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Fundamentals of Grinding

WHAT IS GRINDING & WHY IS IT REQUIRED?


Grinding is a process of material removal in the form of chips by the mechanical action of regularly shaped Abrasive Particles bonded together in the form of a wheel Grinding is required to achieve the following
SIZE FORM FINISH

WHAT IS A GRINDING WHEEL ?


Grinding Wheel is a Multipoint cutting tool composed of Selectively Sized Abrasive Grains held together by a Bonding Material. A typical Grinding wheel consists of the following > ABRASIVES > BONDING MATERIAL > VOIDS - 40 - 45 % - 13 - 18 % - 40 - 45 %

HOW GRINDING TAKES PLACE


SLIDING , PLOWING, CHIP FORMATION

WHEEL MARKING SYSTEM

WHEELS MARKING SYMBOLS IN A CUMI GRINDING WHEEL

A
Abrasive Abrasive Type Type

46
Grit Size Grit Size 8, 10, 12, 14 8, 10, 12, 14 16, 20, 24, 30 16, 20, 24, 30 36, 46, 54, 60 36, 46, 54, 60 80, 100, 120 80, 100, 120 150, 180, 220 150, 180, 220 240, 280, 320 240, 280, 320 400,600,800 400,600,800

K
Grade Grade

10
Cumi Cumi Symbol Symbol

Alu. Oxide Alu. Oxide


A, AA, RA A, AA, RA SA, DA SA, DA

SiC SiC
Black C Black C Green GC Green GC Zirconia ZA Zirconia ZA

F F J J Grit Grit N Combination N Combination R R V V 1 1 3 3 5 5 7 7

G G K K O O S S X X

H II H L M STRUCTURE Bond System L M STRUCTURE Bond System VG VVR V6 VG VVR V6 P Q P Q T U T U V7 V7 Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 V -- Vitrified Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 V Vitrified V30 V10 VL V30 V10 VL 6 B -6 B V8 V8 ..............Upto Resinoid ..............Upto Resinoid V2018 VF8 V2018 VF8 .....................3 R -- Rubber .....................3 R Rubber VMPA VMSA VMPA VMSA 5 5 BN BR BFW BN BR BFW RT R RB RT R RB

WHAT IS AN ABRASIVE ?
A Mineral Crystal with Hardness much higher than that of work piece

TYPES OF ABRASIVES
Natural Corundum, Emery, Diamond Synthetic > Aluminium Oxide - Conventional Abrasive > Silicon Carbide - Conventional Abrasive > Cubic Boron Nitride - Super Abrasive > Diamond - Super Abrasive

PROPERTIES OF ABRASIVES
Friability - Ability to Fracture under load Thermal Conductivity - Ability to Conduct Heat Hardness - Resistance to Penetration Toughness - Ability to Withstand Load

Application of Conventional Abrasives


Aluminium Oxide - For Ferrous Materials Silicon Carbide - For Non Ferrous Materials

TYPES OF ALUMINIUM OXIDE


Brown Alumimium Oxide While Aluminium Oxide Semifriable Combination of A & AA Pink Aluminium Oxide Sharp Crystalline Abrasive Sintered Aluminium Oxide Zirconia Marking A AA SA DA RA 80A MSB AZA

TYPES OF SILICON CARBIDE


Marking C GC CGC

Black Silicon Carbide Green Silicon Carbide Mixture of C & GC

BROWN ALUMINIUM OXIDE(A)


Brown in colour Discovered in 1899 95% pure Most commonly used abrasive Titanium di oxide imparts toughness

WHITE ALUMINIUM OXIDE(AA)


White in colour 99% pure More friable than A Cooler cutting Better holding with the bond because of higher grain porosity

SEMIFRIABLE (SA)
Brown in colour % Of titanium oxide is less than 2% Friability index falls between A & AA

PINK ALU. OXIDE (RA)


Pink in Colour Alloyed Abrasive of Alu. Oxide and Chromic Oxide Retains the Sharpness for Longer time

ZIRCONIA ALU. OXIDE


Produced by fusing zircon sand and alumina at about 1900 deg. C Alu. Oxide - 75% & zirconia - 23% Hard, very tough and sharp abrasives

SINTERED ALU. OXIDE(MSB)


Micro crystalline abrasive Produced by sintering process Hard & tough Controlled fracture

BLACK SILICON CARBIDE(C)


Black in colour Harder than alumina Chemically reactive with iron and steel alloys leading to poor attrition resistance

GREEN SILICON CARBIDE (GC)


Green in colour Purer than black sic Cooler cutting More friable than black

GRAIN (GRIT) SIZE


The size of screen opening thru which the grain pass Ex. 60 grit means there will be 60 openings per linear square inch of the screen

GRAIN COMBINATION
Combination of different grit sizes in predetermined percentages Ex. A463 l5 V10 - combination of 46,54 & 60 grits. Primary grit 46 will be at higher percentage.

