loaf - loaves = franzel - franzele shelf - shelves = raft - rafturi thief - thieves = ho - hoi wife - wives = soie - soii wolf - wolves = lup lupi Substantivele terminate in o formeaz pluralul astfel: a) - unele adaug terminaia es : hero - heroes = erou - eroi mosquito - mosquitoes = anar -anari negro - negroes = negru - negri potato - potatoes = cartof - cartofi tomato - tomatoes = tomat -tomate volcano - volcanoes = vulcan vulcani b) - altele adaug doar litera s : casino - casinos = cazino -cazinouri cuckoo - cuckoos = cuc - cuci embryo - embryos = embrionembrioni kangaroo - kangaroos = cangur -canguri piano - pianos = pian - piane radio - radios = radio - radiouri photo - photos = fotografie -fotografii studio - studios = studio studiouri

1.2.3.2. Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor businessman - businessmen =om / oameni de afaceri child - children = copil - copii die - dice = zar - zaruri Englishman - Englishmen =englez - englezi fireman - firemen = pompier -pompieri fisherman - fishermen = pescar -pescari foot - feet = lab - labe gentleman - gentlemen = domn -domni gentlewoman - gentlewomen =doamn - doamne goose - geese = gasc - gate louse - lice = pduche - pduchi man - men = brbat - brbai mouse - mice = oarece - oareci postman - postmen = posta -postai sportsman - sportsmen = sportiv -sportivi tooth - teeth = dinte/msea -dini/msele woman - women = femeie femei 1.2.3.3. Plurale strine Greceti: analysis - analyses = analiz -analize axis - axes = ax - axe basis - bases = baz - baze crisis - crises = criz - crize diagnosis - diagnoses = diagnostic- diagnostice metropolis - metropolises =metropol - metropole sphinx - sphinxes = sfinx - sfinci octopus - octopuses/octopi = caracati caracatie Latineti: agendum - agenda = agend -agende alga - algae = alg - alge aquarium / aquariums = acvariu- acvarii bacillus - bacilli = bacil - bacili candelabrum - candelabra = candelabru - candelabre erratum - errata = erat - erate

gymnasium - gymnasiums = gimnaziu gimnazii mausoleum - mausoleums = mausoleu -mausolee stimulus - stimuli = stimul - stimuli stratum - strata = strat straturi 1.2.3.4. Plurale asimilate in limba englez arena - arenas = aren - arene circus - circuses = circ - circuri dilemma - dilemmas = dilem -dileme diploma - diplomas = diplom -diplome drama - dramas = dram - drame genius - geniuses = geniu - genii idea - ideas = idee - idei minus - minuses = minus -minusuri opera - operas = oper - opere umbrella - umbrellas = umbrel umbrele 1.2.3.5. Pluralul substantivelor compuse blackboard - blackboards = tabl- table motel - motels = motel - moteluri mother - in - law - mothers - in law = soacr - soacre passer - by - passers - by = pieton- pietoni son - in - law - sons - in - law =ginere gineri 1.2.3.6. Pluralul fraciilor zecimale one quarter - three quarters = un sfert - trei sferturi one third - two thirds = o treime - dou treimi one fifth - two fifths = o cincime - dou cincimi one seventh - two sevenths = o eptime - dou eptim 1.2.3.7. Pluralul unor abrevieri Member of Parliament (M.P.) - Members of Parliament (M.P.s) = membru al parlamentului, membri ai parlamentului Mountain (Mt. ) - Mountains (Mts) = munte - muni Post - Office (P.O.) - Post - Offices (P.O.s) = oficiu potal - oficii potale. 1.2.3.8. Substantive numai cu form de plural spectacles = glasses = ochelari, trousers = pantaloni, clothes = haine, scissors = foarfeci

