THE BULLDOG.
A MONOGRAPH
THIRD EDITION.

BY

EDGAR FARMAN,
Honorary Member of the Bulldog Club (Incorporated), &c.

THE " KKNNKL GAZETTE," 7,' GRAFTON
1903.

LONDO N: STREET, BOND STREET, W,

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humanity. devoted solely to the most barbarous and infamous purposes.— "BRITISH FIELD SPORTS. . has no claim upon utility." 1818.The Bulldog. or common sense. and the total extinction of the breed is a desirable consummation. the real blackguard of his species.

ESQUIRE. LONDON. . I DEDICATE THIS BOOK AS A MARK OF MY ESTEEM.TO MY FRIEND JOHN WILLIAM ROSS. PALL MALL.

which has existed for a quarter of a century. This equally applies to the history of the Bulldog Club Incorporated. and especially by the inclusion of the first report of the proceedings of the Club. The illustrations have been selected with the view of including portraits of the more typical Bulldogs of the century. I have in the chapter dealing with the illustrations given further particulars supplementary to the information given at the foot of each. from the days when bull-baiting was a flourishing form of sport down to this. had never been published. ENCOURAGED by the reception that my previous literary efforts on behalf of the National breed have received. until the articles written by me during my Honorary Editorship of the Kennel Gazette appeared in that journal.TO THE F I R S T EDITION. which will be of great interest to past as well as to present members. in the hope that its pages will be found useful for reference as an historical and practical volume upon the English Bulldog. which. . and will supply a gap in its history. I have undertaken the production of the present work. Since these articles appeared. its closing year. It has been my endeavor to deal with the subject in such a way that this single volume may embrace information until now scattered in many quarters. I have been able to augment the information they contained in several important particulars.

G. The production of the volume has necessarily entailed considerable labour and research. As a work upon Bulldogs without reference to Toy Bulldogs and their recent introduction to the show bench would be incomplete. November. which latter contains references to the page where each illustration can be found. in addition to the general index and the chapter dealing with the illustrations. I have added such details. and if the perusal of the book proves interesting to the reader I shall consider myself amply repaid for any trouble expended in its preparation. Mr. Berrie. Mr. and Mr. separate indices have been supplied of all the persons and dogs mentioned in the volume. and especially I wish to acknowledge the aid thus given by Mr. I have traced their history from the Bull-baiting and dog-fighting era down to the commencement of the dog showing period. Richards. Sam Woodiwiss. Cyril F.Preface. Mr. in a way that I hope may prove interesting to the general reader. I have added a chapter concerning these diminutive representatives of the breed. I have also to thank all those who have kindly lent me photographs for reproduction. . Alfred George. Jackson. In order to facilitate ready reference. W. and from those days until now. W. James "W. EDGAR FARMAN. The Kennel Club. Crowther. both with regard to strains and pedigrees. but the labour has been expended upon a breed I have been devoted to for many years. In dealing with the Bulldogs themselves. and to notable owners as will make the book helpful for future reference. Mr. I desire to express my sincere thanks to all those who have in any way assisted by supplying me with or affording me the opportunity of obtaining information. 1899. Frank W.

The chapters requiring additions have been brought up to date.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. I take this opportunity of sincerely thanking many friends and unknown to me. personally organs of the Press who have in kindly labours. THE demand for copies of this work resulting second edition early in in the need to for a the the year is naturally gratifying Author. terms expressed appreciation of my EDGAR FARMAN. . and also the many other readers. KENNEL CLUB DECEMBER. and I am able to publish some interesting additions to the chapter comprising the historical sketch of the Bulldog. 1900. as evidencing that the contents of these pages have proved of use to those interested in the national breed.

OCTOBER." EDGAR FARMAN. confining its chapters to the dog. since the second edition was published. 1903. I have. .PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. THE KENNEL CLUB. which has. IN publishing.the third edition of this work I have taken the opportunity of presenting it in a modified form. a breed. and who do not agree with the writer in British Field Sports a century ago who declared that " the total extinction of the breed is a desirable consummation." with illustrations. added a chapter on the " French Bulldog. which has already appeared in the two previous editions. and omitting the history of the Bulldog Club. I again thank all those who have expressed their approval of my endeavors to present a work both of use and interest to all who regard the national breed as one which should be perpetuated. become established in this country through the formation of a Club to foster its interests. however.

Old Fanciers. Hints to Novices—How to choose a Bull-pup CHAPTER X. The Bulldog as Dog Fighter CHAPTER III. PAGE THE BULLDOG CHAPTER I. APPENDICES. and Old Dogs CHAPTER IV. Toy Bulldogs CHAPTER VIII.CONTENTS. Modern Bulldogs—The Principal Strains CHAPTER VI. Description of a Bulldog and Scale of Points CHAPTER VII. Bulldog Clubs and Societies General Index Index to the Names of Persons Index to the Names of Dogs 83 89 87 93 . The French Bulldog CHAPTER IX. Historical Sketch of the Bulldog—Bull and Bear Baiting CHAPTER II. PART I. The Illustrations 66 61 57 51 44 33 30 25 20 1 PART II. Early Dog Shows—Bulldog Classification CHAPTER V.

THE BULLDOG.
CHAPTER I.
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE BULLDOG—BULL AND BEAR BAITING.

THE origin of the Bulldog, as is the case with most of the ancient breeds of dogs, has given rise to much speculation ; authorities differ entirely upon the question, so much so that the very definition of the name itself is in dispute, some writers suggesting that the breed derives its name, not from its use in bull-baiting, but from the bulllike shape of the head.* The Bulldog is first mentioned in literature, in the year 1500, the oldest spelling of the word is Bonddogge** and Bolddogge*** ; while Dr Caius (1576) uses the term Bandogge§, " so called, " says William Harrison, in his "Description of England" (Ed. 1586), "because many of them are tied up in chains and strong bonds in the day time for doing hurt abroad, which is an huge dog, stubborn, ugly, eager, burthenouse of bodie (and therefore of little swiftness), terrible and fearful to behold, and oftentimes more fierce and fell than any Archadiart or Corsican cur. Our * New English Dictionary; article, Bulldog. ** W. Wulcher (1500), Hic molossus—a Bonddogge. *** Cocke Sorrelles (1500), " Than come one with two Bolddogges at his tayle." § Dr Caius's " Treatise on the Dog." graves."

Englishmen, to the intent that these dogs may be more cruel and fierce, assist nature with some art, use, and customs. For although this kind of dog be capable of courage, violent, valiant, stout, and bold, yet will they increase these their stomachs by teaching them to bait the bear, the bull, the lion, and other such like cruell and bloudie beasts (either brought over or kept up at home for the same purpose), without any collar to defend their throats, and oftentimes thereto they train them up in fighting and wrestling with a man (having for the safeguard of his life, either a pike, staff, club, sword, or privie coat), whereby they become more fierce and cruel to strangers.' Dr Caius in his description, amongst other characteristics, states that the Mastive or Banddogge is "serviceable against the fox and the badger, to drive wild and tame swine out of meadows, pastures, glebelandes, and places planted with fruit, to bite and take the bull by the ears, when occasion so requireth." The Bandog is only once mentioned by Shakespeare, the instance occurring in the second part of King Henry VI., act 1, scene 4: " The time when screech-owles cry and bandogs howie, And spirits walk, and ghosts break up their

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Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. the " Allan of Chaucer," a dog highly extolled by that poet, as of great size, strength and courage, and used in the chase of " the lion and the bear." * The name of this longextinct breed was variously written Alan Alande, Alant, Alaune, Alaunus, Alaunt, and Allan. Cotgrave, in his French-English Dictionary, published in 1632, mentions the Allan de boucherie as being " like our Mastive, and serves butchers to bring in fierce oxen, and to keep their stalls." Edmond de Langley, Duke of York, and fourth of the seven sons of Edward III. was master of the game and of the hawks to Henry IV., and wrote a highly valuable treatise entitled the "Mayster of Game." The manuscript gives most interesting descriptions of dogs, wild animals of the chase and hunting. In this work Langley subdivides the Alaunt into three classes, as follows:— " Alaunt is a maner and natre of hounds, and the good Alauntz ben the which men clepyn Alauntz gentil. Other there byn that men clepyn Alauntz ventreres. Others byn Alauntz of the bocherie, they that be gentile shuld be made and shape as a greyhounde, evyn of alle thinges, sauf of the heved, the whiche should be greet and short." Of the second class, he says :— " That other nature of Alauntz is clepid ventreres, almost thei bene shapon as a greyhounde of full shap, thei hav grete hedes, and greet lipes, and greet eers. And with such, men helpeth him at the baityng of a boole, and at huntynge of a wild boor. Thei holde faste of here nature." Lastly:—"The Alauntz of the bocherie, such as ye may alle daie see in good tounes, that byn called greet bochers houndes. Thie * Chaucer's "Knight's Tale."

