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Oxford Studies of Composers

Basil Deane

Oxford Studies of Composers



Roger Nichols

Egon Wellesz


Denis Arnold

Ian Kemp

Gilbert Reaney

Denis Arnold

M ESSIAEN Roger Nichols

Jerome Roche

Anthony Payne

Nolnran Kay


I)uul I)oe





)rrvid Ilrowrt


t)\L,r(l IJilir(rsity

Press, Pl/alton Steet, Oxford


To John Kirkpatrick

(t) Oxford University Press, 1977



19 315439 0
CH,c.nrss Ives was born on zo October r874 in Danbury, Connecticut, in the rolling, wooded land of southwestern New Ensland. He descended from old Anglo-American stock. The griatest influence on his life, his thought, and his music was that of his father George lves, Danbury's principal musician, a versatile instrumentalist, conductor, and musical arranger who had a uniquely open mind about musical possibilities and experimented constantly with unconventional tone systems and instruments. He gave his son Charles a thorough grounding in traditional (and nontraditional) music theory and a lasting love and respect for the

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American vernacular music of hymns, popular and traditional songs and dances, ragtime, brass bands, and theatre orchestras. Ives attended Yale University from 1894 to r898, studying there with Horatio Parker, eminent figure among the German-trained 'Second New England School' of academic composers who had no truck with American vernacular music, seeking inspiration rather in the art music of the European classic-Romantic tradition. Ives's eclectic, individualistic, and radical works found almost no sympathetic performers or listeners; although his vocation was clearly to musical composition and he was a church organist from I889 to t9oz, he decided to give up a career as professional musician for one in the insurance business. This he pursued with great success from r898 until his retirement in r93o. Meanwhile, the onset of World War I, a severe heart attack in 19r8, profound disillusionment with the results of the American elections of November t9zo, and-perhaps most fundamentally-the strain of his double life and the rejection by others of his music had virtually

(.nrl(.(l lrt',.',, torrrposirrg: lcw works postdate r92I, which saw a

lltrrtl lrttt'.1 ol


llt.trr r.r.rr 1r;o.' (rr'lrcrr lrc rcsigned from his last organist's job) and

tr,.,, llrr'tr'lrrrl rrot bccrt a single performance of Ives's music
I'r'rrlr irtrrl lry rrrryorrc's cflbrts besides his own. His private printings f rr.trtccn tr)t() iur(l 19zz of the Second Piano Sonata ('Concord'), a lrrrrrk rrf / rrrrr'.r lfulbre a Sonata, and a volume of I I4 Songs were tlrr' lrr rt slt'ps tow:rrcl the diffusion of his music beyond a tiny circle oI lir rrr rly rrntl ll'icrrcls. BLrt it was not for many years that it gradually lrcl',rrrr to bc hcard, let alone accepted or prized, on any significant rurlc; lrnd csscntially, the current view of lves as America's first Hr'('itl c()n'lposcr (some would say its greatest) dates only since

crack of bat and ball, the special quality of 'a horn over a lake', the clash of two bands at opposite sides of a town square each playing its own march in its own tempo-and in untried sounds as wellharmonies in massed seconds or other novel stacks of intervals, microtones, tone-rows, rhythmic and metric serialism, unique instrumental combinations.

World War ll.

Sincc rro general survey of Ives's music has been published, it has sccmed worth the effort to attempt one, even in a book that nrust necessarily be very brief. Hence the organization of this volume according to the principal genres in which lves worked. Ilut this organization also reflects the fact that lves's compositional career, lasting roughly from t89o to t925, did not follow a clearcut line of development chronologically. Not only would it be difficult to define 'periods' in that career, as one can with composers like Beethoven or Stravinsky, but one cannot really generalize about 'the lves style'; stylistic pluralism was characteristic of his music almost from the beginning. Simple and complex, traditional and radical, conventional and experimental, homespun and rarefied, spiritual and slapstick--these and many other dichotomies jostle each other in neighbourly fashion throughout his life as a composer. So too do modes of musical expression derived from widely varied sources. lves was explicit about the inclusiveness with which he embraced the whole sonorous world that he knew or could imagine as potential raw material for his music:'The fabric of existence weaves itself whole. . . . There can be nothing "exclltsive" about a substantial art.'r Thus his music has roots not only in that of the masters (and lesser composers) of European and American art music and in the friendly vernacular traditions of his native New England (hymn tunes, country fiddling. camp-meeting songs, brass-band marches, piano rags, patriotic and popular ditties, songs

This study relies much on the three main sources of documentation for lves's music and his writings about it: John Kirkpatrick's catalogue of Ives's manuscripts and his edition of Ives's Memos (dictated in r93z)and Howard Boatwright's edition of lves's Essays Before a Sonata,The Majority and Other Writings. (Full citations of these will be found in the 'Selective Bibliography' at the end of this volume, and grateful thanks are due to W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., for permission to quote from the latter two.) Quotations from the Memos or the Essays are noted parenthetically as such in the body of the text; quotations from lves's manuscript marginalia derive from Kirkpatrick's catalogue, under the entries for the works to which they relate, unless indicated otherwise.
The dedication of this book is acknowledgment of the enormous debt owed by me (as by all other students of Ives) to the artistry, the scholarship, and the generosity and grace of spirit of John Kirkpatrick, to whom is due even the possibility of viewing lves's music in the round. Students in my Brooklyn College and City University of New York seminars have contributed many valuable insights, especially Carol Baron, Carl Skoggard, Laurie Spiegel,

Judith Tick, Jodi Vogel, and Robin Warren. Four others to whom I am especially grateful for having read and criticized the book in draft form are Janet Hitchcock, Sidney Cowell, Iain
Fenlon, and Vivian Perlis. Florence December 1975

of hearth and home) but also in 'unmusical' sounds-horses'

hooves on cobblestones, out-of-tune volunteer church choirs, the
Quarterly, xix (t933), pp.45*58.
Quoted first in Henry Bellamann, 'Charles Ives; the Man and his Music', Musical

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I 2 3 4 5

The Songs The Choral Music

9 28

The Keyboard Music
The Chamber Music The Orchestral Music

57 73

Selective Bibliography


Ivrs's songs make a good point of departure for a survey of his music. They span his life as a composer: his earliest known work (Slow March; ?1887) and his last completed one (Sunrise; 19z6\ are songs; in between, he wrote about r5o others, most of which he gathered into the book of rr4 Songs.In the songs we meet the immense diversity of compositional manner and material-the inclusiveness-that characterizes Ives's work as a whole; also its range, from the miniature to the mighty, the ultra-simple to the bewilderingly complex, the comic to the profound. To begin with the songs, moreover, is to affirm that the very foundation of lves's musical personality was a melodic gift of grace and power. Ives is notorious as a radical pathfinder who arrived-alone, virtually uninfluenced (except by his father)-at modes of musical expression that other composers of international stature exploited systematically only later. But he remained in many ways a late nineteenth-century American, a product of that era termed by Lewis Mumford 'the brown decades'. The subject matter of Ives's works is overwhelmingly retrospective: memories of boyhood life in a New England country town. And the kind of song he wrote in greatest numbers is the 'household song' of sentiment, voicing some emotion of affection, nostalgia, or yearning; pleasant to perform and to hear, and not too demanding technically. It had been a favourite American genre for a long time; Stephen Foster's songs for the parlour were neither the first nor the last of the sort. Practically all of Ives's early songs are in this vein, beginning with S/ow March, composed at age 12 or 13, a gentle account of the burial of a family pet (Ex. r). Ives's borrowing of the 'Dead March' from Handel's Sall for the introduction (and also the epilogue) of SIow March is the first instance of his lifelong practice of musical 'quotation'; more than I5o tunes have been identified as such in his works, mainly traditional American hymn tunes, popular and patriotic songs, marches,

Like those of Joyce. is interrupted by three tiny rhythmic jolts (marked 'x' in Ex. I l llr ili Il rtl Copyright 1953 by Per International Corporation. Borrowed melodies are sometimes the very basis of the musical fabric. or the visual experience (whether of nature or prior art) of a painter. Used by permission.3 Botheny il Masses) as in the graphic arts or literature.h@- thql wtch-6_ dar th. in the kind ofgesture to practical expediency that characterizes much of his music).1 With a rlry evs rhjilhn in o Largo fi't vil . just as susceptible to reworking into an artistic present as the storehouse in memory of a novelist or poet. Pound. only rc-using cxtunt rnusic (sometimes his own) has been much disthe practice. Bach. or mere local colour. but his use of them usually goes far beyond mere associative value. though clearly in the tradition of the household song. had fallen into disuse by the nineteenth century. homespun melody (Ex. from the baldest verbatim quotations of single tunes or collage-like assemblages of them to the most subtle cloudy allusions._ lt-ir{I dRp In r- dro6 my hmrt whara I I @ Copyright I 1958 by Peer Internalional Corporation. at which the line traverses a downward tenth to pause suspensively on'all'(unless the singer cannot make it. But lves's 'quotations' have nothing to do with nationalisn. and they are treated variously. Beethoven. s. Of course the tunes that Ives borrowed had associations for him. having begun almost predictably in smooth contours of pitch and rhythm. once as much a commonplace in music (e. often with programmatic or nationalistic aims. and in He Is There! (tgr7) snatches of no fewer than thirteen pre-existent tunes appear. Uy th. Ives's quoting or otherwise cussccl. liostcr'. On the other Many of lves's mature songs.g. folklorism. bits of six American popular songs are quoted. or Picasso. motets. _ lsrm. perhaps mainly because hand. ts. z). :) as the nostalgic. or was exploited self-consciously. in Down East (rgrg) a dreamy chromatic introductiorr givcs way to a tantalizingly familiar. +). ln Ttuo Little Flowers (r9zt) the vocal melody. reminiscences. in Renaissance chansons. revealing it (Ex. I0 I1 . and they prepare the wholly original climax. lrrrtl othcr composers. transcend its usual technical and artistic limitations by carefully-wrought details of style. near the close of the song does Ives actually quote precisely Lowell Mason's hymn tune Bethany ('Nearer. lltrlrrrrs. and Ives offers an easier alternative.un(l rirlilrnr('\triun\ l)ul lrls() tllcnlcs liom Handel. they were as natural to him as pure invention: the pre-existent melodies that so often figure in his compositions were simply part of his auditory experience. and half-rememberings. These highlight in a subtle way the syntactical divisions of the verses. pervasive source of the entire composition. for example. to Thee'). ln The Things Our Fathers Loved (t9t7).lo9. my God. and Er. Used by permission. Similar rhythmic disruptions punctuate the ends of each half of At the River and of Serenity (see Ex. r4). Er.

of the Euro-American art-song tradition. or more than a hint. Waltz. There is a manuscript sketch dating from Ives's first year at Yale (1894) for the brassy march music of The Circus Band (the words came later).6t. other types of song are part of it as well. non-associative musical language. sgs l o J2t --1 0n :un.besides Down East) and of the nostalgic. into the rollicking wedding song. the same year.d. its music a cracked-mirror reflection of Ethelbert Nevin' and The Camp Meeting).5 Andanl. andThe Circus Band.O Copyright 1935. His Exaltation. posg. Little Annie Rooney. the same old time. Oncdr6scd. ending with a rueful quotation of Auld Lang Syne after teasingly leaving the parodied composer's name to be supplied by the singer (Ex. and maudlin sentimentality (as opposed . The vernacular tradition of American music is the source of such purposeful pleasantries as the group in r 14 Songs that Ives caiied '5 Street Songs and Pieces' (Old Home Day. songs based on radical experiments in tonal or rhythmic organization.k. and songs that share the aspirations.. S). lnc. ot . Sunday-morning group of '4 Songs Based on Hymntune Themes' (Watchntan. Merion Music. in rcl. One of his most devilish 'take-offs' (his term for parodies. A Son of a Gambolier. He adapted A Son of a Gambolier (l8qS) from two earlier piano marches he had written. Used by pcrmission. qt tin6. rc . These fall into three groups: songs that spring from the bedrock of American vernacular-tradition music. If the household song is at the core of lves's lyric art. Used by permission. sometimes implying a hint. Ives worked up a popular dance tune.tlcflo6orc 5m. ill rill I to genuine sentiment) that had traditionally marked the genre.l nd .:\ Lh. Er.Two lit. in it he quotes a traditional melody (of Irish origin ?) and near the end invites the improvisatory participation of a . In the Alley. for he detested the banality. Its text (by lves) is a derisive sneer at'the same old Copyright 1955 by ir ill: kn .lvcs was not abovc parodying the household song.hy ddys in @r bo. the same old sentimental sound'. At the River. ing in wild |bvr'6 d I - L ri lqir . perhaps even earlier. and usually the abstract.chid.!q. Pwr International Corporation. morbidity.Kazoo Chorus[:] T3 . of wicked satire) is On the Counter (r9zo).

Ives's footnote is a reminder of one of his most startling statements-'My God ! What has sound got to do with music!' (Essays 84)-and the piano part to which it refers is a powerful example of his use of tone-clusters toward expressive ends. . Oll Ilortte Day ('. is th. I nc.hillct (up thc as the first movement of the Fourth Symphony.time ot lhcbegtonihg - I Allegro con spirito i hop. All four derived from instrumental pieces. Copyrighr 1939 by Arrow Music Press.lo. Used by Charlie Rutlage (rgzolzt)-or. Childlike music in skipping rhythms related to children's play-party songs appears in both the early Memories (rSqZ) and the late The Greatest Man Qgzt). and the piano launches into an interlude in ragtime rhythms (Ex.-ter-hi-ty.. an original kind of Sprechstimme (lves had not heard or seen Schoenberg's kind) in which the vocal rhythm but not the pitches is notated.housc. in _ - * ln tlE r-O |Nsur€. rg2o or The Election I5 . recomposed. 1939 bv Arrow Music Press. rather than spoken text.1l lr I ilr ili. if voiced at all). His Exaltation (r9r3) from the first movement of the Second Violin Sonata. for soprano and organ). based on a tune by Mason. lll iltl I lrrtt'. Copyright assigned 1957 to Associated Music Publishers. or recomposing earlier works. rearranging. ol cou6e. o r@d.t9t3) has a'Chorus'in which rrrstrrrrrrcrrls lorrg assc'rciated with popular and amateur musicnurkirrg arc invitcd optionally to play along: 'Obligato (ad lib) fife. [then] add piccolos. and lves's setting of the colloquialisms of the poetry is so sensitive that it is difficult to sing it with anything but the appropriate drawling accent of the American Southwest. SirrrL'. hir ld 7'----9 6cs b. The four hymn-tune songs exemplify lves's lifelong practice of revising. adapting. But I about th.-yood in . violin or llute'. ocarinas and lrlt's'. tt rcks dc indi@ted ont oFprorimolcly i thc time. now lost. Copyright assigned 1957 to Associated Music publishers €) C-o. [ra et] P os in lhc bcginning re. Used by pcrmission. it was to reappear. a dance going on' (to be spoken. 6). The transcendental text of Walking (t9oo*?z) mentions 'a roadhouse. Inc. was taken from the last movement of the First Violin Sonata (the Watchmarz sections of which were themselves adaptations from a setting of r9or. Spoken text is explicitly demanded in the central climax of the cowboy ballad EL8 back to the music 'as in the beginning'. guitar-like strumming accompanies the voice.. Akin to popular American songs in their texts' concern with topical social and political issues musical editorials-are Noy.. Inc. Watchman (r9r3). .lions in Ter-os his focc E-vcr morewill*. lrtltllcs rrnrl llrrgcolcts. min poini. At the beginning and the end of the song. At the River (?t9r6) came from the third movement of the Fourth Violin Sonata. Popular-music idioms inform many other songs as well. and The Camp Meeting (tgrz) from various parts of the Third Symphony's last movement that use the hymn tune Azmon. Example 7 shows the transition from the peak of the recited section 14 -virtually A kind of musical deadpan humour shines through the brief song on lower Manhattan's impudent little two-block-long Ann Street and the lurching merry-go-round music of The Side Show (both rgzl). 2. Inc.pyright permission.