1.2.3.9. Substantive numai cu form de singular advice = sfat, equipment = echipament/utilaj, furniture = mobil, information = informaie/informaii, knowledge = cunotine, news = tiri, money = ban 1.2.3.10. Substantive cu aceeai form pentru singular i plural sheep = oaie - oi, fish = pete - peti, deer = cprioar - cprioare, Portughese = portughez - portughezi, Chinese = chinez chinez 1.2.4. Cazurile substantivelor (The Cases of the Nouns) Cazul este categoria gramatical prin care se exprim raporturi sintactice intre cuvinte prin modificarea formelor acestora. 1.2.4.1. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case) Este cazul subiectului i rspunde la intrebrile: who ? = cine ? , what ? = = ce? The boy is playing in the garden. = Biatul se joac in grdin. Who is playing in the garden? = Cine se joac in grdin ? I saw John. - Who saw John? - I did. = Eu l-am vzut pe John. - Cine l-a vzut pe John? - Eu. The book is on the table. - What is on the table? - The book is. = Cartea este pe mas. - Ce este pe mas ? - Cartea. Alice and Gabi are in the street. - Who is/are in the street ? - Alice and Gabi are. = Alice i Gabi sunt pe strad. - Cine este pe strad? - Alice i Gabi. 1.2.4.2. Cazul vocativ (The Vocative Case) Este cazul adresrii sau al chemrii. George, will you help me ? = George, vrei s m ajui ? Come here, my boy ! = Vino aici, fiule ! 1.2.4.3. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case) Este cazul atributului i rspunde la intrebrile: whose ? = al cui ?, a cui ?, ai cui?, ale cui ?, which ?= care ?, which of ?= care dintre ?, what ? = ce/care ? Cazul genitiv este de patru feluri: a) saxon/sintetic b) prepoziional/analitic

c) dublu d) implicit/aglutinant 1.2.4.3.1. Genitivul saxon/sintetic (The Saxon Genitive or the Possesive Case) Se formeaz la singular cu ' (apostrof) plus litera s i se intrebuineaz cu substantive masculine i feminine. all Shakespeare's plays = toate piesele lui Shakespeare John Major's diplomacy = diplomaia lui John Major the boy's friend = prietenul biatului this man's gift = talentul acestui om La plural sau dac posesorul se termin in s se adaug doar apostroful. the boys' friend = prietenul bieilor the children's ball = mingea copiilor the boys' ball = mingea bieilor Dickens' novels = romanele lui Dickens Genitivul saxon se mai folosete i in unele structuri cum ar fi: A Midsummer Night's Dream = Visul unei nopi de var at a stone's throw = la o distan de o aruncare de piatr at Shakespeare's = la Shakespeare acas the night's coolness = rcoarea nopii the house of my sister's husband = casa soului sorei mele the sun's heat = cldura soarelui the sea's roar = vuietul mrii to go to the barber's = a merge la frizerie to his heart's content = pe pofta inimii lui today's news = tirile de azi without a moment's rest = fr o clip de odihn a talk of ten minutes = a ten minutes' talk = o discuie de zece minute a two miles' walk = a walk of two miles = o plimbare de dou mile England's football team = echipa de fotbal a Angliei I must go to Mr. Brown's house. = Trebuie s merg la domnul Brown acas to be at one's wit's/ wits' end = a fi in incurctur, a fi la captul puterilor 1.2.4.3.2. Genitivul prepoziional/analitic (The Prepositional/Analitical Genitive) Se formeaz cu prepoziia of i se folosete cu substantive de toate genurile. the smell of the flower/flowers = mirosul florii/florilor the friend of the boy = the boy's friend = prietenul biatului the friends of the boys = the boys' friends = prietenii bieilor