The first mention of the Bulldog, with an approach to its modern spelling is found, as far as can be traced, in a letter quoted by Jesse, contained in the Record Office, dated 1631, or 1632, and written from St. Sebastian by Brest wick Eaton, to George Willingham, of St. Swithin's Lane, London. The letter is a familiar one, asking that several things may be forwarded to him, amongst those enumerated being " a good Mastive dogge," his case of bottles " replenished with the best lickour," and "pray," said he, " procure me two good Bulldoggs, and let them be sent by ye first ship." In another letter Eaton thanks his correspondent for another "dog, " and asks that a couple more may be sent. " Let them," he writes, " be good at the bull and cost what they will, but let them be fair and good curs; they are not for myself but for friends, that, I must rely upon if occasion should offer ;" for his part he has other employments; " therefore, good brother, procure them at the bear-garden —they are better esteemed, and go farther than a greater present." These letters are specially interesting from several points of view, notably, that at this comparatively early date, the Mastiff is mentioned in the same letter as if the breed was distinct from the Bulldog ; and further, that the British Bulldog was appreciated by the bull-fighting dons of Spain. The antiquity of the Bulldog has long been a matter of keen controversy between the rival partisans of the Mastiff and the National breed. In 1871 a correspondence was originated by E. W. R. (Mr E. Rockstro), an ardent admirer of the Mastiff, in the columns of The Field, which led to a warm discussion, but without producing the slightest definite result. It is now generally admitted that both breeds had a common origin, in the " Alaunt" of the old writers,

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. byn good for the baytyng of the bulle and huntyng of the wild boore. on this much-disputed point. It is quite one of the oldest known breeds. seems peculiar to England. He selected a Bulldog for the purpose of crossing with his greyhounds. small eyne. 3 man—in fact. almost amounting to certainty.. ye v'ray (true) hue of ye good Alauntz yat is most common. to enable the dog when running directly to the front to grasp the bull." It will be noted that in this description of the " Alaunt " are embraced three characteristics which distinguish the English Bulldog of the present day. and white slondying eres. The plan was much ridiculed at the time.. It was about this period that Hume had remarked... The lower jaw being very thick and strong gives to the mouth an appearance of curving . to give him a firmer hold. however.." * From the descriptions given by early writers. a large and massive head. par excellence. and when he attacked an animal he hung on. can be considered as the indigenous dog of Britain.. It belongs purely to this country. although this remark no longer applies.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog.. should be white with a blak spot a bout ye eerys. First as to the extreme antiquity of the Bulldog... but he persevered. having in mind the work he was called to perform. believing this would have the desired effect. He commenced by selecting one of the smooth rat-tailed bulldogs of the time.. and a broad mouth. he was remarkable for his high courage.. but the courage and indomitable perseverance remained. much to the benefit of the breed. and his efforts were ultimately crowned with success. The under jaw projects beyond the upper.. without a Bulldog as his companion. but that the probability. and it is looked upon by foreigners as emblematical of an English* Hume's Essays and Treatises. John Bull is never considered completely represented anywhere. and determination.. Whatever room for doubt exists. crossing it with one of his Greyhound bitches. or either. As I have said. and. there can be no difference of opinion on two points. It is also proved that he was used in bull-baiting." He particularises the Alaunt as a breed " ye heud ye wiche should be great and short. After six or seven generations all vestige of the Bulldog had disappeared. and with various species of dog the Bulldog has in bygone times been crossed to give them the necessary courage.. we gather then that the Bulldog possessed the characteristics of a short muzzle. tenacity. when fixed. short and thick head and short muzzle.. 1T77. Towards the close of last century. " The courage of Bulldogs . when expatriated in the remote past it has deteriorated surely and rapidly. Any beest yat he might come to he should hold with his sesurcs and nought leave it. bethought himself how ho could remedy the deficiency in courage which at that time had obtained among Greyhounds. for an Alaunt of his nature holdeth faster his biting yan should three gree houndes. and secondly as to its indisputable right to the honour of being considered the national dog.. lie had a large... it is a matter of pure speculation whether the Bulldog or the Mastiff. The necessity for these qualifications. Lord Orford.. and thouze ther Alauntes of all hewes. is that both breeds were derived from the Alaunt or Allan... an ardent courser. in either our own or foreign comic papers. wheder it be with greihoundes at the tryst or with rennyng houndes at abbay with inne the covcrte. is obvious.

as is sometimes the case. not only could a smaller dog do the work as well. It is rather difficult to identify exactly the breed depicted. or a cross between the two." A reproduction was subsequently published in "The Dogs of the British Islands. but there is one. A. "F. but I certainly cannot * " F. princes. which Mr Adcock described as "A wild boar attacked by two Bulldogs. one a red-smut and the other a brindle-pied. Adcock) sent to the editor of that journal a copy of the picture from a painting by A. One of the earliest. country . gentlemen. " The dogs in this picture arc certainly larger than the modern Bulldog. both in form and in their method of attack. During the discussion in The Field to which reference has already been made.. It will have been already seen what were the chief points looked for in the breed in the " good old times. the latter must have been at least 80 to 1001b in weight each. so as to allow free passage of the air into the nostrils whilst " holding " on to the bull. for very few drawings or engravings of the Bulldogs of the olden time have come down to us. Another subject which has caused much discussion and division of opinion is the matter of size. the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed. but of medium size.4 Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. have this defective formation. Honduis. and there can be no doubt that these are the kind of dogs described by Dr. Of the " points " of the modern Bulldog it is unnecessary for me to speak here. "When modern Bulldogs. and even hip loyal consort. In bull-baiting. assumes that they were pure Bulldogs. of which no true Bulldog could ever have been guilty. shown as flying at the hindquarters of the bear.' * who kindly lent the original for engraving." when the Bulldog was kept by all classes of society." upwards across the middle of the face. but several of the dogs are something like Bulldogs. peers. the result would be that a large dog would be infinitely more likely to fall a victim to the bull's horns than would a smaller one." with the note. It is evident that did the mouth not project beyond the nose. by Richard Pynson. and when bull and bear baiting were the "sports" of every grade. A. ' F. but. probably much better than a large one. with the short head approved by the author of the " Mayster of Game." and represents the baiting of a bear. the other advocating the claims of a large skulled dog. as in attacking the dog usually approached the bull crawling upon his belly along the ground. but there is no proof adduced of the strain to which they belonged." Here again the original purpose for which the Bulldog was bred should be borne in mind. a lache. made in 1635. and the breathing would be stopped. and had both jaws and nose been level. the apprentice. Caius in 1576. appears in Berjeau's " Book of Dogs. the delight and diversion of the king." (Mr F. one side placing its faith in a large and lumbering dog. of the date 1521. from forty to fifty pounds in weight. as much like a Bulldog as any of them. under the name of Mastyne or Banddogge. and the peasant. A. merchants. they are "frog faced" as it is termed. Unfortunately we have to rely almost entirely upon tradition and description. they will be found fully dealt with in another portion of this work. The top of the nose inclines backwards." wrote " Judging from the relative sizes of the boar and dogs in the picture." by " Stonehenge. and they might be either pure Bulldog of that day or pure Mastiff. and humbler citizens. one would imagine.

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but that. the artist was rarely. admit that point without some hesitation. and occasionally the lion. teachable . however. As a recent writer has remarked : * " Like children. it was always doubtful whether a bull terrier would seize the head or the heel. and had an eye rather to " artistic effect" than to accurate portrayal. dogs have their mental characters formed by their training and associations. especially his forward attack and holding powers. " whilst another writer declares :—" In temper the Bulldog will bear comparison with any breed of dog.' if therefore a dog is treated by man as though it were a fiend incarnate. others as stupidly amiable. for. as " Stonehenge " himself suggests. and authorities are not even united on the question of his temperament and mental powers. One writer says :—" He is uncertain. until excited by a sudden noise or accidental blow . he bears any amount of punishment without uttering a sound. although the halfbred dog might almost equal the genuine animal in courage. he was selected to bait the bear. and used in the most cruel and dangerous occupations. to be ruled with the harshest measures.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. page 226. he invariably goes at the head of his adversary . 5 ought to be looked upon as an invaluable animal for instilling courage and endurance into any description of dog requiring such properties. in a general way. who takes a pride in its ferocity. by direct or partial crosses. fastening without visible provocation on the master whom he has been fondling." it would tax the knowledge of many an up-to-date expert to express an absolute opinion as to the breed of some of the canines therein depicted. that they are very rarely. if ever. especially. although different individuals have different dispositions or temperaments it is not to be imagined that they have different natures. that they are not safely to be trusted . but of animals.' " In dealing with this question of temper." * Looking at the engraving it is certainly most difficult to distinguish the breed absolutely. is it to be * British Dogs. From everything connected with Bulldogdom. Some describe him as ferocious. The dogs again appear to be cross-bred. not only of mankind. To his master. they are gentle and quiet in their demeanour. his weight and size have before now divided experts into rival camps. and in such well-known pictures as "The Baited Bull broke loose" and the " Bull broke loose. and he will not ' let go ' until he is killed or made insensible by strangulation. It has been truly said ' the god of the dog is man . He is pre-eminent amongst the canine race for the following qualities :—He attacks silently . the bull. controversy seems almost inseparable. The Bulldog's origin is a subject of dispute. and certainly * Dogs of the British Islandn. if ever. a cynophile." Stonehenge* says:—"Experience has shown us that these dogs are not capable of much attachment. Even in more modern times. to have all the good feelings of its nature crushed by its master. . In those early days of canine portraiture. he is a capital guard or watch dog. and obedient. A dog of this breed is not quarrelsome. it must not be forgotten how large a place education and environment occupy in forming the character. and. and those he knows he is amiable. and (as a celebrated old ' bullbaiter' impressed upon us some years ago) ' pinning is winning' when you loose a dog at a bull. loving. For these properties.

and the poor Bulldog. and Farmer's Dictionary. the tiger-like shortness of the head. Ho writes f:—" A Bulldog. the doubtful and designing leer of the eye. wondered at that the poor beast. for the sickening scenes of barbarous cruelty that were to be witnessed in the baiting dens and dog pits of that era rendered the " sport" utterly revolting to an age beginning to pride itself upon its refinement and humanity. While that barbarous amusement continued in vogue. Gentleman. ." by William Augustus Osbaldeston. Osbaldeston * describes the Bulldog as:— " One of the most fierce and strong of the canine race. nothing short of the loss of life or the giving way of the part can disengage them. is not any more flattering to the subject of his pen. + " The Sporting Dictionary and Rural Repostory of General Information upon every subject. 1803. The breed is in a manner peculiar to England. or Nobleman. appertaining to The Sports of the Field. especially from the time that bull-baiting ceased to be a fashionable pastime until the close of that still more degenerate period in the early years of the present century. but ever since the savage custom of bull-baiting has happily been on the decline it has suffered neglect. having the nose short.6 Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. when a lower depth of brutality than bull-baiting had been reached. the width of the scull. writing eleven years later." By William Taplin. should appear to merit the bad character assigned to it by those only who fear it." The Bulldog undoubtedly suffered considerably from its association with the lower classes of the community. various instances of savage fortitude have occured in the feats of this breed. and there is scarcely an account of the Bulldog written at that epoch which does not bear witness to the writer's estimate of the Bulldog's moral turpitude and intel* British Field Sports. by W. forms to the eye of timidity a most terrific appearance. the underhung jaw. a matter to which I shall have again to refer later. A revulsion of taste had set in amongst the more refined. and the almost constant sight of the teeth hold forth a very emphatic specimen of * " British Sportsman. Scott." * Current opinion found expression in the literature of the day. Such is the strength and ferocity of these animals. Writing in 1792. 1818. and when they are turned loose on a bull. the distension of the nostrils. that four of them have been known to master a lion. lectual worthlessness. which would scarcely be credited in countries where the diversions are more rational and elegant. H. and the under jaw larger than the upper. 1792. reaped much of the obloquy that rightly should have fallen upon his master alone." and his entire extinction was desiderated as a " consummation devoutly to be wished. the wideness of the forehead. the humble minister to his owner's brutal instincts. Incidentally he refers to the decline in the number of Bulldogs reared. and the bloodthristy " sport" of dog fighting was the entertainment provided for the lowest residuum of the canine fancy. He was marked out as "the blackguard of his species. though inoffensive and harmless when properly domesticated. At the close of the eighteenth and the early years of the nineteenth century the Bulldog was almost entirely in the hands of the roughest classes. As to the temperament of the Bulldog of the present day. which survives the hardening process." Taplin. and have once properly seized him. he is quite a docile creature.

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is almost peculiar to England. "I will not say anything about the goodness of this breed . although in those days. either in town or country . A. Bingley. is. cut off all the four feet of his dog. and the dog continued to seize the bull as eagerly as it did before it had been subjected to this inhuman barbarity. the owners. as well as the Mastiff. strength. and when once he has fixed his bite. and the experiment tried. that he would." . thanks to * " Memoirs of British Quadrupeds. refers to the decline in numbers. on the Bulldog. A newspaper of the year 1310 records that a London butcher took a Bullbitch and her puppies to a bullbaiting. Occasionally they were to be obtained in London and Birmingham—the latter place and the "Black Country " generally having a kindly feeling towards such animals. the power they possess when that power is angrily brought into action. The Bulldog. The natural ferocity.M. in consequence of the gradual decline of bullbaiting and the great number taken abroad. and thirst for blood in this animal rendered them a formidable nuisance in their unrestrained state. at separate times. now on the decline. as every writer upon the subject bears similar testimony. 7 the increasing humanity and civilization of the people. who * Idstone—" The Dog. specimens of a coarse though courageous sort were in the hands of prizefighters and coachmen. At a bull-baiting in the north of England. This ferocious practice." He then let the bitch at the bull. 1809. a young man laid some trifling wager.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. for many of which very great prices were obtained. W. which must have been very marked at this time.* About the year 1840 very few thoroughbred examples existed. Many of these comparatively early specimens were disfigured by cropping. however. He is oftentimes fierce and cruel. states that in 1824 the breed was said to be degenerating." the noted Oxford whip. The breed is by no means so numerous as formerly. you shall see. and it was not uncommon to find them with their ears cleanly shaved off their heads. Two or three instances may be cited which illustrate both the courage of the dogs and the fiendish cruelty practised by their owners at the beginning of the present century." by the Rev. and consequently Bulldogs are at present much less numerous than they were formerly. and seems to possess very little of the generosity and disposition so remarkable and so celebrated in dog species. and the breed seems to have been chiefly encouraged for the baiting of bulls. and they are now seldom seen at their full liberty. His description is as follows * :—" The Bulldog is remarkable for the undaunted and savage pertinacity with which he will provoke and continue a combat with other animals. The wager was accepted. and often without that discrimination of persons or animals which we observe in most other dogs. from a proper fear of the law. His estimate of the animal itself is not higher than that usually entertained by his contemporaries. and said. He frequently makes his attack without giving the least previous warning. ' Black Will.* in his remarks on the Bulldog." A third writer of this period. finding it most prudent to keep them properly confined. being amongst the most celebrated of the breeders. it is not without extreme difficulty that he can be disengaged from his antagonist. and fifty years before." Idstone. in his remarks. and that after each mutilation it would attack the bull.

still fought upon the stumps. A well-informed writer observes that most " fanciers " of Bulldogs know more about other breeds than the authorities on other breeds know about Bulldogs. now its cruel occupation is hopelessly abandoned. " who. and as a guard unequalled. as may readily be proved by any one who will take the trouble to treat him in a proper manner. and like the hero in the ballad of Chevy Chase. and had now scarcely a tooth in her head. and as soon as he limped bleeding into his arms. declaring that it would still pin the bull. yet that disaster was an event of extreme probability about sixty years ago. rendering him the staunchest and most reliable companion. although she was very old. When we recollect. The high courage and indifference to pain which enabled the Bulldog to limp with dismembered limbs to pin the bull at the command of his master. &c. and as " Stonehenge " still remains one of the greatest of these. but when treated differently the Bulldog is a very different animal. The fairest way of judging of a man is to speak of him as you find him. and who can know more about a dog than his keeper ? But it has been those who did not keep Bulldogs that took upon themselves to condemn the breed. Certainly the more merciful action of the two. I may summarise what he had to say about the Bulldog in his day. Another man then cut off his dog's legs. and scarcely ever saw a specimen of the breed. Its chief virtues they misrepresented as unpardonable faults. and his master then called him off. the uses to which the Bulldog was put for so many generations. From confinement in their kennels they frequently are deficient in intelligence. All the chief authorities testify to the good qualities and the good temper of the Bulldog. for every kind of dog possessed of very high courage owes it to a cross with the Bulldog. and that his character was painted in the darkest colours by those ignorant persons who never owned. His mental qualities may be highly cultivated. The dog at once did so. and have adopted that breed only after a long experience of the others.8 Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. therefore. and subsequently the sort of people who owned him. and she never quitted her hold until dead. cut off his head. it is not surprising that his temper suffered. the brutal nature which he often displays being mainly attributable to the savage human beings with whom he associates. and in brute courage and unyielding tenacity of purpose he stands unrivalled amongst quadrupeds. yet this is not natural to him any more than is stupidity or want of affection. If the brain of the Bulldog is weighed against the body of the dog. He then cut her to pieces with a hedge-bill. Bulldogs were about that pinned him. There was immediately a great demand for the whelps. could so quietly endure. when his legs were smitten off. and one most capable of being taught. not only the most courageous dog. He also urges with truth that he is far from quarrelsome." also enable the dog. the best means of infusing fresh courage into degenerate breeds will be finally lost. it will be found relatively above the average. He has been described as stupidly ferocious. and " Stonehenge " rightly asserts that this is untrue. which were all sold before he left the place at five guineas a-piece. If once the pure breed is allowed to drop. but I cannot agree with his further statement that he is an excellent watch dog. to suffer patiently trials which no other breed . There is now no possibility that the purity of the breed will be lost. but the most courageous animal in the world.

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A writer upon this point says : " The Bulldog exhibits that adaptation to the uses to which he is rendered subservient which we see in every race of dogs. and an amble. without fairly representing either. The short and immensely powerful body swings between the Bulldog's out-turned shoulders." kept only to bait the bear and wild boar. "though glorying in our admiration of the breed. and the result is an action which partakes of the elements of a 9 rush. the practise was introduced as early as the reign of King John of baiting the domesticated bull and other animals. nay. and we have only to suppose the peculiar character of the animal called forth from generation to generation by selection." The general appearance of a Bulldog now-adays is that of a comparatively small animal. such as Sheffield. is not the strong point of the Bulldog." describes his walk as almost indescribable in its ungainliness. in hia 2 . for which a distinct breed of dogs would be exclusively kept. in his excellent work. The training of bulls. his high hindlegs appear to be pushing his chest out between his forelegs." and "fine looking. and many of the beau monde would be proud of such a long line of ancestry. After the wild oxen of the woods were destroyed. and the bull especially owing to the peculiarity of its mode of combat." he says. cannot but admit that its paces are the incarnation of all that is clumsy. "We ourselves. to be assured that a true breed would be formed. with the body gracefully tapering off towards the stern. and thus the breed of dogs suited to this end was preserved. and the East end of London. and other animals for the purpose of baiting them with dogs was certainly practised by the jugglers who were introduced into England by her Norman conquerors. so in the Bulldog we look for higher qualities than mere comeliness. But now." Beauty. whilst the peculiar formation of his stifles and hocks scarcely permit him to raise his hind feet off the ground. bears. had become extinct owing to the cessation of its employment. so that at first Bight one is impressed with the combination of strength and activity which the Bulldog possesses in a greater degree than does any other breed of dogs. As we leave human beauty to the fair sex. the tide of fashion smiles on the once disfavoured Bulldog. of immense power. one hears him called ' quaint. however. the " Book of the Dog. to a large extent. after the manner of all things animate and inanimate. Vero Shaw." and fair enthusiasts even venture to affirm that he is " beautiful. hailed from the working classes. very heavy for his size.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. centuries after his larger and coarser brother. " Allan Vantre. time very rarely to be seen. with increased care up to our own times. and Birmingham. and of great squareness of head. This has been so in a remarkable degre in the case of the Bulldog. And to these we really owe the preservation of our national dog in its purity and with its long genealogy. whether looked at from in front or in profile. and are more than contented that the mere man shall be simply manly. a shuffle. caused bull-baiting to become an attractive sport from a very early period." Strutt. cultivated. as specimens of the breed were sparinglyjnreserved and only to be met with occasionally in a few large towns of England. there is a growing appreciation of his merits. among publicans and fanciers who. Our leading Bulldogs can trace their descent through very many generations. and instead of the epithets of "hideous brute " being applied to him. horses.

and his nose blown full of beaten pepper. In 1515. Then the steward cause proclamation to be made." was written in 1171. whence it appears to have heen customary for every person. " Ursum et VI canes ad nrsum. under the sanction of the corporation as early at * Ellis's Introduction to Doomsday Book. . " the people proceeded in a body to the church. pursued one of the bulls. (1327). his ears and tail cut off. " Sports and Pastimes. standing upon the castle walls of Stamford. but if the bull gets into Derbyshire sound and uncut he * Brayley's History of Surrey. who. in Staffordshire. for a common to the butchers of the town. The sight so pleased the Earl that he gave all the meadows where the duel between the bulls first began. several persons were " elected to bayt the bull" on the Monday after the feast of St Martin's or pay a penalty of twenty shillings each. The Duke of Devonshire held the manor or priory lands by turning out a bull for baiting by the inhabitants. and if any of them can hold him so long as to cut off however small a portion of his hair before it can make its way across the river into Derbyshire. shall give way to the bull. being maddened with the noise and clamour of the multitude. great and small. Surrey. which informs us that " in the forenoon of every holiday during the winter season. and whose "Description of the City of London. Dr Plot. after which proclamation the Prior's bailiff turns out the bull among the minstrels. the young Londoners were amused with bears opposed to each other in battle. who lived in the reign of Henry II. least as Edward III. but from other sources we learn that quite as early as Henry II. or with bulla and full grown bears baited by dogs.10 Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. ran clean through the town. in his " "Natural History of Stafford shire." he says. " gives an account of the later usage concerning this tenure: On the appointed day.'s time (1154) the baiting of bulls and bears by dogs was a popular amusement. Norwich. except minstrels. made payment to the King and to the Earl for. afterwards known as the Castle Meadows. nor hinder the minstrels in their pursuit of him. among other things. the service over.i bull to be baited. and not come within forty foot of him at their own peril. that all manner of persons. There are several memoranda in the Black Book.. and. on condition that they found a mad bull the day six weeks before Christmas day for the continuance of that sport every year. which the bailiff of the manor is obliged to provide. saw in an adjacent meadow two bulls fighting for the possession of a cow. till all the butchers' dogs of the town. and is there to have the tips of his horns sawed off." a bear and six bear dogs. The Earl. then he is the minstrels' bull." quotes a passage from Fitz-Stephen. dined.* In the reign of John (1209) we find from the " Survey of Stamford " that the then Earl of Surrey. without any manner of weapons. his body smeared all over with soap. attending the turning out of the bull. After dinner all the minstrels repair to the Priory gate in Tutbury. on becoming a member of the corporation to provide a breakfast for his brethren and . introduced bull-baiting into the latter town under the following circumstances. from 1371 until 177s. in the time of Edward the Contessor (1050). Shows of bull-baiting were provided for the populace of Guildford.* Hullrunning and boll-baiting were followed as an annual custom at Tutbury. wbo was also Lord of Stamford." The accuracy of this statement has been disputed.

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and earnestly do I pray to Almighty God that. a townsman named Staverton. of all men the least unmoved. in Oxfordshire. Martin's Church. in some towns. In Canterbury the market place was known in Edward IV. among'other privileges. the charge being paid out of the poor rates. in revenge left by will property to buy a bull for ever for the poor of the town to bait and eat. at Bury St. the second in honour of the town. " Two useful animals. in the reign of a most pious and benevolent prince. was introduced into this country in the reign of a had king. 11 for bull-baiting ceased at Wokingham shortly after this date. bull-baiting was carried on in what is said to have been once a Roman amphitheatre. and the third for the King of the minstrels. Hutton. and so brought to the bull ring in the high street. It is unnecessary to mention further the names of more provincial towns at which the "sport" was practised. In 1802 the Rev. At Banbury. Barry. and sometimes even bears. in 1661. Edmunds. said. Subsequently a second hull was provided for baiting. about 15:><». 1801. because he was once chased by a bull. for probably at one time every town in England. can both inflict and witness cruelties. hears the name of the Bull Ring. for some service rendered to the lord of the manor. for the flesh of a baited bull was universally considered to be much more tender and nutritious than that of animals slaughtered without being first submitted to the process. and for what purpose ? Does it tend. and the offal and hide to be sold to procure shoes and stockings for the poor children. Formerly. were baited as late as 1886. is the Lord Prior's (Duke of Devonshire) again. and there baited with dogs. and in the mining districts of South Staffordshire bulls. a butcher who sold the flesh of a bull in the market without having produced the animal on the previous market day to he baited was liable to a penalty. the first in honour of the King. Bull-baiting was one of the most popular sports of the inhabitants until 1773. in his " History of Birmingham. In 1801. Dr. in which year the practice was discontinued.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. If the hull he taken and a piece of his hair cut off. if sport it can he called.. in the reign of Henry VIII. was unknown to the ancient bravery of our ancestors. he is brought to the bailiff's house in Tutbury and there collered and roped. and one of its main thoroughfares is called Bull Street. obtained." At Wokingham." His sermon appears to have been more effectual than such discourses frequently are. the right of baiting a bull in the bull ring whenever he pleased and the right of burial in the porch of St. to be thus tormented. as some have said/ to keep alive the spirit of the English character? In answer to this we must remark that the barbarous sport." states that John Cooper. * Mr Windham in his speech in the House of Cotillions in favour of hull halting. in Berkshire. in a sermon preached on the OCCa sion.'s reign as the Bulstake. and under the very walls of its ancient parish church. A large open space in the oldest part of Birmingham. it may be for ever set aside! Cowards. In 1820 a bull was baited at Lincoln. and many . and the poor beast was forced to defend himself on his mangled and bleeding stumps against the dogs set upon him. Afterwards the minstrels have him for their own. a hull's hoofs were cut off. and may sell him or kill and divide him as they shall think good. the bull who propagates our food and the faithful dog who protects our property.