ing to 'order' in music than. multi-djmensional-microcosm in which individual objects or events co-exist.(r921). To make music in no particular key has a nice name nowadays [tglz]-'3nf6n4li1y". rocks. r in t 14 Songs. the song has a steady underlying pulse in quavers that is organized by the voice into long serpentine phrases. mildly as Ives puts it.' (Memos 55-6) ('Nice'. . as a violin had done in the original chamber-orchestra version. Merion Music.'. ilIl rltll I visionary reach.r r ). heterophonic polyphony. no two of the same length and all set offagainst shorter. and well they might. be it a song or a week's symphony. . which is often a multi-faceted. say. Its background chords are built up by perfect fourths and fifths. and weak. in lves's vocabulary. animals. To turn directly from lves's songs of popular inspiration to those of radical musical organization is to reaffirm the scope of his musical vocabulary and the open-mindedness. its foot. of his musical attitudes as well as his inventiveness. Said lves: 'Technically this piece is but a study of how chords of 4ths and 5ths may throw melodies away from a set tonality. mosses. . 'atonal'. He sees the valley. Between these is a gently oscillating stream of misty augmented triads. 'order'is here an irrelevant concept. the co-existence in a forest of by the others. (Mentos 196) This notion. [The] principal thing in this movement is to show that a song does not necessarily have to be in any one key to make musical sense. was in fact one of his most radical. In Like a Sick Eagle (2t9o9) not only are both melody and harmony so chromatic as to be virtually atonal but lves suggests that the voice slide from note to note (in a line moving mostly by semitones) through quarter-tones. meek. and looks down or up. and insects is threatening to Mists (tgto). Thus the music is projected on two planes seemingly quite independent of each other. was a particularly damning epithet. and Tom Sails Away. One is the grateful. meaning conventional. and'3 Songs of the War' (In Flanders Fields. or one too narrowly conceived. Similarly unbarred. its summit-there's the valley-the climber looks. Harmony Twichell. daring. lnc. the inclusiveness.t.) O Copyright 1933.r'i tlrinking that he gave the song the place of honour as No. or like a mirror-reflection of it seen from afar (Ex. and it is an important key to much of his music. may have something in common [with] a walk up a mountain. another the tolling betl of the bass. conformist. flowers. Ives's layered polyphony is sometimes so dense. There's the mountain.. and wlriclr bcgins wrth the homespun line'It strikes me that . the relationships between its co-existing events sometimes so subtle and their I6 I7 . Largo sostenuto L ilii. . multi-layered-indeed. all ryt7). for he thought in such terms: A natural procedure in a piece of music. their music a network of popular and patriotic tunes from the American past and present. has three or four planes depending on how one listens. llluirtrit. the foreground melody moves mostly by whole-tones. This 'shadow' (a favourite concept of [ves) is like a distant choir humming heterophonically along with the middle plane. on a humanitarian theme so central to tu. Used by permission. 8). which is shadowed high in the piano register by a similar stream that should be 'scarcely audible'. shapely vocal melody. asymmetrical groupings in the accompaniment.( r t. He Is There!. on the death of her mother. Ives viewed such a co-existence as no more threaten- order. each maintaining its individuality yet influencing and being influenced trees. Wholly unbarred. but not exactly the same angle he saw it at [in] the last look-and the summit is changing with every step-and the sky. set to a lovely poem by lves's wife. Such visual and spatial analogies as these often leap to mind in hearing Ives's planar. and on two planes is The Cage (arranged in 1906 from a chamber work of the same year). turns.

Nature is kind. 9. basis of these chords is indicated beneath the music: d : 19 . Merion Music. Inc. Nature's today ! . each made up systematically of different stacks of superimposed intervals. Nature is Eternity... is in disjunct sections which mirror the extremes of Nature expressed in the text. with some rigour.' The music. . others of successively smaller stacked intervals appear. for soprano or chorus and two pianos with optional organ at the close. frustrated question of the poet (lves) is expressed through a vocal line that leaps through a series ofjagged intervals. . then the process is reversed. the result of such plans-themselves anything but chaotic-is often so unusual and knotty in sound that the ear fails to hear the logic and perceives even this carefully ordered music as bordering on chaos. centre. a : augmented. The poem is about the paradoxical ('antipodal') extremes of Nature: 'Nature's relentless. however. the last section of the song. ilill ilt ll rlll tlrought was'chaotic'is belied by his not infrequently turning to 'pre-compositional'plans which are then pursued. In Ex.. that it cau seem clrirotic cvcn through many listenings. diminished. But that lves's musical lli. At beginning. until one of crushed-together semitones is reached. (Org pedJ - Io! 1B p : perfect.. and m : minor.. In the late song On the Antipodes (r9r5-23) lves may have intended to exploit this paradox. the structural x2 x! H2 h3 Largo.maesloso Tzd m? m2 U2 t2 ml tr3 h3 13 @ Copyright 1935. i . The final.c(lucn('('s() lll)l)arcntly haphazard and unplanned. in a work. The sequence of these chords is carefully planned: from an opening sonority built up by perfect flfths. and end. Paradoxically. and the sequence ends (as it had begun) with an immense chord of fifths. strident. the song is anchored by a recurrent series of giant chords.. M : major. Used by permission.

to). with an inner minor third (Ex. and also by inversion (arpeggios up in first half. Brahms. . a Study in Tths and Other Things'. another group is more unambiguously within the tradition of art song based on texts of some poetic elegance. and 5 semiquavers to the midpoint.'radical'. Massenet. . Er11 Allegretto molto tranquillo suggest of!' The first verse is set almost monotonously as a drawling recitative over harmonies slowly swinging back and forth above a bass moving from dh to D q (i. wide-spanned vocal melody emphasizing sevenths and ninths. as the graceful first period of Feltleinsamkeit (r8ql) can (Ex.7. a seventh). thus it anticipates similar uses of twelve-note material. alto. but anticipating rather the polytonal techniques of Stravinsky. and 5). first through arpeggios built of major sevenths (or minor ninths). is about man's ambivalence before Nature: When a man is sitting before the fire on the hearth. 'Nature is a simPle affair. Thus there are Lieder by him-e. one of two youthful 'fugues in four keys'. 20 G) Copyright 1935.' Then he looks out the window and sees a hailstorm. rr). lts text. Milhaud. down in second). then 5.lO Another song. e. on varying structural intervals. (The second vocal part. Sotitoquy dates from l9o7. In this song. to be sung if the work is performed chorally. lr. including the sequence of bar-lengths (5. it is a carefully structured set of permutations of a three-note cell spanning a major third. lves set a number while at the university. like those of On the Antipodes. 6. Merion Music. Comparisons with European composers' earlier settings are not always to Ives's disadvantage: he had learnt well his models (Schubert. Inc. is an even earlier work. 7. like that of On the Antipodes (and also by lves). 8. then through chords built.g. 8. Used by pernrission 2t . Ives explores the possibilities of imitative counterpoint in which bass. perhaps because of its hinting subtitle: '. If the songs just discussed revealthe experimental. Horatio Parker habitually assigned well-known song texts to be newly set by his students. So/i/o quy. stormy. follows another twelve-note series') Er. Godard).e. Also prophetic. and prophetic side of lves.This line is not haphazard either: not only is it a twelve-note series. and he begins to think that 'Nature can't be so easily disposed and soprano voices are respectively and consistently in ('. Chanson de Florian and Rosamunde (B6langer).g. Widmung (Mtiller) and Die Lotosblume and lch grolle nicht (both Heine)-and mdlodies as well. and techniques of retrograde and inversion in the works of the Viennese school. llh. he says. At Yale. tenor. is better known for this kind of protoserialism. Schumann. The second verse is a contrast in every way-tumultuous. scored for soprano with either organ or brass trio accompaniment. and E[. frantic. The voice races chromatically in very wide intervals (the first phrase containing all twelve notes without repetition). more later. the Song /br Harvest Season (t893). and others. A midpoint is reached. then everything is repeated in retrograde.6. The piano rushes similarly.

it simply fades away. Ives breaks this ostinato twice. r2a) and the utterly tranquil conclusion (Ex. Maple Leaves ends with delicate falling sequences in the voice which lead to a final phrase that flutters down like the autumn leaves of the title (Ex. 'conclusion' may be the wrong word.13 (o) Largo -. In Serenity.I Ir t . among the most hauntingly tender and gentle of Ives's songs are Evening (rgzr. Walt llhitman (Whitman).. (lt. r3). 1.l corrsidcrablc complexity and strength (two qualities rrsrurlly ctluutccl).i. for the song really does not end. and he precedes the last word of each stanza with a catch-breath that lends a subtle emphasis. From'The Swimmers' (L. From'Lirtcoln. Inc. Copyright assigned 1957 to Associated Music Publishers.{.s . - lor tha b@sl . l4). Inc. as in . underscoring the two basic founts of serenity. \ O Copyright 1939 by Arrow Music Press. Used by permission. with crystalline notes high in the piano suggesting the 'wakeful nightingale' of Milton's verses. On the other hand. Requiem :. oscillate high above the 'unison chant' of the voice part.z-l-\: - lr [ti lllu'i' iltlll lltl' I @ Copvright 1932 by Cos Cob Prcs. Inc. Maple Leaves (tgzo.9on . rzb)... ln Et.two Er. Copyright assigned 1957 to Associated Music Publishers. Serenity (r9r9.':-. Milton). releasing the slight tension built up by the sinuous chant and pointing up the ends of Whittier's stanzas. and lrc llrrrl'. tnc Used by permission.e rr1.. Whittier). All three have delicious details of rrrrrl Arrte rieiu) l)oots of distinction tended to evoke from speech-like rhythm and grateful melodic arcs (Ex. one may point to the perfect match between chords related to the cloudy m6lange of distant bell tones.4 Farewell to Land (Byron). Untermeyer). l' lcncc oc .ening. love and peace (Ex. T' B' Aldrich).lr. the Great Commoner' (Edwin Malklrarn). as unique and unforgettable as Wagner's 'Tristan chord'. Stcvenson). or From'Paracelsus' (Browning).com . 23 )t .

l li. having the little finger run into a 7th or octave-and-semitone over the lower thumb note' 25 .lhca oa c. t5).ly with i ril I N I il.r In various guises and transformations this kind of sonority pervades General Booth. one with two white notes with the thumb.l G) Copyright 1942 by . .rI I I I I I father's band. Copyright assigned 1957 to Associated Music Publishers. This is a setting of portions of Vachel Lindsay's poem celebrating the militant revivalism of the first commanding general of the Salvation Army-a 'Glory trance'. .. Merion Music.sus knall thc 5i .' .Arrow Music Press. Inc. he practised on a piano the drum parts he was to play in his I . It is unfair to lves to single out one song as his greatest. . is General William Booth Enters Into Heaven (lgt+). Used by permission.iiiiii rrrll i. lliitli . Inc. Je embodied in dissonant clusters of a sort Ives had invented when. lves once called it. but the biggest and most dramatic. Used by permission. and it begins and ends with a typical marching band's drumbeat (Ex. and one which synthesizes various sources of his lyric art. .ni -ly- ii I I I ri Er. Much of the song is march-like. The whack of snare drums and the thud of a bass drum limping a bit behind are 24 O Copyright 1935. as a boy. (Arc & ft . . I '[I] got to trying out sets of notes to go with or take-off the drums.16 Allcgm moderato (Morch tine) I :! I I bold .tar . A popular ctrordin the right hand was .

choral performance if desired. while in the *iddt" of the The song ends with a haunting..urr. At the momerlt of transfiguration. something strong seemed more or rourc oil roud ond rourd 6d rourd _ddd_rand hgd . Lindsay s'ggests 'sweet flutc music'. Used by permission. Ives responds with i passage of moving tenderness (Ex. social rnisfits. chords. lves introduces the military bugle-call Reveille.Lindsay's poem has Booth leading a noisy company of the blind ancl the leproLls. the crowd marches off. of convicts. strangely askew metrically and rhythmically. As they circle the upp.. I iemember distinctly. composed for minstrel shows (with which the banjo was associated).suddenly. Dent Goltlen Slippers!.as a band marching away'. the piapist's rigfit hand circles similarly but in a two-note cycle. his early referertces to the sourc!) are fragmentaiy and allusive. Merion Music. Er t0 Cleaneing Fout&in way. As is often trile in lves's works thrtt are based on pre-existcilt tunes. singing triumphantly. lessmissing.sus coha froh thccourt hou* 'rilil Itl I Lindsay includes in his poem interlinear instrumental suggestions which lves takes irrto account: headiitg the poem is the instruction 'Bass drum beaten louclly'. Bland's song Ofi.y c@rl . as we have seen. Inc. on which lves elaborates. inviting Ja . that back to the usual consonant triads. Ives's next comments suggest how such 'imitative dissonance' led nuirrutiy to i general preference for complex.. then the drumbeats. off-key version of the refrain.' 26 27 .s play and in fun. through ocotttt-house square' Jesus the gates of heaven. after this habit became a matter of years. and thcy march off into the distance. set to hymnbook harmony. wrote Ives in the manuscript.hou$ :46re. The healing complete. and outcasts. I7) in which the .. stretching out his hands over the mob to heal and purge them. clad in raiment new'. they are'spotless.sing Fountair winds its tranquil (Memos 4z-3). the ears got used to and acquainted with these various and many dissonant combinagoing tions.only late in the song does he offcr lt clear and more or less completc statement of it. and where Lindsay calls for a 'blare. fade-. etc. the melody of Clean. Tireir refrain throughout is a line frorn a Salvation Army hymn:'Are you washed in the blood of thc Lamb ?' Ives chose not to set this line to the tune r"rsually associatcd with it but to a dilTerent one derived from Lowell h4ason's hynrrt Cleansing Fountain (Ex. at a mention of 'banjos' lves qttotcs thc beginning of James A. blare' of trumpets. non-traditional harmonic materials: lWhat siarted als a boy.l. when jesus appears._ ond roud_ ond * ro6d ond bund @ Copyright 1935. gradually worked into something that had as a serious side to it that opened up potsibiiities-and in ways sometimes valuable. circles 'round lnd rolnd' on a three-note figure. (Ives here and there writes in an extra voice part. r6). lower-pitched as if in the distance.