the friend of the boys = the boys' friend = prietenul bieilor the friends of the boy = the boy's friends = prietenii biatului some books of my friend = nite cri ale prietenului meu a friend of mine/yours/his/hers = un prieten al meu/tu/lui/ei a friend of ours/yours/theirs = un prieten al nostru/vostru/lor a brother of my friend = un frate al prietenului meu a book of my sister = o carte a sorei mele one of my good friends = unul din bunii mei prieteni one of my best friends = unul din cei mai buni prieteni ai mei this interesting book of Helen's = aceast carte interesant a Elenei a dancing couple = a couple that/which is dancing = un cuplu care danseaz a burning house = a house that is burning = o cas care arde a sleeping dog = a dog that/which is sleeping = un caine care doarme the boy between John and Nick = the boy who is between John and Nick = = biatul dintre John i Nick = biatul care este intre John i Nick. the man in the street = omul de pe strad, omul de rand, omul obinuit a boy of eleven (years) = un biat de unsprezece ani a man with grey hair = un om cu pr crunt the girl with glasses = fata cu ochelari the girl wearing glasses = fata care poart ochelari my friend's friend = prietenul prietenului meu my friends' friend = prietenul prietenilor mei my friend's friends = prietenii prietenului meu my friends' friends = prietenii prietenilor mei a walk of ten minutes = a ten minute walk = o plimbare de zece minute our walk of ten minutes = our ten minute walk = plimbarea noastr de zece minute a drive of ten miles = a ten mile drive = o plimbare de zece mile cu maina a journey of two days = a two day journey = o cltorie de dou zile my holiday of two weeks = my two week holiday = vacana mea de dou sptmani 1.2.4.3.3. Genitivul dublu (Group Possesive) my friend's birthday/ the birthday of my friend = ziua de natere a prietenului meu her sister, Alice's blue eyes = ochii albatri ai sorei sale, Alice his son-in-law's birthday = ziua de natere a ginerelui su/lui my friend, Tom's birthday = ziua de natere a prietenului meu, Tom someone else's birthday = ziua de natere a altcuiva

that boy's friend's book = cartea prietenului biatului aceluia = cartea prietenului acelui biat. 1.2.4.3.4. Genitivul implicit/aglutinant (The Implicit Genitive) The United Nations Organisation = Organizaia Naiunilor Unite Students Organisation = Organizaia studenilor ignition timing = reglarea aprinderii a heart disease = o boal de inim 1.2.4.4. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case) Cazul dativ este cazul complementului indirect i rspunde la intrebrile: to whom ? = who(m)... to? = cui? for whom ? = who(m)... for ? = pentru cine ?, to what ...? = what ... to ? = la ce ? etc. I give Alice two books. = I give two books to Alice. = Eu ii dau lui Alice dou cri. = Eu ii dau dou cri lui Alice. To whom do I give two books ? = Who(m) do I give two books to ? = Cui dau eu dou cri ? Everybody is working for him. = Toi lucreaz pentru el. For whom is everybody working ? = Pentru cine lucreaz toi ? Who(m) is everybody working for ? = Pentru cine lucreaz toi ? I am referring to John. = Eu m refer la John. Who(m) am I referring to ? = To whom am I referring ? = La cine m refer eu? dativ acuzativ acuzativ dativ I have brought John a book. = I have brought a book to John. I-am adus lui John o carte. = I-am adus o carte lui John. Din exemplul de mai sus se observ c, atunci cand in propoziie acuzativul (compl. direct) st inaintea dativului (compl. indirect), se folosete obligatoriu particula to . Alte exemple: I offered my wife some flowers. = I offered some flowers to my wife = Iam oferit soiei mele nite flori. = I-am oferit nite flori soiei mele. The book belongs to me. = Cartea imi aparine mie. The book does not belong to me .= Cartea nu-mi aparine mie. Does the book belong to me ? = Imi aparine mie cartea ? To whom does the book belong ? = Who(m) does the book belong to ? = Cui ii aparine cartea ? He forgives us our mistake. = El ne iart nou greeala noastr.

