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An Improved Electronic Load Controller for SelfExcited Induction Generator in Micro-Hydel Applications

Bhim Singh, S. S. Murthy and Sushma Gupta
Abstract--This paper describes the mathematical modelling of selfexcited induction generators (SEIGs) with are improved electronic load controller (IELC) for microhydel applications supplying variety of loads. In small hydro plants, governor unit of turbine can be eliminated using IELC, which is simple and cost effective. The improved electronic load controller is a combination of a three-phase insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) and a high frequency DC chopper which keeps the generated voltage and frequency constant in spite of change of balanced/unbalanced loads. A dynamic model of the SEIGIELC suppling different types of loads using stationary d-q axes reference frame is developed for predicting the behavior of the system under transient conditions. The simulation is carried out for compensation of balanced/unbalanced loading conditions. The simulated results show that generated frequency and voltage remain constant with change in load. The proposed IELC acts as reactive power compensator, harmonic eliminator, load balancer and load controller. Key Words: Self-excited induction generator, improved electronic load controller, Microhydel, Voltage and Frequency Regulation.

I. INTRODUCTION In hilly and isolated areas plenty of hydro potential is available. These hydro potentials can be used to drive hydro turbine to generate the electricity. However, induction machine can be used as a generator provided its reactive power requirement is fulfilled by capacitor banks, is called self-excited induction generator (SEIG). The SEIG has advantages like simplicity, low cost, rugged, maintenance free, absence of DC, brushless etc. as compared to the conventional synchronous generator. The analysis of the SEIG is complicated because its operation depends on the prime-mover speed, capacitor and load. Capacitance requirement with load and speed for the SEIG is reported in the literature [1-3]. Considerable literature is also reported on the transient analysis of the SEIG under balanced/unbalanced resistive, reactive and motor loads. In the literature [4-6], d-q axes modeling are reported for the transient analysis of SEIG under balanced and unbalanced excitation system. Jain et al. [7] have given a generalized model for the transient analysis of SEIG under symmetrical and unsymmetrical conditions. In hydro plants, a turbine is used with governor to control power generation. In micro hydel application, water is available free of cost then a turbine without governor can be used as prime mover and capacitors are connected across the
Bhim Singh (e-mail:, S.S. Murthy (e-mail: and Sushma Gupta (e-mail: are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Huaz Khas New Delhi-16, INDIA

SEIG according to the rated power and the constant voltage can be maintained by electronic load controller (ELC) [8-14]. Thus electronic load controller (ELC) keeps the load constant on the SEIG under balanced and unity pf load. But in case of unbalanced loads, SEIG currents and voltage are unbalanced and at lagging PF loads SEIG voltage drops down because SEIG and load demands the reactive power, which is not fulfilled by the ELC. Most of the reported electronic load controllers are based on controlled and uncontrolled rectifier with DC chopper, which injects the harmonics in the SEIG. Due to harmonics injection, SEIG is derated and voltage and current of SEIG are non-sinusoidal. In case of unbalanced load, SEIG is further derated due to presence of positive and negative sequence component. The current controlled voltage source inverter with self-supporting DC bus employed as static compensator (STATCOM) can be used for filtering the harmonics and balancing the load. In the reported literature [15-19] STATCOM acts as a voltage regulator to maintain constant voltage for the SEIG. Larsen et al [15] have mentioned the advantage of the STATCOM. Marra and Pomilio [19] have given the VS-PWM bi-directional converter for SEIG, which can regulate the frequency and voltage in case of balanced and linear load. However, there is hardly any attempts on the voltage and frequency regulation under unbalanced and non-linear loads. In this paper, an improved electronic controller (IELC) is presented which is the combination of CC-VSI and DC chopper. The IELC consists of current controlled voltage source inverter, which acts as a voltage regulator, and a DC chopper at DC bus of VSI keeps the rated power on the SEIG. A control technique is developed such that SEIG generates the constant power. In microhydel applications, turbine speed is kept constant and for a constant value excitation capacitor SEIG generates constant voltage, frequency and power, which is known as single point operation. Connecting the capacitor across the SEIG according to the balanced and unity PF power can reduce the rating of the CC-VSI. In this case, load balancing, reactive power compensation and harmonic elimination should be provided for the load by the CC-VSI. A mathematical model is developed for the transient analysis of IELC under the resistive, reactive and nonlinear loads with balanced/unbalanced conditions. The improved electronic load controller acts as a voltage and frequency regulator, harmonic eliminator, and load balancer. II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND CONTROL SCHEME The schematic diagram of SEIG with excitation capacitor, improved electronic load controller ((CC-VSI)+DC chopper),

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1 Schematic and power diagram of the improved SEIG-IELC system Vt = {(2/3) (va2 +vb2 +vc2)}1/2 (1) The unit vector in phase with va. If output of PI controller is more than the triangular wave. The generated power by the SEIG is maintained constant by the third PI controller. ub and uc). gate pulse of chopper switch (IGBT) is made high and its current increases through chopper switch so that SEIG experience same load. III. i*sbq and i*scq). which are compared with the source line current (isa. These current error signals are amplified and compared with the triangular carrier wave. The reactive power requirement of SEIG and load is fulfilled by the CC-VSI with self-supporting DC bus. DC bus capacitor. i*sbd and i*scd). The control technique to regulate the terminal voltage. MODELLING OF SEIG-IELC SYSTEM The schematic diagram is shown in Fig. which consists of SEIG. wb and wc) is sinusoidal function obtained from in-phase vectors (ua. Modelling of control scheme of IELC Three-phase voltages at the SEIG terminals (va. vb and vc by their amplitude Vt.Cdc Vdc Fig.consumer load and control scheme is shown in Fig. The output of the PI controller (I*smq) for AC voltage control loop decides the amplitude of reactive current to be generated by the CC-VSI. Thus. DC Chopper is used to control dump power in IELC due to change in the consumer load. its control scheme and loads. generated voltage and frequency are not affected by the application and removal of the consumer load. gate pulse of IGBT is low and chopper switch is made open. its DC bus voltage is sensed and compared with DC reference voltage. and harmonic elimination of the SEIG is based on the controlling of source currents (have two components inphase and quadrature with AC voltage). The output of the PI controller is compared with triangular wave. The in-phase unit vectors (ua. The error voltage is processed in another PI controller. The DC bus capacitor is used as an energy storage device and provides self-supporting DC bus. For self-supporting DC bus of CC-VSI. ub and uc [17] as: (3) wa = -ub / √3 + uc / √3 2742 . load balancing. wb and wc) with the output of PI based AC voltage controller (I*smq) yields the quadrature component of the source reference currents (i*saq. ub and uc) are three-phase sinusoidal functions. lower device of the inverter phase lag is turned on and upper device turned off. vb and vc) are considered sinusoidal and hence their amplitude is computed as: isa a ila ilb ilc isb c Induction Generator Consumer Load Power calculator Pgen Pref In-phase component reference current i* sbd i* sad i* scd PI controller Ver PWM controller ia va ib vb vc ic iccb icca Ca Cc Capacitor Bank b isc iccc Cb Prime Mover Vsa Vsb Vsc Unit voltage u template ua b generator uc Vt 1 PI controller Vtref + Quadrature uniit current template wa wb wc Quadratuure component reference current i*saq i*sbq i*scq i*smd Vdcref + i*sa + i*sb i*sc Vdc - + PI controller Vtri i*smq isa isb isc Lf. i*sb and i*sc). The output of the PI controller (I*smd) decides the amplitude of active current. Multiplication of in-phase unit vectors (ua. To regulate AC terminal voltage (Vt) it is sensed and compared with the reference voltage. The generated power is compared with the reference rated power.Rf PWM current controller a ica b icb c icc 1 3 4 6 IELC 5 2 + . ub = vb/Vt . If controller output is less than PWM carrier triangle wave. The IELC consists of a three-phase IGBT based current controlled voltage source inverter. DC chopper and AC inductors. A. vb and vc may be derived using a quadrature transformation of the in-phase unit vectors ua. The voltage error is processed in the PI controller. 1. vb and vc are derived as: ua = va/Vt. ub and uc) with output of PI controller (I*smd) yields the in-phase component of the source reference currents (i*sad.1. If the amplified current error signal is equal to or greater than the triangular carrier wave. Another set of quadrature unit vectors (wa. Excitation capacitors are selected to generate the rated voltage of SEIG at no load. If the amplified current error signal is equal to or less than the triangular carrier wave lower device of the inverter phase is turned off and upper device is turned on. The sum of quadrature and in-phase components is the total source reference currents (i*sa. isb and isc). Multiplication of quadrature unit vectors (wa. The SEIG generates constant power and when consumer power changes then DC chopper of IELC dumps the difference power (generated – consumed) by consumers in the IELC. The mathematical modelling of each component is as follows. The PI controller processes output error of the comparator. IELC. uc = vc/Vt (2) The unit vectors in quadrature with va. The output of the inverter is connected through the AC filtering inductor to the SEIG terminals. computed by dividing the AC voltages va.