What is amazingamong the early sacred choruses is the imaginative stylistic leap lves made between several compositions preserved from the early t89os and a group of psalm settings made probably in the summer of 1894. B. first on G. of the 'fuging tune' style of eighteenth-century New England composers Ives's recollection was that they included settings of Psalms 54. pleasant pieces. -which 29 . in its sturdy straightforwardness.r and it does remind one of choral psalm settings of the Renaissance. bitonal setting. with its similar procession of fugal entries by rising seconds. Perhaps lves had in mind the 'Omnes generationes' movement of Bach's Magnifcat. all this was apparently thrown out when the church changed sites in I9r5.they are played offagainst a l Memos r78. it seems to me to be a stronger chord than the 9th makes one feel that all inversions are not inversions. not alwavs'.2. with the second a fugato. with optional organ. probably because it was the first to be published and recorded (in the late rg3os). B. perhaps 24. Andante mactroo @ Copyright 1939 by A. Sopranos and altos are paired. from the Yale years. r9a). partsongs. But . but in a conventional church style that later generations rejected as too sweet to be powerful and too predictable to be exciting.s. remain. Inc. . r8)-at least in the opening and closing sections. THE CHORAL MUSIC FoR more than thirteen years from the time the Danbury News reported (on his birthday in t888) that he was 'the youngest organist in the state'. 67 . The outer sections are based on whole-tone materials. They fall into three groups: sacred works. he resigned his post at Central Presbyterian Church in New York City and shortsightedly (as it turned out) lcft much music there. virtually all of which postdate the turn of the century. The more expansive Easter Carol (1892. is Psalm 67. like William Billinss. C. and D. Psalm r5o is shaped llke Psalm 67 in three sections. then on A. and part of Psalm 9o. Turn Ye (?r89o) and Crossing the Bar (?t89t) there is hardly a hint that Ives was to become an 'irregular' as a composer. r9b). Psalm 54 is also set in A B A' form. and C successively (Ex. each proceeding from bass up through soprano. most of which date from lves's years on the organ bench and in choir lofts. with the female voices in the orbit of C major. Used by permission. a composer of church music. The series of psalm settings is another matter altogether' Since Ives wrote of his father's having tried them with the Danbury choirs. The loss-of choral works as well as church solos and organ compositions-is sad. which surround a contrasting fugato in skipping rhythms that is slightly reminiscent. and the independent conclusions he drew from it. Ives was a church organist and. The subtlety oflves's ear. chromatic sideslips (Ex.Harmonically [it] could be (would be in harmony books of nice professors) catalogued as an inversion of the 9th. as such. with a double canon as the central section. . Both are well-crafted. Ives exploits the planar possibilities of the two-choir texture by giving the boys frequent long-held chords against which the mixed choir moves in piquant. 2B Best known. for the choral music by Ives that remains includes works of high and fresh quality. A. only a few of which. after his decision to go into business in tgoz.ssociated Music Publisher. revised ?r9or) is stronger but stillsquarely in the Victorian anthem tradition. they must predate the fallof r894 (when George Ives died). Ives listed his having composed some twenty-odd such works 'alla Harry Rowe Shelley and Dudley Buck' (both of them Connecticut organist-composers with whom he studied while at Yale). He called it 'a kind of enlarged plain chant'. based on a Gregorian psalm tone. are well brought out in his comments on the work's initial sonority: .Ives wrote an a cappella. and other secular works. The fugal entries of the central section are planned unusually: two cycles ofthem occur. However. t 5o. sometimes grinding. the male in that of G minor. The scoring is for boys' chorus and mixed chorus. In the two anthems Turn Ye. in block-chord falsobordone style (Ex.

31 . that of Verse z by whole-tones. then the voices fan out. Ives brings back this firstsection music for the last verses. sdnd of tF 3-Ploise him with thcsrd ot tF H_ trum_FEt: Protsa- him wilh thc pel'l''ry - ondtf€ horp' permission' @) Copyright 197?..lower plane of paired tenors and basses. like an opening wedge: the setting of Verse I fans out by semitones (Ex. spatial-so does the entire work. @ Copyright 19?3. weaves rhythmic arabesques around the evenly paced lower voices. Used by permission. Merion Music. rises a semitone. basses falling). Mercury Music. singing in augmented triads.truh?'{. then marches back up again (from C#) in whole-tones.l9 is circular.Proisa hinwithttreudc. wedge-like. The Er.e. Er. Its basic idea is that of a double wedge. {. two whole-tones).. The technique anticipates some practices of Webern. and basically in major thirds (i. Used by permission.20 II-argo mcstoso] . dM judge me !t lhy strenqth. lhc Psalm 24 takes a new tack.Proise him lwith thc eund ot th. I \: nqhe. that of 'l 3. 3. marches slowly by whole-tones in lock-step down an octave (from C). from this axis (sopranos rising. In Verse t (Ex. The interval chosen for this expansion process itself expands from verse to verse. Merion Music.1 q q. dueting similarly in lock-step. zr). but he reverses the roles of the two groups (and of course the registers of their two musics)' Thus' just as the initial tenor/bass slow march reverses itself-the effect 30 @ Copyright 1955." r. Inc. zo) the tenor-bass complex. much later. Inc. I .il il \ll ? \. [nc. Used bv soprano-alto complex. Each verse begins with the chorus (a cappella) on a unison C as central axis. opening out then closing again.

I 'i r rli Verse 3 by nTinor thirds. the music for each verse is suffused with the colour of one or another of four harmonic idioms f. trying his wings in unconventional modes of harmonic. 2 summarized by the organ in an introduction. zz)Ives seems to have composed part of the goth Psalm in t 894. basses ascending). all anchored to a constant C in the bass. p. and rhythmic expression. 3. with analogies to the later studies by Milhaud in superimposed chords and bitonality or by Bart6k in scales and intervals. strings. and organ (see the scorings shown in Ex. surrounded by a nimbus of bells and gong ('as church beils. t97o). and other details in the piece suggest that lves had assimilated into his general vocabulary materials and procedures that earlier had been the stuff of '6tudes'.i:3lt. and low gong.ll'. but they were after all the products of a tg-year-old fledgling. his wife remembered his saying it was the only one that satisfied him. 'artificially' constructed chords. as lves recognized when he listed the work as performable by trombones (instead of chorus). then reworked it to completion and performed it at Central Presbyterian Church. but a be On the Antipodes.'rti"?t*il.q x-i Mo- fj. Related in manner to these psalm settings but not so uncompromisingly rigorous in construction is the Processional: Let There number of things keep it from falling apart: it is underscored throughout by an organ-pedal c. for mixed chorus' organ. Like the'refrain'sections of work is based on chains of ever-different. The discussion above has said little of the text-music relationships or the expressive qualities of these psalm settings. itself forecast in the introduction. Psalm 90.the orcfslre tr P. as the remaining sketches make clear.z The superb text is lengthy. the outer voices reverse their direction (sopranos now in descending motion. ed. and. and lves's setting. zz) exemplifies the technique involved. It is extremely sectional.the first is freer harmonically. though more freely: the structural intervals progressively diminish in size. to be sure. They may well be viewed as 'compositional 6tudes'. After the setting of Verse 7 (expansion by perfect fifths) the process is reversed.f"'national corporation. and the serene diatonicism ofthe first verse returns for verses r4-r7. nevertheless. Thus Psalm 90 as we have it is one of lves's last works (t923-4). bells.) MiI6d(5AT Chorug B Four Trcmbonc or Extrc 0rg@ Four Violins 0rgon Strirp lit ll ( ( '{i I Light (r9or).del [5I * M3 L - e-.-----\ | !! 04 p: -o5 --. in the distance'). reflects vividly the expressive contrasts between and even within the verses. The second choral phrase (Ex. All four works are powerful. only in tg4 did he set about reconstructing it. textural.@ copvright 1967 bv Peer Internationat corpora- 'Editors' Notes' to Ives. The music has considerable expressive value in relation to the text. he virtually recomposed it. Ives's setting of individual verses is 33 32 . it has its own abstract inner logic as well.lcns (TlBB. John Kirkpatrick and Gregg Smith (Bryn Mawr. el Xl pa LJ. But score and parts were thrown out when the church moved. and the shape of the entire work as a double wedge is completed by a return to C. and so on.

Merion Music.governed by his characlerization of each of the ilrtroductory harironic idioms (as shown in the captions of llx. Bell IV's.iY Rcl or c Lng A- . (Only the last. synchronizes with the regular I metre and phrasing of the chorus. EI. trumpets.. The serene final section flnds all tensiois resolved. a nebulous cloud of faint bell sounds shimmers. z5): Bell I's cycle is of ten quavers. eight. these harmonies. I. Crcatron Cds A wroth o9omt srn Proler ord Humrl. all the more 34 chorus. Bell III's. z3). with the organ. Seemingly in the distance. Used by permission.JE O -: -=l-llltf 7 . appearing four op-ow'r'. Bell II's. however. and trombones on mid-nineteenthcentury hymn texts (but without musical quotations).) Religious in impulse and expression if not intended for service use ([ves once described the work as'from a "Harvest Festival" ') is the set of three Harvest Home Chorales (?r8g8-?r9or) for mixed times. Used by permission' @) Copyright 1970. nine. nebulous because each bell circles in its own ostinato rhythmic cycle (Ex. and 'wrath'.tr r \il I \ (li E in Beuty ond wo. Merion Music.23 Inlrodurtion ( Freely ]11e ) Etern 6_-- . lnc. '\ '. Soberly jubilant in their choral expression but with the brass often building to 35 . twelve.e . serves to underline in a natural way the words 'anger'. as for example in Verse I I (Ex' z4): the harmonic structure associated with 'Cod's wrath'._ 4:--: know-eth the \ [. are not mechanically applied but merely allowed to tint the various verse settings. The choral harmony is rooted in American hymnody with its relaxed subdominant emphasis. r_r__ I _ =: A Copyright 1970. lnc. 'fear'.k t I 'i ..:+.

Above it. 345-6. it sounds throughout. (z) under a tenor melody. as introduction.Li. .26 balls.T:r-1-. rr :3. z6). elemental and audible. "+[+. (3) with bass counterpoint added to tenor melody. bars 8-r3 are a retrograde ofbars r 6. pp. a low C# anchors the movement tonally. not note-fornote but bar-for-bar (bar 13 : bar r. Inc. Used by permission. as a canticle).\' l. . ed' Shrifte (New York.'L tli A \ ( (rl t-s ) 'l \ I .in distonce ) I -___r I . Mercury Music. rn dEtoftc IP' A5 church bells. is like in which planets orbit around a star. (4) with soprano/alto duet added to the male-voice pair. It is based on three metric planes.1 (O Copyright 1970. their relationship (as 6:9:4) is shown in the diagram below: .Lord of the Harvest" the second piece of the set. then finally a truncated repetition of (4). wrote Ives. and qualities most clearly. rocks. ln 'Lerters oJ Cotrtposers. The harmonic cycle on which this cumulative set of variations is based is itself circular:as seen in the introduction (Ex. a twelve-bar cycle of harmonies revolves slowly four and one-half times: (r) alone. 'i [' rz 't. G' Norman and M' L' entire movement's structure.a tumult of pealing praise. moons around planets. etc.'11 Like the deep C of Processional or Psalm 9o. 'a kind of outdoor music and have something in common with the trees. and 37 a cosmos 36 ..). closes the movement. in Ives's notation.3 what they seem to have in common with these things is a great elemental strength and a tangled yet harmonious co-existence of disparate elements. The 8r. 'i"oroolroo. I946). exemplifies these s Letter to Lelrman Engel. which forces all three into a I metre. they are. lnc. Used by perrlission' men of the mountains in days before machinery'. There is a pause for two hushed echoes of the end of the phrase 'New praises from our lips shall sound'(chanted freely by the chorus. @) Copyright 1949. 12 : 2. with climactic new instrumental voices. Merion Music.

stictl Country ( r898-9)' for soloists. For one unused to Ives's stylistic pluralism. less than a handful are complete.4. and he turned his back on both the choral cantata genre and its conventional stylc. and 6) and partly because of the recurrent 'octad' harmonies-eight-note chords bLrilt up by thirds. urgent arcs of melody and rich. is extravagantly hortatory ('Forward. 43). z8). Three Yale soltgs are pleasant trifles: A Song of Mory's (r896).planets and ntoons themselves revolve. p. The disruptive dissonant chords Iabeled 'cloud sounds' by Ives that appear three times in the manuscript of The Boys in Blue may have been ideas toward another and orchestra. zl) is shattering. is pripared and justified by the double tonal implication. In seven movements plus several brief a) Copyright 1949. forward into Iight!' is its theme). along the lines of those works by Elgar (The Dream of Gerontius) and Parker (Hora Novissima)and. The Bells oJ yale (rg97-g). thc only unconventional feature of the work-common to all five of the irrterludes (see below. Uscd by pcrtttisston' is the concert chorus. so inconclusive out of context. The secular choral music by lves that is extant is scanty. a number of scores are lost or irrcontplcte. part. ultimately. of the 'prime' choral melody of the tenors (q. carrtata The Cele. intensified by the slightly faster tempo at which each revolution of the cycle is to be taken. lnc. and others he lcft r-rnfinished. it was not the kind of music that Ives really wanted to write. it would be difficult to imagine these two contemporaneous works as products of the same composer. in Ex. the cantata is thoroughly conservative. a hymn by Henry Alford. Of a baker's dozen of partsongs dating from his preparatory school and university ycars. The ending (Ex. The text. Mercury Music. The Celestial Country was performed at Central Presbyterian Church in rgoz anc'l was reviewed lavourably (the last time for many years that music by lves was so received). At the opposite pole from llurt'cst Hotne Clrcrales J8 . Brahms and Mendelssohn-that exemplify the Victorian choral cantata/oratorio. The big work hangs together well. z7)' AU is - Thir. its F versus C# final because ol' thernatic intcrconnections between movements (r and 7. and The Boys in Blue (t897 or later). instrumental interludes and an 'intermezzo' for string quartet.- Th?c - E work (Ex. especially male glee clubs. Cf shifting to F. energy-laden Romantic harmony. These reflect the popularity in American schools of lves's time of student choral groups. and Ives matches it with long. organ. nevertheless. It has an awesome sense of inexorability.