His coming is a mystery to me. = Venirea lui este un mister pentru mine. The advantage is obvious to them. = Avantajul le este evident. What relation are you to this boy ? = Ce rud eti tu cu acest biat ? This computer is superior to other computers. = Acest calculator este superior altor calculatoare. The matter is open to discussion.= Chestiunea este deschis discuiei. Give my friend that book, please ! = Give that book to my friend, please ! = D-i prietenului meu cartea aceea, te rog ! I am going to write to my friend. = Am de gand s-i scriu prietenului meu. Do not be cruel to animals ! = Nu fi crud fa de animale ! You must not be blind to his mistakes. = Nu trebuie s fii orb fa de greelile lui. His uncle gave him a present. = Unchiul su / lui i-a dat un cadou. 1.2.4.5. Cazul acuzativ (The Accusative Case) Este cazul complementului direct i rspunde la intrebrile whom ? = pe cine ?, what ? = ce ? I see the boy every day. = Il vd pe biat in fiecare zi. Whom do I see every day ? = Pe cine vd eu in fiecare zi ? You see the book on the table. = Tu vezi cartea pe mas. What do you see on the table ? = Ce vezi tu pe mas ? My sister is looking for a book. = Sora mea caut o carte. What is my sister looking for ? = Ce caut sora mea ? 1.2.5.2. Declinarea substantivelor cu articol hotrat singular plural N. the boy = biatul the boys = bieii the girl = fata the girls = fetele G. of the boy = the boy's = al, a, ai, ale biatului of the boys = the boys' = al, a, ai, ale bieilor of the girl = the girl's = al, a, ai, ale fetei of the girls = the girls' = al, a, ai, ale fetelor D. (to) the boy = biatului (to) the boys = bieilor (to) the girl = fetei (to) the girls = fetelor A. the boy = biatul the boys = bieii the girl = fata the girls = fetele

V. - 1.2.5.3. Declinarea substantivelor neutre singular plural N. a boy = un biat boys = biei a girl = o fat girls = fete G. of a boy = a boy's = al, a , ai, ale unui biat of boys = boys' = al, a, ai, ale, unor biei, de biei of a girl = a girl's = al, a, ai, ale unei fete of girls = girls' = al, a , ai, ale, unor fete, de fete D. (to) a boy = unui biat (to) boys = unor biei (to) a girl = unei fete (to) girls = unor fete A. a boy = un biat boys = biei a girl = o fat girls = fete V. boy ! = biete !, biatule ! girl ! = fat ! boys ! = biei! girls ! = fetelor ! In limba englez adjectivele stau inaintea substantivelor sau dup verbul to be i nu se acord in gen, numr i caz cu substantivele pe care le determin. The interesting book is on the table. = Cartea interesant este pe mas. 1.3.1. Clasificarea adjectivelor 1. calitative (of Quality / Descriptive) 2. posesive (Possessive) 3. interogativ - relative (Interrogative-Relative) 4. demonstrative (Demonstrative) 5. cantitativ/nehotrate (Quantitative-Indefinite)

1.3.1.1. Adjective calitative (Adjectives of Quality) clever = detept, deteapt, detepi, detepte a clever boy = un biat detept a clever girl = o fat deteapt clever boys = biei detepi clever girls = fete detepte interesting = interesant, interesant, interesani, interesante good = bun, bun, buni, bune etc. 1.3.1.2. Adjective posesive (Possessive Adjectives) my = meu, mea, mei, mele your = tu, ta, ti, tale his = lui, su, sa, si, sale, dansului her = ei, su, sa, si, sale, dansei its = lui/ei, su/sa, si/sale our = nostru, noastr, notri, noastre your = vostru, voastr, votri, voastre, dumneavoastr their = lor, danilor, danselor, dumnealor my friend = prietenul meu my friends = prietenii mei your friend = prietenul tu your friends = prietenii ti his friend = prietenul lui/dansului his friends = prietenii lui/dansului her friend = prietenul ei/dansei her friends = prietenii ei/dansei its friend = prietenul lui/ei its friends = prietenii lui/ei our friend = prietenul nostru our friends = prietenii notri your friend = prietenul vostru/dv. your friends = prietenii votri/dv. their friend = prietenul lor/danilor their friends = prietenii lor/danilor 1.3.1.3. Adjective interogativ-relative (Interrogative-Relative Adjectives) 1.3.1.3.1. Interogative which = care ?, pe care ? which boy ? = care (al catelea) biat ? (which boys ? = care (ai catelea) biei?) which girl ? = care (a cata) fat? (which girls ? = care (ale catelea) fete ?) which house ? = care (a cata) cas ? (which houses ? = care (ale catelea) case?) which tree ?= care (al catelea) copac? (which trees? = care (ai catelea)