GRADE & STRUCTURE


Grade Grade is the measure of the bonding strength of the wheel, usually referred to as hardness Structure Spacing of abrasive grains, measured in terms of volume of abrasives in grinding wheels

BOND
BINDING MATERIAL WHICH HOLDS THE ABRASIVE GRAINS TOGETHER IN A WHEEL.

BOND TYPES
Vitrified bond (V) Resinoid bond (B) Rubber bond (R) Shellac bond (S) Oxychloride bond (Oxy) Magnesite bond

VITRIFIED BOND
Vitrification Bond mix melts /partly wets the abrasive Abrasive grain pulled together by surface tension Titanium rich phase from A disbursed in to the surrounding matrix - it turns blue

VITRIFIED BOND
More strength Water resistance Chemical resistance No shelf life Bond fractures induced by mechanical forces during grinding Very brittle Decreased bending strength Better form holding stability

VITRIFIED BONDS IN CUMI


Precision V10/V10C/V45 V15/V1092/V2016 V8/VF8/V206/VMSA V2018/VMTA/VMPA/ V60/V80/VL/VU869/ VMC/V204 VG/VMKRS/VB VMKRP/VMKRC/V91 VMKRT Non Precision V6/V30/V7/V1734 VR/VVR

RESINOID BONDS
Grains mixed with phenolic thermo-setting resins and plasticizers Baking at 150 to 200 deg. C High strength Ability to withstand shock loads Shelf life 1 - 2 years Low chemical & thermal resistance

RESINOID BONDS IN CUMI


PRECISION BRT/TD924/TD1020/TD1071/B14/B14X/B8/BHK/ BYZ/ BHP/RBG NON PRECISION BR/BM4/BM6/B754/BC4/BFW/BSN821/ TD995/TD722/BN/TD1035B/RS500/TDR014/ TDR015/BYZ

PROPERTIES OF RUBBER BONDS


Better resiliency Absorbs shocks Produces good finish

RUBBER BONDS IN CUMI


RT1 R RB R188M RCS

WHEEL WEAR
A) Grain Fracture B) Bond Fracture C) Attritious Wear

TYPES OF WHEEL WEAR


GRAIN FRACTURE

TYPES OF WHEEL WEAR


BOND FRACTURE

TYPES OF WHEEL WEAR


ATTRITIOUS WEAR Dulling of Abrasive Grains and Growth of Wear Flats by Rubbing against the Work Piece

WHEEL SELECTION

WHEEL SELECTION
FACTORS AFFECTING WHEEL SELECTION
MATERIAL TO BE GROUND STOCK TO BE REMOVED WHEEL SPEED AREA OF GRINDING TYPE OF OPERATION - WET (OR) DRY GRINDING MACHINE SURFACE FINISH

GRIT SIZE SELECTION


SURFACE FINISH STOCK REMOVAL FORM ACCRACY

GRIT SIZE SELECTION


G R IT S IZE V s S U R F A C E F IN IS H
C LA Ra 2 4 .0 0 .6 2 0 .0 0 .5 1 6 .0 0 .4 1 2 .0 0 .3 5 1 0 .0 0 .2 5 8 .0 0 .2 6 .3 0 .1 6 4 .0 0 .1 3 .2 0 .0 8 2 .0 0 .0 5 1 .2 0 .0 3 0 .8 0 .0 2 60 80 120 180 240 320 400

o sc o sc o sc

GRIT SIZE SELECTION


GRIT SIZE Vs FORM

GRIT SIZE CORNER RADIUS

60 0.5

80 0.4

120 0.2

180 0.13

240 0.1

320 0.08

400 0.05

GRADE SELECTION
MATERIAL HARDNESS ARC / AREA OF CONTACT TYPE OF OPERATION FORM HOLDING WHEEL SPEED WHEEL WIDTH TYPE OF DRESSER TYPE OF COOLANT

GRADE SELECTION
MATERIAL HARDNESS
Wheel Grade M L K J I Soft 50 Rc Medium 50 - 57 Rc Hard 58 - 63 Rc

STRUCTURE SELECTION
STOCK REMOVAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF WORK MATERIAL MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE

STRUCTURE SELECTION
STOCK REMOVAL

STRUCTURE SELECTION
MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE

BOND SELECTION
SEVERITY OF OPERATION WHEEL SPEED FORM HOLDING SURFACE FINISH MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE