© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Offshore Wind Turbine Design

Why Wind Energy? Countries turning to renewable energy sources to cut carbon emissions and replace depleting oil supplies.

UK – 10% now and 15% by 2020 Denmark - 20% now and 30% by 2020 Germany – 18% by 2020 and 60% by 2050 USA – produce 20% of all electrical needs through wind power by 2030

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Renewable Energy Goals

Offshore Wind Resource Estimate

Population Density

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USA - Offshore Wind/Population Map

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Wind Energy Activity - USA

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.Proposed wind farm development Largest operational wind farms 5 | WWW.Europe .BENTLEY. Incorporated Wind Energy Activity .

Countries with the most wind power capacity (onshore & offshore).BENTLEY. 6 | WWW. Incorporated Wind Power – Top 10 Countries .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.

Incorporated Cost of Wind Energy (NREL 2006) .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.BENTLEY.7 | WWW.

BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Concepts .Monopile 0<30m Jacket 30m<60m Floating 60m+ SACS 35+ years experience in designing offshore jacket structures 8 | WWW.

BENTLEY.6 Jacket Structures Ormonde Wind Farm – 30 Jacket Structures 9 | WWW.Beatrice (Demonstrator) Wind Farm – 2 Jacket Structures Alpha Ventus .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Existing Wind Farms With Jacket Structure Foundation .

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Tower Substructure/Jacket Foundation 10 | WWW.Turbine Typical offshore wind turbine consists of a turbine and tower which are attached to a partially submerged substructure (jacket).BENTLEY. Incorporated Offshore Wind Turbines . The substructure is fastened to the ocean floor using foundation piles.

Hub Nacelle : Drive Shaft.BENTLEY. Gearbox Most modern turbines are direct drive and do not contain a gearbox.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Main Turbines Components .Rotor : Blades. 11 | WWW. Generator.

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.12 | WWW.BENTLEY. Incorporated Top 10 Wind Turbine Manufactures .

0MW : 164 m diameter.BENTLEY. hub height = 105m 13 | WWW.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Wind Turbine Size Vestas V164 7000 kW Ø 164m . 80 meter blade length tip height =187m .H 187m 2011-2015 VESTAS V164 7.

Incorporated SACS .Life Cycle Applications for Analysis and Design of Wind Turbines Platforms .INSTALLATION FABRICATION 14 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM INPLACE CONDITION © 2011 Bentley Systems.

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.• Bent Roll Up .Jacket manufactured in portions which are then rolled over using slings and joined together. Incorporated Fabrication . •Design structure to resist sling forces 15 | WWW.BENTLEY.

BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Transportation Analysis . SEASTATE : modules used to generate inertia loads • COMBINE: module used to combine static & dynamic common solution file 16 | WWW.• Jacket structure is designed to resist inertial resulting from vessel motions • Seafastners designed to resist inertial loads. • TOW.

BENTLEY.• Design Jacket to resist lift forces and buoyancy loads as its lowered into the water • FEMGV: Detailed FE analysis of lift padeyes 17 | WWW. Incorporated Installation Lift Analysis .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.

Incorporated Inplace Design with PSI . wind and current loading typically from eight directions.BENTLEY. SEASTATE : Used to generate environmental loads 18 | WWW.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.•Structure Analyzed and designed to resist maximum operational and storm wave.

PSI: • API P-Y / T-Z Soil • API Adhesion Soil • User Defined P-Y / T –Z Soil • User Defined Adhesion Soil Mudline Pile 19 | WWW.Non Linear Soil Behaviour .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.BENTLEY. Incorporated Inplace Design .

BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.POST: 20 | WWW. Incorporated Member Code Check Design .

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.JOINT CAN: 21 | WWW. Incorporated Detailed Joint Design .BENTLEY.

quadratic or cubic interpolation between time history input values 22 | WWW.COM .BENTLEY.Earthquake Analysis DYNAMIC RESPONSE: •Spectral •API response spectra built in •User defined spectra •Modal combinations via SRSS or CQC methods •Generate Equivalent Static Loads © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated •Time History •Variable Time step Integration •Nonlinear fluid damping •Linear.

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. •Use the SACS COLLAPSE module to account for both geometric and material non-linearity's resulting from a ship impact event.•Design wind turbine jacket structure to withstand impact from a service vessel.BENTLEY. •Automatically mesh impact points to account for local indentation effects. •Both quasi-static and dynamic impact analysis possible in SACS 23 | WWW. Incorporated Non-Linear Ship Impact Analysis .

Face and leg joints designed to survive accidental loading. Incorporated Non-Linear Ship Impact Analysis . Jacket Bracing allowed to fail – Structure designed to survive loss of brace member. • High Energy (Accidental Impact) Jacket Legs Designed to Survive Accidental Impact.BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.For an Impact Design Consider both Low Energy and High Energy Impact Events • Low Energy (Operational Impact) Jacket Bracing Designed to Survive Operational Impact (partial yielding at point of impact). 24 | WWW.

BENTLEY. Incorporated •Automatic 3D meshing of tubular members •Seamless integration into SACS model •User controlled mesh density 25 | WWW.Member Impact PRECEDE: © 2011 Bentley Systems.COM .

Incorporated Automatic Tubular Member Meshing .26 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.