copaci ?) which of ? = care dintre ? (selectiv) which of the boys?= care dintre biei? which of the girls ? = care dintre fete ? which of the houses ? = care dintre case ? which of the trees ? = care dintre copaci ? what ? = ce ?, care ? what boy ? = ce/care biat ? what boys ? = ce/care biei ? what girl ? = ce/care fat ? what girls ? = ce/care fete ? what house ? = ce/care cas ? what houses ? = ce/care case ? what tree ? = ce/care copac ? what trees ? = ce/care copaci ? what kind/sort of ? = ce fel de ? what kind of boy ? = ce fel de biat ? (what kind of boys ? = ce fel de biei?) what kind of girl ? = ce fel de fat ? (what kind of girls ? = ce fel de fete ?) what kind of house? = ce fel de cas? (what kind of houses? = ce fel de case ?) what kind of tree? = ce fel de copac? (what kind of trees ? = ce fel de copaci ? whose ? = al, a, ai, ale cui ? whose boy ? = al cui biat ?whose boys ? = ai cui biei ? whose girl ? = a cui fat ? whose girls ? = ale cui fete ? whose house ? = a cui cas ? whose houses ? = ale cui case ? whose tree ? = al cui copac ? whose trees ? = ai cui copaci ? 1.3.1.3.2. Relative who = care ; the boy who knows you = biatul care te cunoate whose = al , a, ai, ale crui/crei/cror the boy whose father ... = biatul al crui tat ... the boy whose mother ... = biatul a crui mam ... the boy whose parents ... = biatul ai crui prini ... the girl whose parents ... = fata ai crei prini the boys whose father ... = bieii al cror tat ... the boys whose mother ... = bieii a cror mam ... the boys whose fathers ... = bieii ai cror tai the boys whose parents ... = bieii ai cror prini the girl whose mother ... = fata a crei mam ... the girl whose father ... = fata al crei tat ... the girls whose mother ... = fetele a cror mam the girls whose

father ... = fetele al cror tat the girls whose parents ... = fetele ai cror prini the girls whose mothers ... = fetele ale cror mame the girls whose fathers ... = fetele ai cror tai the house whose colour ... = casa a crei culoare the house whose roof ... = casa al crei acoperi the houses whose colour ... = casele a cror culoare the houses whose roof ... = casele al cror acoperi the houses whose colours ... = casele ale cror culori the houses whose roofs ... = casele ale cror acoperiuri the tree whose leaf ... = copacul a crui frunz the tree whose leaves ... = copacul ale crui frunze the trees whose leaves ... = copacii ale cror frunze The boy, whose book is on the table, is my brother. = Biatul, a crui carte este pe mas, este fratele meu. The playwright, whose play is Hamlet, is Shakespeare. = Dramaturgul, a crui pies este Hamlet, este Shakespeare. to whom = cruia, creia, crora the boy to whom you recommend the book = biatul cruia i recomanzi cartea the girl to whom you recommend a book = fata creia i recomanzi o carte the boys to whom you recommend a book = bieii crora le recomanzi o carte the girls to whom you recommend a book = fetele crora le recomanzi o carte whom = pe care the boy whom you see = biatul pe care l vezi the girl whom you see = fata pe care o vezi the boys whom you see = bieii pe care i vezi the girls whom you see = fetele pe care le vezi that/which = care, pe care the colour that/which you like = culoarea care i place which of [wit~ ov] = care dintre , cui dintre He knows which of us lives here. = El tie care dintre noi locuiete aici. what [wot] = ce/ct/care Tell him what answer to give. = Spune-i ce rspuns s dea. Tell me what time it is. = Spune-mi ct e ceasul . I know what book you like. = tiu ce/care carte i place. what kind/sort of = ce fel de I know what kind/sort of man he is. = tiu ce fel de om este el.