eab . is expressed as: I*smd(n) = I*smd(n-1) + Kpd { Vdcer(n) – Vdcer(n-1)} + Kid Vdcer(n) (10) I*smd(n) is considered as the amplitude of active source current. The output of the PI controller (I*smq(n)) for maintaining AC terminal voltage constant at the nth sampling instant is expressed as: I*smq(n) = I*smq(n-1) + Kpa { Ver(n) – Ver(n-1)} + Kia Ver(n) (7) Where Kpa and Kia are the proportional and integral gain constants of the proportional integral (PI) controller. and the value of switching function SA is set to 0.eab) .eb.SA+ 2 SB. i*scq = I*smq wc (8) 2) In-Phase Component of Source Reference Currents: The DC bus voltage error Vdcer at nth sampling instant is: Vdcer(n) = Vdcref – Vdc(n) (9) Where Vdcref is the reference DC voltage and Vdc(n) is the sensed DC link voltage of the CC-VSI. (32) which results in: vb = Rf icb + Lf picb + ebc + rf ica + Lf pica + Rf icb + Lf p icb (34) Rearranging the eqn. eb and i*sbd = I*smd ub. If the amplified current error signal corresponding to isaerr is less than the triangular wave signal switch S1 is ON and switch S4 is OFF.Rf icc . i*sb and i*sc) are compared with the sensed source currents (isa. The PI controller output (V*con(n)) is compared with the triangular carrier (Vtri) waveform and output is fed to the gate of the chopper switch (IGBT). Modelling of CC-VSI The CC-VSI is a current controlled VSI and modeled as follows: The derivative of its DC bus voltage is defined as: pvdc = (SA ica + SB icb + SC icc .(va . Kpd and Kid are the proportional and integral gain constants of the DC bus PI voltage controller. (34) it results in: Lf pica . SB and SC are the switching functions for the ON/OFF positions of the VSI bridge switches S1-S6 and SD is the switching function of chopper.2 Rf icb (36) Hence. The ON/OFF switching patterns of the gate drive signals to the IGBTs are generated from the PWM current controller.wb = √3 ua / 2 + (ub – uc) / 2√3 (4) wc = -√3 ua / 2 + (ub – uc) / 2√3 (5) 1) Quadrature Component of Source Reference Currents: The AC voltage error Ver at the nth sampling instant is: Ver(n) = Vtref (n)– Vt(n) (6) Where Vtref (n) is the amplitude of reference AC terminal voltage and Vt(n) is the amplitude of the sensed three-phase AC voltage at the SEIG terminals at nth instant. Ver(n) and Ver(n-1) are the voltage errors in nth and (n-1)th instant and I*smq(n-1) is the amplitude of quadrature component of the source reference current at (n-1)th instant.Lf picb (31) (32) vb = Rf icb + Lf picb + ebc .SA.3 Rf ica}/(3Lf) (38) 2743 . In-phase components of source reference currents are estimated as: i*sad = I*smd ua.ebc) + 2 (va . i*sbq = I*smq wb. SD = 0 The SD is the switching function used for generating the gating pulse of IGBT of the chopper of ELC. B. C. If the amplified current error signal corresponding to phase a (isaerr) is greater than the triangular wave signal switch S4 (lower device) is ON and switch S1 (upper device) is OFF.SC) / 3 (28) (29) ec = vdc (.SB + 2 SC) / 3 The (CC-VSI) line voltages are given as: eab = ea . eca = ec . ebc = eb . (31) and eqn. The quadrature components of the source reference currents are estimated as: i*saq = I*smq wa.SB. These voltages may be expressed as: ea = vdc (2 SA.ea (30) The volt-amp equations of the output of voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) are as: va = Rf ica + Lf pica + eab .3 Rf ica}/(3Lf) (37) picb = {(vb .eab) .Lf picb = va .Lf picc ica + icb + icc = 0 (33) Value of icc from eqn (33) is substituted in to eqn.ebc) .SD Vdc/Rd)/ Cdc (26) Where SA. when V*con(n)> Vtri.ebc . i*scd = I*smd uc (11) 3) Total Source Reference Currents: Total source reference currents are sum of in-phase and quadrature components of the source reference currents as: i*sa = i*saq +i*sad (12) (13) i*sb = i*sbq +i*sbd i*sc = i*scq +i*scd (14) 4) PWM current controller: The total reference currents (i*sa.SC) / 3 (27) eb = vdc (. The DC bus voltage reflects at the output of the inverter in the form of the three-phase PWM AC voltage ea. Similar logic applies to other phases.Rf ica + Rf icb (35) Lf pica + 2 Lf picb = vb . isb and isc). the CC-VSI current derivatives are obtained by solving the eqn (35) and (36) as: pica = {( vb . The current errors are computed as: isaerr = i*sa – isa (15) isberr = i*sb – isb (16) iscerr = i*sc – isc (17) These current error signals are amplified and then compared with the triangular carrier wave. and the value of SA is set to 1. The output of the PI controller for maintaining DC bus voltage of the CC-VSI at the nth sampling instant. SD = 1 and (25) when V*con(n)< Vtri.Rf icb . Modelling of DC bus chopper The generated power of the SEIG is calculated by transforming three-phase quantity (a-b-c) into two-phase quantity (α-β axes) as follows [20]: (18) vα = √2/3 (va – vb/2 – vc/2) vβ =√2/3 (√3/2 vb -√3/2 vc) (19) iα = √2/3 (ia – ib/2 – ic/2) (20) iβ =√2/3 (√3/2 ib -√3/2 ic) (21) The generated instantaneous power of SEIG can be defined as: Pgen = vα iα + vβ iβ (22) Power (Pgen) is compared with reference power according to rated power of generator (Pref) as: Per(n) = Pref – Pgen(n) (23) Power error is processed in the PI controller to maintain the constant generated power at the SEIG at the nth sampling instant. is expressed as: V*con(n) = V*con(n-1) + Kpp { Per(n) – Per(n-1)} + Kpi Per(n) (24) Kpp and Kpi are the proportional and integral gain constants of the power controller.Rf ica .

1 10 5.3 5.000048 Im3 (47) E.15 5.2 5.4 5.3 5.5 5. ilb and ilc are 3-phase load currents and ica. (42) is: (43) pωr = {P/(2J)} (T shaft .0012 Im2 + 0.2 shows the transient waveforms of 3-phase generator voltages (vsabc).D.3 5.2 5.2-sec. SEIG-IELC System behaviour Feeding Three-phase resistive load Fig.15 5.4 5. 2 Performance waveforms of three-phase SEIG-IELC system supplying resistive load (7. The derivative of AC terminal voltage of the SEIG is defined as: p va = {(ia – ila – ica) – (ib – ilb – icb)} / (3 C) (48) (49) p vb = {(ia – ilc – ica) +2 (ib – ilb – icb)} / (3 C) va +vb + vc = 0.15 5. generated power and its reference (Pgen) amplitude of SEIG terminal voltage and its reference (Vt/Vtref).2 5.35 5.45 5.6 -10 5.0014 Im – 0.3 5.25 5.35 5.6 ilc (A) 0 -10 5. current derivatives can be expressed as: (40) p[i] = [L] –1 { [v] – [R] [i] . icb and icc are CC-VSI currents.2 5. IV.6 ica(A) 0 -10 5.4 5.25 5.55 5. 