places wherein were kept beares. booths. Southwark—the riverside district between where London and Blackfriars Bridges now stand—was a thinly-inhabited district. So at the Bankside the baitings at first were held in the open air . marked respectively "Bowlle Baytyng" and "Bear Baytyng. Here. in 1483 the first year of his reign. After the restoration of Charles II. and in the next year his "Majesty's Bear Garden" was removed to Hockley-in-the-Hole. Edward Alleyn. The then Bear Garden was shut up under an order of Parliament in 1642. as also mastives in several kennels. and the wardenship of the bears and dogs had become a lucrative and honourable office under the Crown. usually in the market place or other open space. for by the time of Henry VIII. It will have been previously noticed that these sports generally took place in the open air. by letters patent of the latter King. appointed a royal bear-ward named John Bronne. and in January.. when a baiting took place. and in Braun's map of about the same date. had a grant of the sole right of exhibiting the baiting of bulls and bears in England for fourteen years. but. The King had his own bull and beargardens. the land was sold for £1. the site of the present Middlesex Sessions House on Clerkenwell Green." 1574. the Bankside. in search of amusement. Hitherto I have only spoken of bull and . as it prevailed in the provinces. James I. and other beasts to be bayted. separated only by a small strip of land. though it continued exceedingly popular with the middle and lower classes for nearly another hundred years. it was re-opened. and ruler of all the bears and apes belonging to the Crown. and here it was that the first bull and bear-baiting and similar amusements were carried on. guider. had its bull ring. kept the Bear Garden on the Bankside in Southwark. and were evidently intended as imitations of the ancient Roman amphitheatres." In the reigns of Elizabeth. whom. to which. Richard III. later. but it was from this period that bull-baiting declined as a fashionable and courtly amusement. Phillip Henslowe. who. a particular spot. and theatres which the locality contained. where a ring was inserted. was built the celebrated "Globe" Theatre. and Charles T.12 Historical Sketch of the bulldog. in conjunction with his father-in-law. bulls.. Stow describes these two buildings as "two bear gardens. one of the latest appointments being that of Sir Sander Duncombe. the resort of the idle and dissipated." he constituted " master. who repaired to the gardens. 1647.781} 15s. The provincial bull rings were generally not covered buildings. two circular buildings for the accommodation of spectators are engraved. They stood in two adjacent fields. this office still continued . the rope securing the bull was attached." In both plans the buildings appear to be completely circular. in 1639. About the year 1686 the Bankside Bear Garden appears to have been finally disused as a royal appurtenance. During part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth and James I. Where most of Shakespeare's plays were originally performed .. In the time of the Tudov sovereigns. as the name implies. but in Aggas's " Plan of London. now risked to a country village. the actor. " for his true and diligent service. and founder of Dulwich College. the old and the new. It is now time to give attention to the manner in which Londoners enjoyed the pastime. bull and bear-baiting had become the diversion of every grade. bear baiting by dogs.

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as Strutt observes. Again. 1599. "are there kept in plots of ground scaffolded about for the beholders to stand safe." " These beares and other beasts. on the opposite shore. On the Thursday following she was treated to a grand bear-baiting. during her detention at Hatheld House. Laneham. " their highnesses were right well content. and a round of amusements and diversions were planned for her entertainment.' On Saturday the 9th July. I have said that the rage for these exhibitions prevailed amongst all classes. with which. but time did not allow. that if he were taken once. for. Elizabeth received the Danish Ambassador at Greenwich. and in Braun's plan the combatants are actually engaged. and the construction of the amphitheatres themselves may be tolerably well realised. They evidently consisted within of a lower tier of circular seats for the spectators. in part open. The day following the same Ambassadors went by water from Paul's Wharf to Paris Gardens. to avoid his assaults. 1575. 1575. as is evident from Braun's plan. who afterwards were entertained with the baiting of bulls and bears. bayt them. Elizabeth paid her historical visit to Kenilworth. or affected to prefer. 13 gave a splendid dinner to the French Ambassadors. " tempered " says llolinshed. the Queen * Nicholls' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth. the Princess Elizabeth. so that they expressed their inward conceived joy and delight with shrill shouts and variety of gestures.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. The dogs are tied up in slips near to each building ready for the sport. notwithstanding the smallness of the scale upon which the plans -are drawn. the next morning after mass a grand exhibition of bear-baiting was made for their amusement. If he were bitten in one place. some twenty years afterwards. how he would pinch in another to get free . with his pink eyes tearing after his enemy's approach. indicated on Aggas's plan by the display of streamers at the lop. she possessed a masculine mind. it is said. the nimbleness and nait of the dog j to take his advantage. and for the diversion of the populace there was a horse with an ape upon his back which highly pleased them. " though a woman. and in both plans they are shown during the time of performance. speaking of abear-baiting exhibition before Elizabeth in this year. at the back of which a sort of screen ran all round. and preferred. by the figures of men who arc looking through on the outside.'* After Elizabeth had ascended the throne. I. and the Queen had to leave Kenilworth without the satisfaction of participating in the sport upon that occasion." he adds. with * Nicholls' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth. '"with other merry disports. . says :— " It was a sport very pleasant to see the bear. and the force and experience of the bear again. so as to admit a view from without. there are frequent notices of her attendance at such sports. soon after her accession to the throne. the exercise of the chase and other recreations pursued by men rather than those usually appropriated to her sex." On the '20th May. where they saw another baiting of bulls and bears. then with what shift. who was treated with the sight of a bear and bull-baiting. The buildings are unroofed." The dog kennels are clearly marked upon the plans previously mentioned. an exhibition that was to have been followed on a succeeding day by a bull-baiting. " and the Queen herself stood with the Ambassadors looking at the pastime till six at night. Vol. When Queen Mary visited her sister.

and above one hundred and fifty persons more sore wounded and bruised. some of them having their braines dashed out. parents of their children. children bewailing there the death and hurts of their parents." The Puritans strenuously maintained that this incident was a visitation of Providence. and led betwixt their friends. though terrible judgement of God upon these playhaunters and prophaners of His holy day. playes. to shake his ears twice or thrice. asking him to use his influence to suppress the diversions. especially over London Bridge. in his " Histriornastix. In the fall of it. though probably exaggerated. for he was a rabid Puritan. Prynne. some their amies. To this entertainment there often fellows that of whipping a blinded bear. with tossing and tumbling. Precaution was taken for the safety of the spectators. wives of their husbands. like lame cripples. women. which furnishes a quaint idea of the amusement of the people three hundred years ago." The same writer tells us that thirteen bears were provided for this occasion. A just. men. whereof many died shortly after. and husbands of their wives. The biting. and other pastimes.14 Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. with roaring. and being altogether mounted aloft upon these scaffolds and galleries. which serves for the baiting of bulls and hears. many were carried in chaires. January 13. all the whole building (not one stick so much as standing) fell down miraculously to the ground. with clawing. with much horror and confusion. an infinite number of people. some one hurt some another. The manner in which these sports were exhibited towards the close of the sixteenth century is thus described by Hentzner. by the fall of a scaffold that had been overloaded. from foure of the clock in the afternoon till nine at night. and the Lord Mayor for that year wrote to the Lord Treasurer. Amongst the rest. holidays. from the horns of the one and the teeth of the other."' Though the baiting of bulls and bears was a diversion of daily occurrence in London . but in spite of this accidents were by no means infrequent. a German traveller." gives the following account of the calamity. and then worried by great English Bulldogs. some their heads all to quash. and so brought to their houses with sorrowful heavy hearts. and especially Sundays. resorted unto Paris Garden to see beare-baytyng. whose itinerary was printed in 1598. and who was present at one of these performances :—" There is still another place built in the form of a theatre. and they were baited with a great sort of ban dogs. five men and two women were slam outright. and children. so that every way. he would work and wind himself from them . some their backs. and when he was loose. some their leggea broken. until the time of the Commonwealth. " Upon the 13th January anno 1583. with the blood and the slaver hanging about his physiognomy. but not without great risk to the dogs. being the Lord's day. A terrible accident happened at the Bankside Bear Gardens on Sunday. and it sometimes happens that they are killed on the spot. and in the midst of all their jollity and pastime. 1588. . were the times at which the populace generally would be able to be present. they are fastened behind. there being nothing heard but wofull shreekes and cryes which did even pierce the skies. but fresh ones are immediately supplied in the places of those that are wounded or tired. The fanatical writers of the day represented the disaster as a judgment from Heaven because the exhibition took place on a Sunday.

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who so well baited all the great ones for abusing the King's ear in preferment of suit . one Dr. so Carleton. "The better the day the better the deed." The elegant and varied amusements of Queen Elizabeth are well illustrated in a letter written by Rowland White to Sir Robert Sidney. besides jackanapes. "At Beverley. the church fell suddenly down at evensong time. " Her Majesty is very well. He was there last week. head of a house in Cambridge. in 1628. where the dogs baited him swimming. accident was however soon forgotten and the sports went on as usual." James I. received £10 for his services in baiting them before the King and Queen at Whitsuntide. and over-' whelmed some that then were in it. thus. Upon Wednesday she will have solemn dauncing. ' now may you see what it is to be at evensong when you should be at the bearbaiting. A good fellow that after heard the tale told : ' So. Thus. writing to Sir Thomas Edmonds. like his father. I have shown that mass preceded the bear baiting which Mary and her sister 15 Elizabeth witnessed at Hatfield... and the ape to be baited in the Tilt Yard.. and then turned a white bear into the Thames." King James was.. where they showed him all the pleasure they could both with bull." prohibited bear and bull-baitings on Sundays. Tomorrow she hath commanded the beares. and an injunction was sent to the Lord Mayor that " in divers places the players do use to recite their plays to the great hurt and destruction of the game of bear-baiting and like pastimes. that the Puritanic opinion was not universally held is proved from an anecdote recorded of Sir Thomas More. that I know not how he escaped baiting himself. yet the baitings and divine service went hand in hand. was very fond of bull and bear-baiting. in 1632. a further proof of the truth of the old adage. Gabriel Marsh. The Tuesday whereof the afternoon was spent in bearbaiting. and that the Tutbury bull-running was preceded by a service in church . and the privy purse expenses bear witness to the frequency with which he amused himself with such sports in the earlier years of his reign. before the evil days came. which are maintained for her Majesty's pleasure.-the-Hole. and Chichester before the King. in 1618. Marshal of the Admiralty and Master of the Bears. The Sunday was well suited with two reverend preachers. languidly patronised the sport. Smith.' quoth he. bear. by his " Pook of Sports.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. it was in his reign that the royal bears were removed from Pankside to Hockley-in. 1600.' " An order of the Privy Council in 1591 prohibited the exhibition of plays on Thursdays. was as well-fitted with a chaplain. like his predecessor. and as I have already stated. An . Chamberlain wrote:—"The Spanish Ambassador is much delighted in bearbaiting. accustomed to regale ambassadors and other great foreign personages with bear or bull-baiting . the Pishop of Bath to the household. late. which was the best sport of all. and horse. Charles II. much of the people being at a bear-baiting one Sunday. mentions that the Easter holidays of that year " were spent at court with accustomed solemnities." ITe says. The date is May 12th.. the bull. This day she appointes to see a Frenchman doe feates upon a rope in the Conduit Court." Charles I.. Indeed. because on Thursdays bear-baitings and suchlike pastimes had been usually practised .