1.3.1.4. Adjective demonstrative (Demonstrative Adjectives) this = acest, acesta ; aceast,aceasta this boy = acest biat, biatulacesta this girl = aceast fat, fataaceasta this tree = acest copac, copaculacesta this book = aceast carte, carteaaceasta these = aceti, acetia ;aceste, acestea these boys = aceti biei, bieiiacetia these girls = aceste fete, feteleacestea these trees = aceti copaci, copaciiacetia these books = aceste cri, crileacestea that = acel, acela ; acea, aceea that boy = acel biat, biatul acela that girl = acea fat, fata aceea that tree = acel copac, copaculacela that book = acea carte, carteaaceea those = acei, aceia; acele,acelea those boys = acei biei, bieiiaceia those girls = acele fete, feteleacelea those books = acele cri, crileacelea those trees = acei copaci, copaciiaceia the one = acel/acela care, cel ce/care; cea/aceea care The one, who knows us, is here. = Cel/cea care ne cunoate este aici. it = acela, aceea Was it you ? = Tu ai fost acela/aceea ? the former = primul (din doi), cel dinti (din doi), prima (din dou), cea dinti (din dou) the latter = (cel de-) al doilea, ultimul (din doi), (cea de-) a doua, ultima (din dou) John and William are friends. The former is a farmer, the latter is an engineer. = John i William sunt prieteni. Primul este fermier, al doilea este inginer. the first = cel, cea, cei, cele dinti, primul, prima, primii, primele He is my first friend. = El este primul meu prieten. = El este cel dinti prieten al meu. the first boy = primul biat the first boys = primii biei the first girl = prima fat the first girls = primele fete the first book = prima carte the first books = primele cri

the first tree = primul copac the first trees = primii copaci the last = cel, cea, cei, cele din urm, ultimul, ultima, ultimii,ultimele Is this your last decision ? = Este aceasta ultima ta hotrre ? the last boy = ultimul biat the last boys = ultimii biei the last girl = ultima fat the last girls = ultimele fete the last book = ultima carte the last books = ultimele cri the last tree = ultimul copac the last trees = ultimii copaci the other = cellalt, cealalt, ceilali, celelalte the other boy = cellalt biat the other girl = cealalt fat the other house = cealalt cas the other boys = ceilali biei the other girls = celelalte fete the other houses = celelalte case another = alt, alt, o alt, alte another boy = alt biat another girl = alt fat another tree = alt copac another house = alt cas another news = alte tiri another good news = alte tiri bune He will be staying in England for another year . = El va sta n Anglia nc un an. such = astfel de, asemenea, aa such a boy = un astfel de biat, un asemenea biat such a girl = o astfel de fat, o asemenea fat such boys = aa biei, astfel de biei, asemenea biei such girls = aa fete, astfel de fete, asemenea fete such people = aa oameni, astfel de oameni people such as = oameni cum ar fi, oameni ca de exemplu We hope never to have another such experience. = Sperm s nu mai avem niciodat o astfel de experien. the same = acelai, aceeai, aceiai, aceleai the same boy = acelai biat the same girl = aceeai fat the same book = aceeai carte the same tree = acelai copac the same boys = aceiai biei the same girls = aceleai fete the same books = aceleai cri the same trees = aceiai copaci one and the same = unul i acelai; una i aceeai. one and the same boy = unul i acelai biat; one and the same girl = una i aceeai fat one and the same book = una i aceeai carte; one and the same tree = unul i acelai copac the very = chiar, tocmai , nsui , nsi the very boy who/that = chiar/ nsui / tocmai biatul care; he very girl who/that = chiar/nsi/tocmai fata care the very book which/that = chiar /tocmai cartea care; the very boys