BENTLEY. Incorporated Joint Impact .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.MESH JOINT: •3D Mesh of tubular joint in seconds •Automatically identify chord and brace members •Seamless integration into SACS model •User controlled mesh density 27 | WWW.

Incorporated Automatic Joint Meshing .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.28 | WWW.BENTLEY.

DYNAMIC RESPONSE / COLLAPSE: 29 | WWW. Incorporated Non-Linear Dynamic Ship Impact Analysis .BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.

BENTLEY. Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading Wind load on Turbine Dynamic Response of Structure Wind load on Structure Wave Load on Structure 30 | WWW.

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis . Wind Spectrum Von Karman Harris Kaimal V t Wind Velocity Time History 31 | WWW.Wind Loading on Tower & Jacket Wind loading can be represented in terms of a wind spectrum or by a wind velocity time history.BENTLEY.

Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis Wave Loading on Jacket Structure Wave loading can be represented either as a wave spectrum or time history of the surface profile.BENTLEY. Incorporated η t Wave Surface Profile Time History 32 | WWW.COM . Wave Spectrum Pierson-Moskowitz JONSWAP Ochi-Hubble User defined © 2011 Bentley Systems.

Incorporated Wind load on Turbine t Force Time History 33 | WWW.COM . F © 2011 Bentley Systems. which can be represented by a force time history. which in turn generates aerodynamic and mechanical forces on the top of the tower.BENTLEY.Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis Wind Loading On Turbine The wind loading on the turbine causes the rotation of the wind turbine.

Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis Aerodynamic and Mechanical Turbine Forces Aero Elastic Programs © 2011 Bentley Systems.gov 34 | WWW.COM .nrel.BENTLEY. USA www. FAST National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Incorporated GH Bladed Garrad Hassan. UK Flex 5 Stig Øye at Department of Fluid Mechanics at The Technical University of Denmark.

Tower and Drive Shaft. Structure & Turbulence A comprehensive simulation software capable of predicting both fatigue loads and extreme loads for two and three bladed horizontal axis wind turbines. Incorporated 35 | WWW. Flexible Bodies: Blades. Wind Turbines modeled as a combination of rigid and flexible bodies.COM .BENTLEY.Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis FAST : Fatigue.Nacelle. Hub. © 2011 Bentley Systems. Tip Breaks (point masses). Rigid bodies: Earth. Aerodynamic.

wind and turbine forces. Includes multiple modal response required for jacket fatigue analysis 2. Allows users to conduct a fully coupled dynamic response analysis resulting from wave.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. 36 | WWW.SACS to FAST Interface (WAVE RESPONSE) 1. Hydrodynamic modeling for wave loading 3. Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis .BENTLEY.

a random seastate profile can be generated by assuming the random sea to be comprised of an infinite number of waves with a random phase angle. Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis . Turbine Mechanical and Aerodynamic Force Time History 2.BENTLEY.SACS Fatigue Analysis Time history fatigue analysis for the structure is possible if the following fatigue load sources are available: 1. but with heights and periods defined by the spectrum.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Wave Spectrum* or Wave Surface Profile Time History *For a given wave spectrum. 37 | WWW. Wind Spectrum or Wind Velocity Time History 3.

Standard practices for cycle counting in fatigue analysis.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Smaller cycles considered to be superimposed on the lager cycles 38 | WWW.BENTLEY. Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis . ASTM International Rain flow count: Largest cycle extracted first. (Reapproved 2005). A stress range counting method such as the rain flow method is used to determine the fatigue lives.• For a fatigue analysis resulting from a random wave and a force time history. There are different variants of the rain flow counting method: • SACS uses method recommended by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) E 1049-85.

Smedley and Fischer.FATIGUE: S-N : API. ISO. USER DEFINED SCF: Efthymiou. HSE.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Marshal. AWS. DNV 39 | WWW. Kwang and Wordsworth. NORSOK. Incorporated Fatigue Analysis .BENTLEY.

BENTLEY.Typical Seastate Data 1 year duration – 9 Directions .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.12 Wind Speeds 40 | WWW. Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis .

Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis .BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.Typical Wave Scatter diagram (per direction per wind speed) 60 min duration 41 | WWW.

05 = 72000 42 | WWW.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Wind Turbine Fatigue Analysis .BENTLEY. use six ten minute random seastate profiles Analyze structure every 0.05 seconds Total number of load cases to analyze per wave = 6 x 600 /0.• Typical Simulation: For each wave in scatter diagram.

COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Offshore Wind Turbine Standards .• Standards for Offshore Wind Turbines: IEC – 61400-3 : Design Requirements for offshore wind turbines. DNV-OS-J101 : Design of offshore wind turbines Germanischer Lloyd IV Part 2 : Guidelines for the Certification of Offshore Wind Turbines 43 | WWW.BENTLEY.

BENTLEY.44 | WWW. Incorporated Wind Turbine Analysis .COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.

BENTLEY.45 | WWW.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems. Incorporated Wind Turbine Analysis .

BENTLEY.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.46 | WWW. Incorporated Wind Turbine Analysis .

BENTLEY.com www.Jhita@Bentley. Incorporated .com/sacs Telephone (504) 443 5481 47 | WWW.COM © 2011 Bentley Systems.bentley.Parvinder Jhita Product Manager SACS 2113 38th Street Kenner LA 70065 Parvinder.

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