..:. In turn. . . etc. Of such songs Ives wrote characteristically:'Probably the old ladies (male our Cop-tdin- iS 0ptional 'cloud sound (instrumental) @ Copyright 1976 by Peer International Corporation. Lincoln the Great Commoner (with large orchestra). occasionally splitting into heterophonic clusters. He IsThere!(a'war song march'. About ten other secular works have in common a scoring for unison chorus (with occasional divisi) and varied instrumental ensembles. l. statement. not individual... in The New River (titled The Ruined River in one manuscript). assembled in t9o6). on environmental pollution-and the massed voices. ciol hold..] sounding up over the stone walls.":. and An Election. ':::". Used by permission." { Ibid. 29... have the effect of collective. A number of these were adapted from voiceless ensemble pieces with a principal part for a single instrument under which a text is sometimes to be found-songs 'with or without voices'.In these songs for unison chorus and instruments.":. lves may have had in mind a Lincolnian 'people's chorus'. readapted in I94z as They Are There!). as in the 40 lrom their d . 4I .] especially those about the world problems of the people. Maiority or The Masses. a mass of voices speaking out as one: almost all are on socialor political issues-even . such as Serenity (originally sketched with an accompaniment for harps and violins). and 'owest mountain".passage of Lincoln the Great Commoner given as Ex. a number were readapted as solo songs for the book of I I4 Songs.'a copyrisht . and female) would not-but there are some men who would[-]like to hear some of thechoruses with orchestra today[.. The New'Riuer (initially a movement in the chamber-orchestra Set No.[.

Ives. Bb-Eb-Ab. major or mirror. especially in matters of rhythm. lves began. but the second set (?r89r). Mercury Music. for a l7-year-old.'r Of some forty keyboard works by lves that survive intact. 'impressive' introduction. . as an American boy in the post-Civil-War period might be expected to have begun. in F major. Inc. The familiar air is forcshadowed in an brash. not limited to the scope of ten fingers.survives competent. 38. A Son oJ a Gantholier and The Circus Band). The piece has other foreshadowings of the mature 3. After the Theme. for whom he once played. with eight notes (C E G Bh. Ives described their style precisely (although he was referring to The Celestial Country): 'I played a short organ Prelude. 3o (the F major stratum being foreshortened. in a chord. the mature ones. Dh F Ah CD pp in swell organ. althor-rgh a private one. @ Copyright 1949. a professional organist for a number of years and a remarkable pianist. recalled: 'lt was a very flitting kind of playing. . in a startling early use of bitonality. each of a different character. why can't you have another Pointed out by Ives in Memos.the two pairs of variations.ll *) THE KEYBOARD MUSIC Ivrs was himself a keyboard player. a jogging polonaise version punctLrated by giggles in four-foot stops.t. or as songs (e. And he related these piled-up harmonies to a boy's playful imagination: 'This boy's way-of feeling. the Df one elongated) and the cross-rhythms of bars r 8z-5:2 4? i i "H#ful I From the same period as the oAmerica' Variations come four minuscule organ interludes to be played between stanzas of hymns sung by a church congregation. in most. with piano marches and sets of variations on well-known hymns and popular and patriotic tunes. one of mercuriality and quasi-improvisation. INTERLUDE tod lib./ under these' (Memos 33). as well as delectably -remarkably and funny. there follow five variations. M41z5o$. pedal playing the main theme . including a jigging DI transformation. He was all over the keyboard. . The shifts in key betweert Variations II and lll (F to D[) and IV and V (F minor to F major) are made with a boy's directness (but only an unusual boy's inventiveness): in interludes between t7-zt October t974. 2 I Remarks macle during a panel discussion in the Charles Ives Centennial Festival- that has not survived. Six of the seven extant youthful piano marches he later arranged as band or orchestra pieces. put in three keys together. His earliest variatiotts. John Kirkpatrick. on Jerusalent the Golden (?r888). virtuosic. /a +z +J . . for organ and on America (: God Save tlte King).g. It was a very deft playing [out of] a very contrapuntal mind . reflcct these aspects of his playing: most have a'flitting' quality. are lost. the key to come is simply laid over the one being left. Used by pernrission. the texture is apt to be challengingly contrapLrntal. p. as it nrade the boys lar"rgh and [be] noisy)'. such as the twists of phraselength in Ex. and an amusing one (Ex. . and backrvards Alt Eh-Bb (bLrt this was not played in church concerts. As a keyboard composer. Ives can be heard as pianist in re-pressings of some rare private transc|iptions in Charles Ives: The Hundredth Anniversary (Columbia Conference. where he also mentions another variation it had. and none is easy to play. and a finale beginning 'as fast as the pedals can go' and eventually bringing back the introductory material. at least.the theme in canon. 3o). if you can have two 3rds.

3 + r + r.t . the movement has a strong. Only at the end of the movement. according to a note in the manuscript. and the accompaniment is a combina44 A similar spirit ('Why not try it?') Andante Adagio : [Andante] The accompaniment to the bell-melody of the Adagio is worth a close look. The Adagio is based on bell iounds: Ives invites a secoud pianist 'or bells-celesta' to perform the chime-like topmost part. I + 3 + r) that can make up such a cycle of five (Ex. clear tonal design by virtue of a bass progression that is wholly logical if unique: it gradually descends from g down two octaves to G. so that the movement has the form A B A' B Coda (A"). the music is seldom funny. Adagio. 3z).one or two on top of it[?]it's an obvious and natllralway of having a little 1*1r. The work is designed in three movements (not indicated as such) defined by tempo changes: Allegro Moderato. it crumples limply to rest. do we realize that it too is related to Westminster Chimes. Using the same starting-point for both (F). The Allegro Moderato is based on the B-A-C-H motive (falling semitone.2 + z + t)orthree-plus-one(r + r +3.. The work has satirical aspects: Ives jotted down a memo. ( \ )i llr . first. inverting the tune produces a pure Aeolian-mode melody on B[ (though the melody ends. thus the prelude begins and ends in different keys and modes. which permeates the texture in all kinds of guises. Analysis of the arpeggios reveals that they revolve in rhythmic cycles of five quavers and that Ives systematically exhausts all the possible combinations of two-plus-one quavers (z + t + z. the other a three-note bass arpeggiation that is never quite synchronized with either these chords or the bellmelody. but it is not a parody. on F). . and again in an epilogue. It may be an anti-sonata. 'tough'.. to go at its head. disguises.31 I ? \ n (1 \. then the inversion together with the original melody. at its close. falling semitone). In the Three-Page Sonata for piano (lgoS) we confront the rugged. which reads 'made mostly as a joke to knock the mollycoddles out of their boxes and to kick out the softy earsl'(Memos t55n). Despite aspects of vagueness in harmony and melody. rising minor third. Ex. sustained BI minor triad.' (Memos r2o-r). then in chromatic sequences related to B-A-C-H (Ex. tion of middle-register chords. an inversion of the old hymn tune. and mature lves. inversions. and permutations. Its effect is of a rhythmically vague. although in a most natural and unforced way. and tolling bass arpeggios on fundamental fifths and tenths. and the manuscript has spoof marginalia like 'Back to ISt Theme-all nice Sonatas must have tst Theme'and'repeat znd Theme (as is right! and correct)" Nevertheless. What was tried (and it worked) was. this remote chord drifts down chromatically into the orbit of F major. which refers to the three manuscript pages the work occupies-is a kind of jab at tradition (of the sort MilhaLrd was later to perpetrate in his three-minute symphonies and opdras minutes). In an interlude before the appearance of the original tune (cum inversion). 3t).'il may have led to'Adeste Fidelis' [sic] in an Organ Prelude (l8qZ). r + 2 + 2. as it begins. first in whole-tones. and it has depths of inventiveness and integrity that belie its brevity. which get a varied repetition before a coda derived from the Allegro-March. preceded by an Andante and followed by an echo of it. their roots unfocused (like a bell's unusual harmonics). and Allegro-March Time/Piil Mosso. one a middle-register oscillation of two chords (of a sort to which Schoenberg was exceptionally partial during the period of Erwartung). improvisatory pair of ostinatos. and Ives surroutrds the inversion with a soft."1 'it"' \ . individualistic. although there are passages of great good humour. when the preliminary Andante is briefly re-evoked. the sonata's brevity-announced in its title. \. The upper bell-melody almost becomes the tune of Big Ben (ll'estminster Chimes) but never quite achieves it. 'like distant sounds from a Sabbath horizon'. like a gramophone record winding down.

i!/r and soon the marching bass is abandoned and a different waltz rhythm 4itti. repeating pitch-pattern which falls one note short of being another twelve-note series (Ex.t1 [ \l The Allegro-March Time/Piil Mosso movement comes closest of the three to being a joke.:+).lJ1r takes its place (Ex. Mercury Music. hc.I I \ t.ii. waltzes. with the last sound of the sonata. not in r9o5).TJi'J. over its f-metre'oom-pah'bass is laid awaltz rhythm t1 J-f-). which finds hectic right-hand ragtime rhythms in duple metre competing against a bass also derived fi"om piano-rag style but.) Ives knew neither Schoenberg's music nor medieval motets (at least. its 'color' a 46 O Copyright 1949.33)' " This polyrhythmic and polymetric byplay is intensified in the Pii-r Mosso section. Ives planned very carefully that it be askew. and it should not surprise us that the pitch organization is also carefully planned' The riglithand 'waltz' is a chain of parallel fottr-note chords (their structure like that of the oscillating ostinato chords in the Adagio. 3j). a . (Ives has them in mind. [nc. Mercury Music. is organized like a medieval isorthythnlic motet tenor: its 'talea' is the repeated six-note rhythm of the second 'waltz'. talea and. Thus the Three-page Sonata exemplifies well his extraordinarily wide-ranging musical mincl. which arrived 47 organization is hidden. contradictorily. The'March Time' is march-like only to a point. All these dance rhythms-march. but an extremely subtle and complex one. The whole passage. (l \ ri l! . then. expressed in octaves.' \ ( il \i .' n @ Copyright 1949. The left-hand 'wtrltz'. wittily defies the 'mollycoddles' and 'softy ears' to make any sense of it at all. Used bv permission.As in many early motets. ragtime-are basically simple. but in context here everything is askew. and thus the more or less risorous T'color" J 'nice' C major triad. 1975. color repetirions do not coincide. Obviously. jaunty ones.the top notes of the chairr form a twelve-note series (Ex. Used by permission. in fact. plus an added upper third). however. in triple metre. 1975.

a march mirrored precisely (and dissonantly) by its inversion. crunching canon. even longer.. evokes a different moan of protest. as subtitled. which also follows Variation 3. the other jubilant?which are closely related musically. For Variation 4. .. The title uses the American baseball slang for a pitcher who is left-handed. fJfffflfJffi. Ives diffidently thought of the Largo and Allegro movements as 'but studies in melodic and rhythmic quarter-tone possibilities'. l84o*r86o'). the First Sonata ( l gor-g) waited until r949 for its first complete performance (by William Masselos). and with virtually no repeated note-durations. in actual works. the 'man' decides. the 'primary' chord has the interval-content of7 + 7 + 7 quarter-tones. As an introduction. in changing metres.the melodies of Stephen Foster's Massa's in de Cold Ground and the hymn Antioch ('Joy to the world')-one team murdered. Ives's practice of trying out new compositional ideas concretely. The latter derives largely from. the'secondary' chord Two giant piano sonatas are the apogee of lves's keyboard Both are fiercely difficult to perform: although lves had the 'Concord' Sonata (r9ro-r5) printed privately in rgzo-along with the lengthy accompanying Essays Before a Sonata-and distributed copies to many musicians. Mass. first published incompletely as Three Protests. a'study . with other material in the interstices between them. Number 9. enriched by the vibrant shimmer of quarter-tone chordal backgrounds. . The Anti'Abolitionist Riots in the t9jo's and I i I l' r. E minor just as much as possible!'This is greeted not by protest but by applause (C major chords. 3 It would have been characteristic of lves to keep secret a possible punning version of the title of this work: Very Darin' Variations. the universal rejection and neglect of his music. mirrored inversions in close canon' and layered texture with each layer at a different dynamic level. The 'man' reverts to type in Variation 5. is in four. reflective pieces.the very end of the movement (Ex.Quarter-tone" Impressions'(r925). for ears or aural \ )i I \\ 'l rll " rt and mental exercise!!!'is the late piano work Varied Air and Variations (' r94). and 3. of r9r3-14) as 'little beside a study in quarter-tone harmony' (Memos r ro-r r). This is a set of five variations. on a theme in octaves that is indeed 'varied': ultrachromatic. against the musical mollycoddles of the concert world. a close. Only a few of these remain in complete form. which is based on materials from earlier ragtime pieces for theatre orchestra. and 48 5+5+5+5. it is heard again after both the bold theme and Variation t. such as the songs Evening and Afterglow. Variation 2. furiously combining elements of Variations z. the Second ('Concord. .primary' and 'secondary'quarter-tone chords (marked 'x' and 'y' in Ex. not until r939 was it publicly played in its entirety (by John Kirkpatrick). explores multi-level planar heterophony and massive tone clusters (as many as seven notes per hand). Verbal notes provide a scenario involving a recital. reprinted in 6ssays. and'Chorale'(arranged from a string piece.independently at some techniques of musical organization long forgotten (isorhythmic motet technique) and others not yet envisioned (dodecaphony). Study No' zz (?t9o$ concentrates on linear counterpoint. a lves discusses these kinds of chords and other aspects of his thinking about quarter-tone music in . He went right ahead. and the piece emphasizes virtuoso left-hand passagework and independence from the right hand's music. :S) shows them in combination (right hand of Piano I I) and also shows the . . a musical embodiment of the New England stone fence. ultimately. 35) which lves employs systematically in 'Chorale'. however. rapid alternation of the keyboards creates a sizzling. The First Sonata is a thirty-minute work in five movements. a whimpering protest from the 'box belles' greets 'a man' when he comes onstage to perform. I6 measures. with none of the stones of exactly the same size or shape. with his inspired tinkering: contemporaneous with Varied Air and Variations were Three euarter-tone Pieces (tqzyq) for two pianos.ll t\ r84o's (I9o8). \ ( Related to the Three-Page Sonata in its satirical thrust and to the piano studies in being. Ladies (m[ale] & f[emale]). 'Chorale' borrows melodic motifs from Anterica and La Marseillaise. These he constructs ingeniously by interlocking perfect fifths and fourths to build symmetrical quarter-tone complexes. In the Allegro. I. twanging music evocative of a crazy banjo. The basic idiom of the Largo is that of a number of Ives's gently lyrical. Number zt is Some Southpaw Pitching!(?r9o9).Some. Ives characterized it as'the old stone wall around the orchard'.4 so do the 'ladies'. quasi-serially organized.B The real protests in this composition are of course those of Ives himself-against what he saw as a common confusion of beautv in music with'something that lets the ears lie back in an easy chair'. music. led him to write a series of short piano pieces which he called 'studies'. whimpering the first protest for a final time. 'All right. 49 . one tuned a quarter-tone sharp. and againsr. I'll play the rock line again and harmonize it nice and proper . now lost.