who/that = chiar/tocmai bieii care the very girls who/that = chiar/tocmai fetele care the very books which/that = chiar/tocmai crile care This is the very book I needed. = Aceasta este chiar cartea de care aveam nevoie. 1.3.1.5. Adjective cantitative/NEHOTRTE (The Quantitative/INDEFINITE Adjectives) some = unii, unele, nite, vreun, vreo Se folosete n propoziiile afirmative. Cnd apare n propoziiile interogative se sper s se obin un rspuns afirmativ. I see some people in the street. = Vd nite oameni pe strad. Come to see us some Sunday ! = Vino/venii pe la noi ntr-o (zi de) duminic ! Do you see some people in the street ? = Vezi nite oameni pe strad ? I should drink some water, not some wine. = A bea nite ap, nu nite vin. I know him to some degree. = l cunosc ntr-o oarecare msur. Some agree with me and some don't. = Unii sunt de acord cu mine, iar alii nu. They will find out the truth some day. = Ei vor afla adevrul ntr-o bun zi. This matter has some importance. = Chestiunea aceasta are oarecare importan. You will meet some person or other. = Vei ntlni o persoan sau alta. any- n propoziiile afirmative = orice, fiece He can come at any hour of the day. = El poate veni la orice or din zi. You may like any book. = i poate plcea orice carte. You can/may come any time. = Poi veni oricnd. any ? - n propoziiile interogative = orice ?, fiece ?, vreun ?, vreo ? Do you like any book ? = i place orice carte ? Have you got any friends ? = Ai vreun prieten ?, Ai ceva prieteni ? Can you lend me any of those books ? = mi poi mprumuta vreuna dintre crile acelea? any - n propoziiile negative = nici un, nici o I cannot find any excuse. = Nu pot gsi nici o scuz. We do not see any house. = Noi nu vedem nici o cas. He does not see any boy. = El nu vede nici un biat. no - numai n propoziiile negative = nici un, nici o n limba englez se folosete o singur negaie n propoziie.

I see no boy, no girl and no house. = Nu vd nici un biat, nici o fat i nici o cas. No man could do it. = Nici un om n-o putea face. He will spare no pains. = El nu va crua nici un efort. no admittance = intrarea interzis no smoking = fumatul interzis I can find no other solution. = Nu pot gsi nici o alt soluie. few = puini, puine I see few boys, few girls and few houses. = Eu vd puini biei, puine fete i puine case. few of us/you/them = puini/puine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele a few = puini/destui, puine/destule I have a few books. = Am puine/suficiente cri. He has a few friends. = Are puini/destui/ceva prieteni. quite a few = a good few = some few = many, a large number = muli/multe He has got quite a few friends. = Are destui/muli prieteni. little = puin, puin; mic, mic, mici I drink little tea and little coffee. = Eu beau puin ceai i puin cafea. He has little time for reading. = El are puin timp pentru citit. The little boy drinks little lemonade. = Bieelul bea puin limonad. the little ones = cei mici a little = puin/destul, puin/destul, (cte) ceva A little is better than none. (prov.) = Mai bine puin dect deloc. = Mai bine ceva dect nimic. We have a little beer and a little wine. = Avem ceva bere i ceva vin. to know a little of everything = a ti cte ceva din toate The little girl is a little better now. = Fetia face ceva mai bine acum. much = mult, mult There is much tea in the teapot. = Este mult ceai n ceainic. many = muli, multe There are many people in the park. = Sunt muli oameni n parc. many of us/you/them = muli/multe dintre noi/voi/ei/ele . plenty of = mult, mult, muli, multe. We have plenty of time . = Avem timp din belug. = Avem timp berechet. a lot of = o mulime de. We have a lot of books. = Noi avem o mulime de cri. each = fiecare (luat n parte) Each man knows their story. = Fiecare om tie povestea lor. each of us/you/them = fiecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele

every = fiecare, toi/ toate Every man knows their story. = Fiecare om tie povestea lor. We can go to the library every day. = Putem merge la bibliotec n fiecare zi. several = civa, cteva, mai muli/multe We shall spend several days and nights in the mountains. = Vom petrece cteva zile i nopi la munte. He has several friends. = El are civa prieteni. several of us/you/them = civa dintre noi/voi/ei/ele Several of us went home on foot. = Mai muli dintre noi au mers acas pe jos. enough = destul, destul, suficient, suficient There is enough bread on the table. = Este suficient pine pe mas. certain = anumii, anumite, unii, unele certain boys = unii/anumii biei certain girls = unele/anumite fete certain books = unele/anumite cri a certain = un anumit, o anumit, un anume/oarecare, o anume/oarecare a certain boy = un anume/anumit/oarecare biat a certain girl = o anume/anumit/oarecare fat a certain Mr. Jones = un anumit/oarecare domn Jones a certain Mrs. Jones = o anumit/oarecare doamn Jones a certain Miss. Jones = o anumit/oarecare domnioar Jones 1.3.2. Comparaia adjectivelor i adverbelor (The Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs) Comparaia adjectivelor i adverbelor este: a) regulat/sintetic (cele scurte) b) analitic (cele lungi) c) mixt (sintetic i analitic) d) neregulat Comparaia adjectivelor se realizeaz la urmtoarele grade: 1) pozitiv, cnd nsuirea unui obiect/substantiv nu se raporteaz la nici un alt termen. Pozitivul este asemuit cu nominativul substantivelor i cu infinitivul verbelor. 2) comparativ, prin care se exprim superioritatea (comparativ de superioritate), egalitatea (comparativ de egalitate) sau inferioritatea (comparativ

de inferioritate) unui obiect/substantiv fa de altul. 3) superlativ (lat.: superlativus; super = deasupra, latus = dus/ridicat) prin care se arat c nsuirea obiectului / substantivului se afl fie n cea mai mare msur/ intensitate (superlativul relativ), fie n foarte mare msur/ intensitate (superlativul absolut). Adjectivele monosilabice dubleaz consoana final cnd aceasta este precedat de vocal scurt. 1.3.2.1. Comparaia sintetic/regulat gradul pozitiv comparative de superioritat e superlativ relative superlative absolut big bigger the biggest very big mare mai mare cel mai mare foarte mare dry drier the driest very dry uscat mai uscat cel mai uscat foarte uscat easy easier the easiest very easy uor mai uor cel mai uor foarte uor fat fatter the fattest very fat gras mai gras cel mai gras foarte gras great greater the greatest very great mare, mre mai mare cel mai mare foarte mare happy happier the happiest very happy fericit mai fericit cel mai fericit foarte fericit hard harder the hardest very hard tare, dur mai tare cel mai tare foarte tare hot hotter the hottest very hot fierbinte mai fierbinte cel mai fierbinte foarte fierbinte kind kinder the kindest very kind amabil mai amabil cel mai amabil foarte amabil long longer the longest very long

lung mai lung cel mai lung foarte lung nice nicer the nicest very nice plcut/drgu mai plcut cel mai plcut foarte plcut short shorter the shortest very short scurt/scund mai scurt cel mai scurt foarte scurt small smaller the smallest very small mic/modest mai mic cel mai mic foarte mic strong stronger the strongest very strong tare mai tare cel mai tare foarte tare tall taller the tallest very tall nalt mai nalt cel mai nalt foarte nalt