4pole machine has been used as a generator and parameters of the generator are given in Appendix.35 5.10 wr) (45) The SEIG operates in the saturation region and its magenetizing characteristics is non-linear in nature.25 5.45 5.3 5.45 5.5 5.5 5.1 10 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The SEIG system with IELC feeding resistive and reactive balanced/unbalanced loads is simulated and results are shown in Figs.35 Time (Sec) 5.6 ilb (A) 0 -10 5.1 10 5.1 700 650 600 5. two-phase of the load are disconnected from the SEIG.45 5.5 5.3 5.35 5. Consequently IELC currents increase to balance the SEIG system and chopper current increases to maintain the constant power on the SEIG.45 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.6 Vt/Vtref (V) Vdc/Vdcref (V) 300 5.3 5.4 5.35 5. 15.4 5.15 5.3sec.35 5.2 5. At 5.35 5.55 5.1 350 5.6 Fig. 2-4.45 5.55 5.15 5. Modelling of SEIG The dynamic model of the three-phase SEIG is developed using stationary d-q axes references frame.2 5.45 5. [i] = [ids iqs idr iqr] T [R] = diag [ Rs Rs Rr Rr]  L s + L m 0 L m 0  0 0 0 0 0 L s + L m 0 L m  0 0 0 0 [L] = L 0 L + L 0 [G ] = 0 − L 0 L + L  m r m m r m 0 L m 0 L r + L m  L m 0 L r + L m 0      (41) The electromagnetic torque balance equation of SEIG is defined as: (42) T shaft = Te + J (2/P) p ωr The derivative of rotor speed of the SEIG from eqn.Te) where the developed electromagnetic torque of the SEIG is expressed as [17]: Te = (3P/4) Lm (iqs idr – ids iqr) (44) In microhdel system.25 5.55 5.3 5.2 5.5 kW) 2744 .55 5.1 338 336 334 5.4 5.4 5.5 kW).35 5.45 5.5 5. one phase and at 5.15 5.25 5.1 5. b and c). ilb and ilc). DC bus voltage and its reference (Vdc/ Vdcref) and generator speed (wg) demonstrating the response of IELC for regulating the SEIG terminal voltage supplying with pure resistive load (7.6 A.2 5.5 5.1 10 5. A.1 8000 Pgen (W) 7500 7000 5.55 5.6 Wg (r/s) 5.45 5. 230V.4-sec. At 5.4 5.6 ila(A) isabc (A) 0 -10 5. generator currents (isabc). three-phase IELC currents (ica.ωr [G] [i] } Where [v] = [vds vqs vdr vqr] T.25 5.35 5.35 5. a 7.5 kW.25 5.5 5. whose voltageampere equations are [17]: (39) [v] = [R] [i] + [L] p [i] + ωr [G] [i] From which.6 5.1407 + 0.55 5.3 5. AC line voltage at the point of common coupling From direct and quadrature axis currents of the SEIG (ids and iqs) are converted in to three-phase (a.4 5.45 5.15 5. two-phase of load is reconnected 500 vsabc(V) 0 -500 5.6 5.3 5.55 5.15 5. three-phase resistive load currents (ila.2 5.2 5.25 5.15 5. ib and ic are SEIG stator line currents.1-sec.5 5.5 5.55 5. (50) where ia.5 5.55 5.6 icc(A) 0 5. Relation between Lm and Im is obtained by synchronous speed test [17] and can be written as: Lm = 0.45 5.4 5.25 5. Therefore the magnetizing current should be calculated in each step of integration in terms of stator and rotor currents as: Im = √ (ids +idr)2 + (iqs + iqr)2 (46) Magnetizing inductance is calculated from the magnetizing characteristics between Lm and Im. For the simulation.25 5.6 icb(A) 0 -10 5.15 5.5 5.5 5.55 5. ila.15 5.1 10 5.15 5.45 5.1 20 0 -20 5. icb and icc).2 5.1 10 5.55 5. C is per phase no load excitation capacitor value connected parallel to SEIG. prime mover have drooping characteristic and may be expressed as: Tshaft = (3370. one and 5.25 5.4 5.25 5.35 5.3 5.

