You are on page 1of 3

EXPONENT LAWS AND LOGARITHM

PROPERTIES
EXPONENT LAWS
There are several rules that are helpful when working with exponential functions.
Laws of Exponents:

a a =a
x

ax
= a x y
y
a
(ab) x = a x b x

x+ y

(a x ) y = a xy
x

ax
a
= x
b
b
The first law states that to multiply two exponential functions with the same base, we
simply add the exponents. The second law states that to divide two exponential functions
with the same base, we subtract the exponents. The third law states that in order to raise a
power to a new power, we multiply the exponents. The fourth and fifth laws state that in
order to raise a product or quotient to a power, we raise each factor to that power.
_______________________________________________________________________
73 x 7 x +1
Example: Simplify the expression 2 x + 5
7
Solution:

73 x 7 x +1
72 x +5
= 73 x + ( x +1) ( 2 x + 5)
= 73 x + x +1 2 x 5
= 72 x 4
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

34 x
Example: Simplify the expression x
2
Solution:

34 x
x
2

(34 x )3
= x 3
(2 )
312 x
= 3 x
2
Note: We cannot simply any further since the terms in the numerator and denominator
do not have the same base.
_______________________________________________________________________

LOG LAWS

There are three properties that are useful when working with logarithmic functions.
Properties of Logarithms:
If x, y > 0 and r is any real number, then

log a ( xy ) = log a x + log a y

x
log a = log a x log a y
y
log a ( x r ) = r log a x
_______________________________________________________________________
Example: Simplify the expression
Solution:

log 2 5 + log 2 3

log 2 5 + log 2 3
= log 2 (5 3)
= log 2 (15)

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________
Example: Simplify the expression
Solution:

5(ln 2)
5(ln 2)
= ln(25 )
= ln(32)

_______________________________________________________________________