which pleased the gentry to admiration. to be spent. who jumps highest for ten shillings. He says:—" Some French writers have represented the diversions of the common people much to our disadvantage. and respectability immediately voted them low and vulgar. and its votaries were shortly to be found only among the common people. When Anne came to the throne she discountenanced all such amusements. Mons. near Clerkenwell Green. bulls. and excuse the death of so many innocent cocks. Likewise there are two bear dogs. 16th. although the sport was still immensely popular with the ci. five let goes out of hand. was practically * Tatler. as far as the higher classes were concerned." published in 1672 by a Frenchman. there will be a green bull baited . and that a great gulf existed between the sport of kings of the beginning of the seventeenth century and the barbarous recreation which it had become at its close. I wish I knew how to answer this reproach which is cast upon us. but as it furnishes no details other than those already given. But as soon as the Court withdrew its favour the ultimate fate of this form of amusement.16 Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. and a bulldog to be drawn up with fireworks. bull and bear-baiting altogether ceased to be fashionable amusements. . and imputed it to a natural fierceness and cruelty of temper. The following advertisements appeared in 1706 :— "At the Bear Garden in Hockley-in-theHole. to jump three jumps apiece at the bear . to be spent. Also variety of bull-baiting and bear baiting . as they do some other entertainments peculiar to our nation. there is a great match to be fought by two dogs of Smithfield Bars against two dogs of Hampstead. and on one occasion witnessed a fencing match which appears to have been fought a outrance. this present Monday. at the Reading Bull. and twenty account of bear-baiting as practised in this reign is given in " A Description of England and Ireland. with the like ingenious recreations of the bear garden. which goes fairest and farthest in wins all. Westminster. as one of the combatants had his wrist almost cut off. and bears as have been set together by the ears or died an untimely death only to make us sport." Jorevin strongly denounced the inhumanity and cruelty of the spectacle. it is unnecessary that I should make any quotations. He visited the Bear Garden at Bankside. I mean those elegant diversions of bull-baiting and prize-fighting. Feb. The newspapers of Anne's time frequently contained advertisements of baitings that were to take place. Beginning at three o'clock. Steele may have had the Frenchman's strictures in mind when writing in The Tatler thirty-seven years afterwards (1709). this present Monday." Another advertisement of about the same date is as follows :— "At William Wells'Bear Garden. in Tuttle Fields. sealed. Jorevin. it being a day of general sport by all the old gamesters . but the very form in which the announcements were made prove that the amusement had fallen from its high estate. for one guinea. 1709. dogs.mmon people. Bull-baiting survived for nearly another century and a half. while his antagonist lost "a slice of his head and almost all his ear. The famous Bull of Fireworks. but decent people began to shun the sport." * With the death of Charles II.

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" It is not quite clear as to the exact time when bear-baiting at Bankside was altogether discontinued. being. The bull in fighting would. says:—" Here is a glass house." From the commencement of the present century bull-baiting. 3 . the 21th May. in his speech in its favour. the dog that runs farthest and fairest wins the collar. to seize the bull by the nose. when it was practised it was attended only by the lowest part of the populace. Sand. William Windham. to seize the bull by the nose. bull. declared that the pluck of the English nation would certainly decrease if the bill were allowed to pass. and with his horns he attempted to toss the dog. called Bear Garden Square. when one was not provided. The dog when properly trained would " play low. the game bulls (old 17 veterans) frequently scraping a hole for themselves. It not infrequently happened that the men were tossed as well as the dogs. published in 1720. if possible. in a speech in favour of the custom. would endeavour as carefully to defend it by laying it close to the ground. thrown out in the House of Commons on its second reading. speaking of Bear Alley. and something like a thrill of horror was felt by the better class of the community when it learned that such an exhibition had taken place. was usually laid upon the ground. or if of arger size would creep on his belly to avoid being above the bull's horns. As the bull's nose was his most tender part. and then not to leave go the hold. as I have shown. The bull. Strype.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. dogs to fight for a collar. although. but a great many dogs were killed. who. of course. Beginning at two o'clock." that is." In bull-baiting the object the dog was required to effect was that termed "pinning and holding. he was rendered helpless when seized by it. but it was probably about this period. The men about endeavoured to catch the falling dogs upon their shoulders to lighten their fall. so called as being built in the place where the Bear Garden formerly stood. Many great wagers are laid on both sides. and so attached to a stake that it might turn round. his object. more had their limbs broken. 1802. said :— " What sort of moral lesson would it be to * " John Houghton's Collection. Sheridan. until removed to the other side of the water. which is more convenient for the butchers and suchlike who are taken with such rustic sports as the baiting of bears and bulls. hung to a hook. A Bill to abolish bull-baiting was. and dog seem exceedingly pleased. and was sometimes provided with a hole in which to bury his nose. By means of this rope the bull circulated to watch his enemy. lower his head to use his horns. especially in middle and northern England. practically became an obsolete sport." 1694. He had a collar about his neck. and about the middle a new-built court. however. in his first edition of Stow. fastened to a thick rope some four or five yards long. as the bulls swung them about. would keep his own head close to the ground. chiefly through the influence of Mr. and the old writer * from whom I have gathered these particulars quaintly adds " men. with other diversions of bull and bear baiting. On some occasions a hull would toss a dog thirty and even forty feet high. meanwhile. on this spot. well inhabited. and as earnest at the sport as if it were for both their lives and livelihoods. as a matter of course." that is. too. it was still patronised. and great journeys will men and dogs go for such a diversion. and dogs frequently held so fast that their teeth were broken.

many years the faithful sentinel of his house and farmyard. proved ineffective for the suppression of the sport. hews her to pieces without quitting her grip. tied to a stake. sets her at the infuriated animal. * See Ante page 7. worried by dogs. as well as dog fighting. and his bleeding tongue torn out of his mouth by the roots ? But this cruelty was not the only cruelty exercised on these occasions. which for years they had cherished as a favourite. were prohibited by law. the wife and children of the farmer who sold his bull for the purpose of being baited to see the poor simple. while he sells her puppies at five guineas apiece! " * As a further proof of how hard even the cruellest custom will die when it is rooted in the affections of the people. surrounded by her pups. and it was not until 1835. What sort of moral lesson. known from the name of the member of Parliament who introduced the bill as Martin's Act.18 Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. and learned to look on with affection. it may be remembered that the first act for the prevention of cruelty to animals. was it to the children of the farmer who brings his aged bull-bitch. She seizes him by the nose and pins him to the ground. and to prove her breed . for instance. But what is the reward from her owner amidst the applauses of the mob to his favourite animal? He calls for a hedging bill. harmless animal. that both bull and bear-baiting. as the bull was not mentioned therein by name. to prove at the bull-ring the staunchness of her breed? He brings her forward. Of this latter debased form of " sport" I shall have something to say in the next chapter. because the express mention of the animal would have caused the rejection of the Bill.

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Eaton. while in 1631. John Proctor. has certainly added a link in the chain of evidence as to its origin. or indeed either. and there can be little doubt that those animals were of the same type of dog as the existing English Bulldog. It is with great pleasure that I am able. and. George R.in Spain. a town formerly noted for the breeding of dogs for use in the arena. The date of the medallion is. Adcock's contention is hardly sufficient to refute the evidence which 1 have brought together in the earlier portions of this chapter as to the origin of our national breed. when giving it to me with permission to publish it. whieh he desired sent to him as a present for some Spanish friends. in the City of London. Krehl who takes such an interest in the bulldog. and the name of the artist. The appearance of the plaque indicates its age.but I am bound to say that the latest evidence in favour of Mr. bull fighting.Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. I have pointed out that it is a matter of pure speculation whether the bulldog or the mastiff. bolddogge. its original possessor being a Parisian bric-a-brac dealer. Mr. by reason of Mr. a wellknown breeder of toy bulldogs. Adcock came to form the opinion that the Spanish dogs which he brought over here were true bulldogs. Krehl. and still a centre of the national pastime. the English merchant. can be considered the indigenous dog of England. as early as the reign of Richard III. that a dog existed. it enables us the better to understand how the late Mr. Krehl's courtesy. instructs his friend Williugham. who himself had bought it from a trainer of dogs who visits the Sundaydog market of that City. Mr. who pronounced it authentic.. of Antwerp. editor of the Stockkeeper kindly sent me a photograph of an old bronze plaque. Swithin's Lane. Mr. While I was preparing for a second edition of this work. The head has certainly the appearance of that of a cropped bulldog. Cazalla. Krehl is of opinion that this discovery tends to support the argument that the British Bulldog is of Spanish origin. only six years after the date of Mr. Sebastian. 1625. informed me that the. but I have adduced evidence from a contemporary writer. F. . and everything points to the probability of its genuineness. as already 19 stated. The description above the head reads. Provendier. Burgos is the principal town in the old province of Old Castille. Proctor took his find to a connoisseur in such matters. to procure him a couple ol good bulldogs. The date is 1625. the vast majority of the Bulldogs' many and warm partisans will continue to regard him as an undoubted British production. residing at St. Proctor's plaque. known by the name of bulldog. and that the original home of the breed was Spain. Mr. former gentleman purchased the medallion in Paris from Monsieur A. In the earlier pages of this chapter. which' has been unearthed by Mr. and I have at some length stated my reasons for considering that both breeds were probably derived from the old English alaunt or allan. although other countries may have produced a dog with many similar characteristics. but until more cogent proof is adduced. the head is distinctly of the bulldog type. as it was then written. dwelling at St. The weight of evidence is clearly in favour of the conclusion that the English Bulldog is of British origin. to publish this interesting memento of the past. or. Dogue de Burgo Espagne.