55 6.4 5.65 6.55 5.35 5.55 5.15 5. In this case.55 5.5 5.55 6.55 5.4-sec.6 Vdc/Vdcref (V) Vt/Vtref (V) Vdc/Vdcref (V) 5.45 5.15 5.35 5.6 6.35 5.65 6.85 ica(A) 0 5.75 6.85 6.3 5.85 Fig.7 6.8 6.5 5.1 338 336 334 5. At 5.5 5.4 5.1 10 ilb (A) 0 -10 5.1 20 0 -20 5. Load currents.3 5.6 6.5-sec.45 6.15 5.75 6.35 5.1 20 0 -20 5.45 5.15 5.2 5.2 5.85 6.on SEIG.1 20 icb(A) 5.45 5.45 5.7 6.65 6.7 6.3 5.5 6.35 5.85 Vt/Vtref (V) -20 6.4 6.3 5. IELC current decreases which shows power on the SEIG remains constant.45 6.85 6.75 6. two-phases of load are reconnected on the SEIG. which shows that the generator is generating constant voltage. SEIG-IELC system behavior Feeding Three-phase Reactive load 500 vsabc(V) 0 -500 5.4 20 ilb (A) 0 -20 6.35 5. 4 Transient waveforms of three-phase SEIG-IELC system supplying nonlinear load 2745 .55 5.15 5.45 6.3 5.45 5.2 5.45 6.55 6.1 20 ila(A) 0 -20 5.5 6.6 6.8 6.2 5.25 5.5 6.8 6.15 5.7 6.4 700 650 600 6.8 6.3 5.6 icc(A) 0 5.4 20 icc(A) 6.5 5.35 5.65 6.3 5.5 5.4 5.15 5.4 50 0 -50 6.55 5. generator voltage is constant and perfectly sinusoidal which shows that IELC is acting as a voltage regulator and load balancer.3 5.5 5.1 8000 6000 6.6 5.35 T ime (Sec) 5.4 5.7 6.4 5.6 6.5 6.25 5.6 6.1 10 ilc (A) 0 -10 5.45 5.25 5.2 5. B.35 5.2-sec one phase load is disconnected from the SEIG consequently IELC current of one-phase increases to balance the SEIG system.25 5.45 6.45 6.3 5.45 5.55 6.6 6.75 6.85 6.6 Fig.4 5.2 5.75 6.7 6.1 8000 Pgen (W) 7500 7000 5.85 6.1 700 650 600 5.25 5. In reactive load.55 6.2 5.65 6. two-phases of load is disconnected from the load and hence IELC currents of two phases increase for balancing the SEIG system. C.5 5.45 6.55 6.7 6.3-sec.5 6. which shows that generated voltage and frequency are constant.4 20 ilc (A) 0 -20 6.5 5.8 6.5 6.45 6.75 6.5 6.8 6.4 350 6.5 6.55 6.65 T ime (Sec) 6.5 5.7 6. At 5.7 6. IELC currents decrease because SEIG system is balanced.5 6.6 6.7 6.65 6.3 5.45 6.25 5.2 5. generator speed remains constant.5 5.6 5.25 5.75 6.8 6.4 10000 Pgen (W) 300 5.35 5.7 6.65 6. one-phase and 5. SEIG-IELC system behavior Feeding Three-phase NonLinear load isabc (A) 500 vsabc(V) 0 -500 6.65 6.45 6.15 5.65 6.5 5. At application of load and under steady state. Chopper current also increases and decreases when consumer load decreases and increases respectively which shows that the generated power of the SEIG remains constant in spite of variation in consumer load.4 20 0 -20 6.4 5.55 5.6 0 6.85 6.3 5.6 6. generator currents and voltages are sinusoidal and harmonic free.6 6.2 5.65 6.55 5.35 5.55 6.3 shows the transient waveforms of the three-phase SEIGIELC supplying reactive load (0.45 5.1 350 ila(A) isabc (A) 5.55 6. frequency and power.55 6.45 5.6 6.2 5.5 6.4 5.8 PF).45 6.6 6.75 6.1 10 5.25 5.15 5.4 340 335 330 6.75 6.55 5.25 5.6 -10 5.4 20 ica(A) 0 -20 6.55 6.8 PF) Fig.25 5.4 5.75 6.45 6.25 5.4 5.8 6.8 6.15 5.6 -20 5.45 5.25 5.45 5.55 5.3 5.6 5.15 5. The speed of SEIG remains constant.5 kW at 0.75 6.6 Wg (r/s) 6.4 5.4 20 icb(A) 0 -20 6.7 6.5 6.85 5. 3 Performance of three-phase SEIG-IELC supplying reactive load (7.6 300 6.15 5.65 6.4 5.5 5.55 5.8 6. Under three-phase load on the SEIG.35 5.8 6.85 Wg (r/s) 6.45 5.2 5. At 5.8 6.55 5.6 6.5 6.85 5.75 6.2 5.55 6.6 5.

