You are on page 1of 6

41428 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No.

145 / Monday, July 30, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

■ 4. In § 1210.515 revise paragraph (b) effects of certain conditions on these Special conditions are initially
to read as follows: novel or unusual design features, such applicable to the model for which they
as the effects of high intensity radiated are issued. Should the type certificate
§ 1210.515 Levy of assessments. fields (HIRF). The applicable for that model be amended later to
* * * * * airworthiness regulations do not contain include any other model that
(b) The import assessment shall be adequate or appropriate safety standards incorporates the same or similar novel
uniformly applied to imported for these design features. These special or unusual design feature, the special
watermelons that are identified by the conditions contain the additional safety conditions would also apply to the other
numbers 0807.11.30 and 0807.11.40 in standards that the Administrator model under § 21.101.
the Harmonized Tariff Scheudle of the considers necessary to establish a level
United States of any other number used Discussion of Novel or Unusual Design
of safety equivalent to that established Features
to identify fresh watermelons for by the existing standards. Additional
consumption as human food. The U.S. special conditions will be issued for The 787 will incorporate a number of
Customs Service (USCS) will collect other novel or unusual design features novel or unusual design features.
assessments on such watermelons at the of the Boeing Model 787–8 airplanes. Because of rapid improvements in
time of entry and will forward such airplane technology, the applicable
DATES: Effective Date: August 29, 2007.
assessment as per the agreement airworthiness regulations do not contain
between USCS and USDA. Any adequate or appropriate safety standards
Meghan Gordon, FAA, Standardization for these design features. These special
importer or agent who is exempt from
Branch, ANM–113, Transport Airplane conditions for the 787 contain the
payment of assessments may submit the
Directorate, Aircraft Certification additional safety standards that the
Board adequate proof of the volume
Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Administrator considers necessary to
handled by such importer for the
Renton, Washington 98057–3356; establish a level of safety equivalent to
exemption to be granted.
telephone (425) 227–2138; facsimile that established by the existing
* * * * * (425) 227–1149. airworthiness standards.
Dated: July 23, 2007. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Most of these special conditions are
Lloyd C. Day, identical or nearly identical to those
Administrator, Agricultural Marketing previously required for type
Service. On March 28, 2003, Boeing applied certification of the Model 777 series
[FR Doc. E7–14615 Filed 7–27–07; 8:45 am] for an FAA type certificate for its new airplanes.
BILLING CODE 3410–02–P Boeing Model 787–8 passenger airplane. Most of these special conditions were
The Boeing Model 787–8 airplane will derived initially from standardized
be an all-new, two-engine jet transport requirements developed by the Aviation
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION airplane with a two-aisle cabin. The Rulemaking Advisory Committee
maximum takeoff weight will be (ARAC), comprised of representatives of
Federal Aviation Administration 476,000 pounds, with a maximum the FAA, Europe’s Joint Aviation
passenger count of 381 passengers. Authorities (now replaced by the
14 CFR Part 25 Type Certification Basis European Aviation Safety Agency), and
[Docket No. NM362 Special Conditions No.
industry. In the case of some of these
Under provisions of 14 Code of requirements, a draft notice of proposed
25–354–SC] Federal Regulations (CFR) 21.17, Boeing rulemaking has been prepared but no
Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787– must show that Boeing Model 787–8 final rule has yet been promulgated.
8 Airplane; Interaction of Systems and airplanes (hereafter referred to as ‘‘787’’) Additional special conditions will be
Structures, Electronic Flight Control meet the applicable provisions of 14 issued for other novel or unusual design
System-Control Surface Awareness, CFR part 25, as amended by features of the 787 in the near future.
High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Amendments 25–1 through 25–117,
except §§ 25.809(a) and 25.812, which 1. Interaction of Systems and Structures
Protection, Limit Engine Torque Loads
for Sudden Engine Stoppage, and will remain at Amendment 25–115. If The 787 is equipped with systems
Design Roll Maneuver Requirement the Administrator finds that the that affect the airplane’s structural
applicable airworthiness regulations do performance, either directly or as a
AGENCY: Federal Aviation not contain adequate or appropriate result of failure or malfunction. That is,
Administration (FAA), DOT. safety standards for the 787 because of the airplane’s systems affect how it
ACTION: Final special conditions. a novel or unusual design feature, responds in maneuver and gust
special conditions are prescribed under conditions, and thereby affect its
SUMMARY: These special conditions are provisions of 14 CFR 21.16. structural capability. These systems may
issued for the Boeing Model 787–8 In addition to the applicable also affect the aeroelastic stability of the
airplane. This airplane will have novel airworthiness regulations and special airplane. Such systems represent a
or unusual design features when conditions, the 787 must comply with novel and unusual feature when
compared to the state of technology the fuel vent and exhaust emission compared to the technology envisioned
envisioned in the airworthiness requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the in the current airworthiness standards.
standards for transport category noise certification requirements of part Special conditions are needed to require
airplanes. These design features include 36. In addition, the FAA must issue a consideration of the effects of systems
electronic flight control systems and finding of regulatory adequacy pursuant on the structural capability and
high bypass engines. These special to section 611 of Public Law 92–574, the aeroelastic stability of the airplane, both
conditions also pertain to the effects of ‘‘Noise Control Act of 1972’’. in the normal and in the failed state.
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES

such novel or unusual design features, The FAA issues special conditions, as These special conditions require that
such as effects on the structural defined in § 11.19, under § 11.38 and the airplane meet the structural
performance of the airplane. Finally, they become part of the type requirements of subparts C and D of 14
these special conditions pertain to certification basis under § 21.17(a)(2). CFR part 25 when the airplane systems

VerDate Aug<31>2005 16:39 Jul 27, 2007 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\30JYR1.SGM 30JYR1
Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 145 / Monday, July 30, 2007 / Rules and Regulations 41429

are fully operative. The special control the airplane have made it The environment levels identified
conditions also require that the airplane necessary to provide adequate above are the result of an FAA review
meet these requirements considering protection. of existing studies on the subject of
failure conditions. In some cases, To ensure that a level of safety is HIRF and of the work of the
reduced margins are allowed for failure achieved that is equivalent to that Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization
conditions based on system reliability. intended by the regulations Working Group of ARAC.
incorporated by reference, special
2. Electronic Flight Control System: 4. Limit Engine Torque Loads for
conditions are needed for the 787. These
Control Surface Awareness Sudden Engine Stoppage
special conditions require that avionics/
With a response-command type of electronics and electrical systems that The 787 will have high-bypass
flight control system and no direct perform critical functions be designed engines with a chord-swept fan 112
coupling from cockpit controller to and installed to preclude component inches in diameter. Engines of this size
control surface, such as on the 787, the damage and interruption of function were not envisioned when § 25.361,
pilot is not aware of the actual surface because of HIRF. pertaining to loads imposed by engine
deflection position during flight High-power radio frequency seizure, was adopted in 1965. Worst
maneuvers. This feature of this design is transmitters for radio, radar, television, case engine seizure events become
novel and unusual when compared to and satellite communications can increasingly more severe with
the state of technology envisioned in the adversely affect operations of airplane increasing engine size because of the
airworthiness standards for transport electrical and electronic systems. higher inertia of the rotating
category airplanes. These special Therefore, immunity of critical components.
conditions are meant to contain the avionics/electronics and electrical Section 25.361(b)(1) requires that for
additional safety standards that the systems to HIRF must be established. turbine engine installations, the engine
Administrator considers necessary to Based on surveys and analysis of mounts and supporting structures must
establish a level of safety equivalent to existing HIRF emitters, adequate be designed to withstand a ‘‘limit engine
that established by the existing protection from HIRF exists if airplane torque load imposed by sudden engine
airworthiness standards. Some unusual system immunity is demonstrated when stoppage due to malfunction or
flight conditions, arising from exposed to the HIRF environments in structural failure.’’ Limit loads are
atmospheric conditions or airplane or either paragraph (a) OR (b) below: expected to occur about once in the
engine failures or both, may result in (a) A minimum environment of 100 lifetime of any airplane. Section 25.306
full or nearly full surface deflection. volts rms (root-mean-square) per meter requires that supporting structures be
Unless the flight crew is made aware of electric field strength from 10 KHz to 18 able to support limit loads without