[that] is an attempt to present (one person's) impression of the spirit of transcendentalism ihat is associated in the minds of many with Concord. and a descending three-note motifl-semitone. in a cunning revelation of the relationship between the hymn tune's first phrase and that of Foster's Massa'. :l lr" ' . I trl r! A i I . called sonata for want of a more exact name. the choral 6tudes.rers Corporation. F. nor are they realizations of pre-compositional plans.s in cle Cold Grourul. compelling cycle that deserves no 'more exact name' than 'sonata'. but it goes beyond that. they are not cast in any preconceived moulds. unlike the piano studies. And yet what ls written out. 'The Alcotts'. Another key is the thematic interconnections between movements. as it may take away the daily pleasure of playing this music and seeing it grow and feeling that it is not finished. although in a general way only: Ives said of one movement. over the tonic) until it saturates the texture of the finale.g. the piano sonatas developed as lves's musical reactions to some of the most profound and complex experiences in his life-to his philosophicalbackground as exemplified in the authors he most admired. the boy sowing oats in the ragtimes [movements 2 and 4). 'Hawthorne'. Ives himseli in some remarks about'Concord'.---=!l-:--. not as mere dashes of local colour or programmatic indicators. New York City. and to human relationships. the Second String Quartet and the Fourth Symphony). or the 'experimental' sortgs. ragtime.t that it is'a group of four pieces. Hymn tunes. particularly those involving family. complementary ragtime scherzos in movements z and 4. noted in the preface to his Essay. . and a central movement itself quite symmetrical(Largo. . or Converse ('What a friend we have in Jesus'). and I Hear Thy Welcome Voice (which are themselves inter-related). in each work. Pe. The third ntovement may be heard as a rhapsodic series of developments of material from Er. characterized the sense of organic growth that pervades them:'Some of the passages now played haven't been written out . and fifth movements work with the hymn tune Lehanon ('l was a wandering sheep'). third. almost in free association. (l may always have the pleasure of not finishing it)' (Memos 79-80). This perhaps accounts in large part for the sonatas' being difficult to perform (not only technically) and difficult to follow conceptually (though not viscerally).q -I4 e\4 I I -: sd' * \: rh -3- L.'ln the [nn'.d one quorter tone h gh.373 Park Avenue South. but the way something happens' (-Essays 4z).by C. Largo). and the parental anxiety in the middle movement' (Metnos 75n). Bringing in the Sheaves.' The First Sonata has no movement titles (except for the second halfofone.a. and 'Thoreau'. tK Prono I i9 tun. they are audible expressions of his transcendcntalrst biggest works (e. let alone analyse: they have the flow and flux of musing about big matters. makes up a coherent.. But as Ives uses them. 'Not something that happens. but like some others of his 50 Sonata is the simple. First. Allegro.Jl CopyrighrQ lS68. Its movements are titled 'Emerson'. and I don't know as I shall ever write them out. now major. now minor.'Concord' is programmatic. One key to the coherence of the five movements of the First 5I . probably because it had had that title in an earlier chamber version). but Ives had in mind a general scenario for the work: 'the family together in the first and last movements. minor third-increasingly informs the whole work (being heard in the ragtime movements as a jazz-rly ambiguous third. Reprint oerrnirsion grantcd b5 the publisher. second and fourth movements with the three hymn tunes Happy Day. Foster melodies-these may seem ultpromising raw materials for a work of such power and scope. and lves Ia6l tyr l -l I . Mass. of over a half century ago. strong architecture of the whole work: rhapsodic first movement balanced by heroic finale.r lhon Pnn.

..nocturne . Ex.John Kirkpatrick describes it as seeming to be r ('Oown in thc corn-lteld') of its thematic sources-even if there the song's verse. inwardly intense.5 'The Alcotts' functions as the relaxed slow movement of the cycle. p. A single example will here have to suffice. though it cannot begin to suggest the long spans over which lves throws his net of inter-relationships. 'Thoreau'. . and his fusion of them into a new and convincing synthesis. All four sub-movements are of course obviously interrelated by being suffused with ragtime rhythms.3? CHORUS \ )ii Ir rtl Copyright 1954 by Peer International Corporation. 2b ('ln the Inn'). while 4a-rhythmically the most complicated-was freshly composed for the piano sonata. there comes a clearer thought more traditional than the first-a meditation more calm.and one closer to traditional sonata structure. has no precedent in previous sonatas. . on the other hand. a gentle. rag-like syncopation for the inner parts-and their sublimation in a clause of considerable grandeur. of the immanence of an Emersonian oversoul in all things. 4 (New York. Outwardly calm. everyday and commonplace as well as highly artful. All are further inter-related by similar conclusions (indicated as 'Chorus' in za and zb). not its 'chorus'. His meditations are 5 Preface to Ives.. the images following as if helter-skelter but actually in a symmetrical design: phantasmagoria . The two scherzos are both subdivided. I Heu Thy Welcome Voice rushes by in a Massa's in de Cold Ground . 52 53 .phantasmagoria'. movements za. This sense of the oneness of human experience. As the mists rise. 36b). its magic is translated verbally by lves in the only explicit 'programme note' of the Essays (61-il: And if there shall be a prograrl let it follow his thought on an autumn day of Indian summer at Walden-a shadow of a thought at first. . and 4b were in fact adapted from an earlier chamber set of Ragtime Pieces (tgoz-4). Symphony No.36a). although once heard in movement 3 virtually orchestral in texture. . except at two moments.1 blur. is borrowed-the connection is clearer.I I I lt i \. slightly blurred tintype portrait. Example 37 shows the'Chorus'of movement zb and its basis in these vernacular source materials-hymn tune/Foster song for the melody and harmony. 'Emerson' is the weightiest of the movements. powerful and as one 'pure fantasy. The 'Concord' Sonata has a design as strong and clear as that of the First Sonata. ( conviction that 'all occupations of man's body and soul in their diversity come from but one mind and soull' (Essays 96). the'chorus' of Massa's in de Cold Ground (Ex. almost monotonous swaying beat of this autumnal day. viii. .nocturne . it originated as a concerto or overturc with piano. 1965). his perception of interrelatedness among them. Less obvious is another source. colored by the mist and haze over the pond. Uscd by pernrrssron. .ragtime contrasts * ragtime . He seems to move with the slow. is accomplished concretely by lves through his choice of musical materials. 'Hawthorne' is a scherzo that. the common thematic source of which is most obviously the refrain of the hymn tune I Hear Thy ll'elcome Voice (Ex.

peeks out through the blur of 'Hawthorne' (Ex. . crystalline water of the pond and catches a glimpse of the "shadow-thought" he saw in the morning's mist and haze. shares with the Beethoven/Missionary Chant nrotif its pitchpattern (Ex. as well as elsewhere in the movement. 'Concord' has thematic interconnections between movements which integrate them forcefully. . with flute and without. Used by pernrrssron. is a principal theme of 'The Alcotts'(Ex. lnc.38b). . Martyn ('Jesus. 39a).) This melody often precedes the of another one. Comparable to the three-note abstract motif in the former work is one in 'Concord' to which Ives refers as a 'human-faith melodytranscendent and sentimental enough for the enthusiast or the cynic. . and he often lends something of himself to it-gives it a third dimension-by leading rt on iuto a phrase of his own (as at the end of Ex. -the Missionary Cltant in virtually its original form (at the opening of passage. and Ives makes clear in 'Concord' that he has all three soLtrces in mind by quoting them separately and integrally Beethoven simply as a four-note motif without continuation. Yet another hymn tune. lt is darker-the poet's flute is heard out over the pond and Walden hears the swan song of that "Day"and faintly echoes. . 38c). respectively' (Essays 4i). 38a) and toward its last climax.interrupted only by the faint sound of the Concord bell-'tis prayermeeting night in the village. lover of my soul'). universally recognized: the opening motif of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (see Ex.s 36). and is placed strategically. 38d). (tves writes alternative versions of the last Ex. But that motif is af so important in the hymn tune M issionary Chant ('Ye Christian heralds') (Ex. That Ives was aware of the double association is suggested by his characterization of the nrotif as 'the soul of humanity knocking at the door of the diviue mysteries' (Essa1. . As in the First Piano Sonata.38c). . . lt appears at the first hush in 'Emerson' (Ex. 38c). Before ending his day he looks out over the clear. . appearance 55 . where 'the poet's flute' is heard ( (a) lslowlvl - O Very fast Copyright 1947 by Associatcd Music Publishcrs. 39b). near the end of 'Thoreau'.

same number are incomplete or lost. cross-accented style of country fiddling which Ives introduced into the sonata medium. and some other pieces mostly in one movemenl. a piano trio. Some fifteen compositions survive. THE CHAMBER MUSIC another (the 'human-faith melody' to the Beethoven/Missionary ChantlMartvn motif by the three-note upbeat with which it begins). Fxcept for the quartets. as in the middle movement of the Second Sonata (Ex. one perceives that all the thematic materials of the sonata relate to one Ex. all are in three movements. Inc. unless it be the perpetual-moiion. and piano). each has a finale and at least one other movement based on hymn tunes. virtually all of these works include piano (as do the majority of the orchestral compositions). across-the-strings. to make for a transcendental unity in the'Concord' Sonata. the four violin sonatas form a coherent group. Used by permission.4O following chapter). Composed between rgoz and t9t6. Leaving aside the so-called 'Pre-First' Violin Sonata (rggq_ 1rgo3). and all are direct and accessible in expressive content and without showy display or merely 'idiomatic' writing. Thus does the network of musical inter-relationships and of extramusical associations broaden. Schirmer.3g (a) Missionary Chst 4.'The Alcotts'). s6 57 . Ex. Ultimately. more unilied in style and expression than any other similar group of Ives's works. about the Ivrs wrote comparatively little chamber music. apart from works for chamber or theatre orchestra (which will be taken up in the Preslo O Copyright l95l by G. 4o). which Ives translated inio the Largo for violin. Ives seems to have liked the instrument as a 'binder' of some sort. the surviving movements of which found their way into the other sonatas (except for one. two string quar_ tets. clarinet. and Martyn almost complete and in hymnbook harmonization (emerging softly out of a dramatic climax in the central 'contrasts' section of 'Hawthorne'). The extant complete chamber works include four sonatas for violin and piano.

(lts underlying G major arpeggios. Used bv permission' The external design of the violin sonatas is clearly based on the traditional group of movements contrasting in tempo and character. ancl to other movements among the sonatas. with their several stanzas all ending with a common @ Copyright t942 by Associated Music Publishers. The free arabesque of the second move- Beautiful Riv€t @ Copyright Ex. C. on which almost every movement of the sonatas is based. by fifths.t I 1942 by Associated Music Publishers. lnc. provide a logical springboard to full quotatiorr of the hymn bitonally. late in the movement. but the design within individual movements is not oDen to generalization. Inc. and Cf- source material. The Fourth Sonata ('Children's Day at the Camp Meeting'. 4zb). Robert Lowry's hymn tune BeautifLtl Riler (Ex. Thus. and the piano's fifth-chord belorv. In some movements the very experience that inspired the 59 58 . Prototypes of the form are common in American revival hymns. Except for an occasional A B A' form. warm and imaginative. like d'lndy's 'lstar' Variations. +q) appear-as in Bf. are among Ives's mostingenious. rather than from them' (Memos 69n). A comment by Ives on the last movement of the Third Sonata could be applicd equally well to these two in the Fourth. Ex. tradltjonal abstract shapes are not to be found. largely unbarred. 4za)but clearly and completely presented in the last ones (Ex. nor are pre-compositional plans of the sort Ives worked out for a number of other compositions.4. from obscure hinting at the source' or florid disguise of it. r9o6-?16)-actually the first to be sketchedsuggests the freedom and variety with which Ives elaborates on his ment's opening (Ex.4l) is only vaguely perceptible in the opening bars (Ex. in C. The first movement of the Third Sonata (19r3-?r4) ii related to the scherzos of the First Piano Sonata in that each of four 'verses' (the last three being essentially very free variations on the motives and gestures of material in the first) ends with basically the same 'refrain'. 43). it well describes their formal principle: 'The ft'ee fantasia is first. Its second and third movements proceed. reveals its basis in Jesus Loves Me! only with close study: fragments of the opening phrase before the violin enters.The developments out of hymn tunes. The working-out develops into the thentes.'l! Largo of the hymn's refrain (Ex. to a more or less clear disclosing of it in conclusion. in the third movement of the Fourth Sonata. Used by permission Jesu6 Lwes Me! I .

Another is its projection of a kind of musical discourse the implications of which are still being worked through by composers. ruminatively. 'The Revival'. +S).music seems to have suggested its general shape. and organically achieved. practise. lves may have chosen the particlrlar phrases because of the relationship. ( \ () Copyright l95l by G. organ-like pedal points. one of lves's most subtly integrated. and non-stop propulsiveness-projecting constantly ahead. is thoroughly 'lvesian'. and 'Postluds'-vvg1g composed (for organ ?) for church use. The latter. One is its programmatic conception. I started a string quartet score. rhythmic character. The reference is to Saturday nights in the barn.48 I L '2. which functions as a scherzo. Schirntcr. is in many ways Brahmsian. The fugue is scholastic. argue . .Arguments'. shut up-then walk up the mountain side to view the firmament'. down to its ! metre. discuss. In a note on the sketches lves wrote: 'S[tring] Q[uartet] for 4 men-who converse. A third is the musical work as a whole. and have some fun with making those men fiddlers get up and do something like men. inversions. lves subtitled the First Quartet variously as 'A Revival Service' and 'From the Salvation Army'. The texture. The conversation and discussion. for example.i P >w /O Copyright I96l and 1963 by Peer lnternational & rit. lnc. Nettleton ('Come. vitality. (Menos 74). 'Offertory'. while the Second Quartet (r9o7-r3). fight. almost prayerfully. and final augmentation of the subject. and final relaxed sublimity that one can generalize out of the work. and the music has all the energy. Used by pcrrlission I' \i The two string quartets are as dissimilar stylistically as the violin sonatas are similar. As so often happened with lves.-1t. Oliver Holden. 46) and because of a chorale-like dignity that they share. . and half to try out. The third movement. by the eighteenth-ce ntury American. even rhythms. a youthful product of the Yale years (r896). Used by perrnission. then like a camp-meeting revival service increases in intensity through a series of mounting dynarnic arcs to a frenetic. never looking back-of a square dance and its chains of 'figures'. . Its last three movements'Prelude'. Ex. higher tension. from the period of lves's most uninhibited and individualistic composition. shake hands. cathartic and draining at the same time. a specilic personal experience led him to compose the quartet: 'After one of those Kneisel Quartet concerts . opens quietly. on several counts.\|b ! n Corporation. it fits perfectly the programme of the quartet. a lyrical elaboration on another hymn tune. and one of its countersubjects. The three movements are titled 'Discussion'. less derivative is the 'Offertory'. thou fount of every blessing').graduullg bP rert sk. 60 The Second String Quartet is one of lves's richest and most original works. exhausted and purged (Ex. This led to a radical independence among the four 6l . argument and fight. So too does the arc of tension.. shoutirig climax. panoramically envisioned. the second movement. In the Second Sonata (r9o7-ro). is called 'ln the Barn'. strettos. must have surprised Parker: they are phrases from Mason's Missionary Hymn ('From Greenland's icy mountains') and Coronation ('All hail the pow'r of Jesus' name'). and the realization of it in sound. and ultimate joint contemplation are reflected in a moderate-fast-moderate movement plan to which lves was partial. and 'The Call of the Mountains'. half in fun. half mad. by inversion. the music then subsides quickly to a close (how quickly will depend on the performers' feelings). of a triad figure common to them (Ex. I stemming partly from their simple. and form of the 'Prelude' and 'postlude' derive from Brahms. the opening 'Chorale' originated as an organ fugue for Parker's class. The First Quartet.

