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© 2008 NPCA


Safe, effective, economical lifting and handling of precast concrete
products is essential for producers and users of these products.
Precast concrete products need to be lifted and handled a number
times during production and installation, particularly when removing
from the casting bed or form, transporting from the casting bed to
storage or from storage to point of use, lifting into installed position
or anchoring to a structural frame or other concrete members
(where required).
Precasters use a variety of methods and equipment, including
commercially manufactured inserts, home-made devices, lifting
clamps and grooves for slings. There are a number of
considerations that precasters use when selecting lifting systems.
These include safety,, ease of use by the producer and the installer,
and the impact on finished concrete product.
oncern about the safety of employees and other personnel
involved in the production and installation of precast concrete
products is paramount. There are many reasons for this, but most
importantly, prioritizing safety is just the right thing to do. There are
also good business reasons for establishing excellent safety
practices. When accidents and injuries to workers occur, potential
costs include:
O Damage to products
O Worker's compensation (actual costs and future policy
O Absence of worker
O Morale
O Adverse publicity
O Liability
Product Integrity.Precast concrete products should not be moved
until the concrete has gained sufficient compressive strength. Ìn
some cases, the form and the product are moved at the same time
with the lifting hook connected directly to the form. Some forms are
made to remain in place while inserts, hooks, or slings are used to

remove the product.
iability.Ìn legal cases where accidents have occurred, companies
not complying with the applicable codes and standards can be
found liable or incompetent. Attorneys rely on codes being state of
the art.
ompliance with Safety Requirements. Ìn general, the capacity
of lifting inserts should be four times the actual load. Lifting
hardware should be five times the actual load. When wire rope is
used in a lifting system, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) recommends a minimum safety factor (FS)
of five. The American National Standards Ìnstitute (ANSÌ), however,
recommends a minimum safety factor of seven. Because of the
differing standards, the designer needs to evaluate the situation and
choose an appropriate safety factor. Ìf the wire rope will experience
mild "wear and tear," then an FS of five might be satisfactory. At the
other extreme, severe "wear and tear" conditions will warrant an FS
of seven.
Several organizations have related regulations or standards. OSHA
is entrusted with enforcement and can levy penalties (usually
financial) on organizations not complying with the requirements of
FR Title 29. Two organizations, ANSÌ and the American Society
for Testing and Materials (ASTM), create and update codes and
standards. Various U.S. and anadian agencies and local
governments may have additional requirements.
Types of Lifting Inserts
Precast concrete producers use various types of inserts. When
choosing lifting inserts, precasters are concerned with many factors,
including safety, compliance with OSHA and other requirements,
ease of installation, ease of use by rigger, angle of lift/pull, vacuum
and water testing, patching, quality, liability, and cost.
ommercially Manufactured Inserts. A variety of manufactured
lifting inserts are currently available. These products are
manufactured from several different materials, including hot-forged
high quality steel, wire coil, carbon steel roping, grade 60 rebar,
plastics (bonded impact polystyrene, thermoplastic, Hytrel¨
polyester, polypropylene, etc.), and ductile iron.
Generally, electo-galvanizing (per ASTM A 633) or hot-dipped
galvanizing (per ASTM A 123 or A 153) is available to protect the
inserts from external corrosion. Plastic tips or stainless tips are also
often available. Most manufacturers recommend against any
welding modification to their products.
Full-service suppliers will provide comprehensive engineering and
design information with their products. Product catalogs often
provide comprehensive information on selection, installation,
rigging, and handling.
Detailed engineering data is essential for the precast concrete
producer to properly use and install lifting inserts.
Precasters should use the appropriate hardware and inserts for
lifting their products. Occasionally, hardware and inserts are used in
situations beyond their design capacity or in applications for which
they were not designed. They may function adequately for long
periods of time, but eventually they most likely will fail. The end
result may not only be a product dropped in the yard, but a lifting
insert failure that could lead to serious accidents and injuries.
Manufacturers design inserts based on static loads, proper
installation and specific concrete design strength. Ìf a product is
moved prior to reaching the design strength of the concrete or
subjected to a dynamic load (such as being transported at a high
rate of speed or bumped when driving over a ditch), the insert may
fail. Lifting a concrete product frozen to the ground will also exert
additional forces on the lifting system and the lift truck.
When the inserts are stressed due to forces and loadings beyond
the design capacity, the inserts may not fail, but be permanently
damaged. This is very dangerous, because the system will appear
to be intact, but may later fail at loads below the rated capacities.
Some manufactured inserts are not engineered. Ìt can be very
difficult to evaluate the strength and capacity of such products.
Additionally, liability for failures can be complex.