excessive deflection or impending GHz. detrimental permanent deformation,
control surface deflection limiting, (1) System elements and their meaning that supporting structures
piloted or auto-flight system control of associated wiring harnesses must be should remain serviceable after a limit
the airplane might be inadvertently exposed to this environment without load event.
continued in a way that would cause benefit of airframe shielding. Since adoption of § 25.361(b)(1), the
loss of control or other unsafe handling (2) Demonstration of this level of size, configuration, and failure modes of
or performance situations. protection is established through system jet engines have changed considerably.
These special conditions require that tests and analysis. Current engines are much larger and are
suitable annunciation be provided to the (b) An environment external to the designed with large bypass fans. In the
flightcrew when a flight condition exists airframe of the field strengths shown in event of a structural failure, these
in which nearly full control surface the table below for the frequency ranges engines are capable of producing much
deflection occurs. Suitability of such an indicated. Immunity to both peak and higher transient loads on the engine
annunciation must take into account average field strength components from mounts and supporting structures.
that some pilot-demanded maneuvers, the table must be demonstrated. As a result, modern high bypass
such as a rapid roll, are necessarily engines are subject to certain rare-but-
associated with intended full or nearly Field strength severe engine seizure events. Service
full control surface deflection. Simple (volts per meter) history shows that such events occur far
alerting systems which would function less frequently than limit load events.
Peak Average Although it is important for the airplane
in both intended and unexpected
control-limiting situations must be 10 kHz–100 kHz ........... 50 50
to be able to support such rare loads
properly balanced between providing 100 kHz–500 kHz ......... 50 50 safely without failure, it is unrealistic to
needed crew awareness and avoiding 500 kHz–2 MHz ............ 50 50 expect that no permanent deformation
nuisance warnings. 2 MHz–30 MHz ............. 100 100 will occur.
30 MHz–70 MHz ........... 50 50 Given this situation, ARAC has
3. High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) 70 MHz–100 MHz ......... 50 50 proposed a design standard for today’s
Protection 100 MHz–200 MHz ....... 100 100 large engines. For the commonly-
The 787 will use electrical and 200 MHz–400 MHz ....... 100 100 occurring deceleration events, the
electronic systems which perform 400 MHz–700 MHz ....... 700 50 proposed standard requires engine
700 MHz–1 GHz ........... 700 100
critical functions. These systems may be mounts and structures to support
1 GHz–2 GHz ............... 2000 200
vulnerable to high-intensity radiated 2 GHz–4 GHz ............... 3000 200 maximum torques without detrimental
fields (HIRF) external to the airplane. 4 GHz–6 GHz ............... 3000 200 permanent deformation. For the rare-
There is no specific regulation that 6 GHz–8 GHz ............... 1000 200 but-severe engine seizure events such as
addresses requirements for protection of 8 GHz–12 GHz ............. 3000 300 loss of any fan, compressor, or turbine
electrical and electronic systems from 12 GHz–18 GHz ........... 2000 200 blade, the proposed standard requires
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES

HIRF. Increased power levels from radio 18 GHz–40 GHz ........... 600 200 engine mounts and structures to support
frequency transmitter and use of Field strengths are expressed in terms of maximum torques without failure, but
sensitive avionics/electronics and peak root-mean-square (rms) values over the allows for some deformation in the
electrical systems to command and complete modulation period. structure.