sometimes violently. Alongside the most radical sort of jagged. plan of dynamics. paralleled bitonally by violin t). lves's Second Quartet might also be so characterized. Another controlling factor is the frequent appearance of associative linear techniques like melodic inversions (see violin z and viola in Ex. harmony. The approach to a dramatic personification of the four instruments produced a quartet full of extremes of expression and idiom. the notions of 'discussion' and 'arguments'. (d) the end of movement l.and fifth-chords. as does the apparently free stream of consciousness with which events unfold.) The wildly varied materials succeed each other abruptly. Ives wrote in the sketch. rhythm. Triadic harmony alternates with fourth. 'Talea' and 'color' repetitions organized serially (like those analysed in the Three-Page Sonata) jostle with diatonic-scale passagework. rhythmically disparate. especially in the first two movements. Canons without any harmonic underpirtnings follow passages anchored to static harmonic-rhythmic ostinatos. which prepares a cadence on C but abruptly denies it (the 'arguments' not really being resolved. 47aand47e). scoring. intervallic correspondences (compare the tritone-laden beginnings of movements t and z in Exx. A later composer admittedly influenced by Ives.voices of his quartet. 47c). and occasionally downright funny ordering is offset by several controlling factors. Andante moderato Tempo I . chromatic aggregates. Yet the seemingly unplanned. 'Athematic' writing is set side-by-side against passages quoting preexistent melodies in almost cinematic collage. chromatic melody is melody of the simplest stepwise diatonicism. whimsical. and (g) the end of the second 62 movement.(f) one of that movernent's angry interruptions. wide-spanned. one for each instrument (here it is the cello's turn. of course. Example 47 shows several such points: (a) the beginning of movement t. imitations. Carter has referred to his own works as 'auditory scenarios'. (The tendency of the First Quartet to a texture consistently a 4 is slightly less persistent in the Second. sometimes they literally co-exist. Elliott Carter. 'good place to stop-not end'). and canons. consciously extended this concept of musical discourse (as have other younger composers). (c) the last of a series of tune quotations. it is the embodiment of a human being. One is the C that is the tonal fulcrum of movements t and z and stabilizes at critical points the otherwise crazy gyrations of harmony and tonality. (b) the end of its first section. These extremes of variety respond to and embody. as is each of the other instruments. if only by momentary allusion rather than insistence. sometimes an apparently total unrelatedness among them (each man acting like himself). and toue clusters. fugatos. One hears virtually every kind of melody. and writing for the instruments. The result is a 'personalization' of the music to such a degree that it is heard almost anthropomorphically: the first violin is not simply an instrument making musical sounds. phrase structure. (e) the beginning of movement z.

48). Used by permission. The predominance of tritones and minor seconds in the theme shown in Ex. as in the long central section of movement z (Ex. 64 65 . the component intervals of which colour both the harmony and melody in all three movements.if @n scr.tcht Andantc Allegro con fuoco con luoco /oll rrcrl) Copyright 1954 by Peer Intcrnational Corporation. 47a). 48 relates back to the first sonority of the work (Ex.

A number are overtly humorous in intent. interlocked 66 Copyright 1954 by Peer lnternational Corporation. etc. Bethany. the motif has crystallized into a descendirrg three-note figure: we hear it in a fragment of Nettleton (bars 9-ro) and finally in Mason's Bethany (see Ex. and the cello strides with relaxed majesty through a descending ostinato (its whole-tone scale bringing the work full circle back to the first hidden appearance of the Bethany motif near the opening of the first movement).. Its first movement is an explicit instance of Ives's 'layer67 . Hail! Columhia (in the first movement).with Westminster Chimes (violin r).+q). Uscd by pcrrlission. varying specific gravities. Marching Through Georgia. is heard in a splendid epiphany (Ex. in fact turns out to be the goal of the entire quartet: discussion and arguments have given way to joint contemplation of the firmament. and piano (tgo+-S). This idea makes other non-thematic appearances increasingly often.Violin z breathes sympathetically below. Used by permission. however. the viola Allegro l rocks tranquilly. first presented clearly in bars 56ff. Yet another factor. less controlling than'unravelling'-the most important thread in the fabric of the quartet as a whole-is an idea first presented in passing as an insignificant descending whole-tone scale (movement I. beats. Er. As the third movement begins. The longest is a three-movement Trio for violin.t9 Copyright 1954 by Peer lnternational Corporation. Ives's chamber music works are mostly rather brief pieces with.. and the hymn tune's second strain. cello. Besides the violin sonatas and the quartets. and it even binds together apparently unrelated tune-quotations from Brahms's Double Concerto. and some are of the sort lves described as being 'started as kinds [of] studies. bars 9-to). 3). andThe Star-Spanglecl Banner and the'Ode to Joy'theme of Beethoven's Ninth (in the second). usually by what is called politely "improvisation on the keyboard" ' (Memos 6r). or rather trying out sounds.

yet not a dance suite crescendo until the final pealing chords. Given adequate sets of bells (the ideal would be church bells sounding from different belfries).h ) . the cello functioning as the bass.50 Slw . at least. Each of the bell melodies begins with scales. quoted on p. The Trio's scherzo is titled 'Tsiaj'. then shifts to change-ringing patterns. r lves liked the term 'set' for a group of pieces put together. and their relationship is elusive as they keep slipping in and out of canons with each other. but each set of bells is treated also as a sub-plane. They are differentiated rhythmically as well: they begin together but soon go out of phase. in his manuscript sketch Ives referred to the middle section (Ex. which may need explanation. and four sets of eight bells each. as each begins a new pattern of even notes at a slightly different moment. it is actually full of knotty polyrhythms. and there is a hint that 'symphony'. piano. pranks and practical jokes. 84 below. it is a brief tripartite piece. plus three final dissonant eight-note chords ('as three cheers'). The brass melodies are angular. for neither duet has seemed lacking in substance and yet the two work well together. lves labelled the movement'Medley on the Campus Fence'. Ives suggested a general programme for the work in a note at the end of the score: 'From the Steeples- the Bells-then the Rocks on the Mountains begin to shout!' Er. This is a music of planes within planes: the brass duo forms one plane. Deceptively simple and amusing. in notes of the following values: ) ). Related in spirit to the scherzo of the Trio is that of A Set of j Short Pieces (?r9o8). and chromatic. for string quartet. This was the sense that Ives sought to convey in this tiny work (r4 bars plus a 4-bar coda). the planned tumult and organized confusion of this work is overrvhelming. against a backdrop of bells.ol. finally to hardstruck triads-all diatonic but in different keys (Bells I and 4 in C. 'tricks or treats'-a children's-party night.l ) and deceleration (by a reverse process). Perhaps it had a connotation of informality and plainness that appealed to him. standing for'This scherzo is a joke'. It is to be played 69 68 . like a mensuration canon.out 66 ' " @) Copyright 1958 by Peer International Corporation. for trumpet. on one of the sketches. and optional drum. referring to the welter of popular. bars z8-52 offer a different duet. trombone. In lves's day (and still. not in the wilfully playful spirit of the string scherzo but with rather more exalted aims. See also his remarks concerning New England Holidays. and student songs quoted in it in ludicrous profusion. Bells 3 in B). Used by permission. then to jangling diads. In retrospect the movement is recalled as a somewhat witty tour de force. 5o) as 'practice for String Q't in holding your own!' The kind of 'mensuration canon' technique it embodies is found even earlier in lves. asymmetrical.1 Scored for string quartet. 'Organized confusion' well describes yet another chamber work: Hallowe'en (r9o6). successively. patriotic. in From the Steeples and the Mountains (r9or-?z). which are then allowed to fade naturally to extinction.l and . latent in it is the kind of vision that would ultimately lead Ives to plot the 'representation of the eternal pulse & planetary motion of the earth & universe' in his sketches for (Jniverse Synphony. The dynamic plan of both brasses' and bells' planes is a steady or a symphony or sonata cycle. in bars 5z*8o the two previous duets are laid one on the'technique: bars r*27 offer a duet for piano and cello. in a carefully notated process of gradual acceleration (the patterns are. J . to some degree) Hallowe'en was a night for leaping bonfires. for violin and piano. Bells z in D[. connoted for him a 'nice' conservatism in his remark that 'the First Orchestral Set [is] called Three Plat'es in New England (though betbre it had the nice name of New England Symphony)' (Memos 83).

the dynamics of the various parts are switched around. . New York.e'en: The . and between objective analysis and subjective description. directions. The 'conl'usion' of the piece is created by the four strings.e'en are two other brief chamber works that fall into lves's category of 'kinds of studies . it isn't anything. together and in various ways'. for bugle. z is a suggestive title: 'A Shadow made-A Silhouette'. . . accent. . space. He made this clear in some remarks about Hallou. clarinet. and cello in D). lrttle piece is but a take-off of a Halloween party and bonfire . One of his major achievements was to bring to bear on that subject matter a highly original musical imagination and to translate it into cogent soundscapes-in part along traditional lines but in larger part not-through'good workmanship'. Baseball games and Hallowe'en parties. I happened to get exactly the effect I had in mind. z a study in simultaneous multiple dynamic levels and what happens when. but in phrases. etc. No. in sounds and rhythms. and one of the best pieces (from the standpoint of workmanship) that I've ever done. accents. . Such dichotomies are inherent in lves's music. No. violin z in B. and piano four-hands. time. The nature of the workmanship is sometimes difficult to perceiveindeed. which has alternated constantly between discussion of compositional technique and extra-musical matters. violin. it may not be a good joke. The'organ i zation' 'canonic.'They are both titled Largo Risoluto. of abstract designs and collage-like tunequotations. upon repetition. 'as to the law of diminishing returns'. this was one of the most carefully worked out (technically speaking). is 'but a trying to take off.d violin z/cello-which can better be shown as in Ex. as is In re con moto et al go-r) Used by permission of the publishers. a very common thing in a back lot [baseball game]-a foul ball-and the base runner on 3rd has to go all the way back to rst' (Memos 6z). each of which plays even. each time by a different combination of instruments. until the last go-around. . trying out sounds. Inc . rushing scales in a different major key (violin t in C. each time faster and louder ('keeping up with the bonfire'). some have claimed it to be lacking-since both its goals and 7I 70 . [Copyright 19491 As we have seen. pulse. . (Memos Written in the same year as Halloy. which is the only ([or] at least an important) function of good workmanship. and pe rcept i bl e but surroot-progression s. . [Yet] in spite of the subject matter. (r9t3). described in terms of studies in sounds and rhythms and of canons? Such unlikely conjunctions lead to a conclusion for this chapter.lseveral times. viola in D[. r is a rhythmic study. when all players are to join in 'as fast as possible without disabling any player or instrument'. His reference is to the double caltons of the strings-violin I/viola ar. compounded by the piano's dissonant cluster-chords. (At the end of one manuscript score of No. metre. . All the Way Round and Back (t9o6).5l than described irr words (numbers added to the phrases show their lengths in semiquavers).) Both Largos are scored for string quartet and piano. duration. of increasingly irregular durations. Ives often had very concrete subject matter in mind for a work. beats. Hillsdale. prisingly rigorous--lves described as-hardly not only in tones. Boelke-Bomart. [but] the joke of it is: if it isn't a joke. and also in his thought about it. arid duratiolts or spaces' (Mentos 9t). bells. which Ives described as 'studies in rhythm.

some without precedent. They are scored for two kinds of ensembles. approximately the same number are incomplete or lost. [241. Strings.the materials and musical events being 'worked' are apt to be radically uncommon. and the four or five often had to do the job of twenty without getting put out. there developed out of the theatre-orchestra background some of his 1 Notes by the composer in the original New Music edition of the or Chamber Orchestra (San Francisco. He made a sole venture into incidental music with Overture and March:'r776'. Ives first composed 'popular entertainment' pieces: marches like Holiday Quickstep (r887) and the hilariously parodistic'Country Band' March (r9o3)-an American equivalent of Mozart's Musical Joke-or ragtimes like the group of four Ragtime Pieces (r9oz-$. THE. small and larse: theatre or chamber orchestra and full symphony orchestra. About thirty orchestral works survjve in complete form. sounds and songs across the [football] field and grandstand. r93z). Its size would run from four or five to fifteen or twenty. in the decade between r906 and r9r6. ORCHE. Later. . The pianist usually led-his head or any unemployed limb acting as a kind of lctusorgan.STRAL MUSIC his songs. you could not do it with a nice fugue in C' (Memos 4o). sometimes a Saxo- Writing out of this background (which he knew well from boyhood in Danbury and from the times when he was occasional pianist in the Hyperion Theater Orchestra in New Haven and later in New York theatres). a Trombone. composed in r9o3 for a play that was never produced. in the towns and smaller cities. Ives engagingly explained the background orchestra' ensembles and their motley character: of his 'theatre phone. It depended somewhat on what players and instruments happened to be around. As Ives said. Set for Theatre 72 73 . . Ives's music for orchestra covers the entire span Llrs of his composing life.r The make-up of the average theatre orchestra of some years ago. a Cornet. Piano and a Drum-often an octave of High Bells [glockenspiel or 'orchestra bells'] or a Xylophone. Its scores were subject to makeshifts. p. . 5. 'ln picturing the excitement. and were often written with that in mind. was neither arbitrary nor a matter of machinery. in this part of the country. There were usually one or two treble Wood-Wind.