Burnet." Dog-fighting was one of the amusements afforded to our ancestors at the bear gardens at Bankside and elsewhere. released from severer studies. who fought one hundred and four battles and never met defeat. as it was found that such a cross produced a dog possessed of greater quickness. Old volumes of the Sporting Magazine contain frequent accounts of contests between Bulldogs.Thus Jesse mentions Lord Camelford's renowned Bulldog Belcher. and this chapter is therefore devoted to giving some account of perhaps the most brutal of the many debasing pastimes to which our forefathers were addicted. A HISTORICAL sketch of the Bulldog would be incomplete which contained no reference to the vicious amusement — sport it was not — of dog-fighting. that Eton boys. and there are those who assert that a " set-to " is by no means a rare occurrence in that portion of the Midlands which. as I shall presently show. who consequently was able to get the first hold—an important matter where dog-fighting is concerned. *"DOG FIGHTING.—The Westminster Pit .20 The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. superseded the pure Bulldog. the " sport " is not yet wholly extinct. for. One specimen will suffice. to which reference has been made in the preceding chapter. in his " History of My Own Times. it appears almost incredible that well on to the first half of the nineteenth century "sporting noblemen " could publicly announce their intention to match their dogs at Westminster Pit. usually the terrier. if the assertion be true. For this base and degraded practice the Bulldog was anciently very much in request. is well designated the " black country. which he comments upon with just reprehension . would wend their way to Bachelors' Acre or the Brocas to engage in dog-fighting or badger-baiting. Still the Bulldog always had hjs admirers amongst those who practised this form of sport. Later a cross between a Bulldog and some other breed. THE BULLDOG AS DOG FIGHTER." refers to dog-fighting. and frequenters of the gardens at which these scenes were enacted. CHAPTER II. To those who live in the humanising environment of the present time. he further informs us that the ladies were great admirers of such brutal sports. and that the advertising columns of /tail's Life regularly contained announcements to the "Fancy" that Mr So-and-so "would match his dog Jack or Billy against any dog breathing at 18lbs " at one or other of the numerous " pits " which abounded in the metropolis But perhaps undue elation at the great change in the manners and morals of fin de siccle society would be'premature.

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the card of invitation to which lies before me as I write. It is a mistake to suppose that the dogs were set on each other.The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. and everything was arranged to the satisfaction of the amateurs. some six years previously. He was * The Sporting Magazine. There were nearly three hundred persons present. with all the dog fanciers in the metropolis to witness a battle between the celebrated dog Boney and a black novice called Gas. and were seconded by their respective masters. Boney was the favourite at 3 to 1. lately introduced to the fancy by Charley. The dogs were " played " at opposite corners. and so continued till within ten minutes of the termination of the contest—a confidence arising solely from his known bottom." It was a Bulldog and a Bull bitch also who were respectively the hero and the heroine of the combat which took place at that same historic temple of the "Fancy. The stakes were forty sovereigns. centre of the pit." the Westminster Pit. January 18. 1825. but lower their heads and watch each other . and would literally scream with rage. as crowded on Tuesday evening. for to the impartial spectator Gas took the lead throughout. The " scratch " was a chalked line in the dition. to whom the dog belongs. The dogs were brought to the scratch at eight o'clock in excellent con- 21 immediately bled and put into a warm bath. and each dog in turn had to cross the "scratch" and fetch his opponent out of his corner. when Boney was carried out insensible. The pit was lighted with an elegant chandelier and a profusion of wax lights. Writers who have described these matches state that the animals were only too anxious to be at work. The battle lasted an hour and fifty minutes. or at other times utter no sound at all.

and an ominous licking of the jaws. Before me lies the " business " card of a well known dealer of the period. and sufficiently removed from the busy haunts of men to offer a con- . and that dog dealers and breeders of reputation were prepared to offer facilities for the " sport " for the private delectation of their patrons. as though anxious to rip limb from limb. Once released by the seconds they would fly straight at each other's throats and become locked together in a life and death struggle. It must not be forgotten that not only was this amusement engaged in by the lower.22 The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. others at the legs." in London at least." Ben White some seventy years ago was a well known figure in canine circles. who made dog-fighting and kindred diversions the main business of their lives. connected with a dog fight in the "good old times. Old Conduit Fields at that period was mere waste land." but these I will spare the reader. Various dogs adopted different tactics J some would fight at the head. loosened his hold to breathe . it might last three or four hours and then end in a " draw. they would bite and tear in grim silence. There were other details. others at the throat. and was probably the last member of the " Fancy. and that such matches were of every-day occurrence. both dogs were then taken to their corners and sponged. which not infre- quently in such cases would be broken. many of a sickening character. In a few minutes the sawdust became soaked with blood. and huge gaping wounds would appear on head. which is sufficiently interesting to be given fac simile: with bloodshot eyes. Rarely growling or whimpering at all." The duration of a fight varied considerably. The "round" ended when one of the dogs "turned. chest. About a minute was allowed between each " round." that is. and legs. but also by the upper classes.

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so that if a police raid should take place. Ben is the central figure in the well-known picture of "Ben White running his Bulldog Tumbler and Lady Sandwich's Bess at the head of Bill Gibbons's bull. and so forth. and sit bathed in perspiration. and the officers may drop in upon a party of men mildly engaged in killing a few rats. as the pastime became too hazardous for its votaries. On the passing of the Act of 1835. A few rats and a terrier are generally at hand as decoys. to engage in it. whose article affords much information upon the more recent history of the subject. and club feet. 1881. In The Licensed Victuallers' Gazette for January 27. or some secluded spot. a writer in a Birmingham paper. he carried on the old game until his death. are likely to render him immortal for all time. for hours together." the bitch " was unlucky enough to get bitten right through one knee. Such contests. " the deposits paid up. who. . gives a graphic description both of the preliminaries and of the actual conflict. Nov. a leader looks round the brutal faces of the company.' or 23 'griffin' given to the select circle of blackguardly patrons. We are frequently reminded however that the amusement is not yet altogether unknown. A bit later " she was again bitten " in the kneeonly it was the other knee this time—and * Birmingham Daily Mail. were at that date of frequent occurrence at Walsall and its neighbourhood. and asks if ' everybody is known. Before the proceedings commence. and men strip to the shirt. as he cheers on a couple of Bulldogs to attack the bull. therefore. at the age of seventynine. the chronicler says: " Some time back." "Early in the fight. where his odd figure. a day is fixed for the encounter."* I have already described what the fight itself was like. Great are the precautions taken to evade the law : doors are barred. and it is unnecessary. windows blocked up. however. venient locale for a "sport. in an obituary notice of a bull-bitch. queer. and every aperture closed. at the same place. In Ben's " accommodation pit" his patrous could at all times ensure the amusements of dog . some fifty-five years ago. a public house cellar." which was even then beginning to be eyed with suspicion by the authorities." he says. that I should recapitulate. the dogs duly weighed. and half fainting. the temperature is often quite tropical. when she belonged to a bulldog fancier who liked to try what ' sand ' his pets had. 23rd." prints of which are still by no means uncommon. or cocking. 1371. he states. the canine combatants would be stowed away somewhere. No person can quit the place under any circumstances until the fight is over. "All preliminaries being settled. dogfighting declined. To him succeeded Bill George. she fought for two hours and a quarter. under ordinary circumstances. on June 4. As late as 1871. he will get remarkably full change for his shilling entrance (or gate) money. under the respectable aspect of a guileless and innocent vendor of dogs." conducted a really legitimate business. 1899. badgering. shrewd face.' and woe betide the unlucky stranger who has not proper credentials . It is hard to say where the rendezvous may be—an old barn.The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. and the 'office. thenceforward to be known as " Canine Castle. After a while he removed from Old Conduit Fields to Kensal New Town. as their inclination might tend. and she had consequently to ' come ' on three legs and a swinger.' until his decease.fighting. where. a referee appointed. ratting.