VerDate Aug<31>2005 16:39 Jul 27, 2007 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\30JYR1.SGM 30JYR1
41430 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 145 / Monday, July 30, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

The FAA concludes that modern large Comment on Special Conditions No. 5. 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
engines, including those on the 787, are Design Roll Maneuver Requirement The following criteria must be used for
novel and unusual compared to those Requested change: The commenter, showing compliance with these special
envisioned when § 25.361(b)(1) was an individual, stated that the paragraph conditions for airplanes equipped with
adopted and thus warrant special dealing with § 25.349(a) in the proposed flight control systems, autopilots,
conditions. These special conditions special conditions is a little confusing. stability augmentation systems, load
contain design criteria recommended by Paragraphs (c) and (d) of the proposed alleviation systems, flutter control
ARAC. special conditions both refer to systems, fuel management systems, and
other systems that either directly or as
5. Design Roll Maneuver Requirement ‘‘paragraph (2)’’. But there are no
a result of failure or malfunction affect
The 787 is equipped with an numbered paragraphs in proposed
structural performance. If these special
electronic flight control system that Special Conditions No. 5. The
conditions are used for other systems, it
provides control of the aircraft through commenter thought that the reference
may be necessary to adapt the criteria to
pilot inputs to the flight computer. was to paragraph (2) of § 25.349(a), but
the specific system.
Current part 25 airworthiness since § 25.349(a) is superseded by the (a) The criteria defined here address
regulations account for ‘‘control laws,’’ special conditions, the commenter only direct structural consequences of
for which aileron deflection is suggested that this may cause confusion. system responses and performances.
proportional to control stick deflection. FAA response: The reference to They cannot be considered in isolation
They do not address any nonlinearities 1 paragraph (2) in the proposed special but should be included in the overall
or other effects on aileron actuation that conditions was an error and we thank safety evaluation of the airplane. They
may be caused by electronic flight the commenter for pointing it out. The may in some instances duplicate
controls. Therefore, the FAA considers reference should have been ‘‘paragraph standards already established for this
the flight control system to be a novel (b).’’ We have revised the final special evaluation. These criteria are only
and unusual feature compared to those conditions accordingly. Otherwise, all applicable to structure whose failure
envisioned when current regulations special conditions are adopted as could prevent continued safe flight and
were adopted. Since this type of system proposed. landing. Specific criteria defining
may affect flight loads, and therefore the Applicability acceptable limits on handling
structural capability of the airplane, characteristics or stability requirements
As discussed above, these special
special conditions are needed to address when operating in the system degraded
conditions are applicable to the 787.
these effects. or inoperative mode are not provided in
Should Boeing apply at a later date for
These special conditions differ from these special conditions.
a change to the type certificate to (b) Depending on the specific
current requirements in that they
include another model on the same type characteristics of the airplane,
require that the roll maneuver result
certificate incorporating the same novel additional studies may be required that
from defined movements of the cockpit
or unusual design features, these special go beyond the criteria provided in these
roll control as opposed to defined
conditions would apply to that model as special conditions in order to
aileron deflections. Also, these special
well. demonstrate capability of the airplane to
conditions require an additional load
condition at design maneuvering speed Conclusion meet other realistic conditions such as
(VA), in which the cockpit roll control alternative gust conditions or
This action affects only certain novel
is returned to neutral following the maneuvers for an airplane equipped
or unusual design features of the 787. It
initial roll input. with a load alleviation system.
is not a rule of general applicability.
These special conditions differ from (c) The following definitions are
similar special conditions applied to List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 applicable to these special conditions.
previous designs. These special (1) Structural performance: Capability
Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting
conditions are limited to the roll axis of the airplane to meet the structural
and recordkeeping requirements.
only, whereas previous special requirements of part 25.
■ The authority citation for these (2) Flight limitations: Limitations that
conditions also included pitch and yaw
axes. Special conditions are no longer special conditions is as follows: can be applied to the airplane flight
needed for the yaw axis because Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, conditions following an in-flight failure
§ 25.351 was revised at Amendment 25– 44702, 44704. occurrence and that are included in the
91 to take into account effects of an flight manual (speed limitations or
The Special Conditions
electronic flight control system. No avoidance of severe weather conditions,
special conditions are needed for the ■ Accordingly, pursuant to the authority for example).
pitch axis because the applicant’s delegated to me by the Administrator, (3) Operational limitations:
proposed method for the pitch the following special conditions are Limitations, including flight limitations,
maneuver takes into account effects of issued as part of the type certification that can be applied to the airplane
an electronic flight control system. basis for the Boeing Model 787–8 operating conditions before dispatch
airplane. (fuel, payload, and master minimum
Discussion of Comments equipment list limitations, for example).
1. Interaction of Systems and Structures
Notice of Proposed Special (4) Probabilistic terms: Terms
Conditions No. 25–06–15–SC for the The Boeing Model 787–8 airplane is (probable, improbable, extremely
787 was published in the Federal equipped with systems which affect the improbable) used in these special
Register on March 12, 2007 (72 FR airplane’s structural performance either conditions which are the same as those
10941). Only one comment was received directly or as a result of failure or probabilistic terms used in § 25.1309.
malfunction. The influence of these (5) Failure condition: Term that is the
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES

and it addressed proposed Special

Conditions No. 5. systems and their failure conditions same as that used in § 25.1309. The term
must be taken into account when failure condition in these special
1 A nonlinearity is a situation where output does showing compliance with requirements conditions, however, applies only to
not change in the same proportion as input. of subparts C and D of part 25 of Title system failure conditions that affect

VerDate Aug<31>2005 16:39 Jul 27, 2007 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00008 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\30JYR1.SGM 30JYR1
Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 145 / Monday, July 30, 2007 / Rules and Regulations 41431

structural performance of the airplane. special behavior of such a system or demonstrates that the airplane has
Examples are system failure conditions associated functions or any effect on the design features that will not allow it to
that induce loads, change the response structural performance of the airplane exceed those limit conditions.
of the airplane to inputs such as gusts that may occur up to the limit loads. In (3) The airplane must meet the
or pilot actions, or lower flutter margins. particular, any significant degree of aeroelastic stability requirements of
Note: Although failure annunciation nonlinearity in rate of displacement of § 25.629.
system reliability must be included in control surface or thresholds, or any (f) System in the failure condition. For
probability calculations for paragraph (f) of other system nonlinearities, must be any system failure condition not shown
these special conditions, there is no specific accounted for in a realistic or to be extremely improbable, the
reliability requirement for the annunciation conservative way when deriving limit
system required in paragraph (g) of the following apply:
special conditions. loads from limit conditions. (1) Establishing loads at the time of
(d) General. The following criteria (2) The airplane must meet the failure. Starting from 1-g level flight
will be used in determining the strength requirements of part 25 for conditions, a realistic scenario,
influence of a system and its failure static strength and residual strength, including pilot corrective actions, must
conditions on the airplane structure. using the specified factors to derive be established to determine loads
(e) System fully operative. With the ultimate loads from the limit loads occurring at the time of failure and
system fully operative, the following defined above. The effect of immediately after failure.
apply: nonlinearities must be investigated (i) For static strength substantiation,
(1) Limit loads must be derived in all beyond limit conditions to ensure the these loads, multiplied by an
normal operating configurations of the behavior of the system presents no appropriate factor of safety related to
system from all the limit conditions anomaly compared to the behavior probability of occurrence of the failure,
specified in subpart C of 14 CFR part 25 below limit conditions. However, are ultimate loads to be considered for
(or used in lieu of those specified in conditions beyond limit conditions design. The factor of safety (FS) is
subpart C), taking into account any need not be considered if the applicant defined in Figure 1.