The Rainhon'. the Sel . and he willingly deferred to the performers without insisting on sovereign control. But his initial reaction to the sounds mingling'over the pavements'. Precise and unmusical as possiblel' Over the Pavarnen l. Such options so cheerfully offered. and strings-plus a principal melodic part. and percussicln. piano.stra Sel (r9o6tt) have been cited earlier. On the other hand he often offers alternate clioices of instrumcntation for individual parts. from theatre-orchestra pieces to songs. bassoon (or saxophonc). repetitions of passages in the violin sonatas to be nracJe at thc performe rs'discretion. two harps (with celesta or high bells replacing one if desired). one ol interested and amused observation. the horses. trumpet. oom-pah vamp on a simple C major chord. (rgt+) has a leading cantabile part. lts fornr is sectional and virtually symmetrical: A B C cadenza B'C'A'. the set's 'ln the Inn' was a second stage itself. important to this attitLlde was his experience of town bands and theatre orchestras and tireir make-up: ad hoc. derived from one of the Ragtime Pieces. . (r9o(r -13) excmplilies it irr lolnal irspects as wcll. with text but marked as for voice or trumpet or basset horn. Although never a composer of self-conscious 'Cebrauchsmusik' (not evcn the term had yet been coined). . . so foreign to the music of lves's contempolaries . the caclenza at the centre of thc piece need not bc played: the manuscript reads. as if there were no such thing as a 'standard' chamber-orchestra instrumentation (and in fact there was not). a work likc thc scherzo Ot. sometimes slowing up into a walk . all these compositions cover lr lrugc rangc of concept. All these different rhythms. In this kind of attitude. and several other theatre-orchestra scts in various states of completencss./br Theotre or Chantbcr Orchestra.The Rainbov. piccolo and three trombones rnay be adcled optir:nully. the passa-ee in 'Thoreau' to be playecl either with or without flutc aclcled to the pianofortc. time going on together are presented in a score with a staggeringly complex texture. prophetic of the stance of a John Cage. lves clearly allowed for practical expediency and the exigencies of informal music-making.'To play or not to play'l lf played. On the one hand lves seems to have chosen the instrumentation for each work wholly in terms of its expressive aims. The Pord (19o6) began life on the fence. to be played as not a nice one-but EVENLY.the work is one of lves's most extreme examples of rhythmic counterpoint. evL-n nrore of them went in the opposite the Payenrettt:. alldifferent steps . but in transformations:'ln the Cage' in its song version and'ln the Inn'in its reincarnation as one of the ragtimes of the First Piano Sonata. a song 75 . Together. then translated into theatre-orchestla pieces. or cues the notes of one iustrument in the part of another shoulcl the ensemble lack the complcment 'ideally' called for. Remembrance. Ives stands at the head of a new view of the relationship between composer and performer. However. the sounds of peoplc going to and fro. is projected through perky ragtime syncopes arrd jazzy blue notes. 74 Ives clearly viewed the musical work as malleable. ironic concession to the struggling players-an ending that finds them all together in an oom-pah. (Adapted in tgzt for r t4 cxtraordinary works. ll'the con-rpositions jLrst cited excrnplify this l'lexibility in choiccs of instrumentation ancl mediurn. One might say that Ives viewed his works not as musical objects but as the stuff of potential experiences to be shaped and realized varioLrsly by per- formcrs and listcners.) The third movement is 'ln the Night'. and technique. not foreordained and immutable. (Actually. beats. piano. . Two of the three movements of the Tlrcatre Orche. sLlggests omissions of notes if cloLrbling instruments shor-rlcl be insufilcient. as art orchestral work for flute (or one violin in harmonics).r had its inception in one of those reallife situations that so ft'equently led Ives into radical mLrsical transmutations: 'ln the e:rrly morniug. an occasional trolley throwing all rhythm out' (Memos 6z). the lattcr bcing allowed a considerably greater measrrre of freedom (or responsibility.) Similarly. with a text. dependent on the players and instruments that 'happened to be around'. This open-mindedness extends even to the medium of a number of compositions whicl-r we may grollp together as 'songs with or without voices' like those mentioned in Chapter z: The Pontl. to be realized by the performing forces at hand. for either basset horn or voice. canter. fast trot. so to speak. it was indexed there by Ives under a different title. Some of the individual movernents were born as songs for voice and piano. content. to look at it from the other direction) than had been traditional in Western music. and ultimately an air-clearing. as mentioned. altclnirlivc scol'irrgs irr some choral works. renrind us of similar oncs mentioned carlier': 'ossia' pos-sibilitics for eitltcr singer trr piurrist irt somc songs. what they have in common is an instrumentation that varies from piece to piece and moreover is apt to be flexible within single pieces. Its instrumentation is that of a snrall thclrtl-c orche stnr rvithout striugs: clarinet.

in solo cello). in greatly simplified abstraction. is not one of finicky exactitude but the opposite ruminative freedom-and Ives suggests that the -a sense of time) need not be observed too literally. French horn. (Jnanswered Question 76 lves's most frequently performed orchestral work. These ostinatos are shown. 5z) is notated rhythmically in minute detail. lazy curve of this principal melody (Ex.entide ('Abide with Ground me') (Df. The ('A Cosmic Landscape'). The melody is projected against a vibrant. wrote lves in his notes for the published score. in high bells) and the hymn tune Et. So many alternative instrumentations are offered that it would be tedious to list themalthough. depending on the size of the orchestra] should be clearly heard'. clarinet. 'Whatever the arrangement of players and instruments. tlmsolo (uel rii-gs tf*dropsnof [the nighl. 53b. centered on D[. a choice made not arbitrarily but because of the tones of the Df triad shared by the other two. either with each other or with the phrases of the melody. The background 'vibrates' through the interplay of five planes of rhythmic ostinatos and near-ostinatos so planned as hardly ever to coincide. The aim. so long7:6 as rhythm (rn Zlq the phrases do not coincide with the basic beats. mostly in 1Tnl:i1 and subdivisions thereof. is usually pro77 .without voice (having a solo part with text but. however. according to the composer's note. but with BI chords replacing the dominant (one tone high) and E major chords replacing tlie subdominant (one tone low). Used by permission. in Ex. lnc. ond it Copyright Merion Music. or trombone. The sinuous. one not to be sung). palpitating background (Ex. the Solo part [for English horn. 53a)-a line of warmly luminous colour against a dark wash**in a paradigm of an orchestral texture lves was particularly fond of. Adagio molto (abot so= High Bells Low j or I t 9ffibce m$rs. These relations are preserved in the principal melody (in E) and two others which sneak in around it and succeed it to the end of the movement 'Down in the cornfield' phrase of Foster's Masss's in de Cold -the (Bf . The harmonic plan of the movement is statically tonal.

S+). But it is related to the theatre-orchestra tradition (third and fourth flutes replaceable by oboe and clarinet. the trumpet -the 'the perennial question of existence'. l1 It t I tl . In Central Park the string music.54. SS) stated ten times. Cage. spiralling in a more dynamic series of curves than those of The (Jnansy. and growing density to a saturation 2 Notes by the composer in the published scores of The Unanswered Question (New York.rtion (but still very 79 78 . the solo trumpet by an English horn. 'in somewhat of an impromptu w&y'). Each suspends multiple. had been foreshadowed in the collage-like simultaneous dance orchestras of Don Giovanniand the spatially determined polychoral works of Giovanni Gabrieli and Orazio Benevoli) is Ives's achievement of a new relationship between time and music. always 'molto adagio'. urban 'picture-in-sounds of . after which the strings continue imperturbably: 'again the darkness is heard-an echo over the pond-and we walk home'. and raucous responses to the trumpet (Ex. t953). chromatic foreground of winds. Ex.lnThe Unansw'ered Question a wholly diatonic and mostly triadic wash of strings is background for an atonal. very slowly. and the woodwinds' increasingly accelerated. Berio. reads lves's note in the score. visionary realization of space and time in music. as Ives's titles suggest. Carter. Used by permission.ered Que. and the flutes ('Fightasking ing Answerers') attempting to find a satisfactory response-is opposed to Central Park's terrestrial. or clarinet. or Clarioet ) Viol. Inc. are related as opposites. ln Central Park there are basically two musics: the background string music.c" Trump€t (or Engl Hom t30 moltol or Oboe. Both works are famous as precursors of the 'stereophonic' and collage techniques of such composers as Stockhausen. one part's phrases do not coincide with those of any other. atonal string background is set behind tuneful 'popular' material in solo wind and brass instruments. a cumulative appearance 'onstage' of popular musicians-each entering instrument seeming to try to upstage those already there-in a steady crescendo. and two pianos. to be played offstage.and Central Park in the Dark (Hillsdale. unsynchronized with the strings.. when sitting on a bench in Central Park on a hot summer night'. 3. [:l]. and with a full symphonic complement of strings (plus its solo woodwinds and single trumpet). the trumpet's disturbingly repetitive atonal interjections. Their original titles were: I. . I Viol ll Copyright 1953 by Southern Music Publishing Co. But perhaps even more radical than these aspects (which.. turning slowly in spirals through a ten-bar phrase (Ex. ln The Unanswered Question there are three such musics: the strings' gauzy backdrop of continuous slow-motion pastel harmonies. p. after all. in Central Park a chromatic. . The metaphysical programme of The Unansu'ered Question strings representing 'the silence of the druids'.'1 \l grammed as an independent piece. discrete musics in a delicate balance. Both works date from t9o6 and.'A Contemplation of a Serious Matter' or'The Unanswered Perennial Question' and ll. The string music of The Unanswered Question is notated in even f bars. happenings that men would hear some thirty or so years ago (before the combustion engine and radio monopolized the earth and air). against this. of the musical space in a shouting climax. Alletretto iL. p. it has no symmetries or predictabilities of phrase shapes. accelerando. percussion. and Brant. This has to do mainly with the elimination of a sense of beat or pulse-the even 'measuring' cf time-that had been common to all Western music for centuries. and it was conceived along with Central Park in the Dark as one of a complementary pair of 'contemplations'. the woodwinds not to play their notated rhythms strictly but freely.. always ppp.2 The two works have in common an unprecedented. oboe. tSZf). but it is so disposed rhythmically that a pulse is imperceptible: it moves very. agitated. 'A Contemplation of Nothing Serious' or 'Central Park in the Dark in the Good Old Summertime'.

Derived from earlier chamber pieces made for church use.. xxxvii (r95r).3 In the Third Symphony (19o4) Ives approached the medium more freshly and independently. - 81 . but no two are of the same length. it shows both an influence and a mastery of Brahms's and Dvoriik's symphonic styles. patriotic. One of tltese.5:4) wash away any pulse. we might say that Ives'emancipated rhythm'from its ancient ties to 80 ten at Yale in a traditional but not old-fashioned manner under Horatio Parker's guidance (and strictures). The Second (r9oo-z) is a more liberated cycle-an accurate term considering the inter-movement thematic links and a coda reworking material from earlier movements together with some from the last. and gruppetti (3i4. the symphony is subtitled 'The Camp Meeting' and its themes are largely based on hymn tunes. The scoring is lighter (single woodwinds. asynrmctrical lengths of the phrases and notes. with bells ad lib. two three-movement 'sets' (and a third unfinished). pp. Sf).39g-4o2). in the string music of Two Contemplatiotts as at times in others of lves's mature works. is used in all three movements. and the music simply unrolls in scroll in space. good and which was made by Ives in preparing the symphony for publication early in the loud. Schoenberg spoke of his 'emancipation of the dissonance'. lt is 'Americanized' by extensive use of popular. In fact. -8 of its final chord. because of the irratiorrll. Within the large span smaller phrases shape themselves. By analogy. The ten-bar sptrr is divided into four segments (see the bass part in Ex. and strings. and hymn tunes but is uneven and discursive. New York. the texture leaner and more contrapuntal. the rhythmic shapes more supple and subtle.slowly). writ- Violo Ccllo Boss €e Used by permission ofthe publishers. at the very end). not merely 'quoted' but developed integrally (Ex. at once plastic and concrete. the Robert Browning Overture. 'time' in the usual musical sense does not exist. one trombone. Woodworth ('Just as I am. Earliest of these are the first three symphonies. without one plea') (Ex. 55) but tlrc division is one of an unpredictable 2 + 3 + 3 + z bars. a kind of symphonic counterpart to The Celestial Country and relating to Ives's orchestral works of r9o6 and later much as Verkkirte Nac'ht relates to the Five Pieces Jbr Orchestra and later works of Schoenberg. for the last chord'(Musical Quarrerly. 56). the group of four pieces first called Holidays Symphony. Inc. The First (completed r898) is a remarkably competent graduation exercise. In a review of the first performance (zz February r95 r ) Henry Cowell reported Ives as saying that such a discordant blast was'a formula for signifying the very end of the very last dance [of an evening]: the players played any old note. but this was a replacement for the original F major tonic Chords The most startling sound in lves's Second is the magnificent eleven-note squawk t95os. the only time-sense is of the chrono- logical continuum. Ives's principal works it-like a Violin I Vidin ll for large orchestra are four numbered symphonies. Boelke-Bonrart. the metre and pulse. Hillsdale. two horns. and a sketched but never completed Universe Symphony. rrcvcrthcless does not 'measure' time. [Copyright 1973] harmonic structure confirms the division (but also the unpredictability) by shifting from augmented triads (bars r-z) to fourthchords (bars 3-5) to chords built of alternating augmented fourths and perfect fifths (bars 6-8) to fifth-chords (bars g-ro).

Bassoon Allcgro Horn I inF Allegro I Violins Woodworth U Cello .t I I I nns (r) IM I il @ Copyright 1947.along with Azmon. which flank a live- Second movemenl lier middle one titled 'Children's Day'. by . Used by pernrission. B2 83 .A. 1964. tnc. similarly elaborated upon. it contributes to the broad hymnic dignity of the outer movements.l t\ .sseciated Music Publishers.

and its refrain. 1. a literal repeat of the Allegro.6S Allegro con spirito Piccolo Flute Trumpei Coftt (c. r9r5).Decoration Day'prcrjects a remarkable balance between the boisterous joyousness of children at a street parade (with two bands playing different Ex. some half-recalled or even mis-remembered. with the strings divided into as many as thirteen parts. vi This is not to imply that none has structural significance. 'Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord'. tranquil set of Adagio variations somewhat Mahleresque in character. Ives wrote four other works of symphonic dimensions. These are nostalgic pieces'based on something of the memory that a man has of his boyhood holidays' (Memos 95). glory. one sensitive and touching moment in the piece (which for lves concerned the holiday dedicated to the dead of the Civil War) finds the slow bugle-call Taps accompanied by Mason's Bethany.a singly or in fantastic juxtapositions or superimpositions. Used by permission' where wildly off-key and off-rhythm versions of Katy Darling.. which partially explains their being filled with bald tune-quotations.'. Bach'. l9&. however.. germinating introduction. ff o copyright 1932. in lves's preferred slow-fast-slow movement order. Used by pefmission. 'Glory. 'Decoration Day' (spring). is scored for a large conventional orchestra but. pp. that Columbia. the only one of a projected series of orchestral movements on 'Men of Literature' completed by lves. lt is a work of violent sectional contrasts: 84 . Perspectives oJ New Music. The twenty-minute-long Robert Browning Overture (r9o8-rz). The sense of 'toughness' projected in the Allegro arises partly from the higher-pitched march's chromatic scales with frequent octave-displacements (minor ninths or major sevenths replacing semitones) opposing the steady tramp of the lower-pitched. by Associated Music Publishers. Columbia. a ferocious. the Gem of the Ocean. Hallelujah !'). for instance. in the noisy sections. Dennis Marshall has pointed out in a perceptive article on 'Charles lves's Quotations: Manner or Substance?'. Three Places in New England (r9o8-?r4)-the First Orchestral Set-is in three movements. 59). not so much developed as coming to mind. 45-56. wrote lves with characteristic anti-establishment sassiness on one sketch. 1959. and a fast fugal coda leading to a furious finale-which. 8x. 'The Fourth of July' (summer). Regarding'The Fourth (rq68). \ n t Between the Third Symphony and the completion of the Fourth. First was New England Holidays (I9o4-13)-'Holiday Symphony-but not called Sym as lst theme is not in C and znd [not in] G'. Inc. the Gem oJ the Ocean 'serves as a structural framework for the entire movement in much the same way that a Lutheran chorale melody would serve as the formal model and motivic source for a cantata movement or an organ chorale prelude of J. or the climax of 'The Fourth of July'. . and 'Thanksgiving' (autumn). This is an American 'Four Seasons' as reflected in national holidays: 'Washington's Birthday' (winter). and Yankee Doodle a of July'. Inc.1 O Copyright 1937. The Battle Hymn oJ'the Republic (both its verse. a slow. is cut off abruptly. as is the Second Orchestral Set (r9o9. dense-textured Allegro with a wide-intervalled treble march melody in nine-note parallel chords superimposed on a faster marching bass (their tempos are in the ratict z:3). The BJ marches simultaneously) and reverence. faster march (Ex. 58) which finds Turkey in the Straw (flute) crazlly out of step (and key) with The lVhite Cockade (violin).58 Allegro are only part of the festive pandemonium (Ex. S. leaving a momentary echo of the Adagio vibrating in the air. as in a barn dance section of 'Washington's Birthday' (Ex. \' ( I I r ' t': tl '*ii . 6o). by Associated Music Publishen. a tender.