B. pp. No.Fig. “Transient performance of three-phase self-excited induction generator during balanced and unbalanced faults. C. "Voltage-frequency control of self-excited induction generator. Silva. Holmes." IEEE International Conf. Harrington and F. reactive and non-linear loads with balanced/unbalanced conditions. Nabae. 145. J = 0. No.0Ω. CONCLUSION The developed mathematical model of three-phase SEIG– IELC system has been found an appropriate tool to study the behavior of SEIG with IELC at different types of loads under transient conditions. No. May/June 1984. pp. 90-94. Transm. 2. In case of variation in consumer load. “Capacitance requirements of self-excited induction generators. J. APPENDICES A. 336-341. E. 149. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] 2746 ." IEEE Trans. Singh. DC bus voltage PI controller Kpd = 0. Jose and Bhim Singh.. 4 shows the SEIG-IELC system behavior supplying the non-linear load. M. pp. 136. 1999. Sharma and S.” IEE Proc. Kid =0. Murthy. 17. S. December 1998. Pt. Rf = 0. Vol.05 B. Hallenius. on Energy Conversion. Gener. A." IEEE Trans. 647-655. 8. R. F. on Industry Applications. pp. 1998. Bassiouny. Shilpakar. When unbalancing of load takes place then IELC generates compensating currents and balances the generator currents and voltage thus IELC acts as load balancer.77Ω. Vol. Grantham. ISTE'96.. "Experience in the development of microhydel grid independent power generation scheme using induction generators for Indian conditions. Kia = 0. 4. Simulations have been carried out and simulated results show that SEIG terminal voltage and frequency remain constant while supplying the resistive. STATCOM control parameters Lf = 1. 3. Chan. 3. 33-39. 3. pp. 718-723. 50-58. Gener. on Energy Conversion. The SEIG speed remains constant in complete duration. Rajakaruna and R. on Energy Conversion. G. Vol.0 Ω. 2. power supply. K. Miranda.5-sec loading on the rectifier load increases because of that load current increases. improved electronic load controller acts as voltage regulator. chopper of IELC operates accordingly and generated power of the generator remains constant. Margato and J. on Energy Conversion. 394-401. R.1384 kg/m2 VII. Vas and J. M. pp. June 1991. At 6. S. 877-883. 757-761. September 1999. 625-630. Vol. N. Lai." IEEE Trans. “Steady state and transient analysis of self-excited induction generator. pp. Salama and P. Santana. Vol. No. 14. "An advanced electronic load governor for control of micro hydroelectric generation. Lindgren. Bhim Singh and L. Jain.75sec. 3. Alghuwainem. E. "Induction generator based system providing regulated voltage with constant frequency. 1998 T. Marra and J. Lyra and S. January 1996. 300-304. 1. Transm. "Induction generator excited by current source inverter used as a D. M. IA-20. S. June 1993. L. 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Vol. which proofs that it is generating constant frequency.” IEEE Trans. Rs = 1. loading on rectifier load is decreased consequently rectifier load currents decrease however the SEIG voltages and currents remain constant and sinusoidal which shows that IELC is acting as a harmonic eliminator. January 1998. No. No.” IEE Proc." IEEE Trans. Henderson. R. Rajakaruna. Transm. Vol. Vol. No. Vol.. Akagi. "A Technique for the steady-state analysis of a self-excited induction generator with variable speed. 50-57. At 6. 13.