(ii) For residual strength flight. For the continuation of flight of (E) The limit ground loading
substantiation, the airplane must be able the airplane in the system failed state conditions specified in § 25.473 and
to withstand two thirds of the ultimate and considering any appropriate § 25.491.
loads defined in subparagraph (f)(1)(i) of reconfiguration and flight limitations, (ii) For static strength substantiation,
these special conditions. for pressurized the following apply: each part of the structure must be able
cabins, these loads must be combined (i) Loads derived from the following to withstand the loads in paragraph
with the normal operating differential conditions (or used in lieu of the (f)(2)(i) of these special conditions
pressure. following conditions) at speeds up to multiplied by a factor of safety
(iii) Freedom from aeroelastic depending on the probability of being in
Vc/Mc, or the speed limitation
instability must be shown up to the this failure state. The factor of safety is
prescribed for the remainder of the
speeds defined in § 25.629(b)(2). for defined in Figure 2.
flight, must be determined:
failure conditions that result in speeds
beyond design cruise speed or design (A) The limit symmetrical Figure 2
cruise mach number (Vc/Mc), freedom maneuvering conditions specified in Factor of Safety For Continuation of
from aeroelastic instability must be § 25.331 and § 25.345. Flight
shown to increased speeds, so that the (B) The limit gust and turbulence Qj=(Tj)(Pj)
margins intended by § 25.629(b)(2) are conditions specified in § 25.341 and Where:
maintained. § 25.345. Tj=Average time spent in failure condition j
(iv) Failures of the system that result (in hours)
in forced structural vibrations (C) The limit rolling conditions
Pj=Probability of occurrence of failure mode
(oscillatory failures) must not produce specified in § 25.349 and the limit
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES

j (per hour)
loads that could result in detrimental unsymmetrical conditions specified in
§ 25.367 and § 25.427(b) and (c). Note: If Pj is greater than 10¥3 per flight
deformation of primary structure. hour then a 1.5 factor of safety must be
(2) Establishing loads in the system (D) The limit yaw maneuvering applied to all limit load conditions specified
failed state for the continuation of the conditions specified in § 25.351. in subpart C—Structure, of 14 CFR part 25.

VerDate Aug<31>2005 16:39 Jul 27, 2007 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00009 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\30JYR1.SGM 30JYR1
41432 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 145 / Monday, July 30, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

(iii) for residual strength (v) Freedom from aeroelastic V″=Clearance speed as defined by
substantiation, the airplane must be able instability must be shown up to a speed § 25.629(b)(1).
to withstand two thirds of the ultimate determined from Figure 3. Flutter Qj=(Tj)(Pj)
loads defined in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of clearance speeds V′ and V″ may be Where:
these special conditions. For based on the speed limitation specified Tj=Average time spent in failure condition j
pressurized cabins, these loads must be for the remainder of the flight using the (in hours)
combined with the normal operating margins defined by § 25.629(b). Pj=Probability of occurrence of failure mode
differential pressure.
Figure 3 j (per hour)
(iv) If the loads induced by the failure
condition have a significant effect on Clearance Speed Note: If Pj is greater than 10¥3 per flight
fatigue or damage tolerance then the hour, then the flutter clearance speed must
effects of these loads must be taken into V′=Clearance speed as defined by not be less than V″.
account. § 25.629(b)(2).