: l- . inspired by a basrelief by Augustus Saint-Gaudens celebrating a Negro regiment in the Civil War. Hurrah boys. 6t ('z') goes along at two diff-erent speeds in the proportion . combines this with the refrain ('The Union forever. with a crackling piano part that brings it to the brink of concertodom.r^ bross ord pcrcussion omitied] with a riverside revery.. In the middle section. All the sharp edges of a march are softened.f Freedom and Henry Clay Work's Marching Through Georgia. Fragments of several Foster songs provide the thematic material. This Ex Bt t. 'Putnam's Camp'. t j ( I u J those of the Second Set. As shown in Ex. is a brooding'Black March' (as Ives often called it) with extremely subtle interplay between themes out of Foster's O/d Black Joe and two Civil War songs. is one of lves's revival-hymn/ ragtime movements.former is more often played. The second movement. derives an ostinato bass ('y'') from a motive shared by the two Civil War songs ('y. perhaps because it was first published in a small-orchestra revision made by Ives in tgzg.hF (J.6t. The second movement. for instance. and a final 'Chorus' adaoted froni the 87 . Used by permission. . with 'cloud sounds' circling above them.. 'The Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People's Outdoor Meeting'. perhaps because its three movements are more sharply etched and contrasting than * fwinds. '-! .---=Copyright 1935. however. a testament to Ives as melodist-so free and unforced and inevitable one is hardly aware of the recurrences in it of the opening phrase of Missionary Chant. swelling then ebbing. the marcl-t beat of Ex. and underscores the whole complex with a traditional military band's drumbeat ('z'). it combines the gay. Mercury Music. it has a similar character. they too are blurred rhythmically and melodically so that their separate identities melt into one another in a soft haze. Three Places concludes B6 O melody. from Foster's Old Black Joe). and mists in the river valley are evoked in meandering chromatic swirls. The first movemeut. later adapted to a text by Robert Underwood Johnson for II4 Songs. is a boy's fantasies as he surveys a Revolutionary War memorial at an old campsite. in which murmuring waters. by off-beat and off-metre rhythmic groupings which dissolve both beat and metre. brassy music of a Fourth of July picnic (with the mixups and mistakes of the vrllage band in music adapted from'Country Band' March and'r776') and the boy's hallucinatory vision of ghostly military musicians. is a remarkable arabesque. while a gently curving. George Root's Battle Cry o. Originally titled'An Elegy to Stephen Foster' and worked on at the same time as the 'Black March' of Three Places.".about 112 116) @ -Y2- f i_l-l -q- t @ Copyright 1959 by Peer [nternational Corporation. Ives finds a common denominator ('w' in the example) between the phrase 'l'm coming' of Foster's song and '[Hur]rah! Hurrah!' in Work's.'). in a famous instance of Ivesian polytempo. Inc. Hurrah!') of Root's song ('x'). 'The Housatonic at Stockbridge'. freely develop- ing melody spins itself out in the middle of the texture. 'An Elegy to Our Forefathers'. Used by permission. f..'TF {. an effect all the more astonishing since the movement is based on a persistent brief ostinato throughout: Dh Bh Dt ( : 'l'm coming'. The Second Orchestral Set also begins with a moody slow movement. ).

climactic moment of exaltation. The force and richness of the climax subsist not only in the saturated texture and the almost irresistibly evangelistic music of . . the 'Chorus' of the hymn tune (cf. a hand-organ or hurdy-gurdy was playing in the street below. and 'From Hanover Square North' in embodying in music thoughts and feelings and convictions about fundamental human issues. The gist of the piece is like lves's description of the incident that sparked it: a long. . (Ives might not have disapproved.By ('There's a land that is fairer than day'). ideas. harp. having absorbed from the intonation its atmosphere of timelessness and universality (certainly seeming to have done so). \ I ^ The scoring of the movement is complex: two orchestras are called for. 6z) but in the harmonic saturation as well.') and the gospel hymn tune Sweet By-and. onwards and always upwards' (Memos r36) and that would develop 'possibilities inconceivable now-a language so transcendent that its heights and depths will be common to all mankind' (Essays 8) found its most complete expression in the Fourth Symphony. at which he worked from r9r5 to r9z8 (having first and dignity-to a radiant. . we acknowledge Thee to be the Lord . The title. Accordion Chorus in Ex. others. and others began to sing or hum the refrain . but Universe never got much beyond the preliminary stages: some forty-four pages of sketches remain. the Fourth Symphony and Universe Symphony. Eventually this distant choir is submerged beneath or absorbed into the main orchestra. It might have found even more surpassing expression in Universe. piano.) 5 rubric 'Chorus' 8B formance forces required. chimes. . French horn. . There is perhaps no more spinetingling moment in Ives's works than this one. organ. perhaps many. it arose out of so-called extra-musical ideas. Although by this point (Ex. 62. solo piano.) Like virtually every instrumental piece by lves. but it seems longer. partly because of the sheer weight of the per- Second String Quartet. Trumpet 3 vs. plus unison voices briefly at the beginning of the movement. the thematic materials of the movement have been very few.5 The last movement of the Second Set is the most boldly conceived of the three. Ives's last two large-orchestra works. . lves's account in his Memos (gz*i is more so: The morning paper on the breakfast table gave the news of the sinking of the Lusitania [7 May IgI5]. . increasing collaboration of separate individuals (but all of one mind) gathering force and power-not with outward excitement or agitation but inner fervour imagined it in lgrr). is not very helpful in understanding what generated the piece and what it is about. Some workmen sitting on the side of the tracks began to whistle the tune. In the Sweet Bye and Bye. just as the music invites different listenings (not just re-hearings). It was (only) the refrain of an old Gospel hymn .Ragtime Pieces for theatre orchestra (the same one found in the scherzos of the First Piano Sonata). at the End of a Tragic Day. and rich percussion group. The Fourth Symphony is lves's mightiest complete work. notes were written by lves's friend Henry Bellamann. I took the Third Avenue "L" [train] at Hanover Square Station. Leopold Stokowski either misinterpreted the (: refrain) as calling for voices or simply could not resist adding them (wordlessly) at this grand climax. . slow. pp. . however. and finally it seemed to me that everybody was singing this tune. certainly from information supplied by the composer: B9 . which eventually takes For his recording of the Second Set. the Voice of the People Again Arose'. . There was a feeling of dignity through all this. a normal symphonic ensemble but with accordions. are in the line of the two piano sonatas. While waiting there. The Unansrered Question. Ives's expanding vision of a music that would be 'a part of the great organic flow. and gestures of earlier works flowed. lves has prepared from the very opening of the movement). essentially two: the opening vocal intonation of the Te Deum chanted as a canticle ('We praise Thee. . viola. the over entirely. There is no mistaking the F major triumph. . 9o-r) the musical texture has become phenomenally rich in independent melodic-rhythmic voices. Leaving the office [that afternoon]. lt is not so long as The Celestial Country or either of the piano sonatas. one a 'Distant Choir' of two violins. but it is strongly coloured by D major and Ff major/minor material as well. which occupied him off and on between r9o9 and I916. . . partly because of its more complete stylistic synthesis. partly because it is a giant vessel into which the energies. it has a 'programme'. O God. . But the programme is ultra-general and open to different readings. (ln fact. . are lost. . no fewer than fifteen prior works by Ives lay behind it and contributed specifics to it. 'From Hanover Square North. For a performance of two movements in t927. and basses. one of lves's most amazing transliterations into music of the experience of a reallife incident. . in a startling conjunction (for which.

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is a comedy in the sense that Hawthorne's Celestial Railroad is a comedy. viii. here it is realized to the fullest. and finally a transiendent reworking of the ideas that closc thc Second String euartet. melodic. . 8 Reprinted in Ives's 'Conductor's Note'. in terms that have something to do with the reality of'cxistcncc ancl its religious experience' (Memos 66). clouds or distant outlines.3<. To Bellamann's notes on the symphony lvcs lrrltlcd a word: .uil rrrur. may focus on the sky. . 4 (New york 1965). . which deals with the first movement only. This is particularly the sense of the prelude.correct' than another. .2. square-dance tunes. even more complex texturally than the second (but a tapestry of murmurs rather than shouts). in looking at a view. 4). 4 (New York.] The aesthetic program of the work is . so. The three succeeding movements are the diverse answers in which existence replies./ What the signs of pronrise are:/Traveller.This symphony .clr. ./See that Glory-beaming star!' Many other hymn-tune fragments are interwoven in the music. in some similar way can the listener choose to arrange in his mind the relation of the rhythmic. harmonic and other material. Bellamann suggests the first movement as prelude to the following three (t --> z. Nostalgic hymn-tune passages also figure in the second. ragtime. and its'distant choir'of a few strings and harp. [The order of the second and third movements was later reversed. cymbal.Unity and Diversity in Charles lves' Fourth Symphony'. All these are augmented in the fourth by a 'battery unit' of drums. And one may listen to the symphony as two pairs of movements. so there may be something corresponding to this in the presentation of music. Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Researih. The 'other music' around the battery unit is a gradually 8 swelling complex of developlllcnts. with Bethony haloed by the distant choir. Ives's plans for Universe Symphony suggest he would have carried even further such notions of multi-dimensionality. the searching questions of What? and Why? which the spirit of man asks of life.8 He was after musical perspective and multi-dimensionality: . as we have noted.anc. and the added organ of the third movement. timbral. This multi-dimensionality of the Fourth Symphony is found in others of Ives's compositions. tell us of the night. but to a lesser degree. the fugue to the finale. and patriotic ditties in phantasmagoric profusion.u The first movement. the very large orchestra of the second movement.4). like the hymn (Mason's Watchman) with which a chorus enters halfway through it : 'Watchman. with its pianos both orchestral and solo and its frequent divrsi string parts. 12. and a finale of transcendent spiritual content. and gong which initiates the movement with a hushed and mysteriously intricate. Symphony No. p. Music seems too often all foreground'.and 32-foot organ pedal coloration that brings the symphony movement into relationship with the (lost) original organ version. the prelude leading to the 'comedy'. anti-metric ostinato that never ceases. . .As the distant hills in a landscape. grow gradually into the horizon. most consistently Mason's Bethany. with some non-scholastic afterthoughts. t.-a prelude. . p. are also available in-indeed. 'comedy' movement. Ives suggests the last as 'apotheosis' of the first three (r. yet sense the color and form of the foreground. of the 'Chorale' of the First String Quartet. textural. no one more . a third movement in comedy vein. is an expression of the reaction of life into formalism and ritualism. . 'maestoso' and briei is tentative and promissory. by bringing the eye to the foreground. built into-other aspects of it besides that of gross form: tonal. row upon row. The fugue . consists of four movements. The succeeding movement [now the second] . The stately fugue of the third movement is an orchestration. but also with r6. Such varied possibilities for experiencing the Fourth Symphony. 92 93 . 3. in music the ear may play a role similar to the eye in the above instance.z In his'Conductor's Note' for the New Music edition of the second movement (ryzg). This remark is interestinc in that it implies a different way of listening to the symphony ihan do Bellamann's. In other words. r965). . x (1974). lrrairrly on hymn tunes previously heard. and fades away only after the rest of the ensemble (with humming voices) has concluded the symphony. . Quoted in John Kirkpatrick's preface to lves's Symphony No. sense the distant outlines and coloi. to a smiling.The last movement is an apotheosis of the preccclirg colltcnt. The last movement. is wholly independent of the other music that develops around it. o'er yon mountain's height. . and then. The scope ? As demonstrated brilliantly in William Brooks. rhythmic. calls on all the forces that have appeared variously in the preceding movements: the 'normal' orchestra (but with solo piano and voices) of the first movement. a majestic fugue. but they are constantly being over-ridden by boisterous marches.lves wrote an especially provocative statement along these lines: As the eye.

ttivrtl-('ortft. New llaven. imagining it should be played twice.jorit-y' antt Other Writings. ro7-8). he suggested (Memos ro8) that others might like to complete his IJniverse Symphony: 'l am just referring to the above [compositional details] because. ed. were to represent the heavens. New York. Charles.n<'a. New York. t962.fbre a Sonata. Charles lves and His Anrcrica. r 974. H.s lyc.t turtl IIi:. New Haven. in case I don't get to finishing this. higher-pitched. fcoming] to meet each other only where their circles eclipse' (Memos r63. Kirkpatrick. Frank R. were to represent the earth. Warren. Mentos. and generosity. r96o. four or five. John Kirkpatrick. rgTS. tgTz. a percussion orchestra representing'the pulse ofthe universe's life beat' was to underlie all. rg7z. Vivian. A Temporat'y Minteographcd Catalogue of the Music Manuscripts and relatetl nmterials of Charles Ecltyard 1yes. when dictating his Memosin ry32 he thought to enlarge the original piece or'put it into the Universe Symphony.s CentL. Art lycs ('t'lt. Charles E. New York. 1977. and more fully realized sketches.rt. in humanity. In a gesture probably unprecedented among composers. Ircs: Discography. . the evolution of all life in nature. Charles. For more than a decade he I I I SELECTIVE BI BLIO(. At the same New Haven.'first when the listener focusses his ears on the lower or earth music.sit'. and Vivian Pcrlis (ctls. I{N I'I IY Cowell. to the Divine'. New York. somebody might like to work out the idea'. Ives. Essays Be. t96t. and the next time on the upper or Heaven music' (Mentos lo6). Some five to fourteen of these groups of instruments. of the mysterious creation of the earth and firmament. . humility. Richard. toward it and Universe.rtrriul Ii'. t955. rg74. lower-pitched. Wiley. all going'around their own orbit.W I I I of the work conceptually was enormous: it was to be'a presentation and contemplation in tones . Hitchcock. he made the ultimate offer of 'multi-dimensionality'-of lvesian inclusiveness. to which it is related'. Charles lves Rementbered. 94 95 . Perlis. ('hurlc.). lves. Urbana. continued to make chordal and rhythmic diagrams. lllu. as realized by a 'conclave' of groups of instruments or separate orchestras. John.f tlrc Iyc. Henry. time.lryutiotr: Papers and Panels o. recognizing that he would probably not finish either. Ives had started such a work in r9r5. ed. reprinted r973. revised r9(r9. Howard Boatwright. each to have its own music. and Sidney Cowcll. 'l'hc Mrt. Rossiter.