O plastic inserts (special attachment required)
O recessed pockets with loops
O split anchors
O ring clutches
O lifting eye bolts
O coil inserts
O plates
O pulling irons
O lift pins (remain in product; special forklift attachment
Advantages of commercially manufactured inserts: Load tested and
designed to meet OSHA requirements. Does not have to be
removed at the jobsite, generally no mortar patching required. May
be more economical than other inserts. Special reinforcing may be
added to increase a load capacity of an insert. Reduces spalling at
insert location. Manufacturers may be able to provide extensive
technical support to precasters using their products.
Disadvantages: Often appear to be more expensive than "home-
made" devices. May need special handling attachments or
equipment that can be costly. These items must be installed as
designed by the manufacturer, otherwise failures and pullouts may
occur. Any change in use from designed purpose should be verified
by the manufacturer's technical services department.
ome-made devices. These devices usually are not engineered
or load tested. Several types of home-made devices are routinely
used, including bent reinforcing steel bar, prestressed strand as
loops and recessed bars (countersunk with temporary blockouts).
Bent bars or loops must be carefully placed within the formwork and
rebar cage to ensure adequate concrete cover. Ìf rebar is placed
close to the finished concrete surface, corrosion of the rebar may
occur. The rebar will expand due to this corrosion and spall the
concrete surface. Deformed bars work best, since smooth bars
require longer development lengths.
Loops are cut off after the precast concrete product is installed to
reduce corrosion. Sometimes a recessed pocket is created with a
neoprene blockout for the bent bars or loops. After the precast
product is installed the recessed pockets can be filled with grout or
other concrete patching material. The recessed pocket should be
designed such that a chain or sling will not damage the surrounding
Advantages of home-made devices: Ìnexpensive, simple to use, no
need for special lifting hardware or attachments, quick
Disadvantages: Expensive and/or inconvenient to load test or
design to meet OSHA documentation requirements. Often mortar
patching is required at the jobsite. Ìnstallers can be sloppy about
positioning of loops and bars, which can affect performance.
ifting clamps/grapples. These products work with cranes and
forklifts. They are specialized lifting devices designed for specific
types of precast products, such as grapples for transportation
barriers, pipe handlers (clamps) for manhole sections, box culvert
handlers and lift clamps for precast concrete steps.
Advantages of lifting clamps/grapples: Fork truck/crane operators
can accomplish all handling operations without leaving the truck.
When properly operated, there is reduced damage to products.
Lower labor costs as fewer workers can move more product.
Disadvantages: No option for others to install the product unless
inserts are also installed. Specialized, sometimes expensive
equipment required. Operators need training to avoid overloading
the equipment (similar to lift truck training).
rooves for slings. Some precasters design their forms to create
a horizontal groove in end walls of box-shaped products, such as
utility vaults and septic tanks. Lifting cables are placed in the
grooves on each side of the product.
Advantages of grooves for slings: Ìnexpensive, easy to install in
precast products. Handling equipment (slings) is standard, readily
available and uncomplicated. No problems with spalling, no holes
made through the product.
Disadvantages: rane/fork lift operator must have substantial
experience. Slings can fray and need to be regularly inspected. an
only be used for rectangular shapes, such as septic tanks and small
utility vaults.
SeIection Tips
Selection of proper anchors for lifting precast concrete products
requires consideration of a number of factors including the type of
load, type of lift, concrete thickness, reinforcement, ease of
attachment to product, compliance with safety requirements, ease
of use by rigger during final installation and cost. Precasters should
consider the following factors when determining the load per insert:
O Weight of the concrete shape.
O Weight of form, if product will be lifted before concrete
product is stripped.
O Adhesion to the form surface.
O Type of concrete (normal, light weight, etc.).
O Dynamic loads (impact due to handling, transport or
erecting conditions).
O oncrete compressive strength at time of initial lift.
O Number of lifting points and type of rigging to be used.
O Direction of pull (cable or sling angle).
O Flexural stresses of thin concrete shapes.
O Panel or product thickness.
O Edge distance (thin wall, free edge or shear loading
Removing a precast concrete product from its form can create
additional loads that effectively increase the dead load of the item.
Forces due to adhesion will vary with different form release agents.
One insert manufacturer recommends using the following loads
when determining adhesion forces (additional dead load) for a
precast item:
O oncrete Forms 20 lbs./sq. ft.
O Steel Forms 25 lbs./sq. ft.
O Plywood Forms 50 lbs./sq. ft. (Flat Surface)
O Plywood Forms 75 lbs./sq. ft. (Ribbed Surface)
Detailed calculations should be made by an engineer to determine
the loads for each insert.
Ease of Use by Precast Concrete Producer
Lifting inserts should be simple and straightforward for the precast
concrete worker to install into a product. Secure attachment to the
steel reinforcement or to the formwork is essential. Ìnserts must not
shift or move during concrete placement. Welding of manufactured
precast concrete accessories is not recommended. Detailed
knowledge of materials, heat treatment and welding procedures is
required for structural welding. Simple tack welding can damage
iron castings, cause carbides and extreme brittleness near the weld
point, and may destroy most of a casting's load value.