(vi) Freedom from aeroelastic mechanical and hydraulic components, dispatched in a known system failure
instability must also be shown up to V′ may use special periodic inspections, condition that affects structural
in Figure 3 above, for any probable and electronic components may use performance, or affects the reliability of
system failure condition combined with daily checks, instead of detection and the remaining system to maintain
any damage required or selected for indication systems to achieve the structural performance, then the
investigation by § 25.571(b). objective of this requirement. Such provisions of these special conditions
(3) Consideration of certain failure certification maintenance inspections or must be met, including the provisions of
conditions may be required by other daily checks must be limited to paragraph (e) for the dispatched
sections of 14 CFR part 25 regardless of components on which faults are not condition, and paragraph (f) for
calculated system reliability. Where readily detectable by normal detection subsequent failures. Expected
analysis shows the probability of these and indication systems and where operational limitations may be taken
failure conditions to be less than 10¥9, service history shows that inspections into account in establishing Pj as the
criteria other than those specified in this will provide an adequate level of safety. probability of failure occurrence for
paragraph may be used for structural (2) The existence of any failure determining the safety margin in Figure
substantiation to show continued safe condition, not extremely improbable, 1. Flight limitations and expected
flight and landing. during flight that could significantly operational limitations may be taken
(g) Failure indications. For system affect the structural capability of the into account in establishing Qj as the
failure detection and indication, the airplane and for which the associated combined probability of being in the
following apply. reduction in airworthiness can be dispatched failure condition and the
(1) The system must be checked for minimized by suitable flight limitations, subsequent failure condition for the
failure conditions, not extremely must be signaled to the flightcrew. For safety margins in Figures 2 and 3. These
improbable, that degrade the structural example, failure conditions that result limitations must be such that the
capability of the airplane below the in a factor of safety between the airplane probability of being in this combined
level required by part 25 or significantly strength and the loads of subpart C failure state and then subsequently
below 1.25, or flutter margins below V″,

reduce the reliability of the remaining encountering limit load conditions is

jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES

system. As far as reasonably practicable, must be signaled to the crew during extremely improbable. No reduction in
the flightcrew must be made aware of flight. these safety margins is allowed if the
these failures before flight. Certain (h) Dispatch with known failure subsequent system failure rate is greater
elements of the control system, such as conditions. If the airplane is to be than 10¥3 per hour.

VerDate Aug<31>2005 16:39 Jul 27, 2007 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00010 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\30JYR1.SGM 30JYR1
Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 145 / Monday, July 30, 2007 / Rules and Regulations 41433

2. Electronic Flight Control System: loads acting simultaneously with the assumed. The position of the cockpit
Control Surface Awareness maximum limit torque loads imposed roll control must be maintained until a
In addition to compliance with by each of the following: steady roll rate is achieved and then
(1) Sudden engine deceleration due to must be returned suddenly to the
§§ 25.143, 25.671, and 25.672, the
a malfunction which could result in a neutral position.
following special conditions apply.
temporary loss of power or thrust. (c) At VC, the cockpit roll control
(a) The system design must ensure
(2) The maximum acceleration of the must be moved suddenly and
that the flightcrew is made suitably
engine. maintained so as to achieve a roll rate
aware whenever the primary control (b) For auxiliary power unit
means nears the limit of control not less than that obtained in paragraph
installations, the power unit mounts (b).
authority. This indication should direct and adjacent supporting airframe
the pilot to take appropriate action to (d) At VD, the cockpit roll control
structure must be designed to withstand must be moved suddenly and
avoid the unsafe condition in 1g level flight loads acting
accordance with appropriate airplane maintained so as to achieve a roll rate
simultaneously with the maximum limit not less than one third of that obtained
flight manual (AFM) instructions. torque loads imposed by each of the
Depending on the application, suitable in paragraph (b).
following: Issued in Renton, Washington, on July 18,
annunciations may include cockpit (1) Sudden auxiliary power unit
control position, annunciator light, or 2007.
deceleration due to malfunction or
surface position indicators. Stephen P. Boyd,
structural failure.
Furthermore, this requirement applies at (2) The maximum acceleration of the Acting Manager, Transport Airplane
limits of control authority, not Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service.
power unit.
necessarily at limits of any individual (c) For engine supporting structure, an [FR Doc. 07–3689 Filed 7–27–07; 8:45 am]
surface travel. ultimate loading condition must be BILLING CODE 4910–13–M
(b) Suitability of such a display or considered that combines 1g flight loads
alerting must take into account that with the transient dynamic loads
some pilot-demanded maneuvers are resulting from each of the following: DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
necessarily associated with intended (1) Loss of any fan, compressor, or
full performance, which may require Federal Aviation Administration
turbine blade.
full surface deflection. Therefore, (2) Where applicable to a specific
simple alerting systems, which would 14 CFR Part 39
engine design, any other engine
function in both intended or unexpected structural failure that results in higher [Docket No. FAA–2007–27359; Directorate
control-limiting situations, must be loads. Identifier 2006–NM–042–AD; Amendment
properly balanced between needed crew (d) The ultimate loads developed from 39–15136; AD 2007–15–07]
awareness and nuisance factors. A the conditions specified in paragraphs RIN 2120–AA64
monitoring system which might (c)(1) and (c)(2) are to be multiplied by
compare airplane motion, surface a factor of 1.0 when applied to engine Airworthiness Directives; Boeing
deflection, and pilot demand could be mounts and pylons and multiplied by a Model 747–100, 747–100B, 747–200B,
useful for eliminating nuisance alerting. factor of 1.25 when applied to adjacent 747–200C, 747–200F, 747–300, 747SR,
3. High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) supporting airframe structure. and 747SP Series Airplanes
Protection 5. Design Roll Maneuver Requirement AGENCY: Federal Aviation
(a) Protection from Unwanted Effects In lieu of compliance to § 25.349(a), Administration (FAA), Department of
of High-intensity Radiated fields. Each the Boeing Model 787–8 must comply Transportation (DOT).
electrical and electronic system which with the following special conditions. ACTION: Final rule.
performs critical functions must be The following conditions, speeds, and
designed and installed to ensure that the cockpit roll control motions (except as SUMMARY: The FAA is adopting a new
operation and operational capabilities of the motions may be limited by pilot airworthiness directive (AD) for certain
these systems to perform critical effort) must be considered in Boeing Model 747–100, 747–100B, 747–
functions are not adversely affected combination with an airplane load 200B, 747–200C, 747–200F, 747–300,
when the airplane is exposed to high factor of zero and of two-thirds of the 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes. This
intensity radiated fields external to the positive maneuvering factor used in AD requires repetitive high frequency
airplane. design. In determining the resulting eddy current inspections for cracks of
(b) For the purposes of these Special control surface deflections, the torsional the fuselage skin at stringer 5 left and
Conditions, the following definition flexibility of the wing must be right between stations 340 and 350, and
applies. Critical Functions: Functions considered in accordance with corrective actions if necessary. This AD
whose failure would contribute to or § 25.301(b): results from reports of fatigue cracks in
cause a failure condition that would (a) Conditions corresponding to the fuselage skin near stringer 5 between
prevent continued safe flight and steady rolling velocities must be stations 340 and 350. We are issuing
landing of the airplane. investigated. In addition, conditions this AD to detect and correct fatigue
corresponding to maximum angular cracking of the fuselage skin near
4. Limit Engine Torque Loads for acceleration must be investigated for stringer 5. Cracks in this area could join
Sudden Engine Stoppage airplanes with engines or other weight together and result in in-flight
In lieu of § 25.361(b) the Boeing concentrations outboard of the fuselage. depressurization of the airplane.
Model 787–8 must comply with the For the angular acceleration conditions, DATES: This AD becomes effective
following special conditions. zero rolling velocity may be assumed in September 4, 2007.
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES

(a) For turbine engine installations, the absence of a rational time history The Director of the Federal Register
the engine mounts, pylons, and adjacent investigation of the maneuver. approved the incorporation by reference
supporting airframe structure must be (b) At VA, sudden movement of the of a certain publication listed in the AD
designed to withstand 1g level flight cockpit roll control up the limit is as of September 4, 2007.

VerDate Aug<31>2005 16:39 Jul 27, 2007 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\30JYR1.SGM 30JYR1