Recessed anchors can be advantageous because they are easily
grouted in after the concrete product is installed. Recessing
products provide several functions. They can fasten the anchors to
the formwork, protect the anchor head from seeping concrete, and
form a void that is shaped to receive the rigging attachment (hook,
ring clutch, etc.). Recessing products are available in steel/iron,
flexible/reusable foams, disposable plastic and reusable plastic.
Recessing products can be attached to formwork with a holding rod
or bayonet assembly, a holding plate, screws/wingnuts or nails.
They also can be suspended from temporary cross supports or tied
to reinforcing steel.
Some commercial precast concrete lifting systems use special
lifting hooks, ring clutches or other devices. These products may
add to the convenience and safety of the system. Unfortunately,
these special handling devices may be expensive. Ìt can be a
nuisance and an additional expense if workers misplace or abuse
these items.
Impact on Finished Concrete Product
Once safety concerns are resolved, product quality is a top priority.
Lifting inserts and anchors should not create spalling problems and
should have minimal patching requirements. Ìf watertightness or
vacuum testing is required of a precast concrete product, lifting
inserts should not adversely compromise the manhole, septic tank
or other product.
Aesthetics are a primary concern for many precast products,
especially architectural wall panels. Anchors and inserts should be
installed in discrete locations and patching should be minimal.
Anchors are generally inserted into the ends of these panels.
ost is always a priority in the competitive business world.
alculating the costs of lifting inserts, anchors and systems is not
simple. Some of the many factors influencing cost include design of
the anchor and lifting system, initial cost of the anchor, labor costs
to install, costs to handle product after casting, handling costs for
final installation of the product, losses due to damage, and patching
and repair costs.
Review Your Lifting Systems
Most lifting inserts, anchors and lifting systems have been tried and
true for years. Nevertheless, it may be worthwhile to review the
systems at your facility to make certain, for example, that inserts
comply with OSHA, ANSÌ, ASTM or equivalent anadian
requirements or to find ways to reduce damage during handling of
precast products by revamping your lifting inserts.
Call NPCA at (800) 366-7731 for the following resources:
O A list of manufacturers who produce lifting inserts.
O Detailed information on designing lifting inserts.
O $afety videos relating to material handling and cranes.

OSHA: U.S. Department of Labor (OccupationaI Safety
and HeaIth Administration)
ode of Federal Regulations (FR) Title 29 (1990 Revision)
Section 1926.704 states:
(c) Lifting inserts which are embedded or otherwise attached to
precast concrete members, other than the tilt-up members, shall be
capable of supporting at least four times the maximum intended
load applied or transmitted to them.
(d) Lifting hardware shall be capable of supporting at least five
times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to the
lifting hardware.
(e) No employee shall be permitted under precast concrete
members being lifted or tilted into position except those employees
required for the erection of those members.
ode of Federal Regulations (FR) Title 29 (1990 Revision)
Section 1926.704 states: (a)(4) Special custom design grabs,
hooks, clamps, or other lifting accessories, for such units as
modular panels, prefabricated structures and similar materials, shall
be marked to indicate the safe working loads and shall be proof-
tested prior to use to 125 percent of their rated load.
ode of Federal Regulations (FR) Title 29 (1990 Revision)
Section 1926.251 states :
(c)(1) Tables H-3 through H-14 shall be used to determine the safe
working loads of various sizes and classifications of improved plow
steel wire rope and wire rope slings with various types of terminals.
For sizes, classifications, and grades not included in these tables,
the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer for
specific, identifiable products shall be followed, provided that a
safety factor of not less than 5 is maintained.

ANSI: American NationaI Standards Institute
Standard A10.9-1983: oncrete and Masonry Work - Safety
9. Precast oncrete
9.3 Handling and Erection
9.3.3 Lifting hardware shall be designed to
provide sufficient strength to withstand the
imposed loads with a factor of safety of at least 5.
Embedded inserts used in precast concrete
elements or precast, prestressed concrete shall
have a minimum safety factor of 4 and shall be
used in the manner described in manufacturers'
Standard A10.5-1992: Safety Requirements for Material Hoists
14.1 Breaking Strength. All hoisting rope shall be
of such a breaking strength as to provide a
minimum factor of safety of 7.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and MateriaIs
ASTM 1227-97 - Standard Practice for Precast oncrete Septic
6.1.5 Ìnserts embedded in the concrete shall be
designed for an ultimate load that is four times
the working load (Factor of Safety = 4).
6.5 Lift equipment shall be designed for an
ultimate load that is five times the working load
(Factor of Safety = 5).
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