The dog is now firmly established as the family pet.The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. never to return. if dog-fighting is not yet quite a thing of the past." . and what immense strides forward have we since made in the humane and kindly treatment of our friend the dog ! The bad old days have gone. and was reported in the London newspapers. a dog fight took place in the neighbourhood of Regent's Park. still fought upon his stumps. It is sixty-five years since such sports were first prohibited by law. and the guardian of our homes.' who 'When his legs were smitten off. to be put to ignoble use. described as a stubborn one. never again. lasting one hour and seventeen minutes. Still. like Widdrington in 'Chevy Chase.' " In the same week that this obituary was published. in England at least. yet after that she kept on coming. the attached follower. the companion of our sports. or to minister to a depraved appetite for brutalising and debasing " sport. it is certainly in extremis.

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an event. As legal sports. and the existence of some fanciers who kept and bred specimens notwithstanding that the "sport" had fallen upon evil days.Old Fanciers. make-friendswith-anybody kind of animal of the present day . the amusements of the people were sadly lacking in humanity. such as bull baiting with Bulldogs. the Bulldog. with the era of modern dog shows. after all. the appearance of an up-to-date specimen became a caricature of the active and plucky animal that baited the bull. SO far I have dealt with periods prior to dog showing days. and especially so where the animal creation was concerned. dog fighting. the breed began to diminish in numbers as well as quality. of periods when the Bulldog was used for practical purposes. indeed. In the times already referred to. the prevailing amusements. The early show Bulldogs were not so cloddy as the exaggerated specimens now are. they might well be described as dare-devil intelligent brutes. game. and capable from their build of putting their powers to effective test. and it is a relief to find that with the commencement of the Nineteenth Century also began the dawn of more enlightened views regarding the treatment of dumb animals. The commence- . 25 CHAPTER III. on the contrary. There being after the passing of the Act no inducements for breeding. both to man and beast. The more seriousminded and humane section of the community began to think that. they were not so heavily built that their powers of locomotion were impeded." the Bulldog is an excellent example of the triumph of man over nature. the breed would in all probability have become extinct. From that time forward the breed began to deteriorate. For the show bench as an object lesson of what can be done by scientific breeding for "points. however. and had it not been for the fact that the practice of dog fighting died very hard. possessing a wonderful degree of tenacity and stamina. and even now-a-days instances occasionally occur when the practices are secretly carried on. and which was a dangerous customer at any time. bear baiting. The gross cruelty practised was deplorable. and. AND OLD DOGS. and Old Dogs. and the Bulldog's occupation was gone. for work and not for show. were blots which could very well be swept away with advantage. or keeping. but as an example of what the dog originally was he can hardly be considered a success. Perhaps few customs have died harder than dog and cock fighting. nor were they in temperament the soft-hearted. OLD FANCIERS. the practices of bull and bear baiting and dog fighting ceased with the Act of Parliament already referred to. which was perilously near consummation more than once during the present century.

a bitch under 30 lbs. and a prize winner. which he did for £40. and created another incentive for breeding specimens of the old English Bulldog." I am able to give a reproduction from its pages of an amusing illustration of Bill George's kennels as they appeared according to Mr.. and Jim Ferriman. Punch. Of the show Bull- . He specialised in Bulldogs. who gave what was in those days a long price. Adcock. took the dog to Long's Hotel. stands out prominently as the most remarkable man of his time in this particular line. the young gentleman. of Somefs Town." Lutey. kept and bred Bulldogs. of Somers Town. was one of these. and did a lot of winning for Mr. many years ago. City Road. to purchase him back again. and from that time bred regularly. a typical dog breeder. and bred and possessed many good specimens. dogs he owned. For a long time she never bred. drew marked attention towards the breed. christening the premises in Kensal Rise the Canine Castle. Luke's. as stated in the last chapter. other old-time breeders who kept and bred Bulldogs. too. however. succeeded to the latter's business of a dog dealer and. He was a white and brindle dog. of Birmingham. 40 years ago. dealer. also owned a number of Bulldogs. of St. Jim Green. as. and keeper of fighting Bulldogs. and Mike Lee. and Old Dogs. William George. Viper and Wasp were two excellent lightweight specimens owned by George. Ben White was. who scaled 65 lbs. but on being turned loose in the kennel. There were. This illustration of " Punch's visit to a remarkable place. as was also an old fellow known by the name of " Whiskers. Ted Burridge. ment of the dog show era." at the commencement of this chapter. Lola Montes. whilst Dan. Ringer was another of the good specimens bred by Bill George. was another of his best. when it performed the feat of jumping through a pane of glass without injury to itself. also bred by him. Bill George. a dog bred by Jacob Lamphier. Duchess. better known as Bill George. and by the kind permission of the proprietors of "Punch. an old Chelsea pensioner. dog shows became the vogue. the Navvy. she eventually commenced to breed.26 Old Fanciers. Bill George's Canine Castle obtained a remarkable reputation. a large sum to pay in those days for a Bulldog. specimens of their strain had been able to hold their own in the dog pit. Of the old school of fanciers. was also bred by Mr. a heavy weight. and from some of these Bill George drew his supplies. who lived in Macclesfield Street. his kennel produced dogs as well able to win on the show bench and breed winners. one of his best was Young King Dick. as likewise did a Ned Wilkinson. showing Bill George's Bulldogs in barrels. formerly. doing good service as a brood bitch. but his successor. and when during the latter part of his life. George. the late Mr. and which was very like the well-known Ajax. of course. he carried on the business of a dog dealer and breeder in such a way that he became noted as an honourable dealer at a time when dog dealing was looked upon as an occupation whose professors were not particularly noted for their practice of honesty. After the purchase. on the death of Ben White. He turned out so good that the old Birmingham fancier got his son. a fallow and white specimen. and reared plenty fur Bill George. Fred Lamphier. Jim Shaw. always kept Hulldogs. is sufficient evidence of the late fancier's reputation and unique position in the dog world at that time. he sold for £100.

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W. Nichols. a white and brindledog. The latter bred very small specimens. Billy Page. There were. Billy Shaw. Champion Gannster. Clicquot. also known as " City " Jack.. He was likewise the actual breeder of Champions His Lordship. Bulldog classes began to be provided. as already stated. two London breeders may be mentioned as standing out conspicuously. Frank Redmond. among others. and all prize winners. were Billy. Sandle.namely. and Ada. Tyzer. and in conjunction with Mr. the number of votaries of the breed increased. who resided at Barnet. He was also the breeder of Othello and Bonnie Bessie. Mona. Britannia. Kit. Mr.Old Fanciers. As time passed. and Old Dogs. Black wall Crib (better known as Blewitts Crib). besides owning various celebrated animals. G. should not be confounded with King Cole of later years. Champion Monarch. W. and Harry Orme. who bred that good dog Lord Nelson. at first known as Gordon Murray. Berrie also bred Champion Venom. His chief successes were Gun. Berrie. as we now know them. London. Jim Ferriman. One of the earliest prize winners bred by the former was " Old " King Cole. Cigarette. specimens to be found elsewhere. Mr. and comparatively recently Champion Blackwall Beauty and many other specimens 27 might be added to these. Among other prize winners. Charles Aistrop. Another London breeder was the late Mr. whilst later on he put Champion Ruling Passion to his credit. bred by this old fancier. Berrie and the late Mr. Rivers Wilson. J. Directly these exhibitions were placed upon a firm footing. Champion Smasher. E. etc. Robert Fulton. Mr. however. who. of Marylo bone. Rust. Other London supporters of the breed at the period were Tom Ball. Billy Shaw owned a good dog called Duke. all London fanciers. Young Sir Anthony. Charles Stockdale. but the majority of the successful breeders in the earlier days of dog shows were to be found in one or other of these cities. Harry Layton. P. and his son. all bred by him in the seventies. Of the London fancy in the show Bulldog line somewhat later. of course. Cervantes. Stockdale. It was not until 1850 that dog shows. and. the best being that fine specimen. and Miss Smasher. and in latter days never lost an opportunity of expostulating against the tendency to breed what he termed cripples and monstrosities. Berrie. Peerless. and in the seventies he bred a number of successful animals. kept specimens of the breed. also bred by Mr. the wonderful-headed Adrastus James Goode. and whose blood for stud purposes gave him quite a posthumous notoriety in later years. a fresh incentive to breed them was offered to the dog fancier. Messrs. Craft r. Verinder. Verinder. Newton who bred. and in the sixties bred such prize winners as Poll and Nosegay. Jack Clarke. as did Bill Tapper and others. He also bred the celebrated Slenderman. Birmingham. too. then of Peckham. Teddy Morgan. viz. bred largely. also bred some good specimens in the seventies. He prided himself in being one of the old school. alluded to in the Chapter on Toy Bulldogs. Jess. Ned Clarke. all successful prise winners. both owning many creditable dogs. and Edwin . Madame Lola. Warrior. Jack Ashburne. W. were first held. but parted with the dam before she whelped. H. also bred some good specimens. and for show purposes we find that specimens were being bred principally in three great centres. and Sheffield. of London. of Shoreditch. went in for the breed. and Rose. among them being Bill Sykes and Fagin.

Lulu. in speaking of prizes in this chapter and throughout this work. J. who was the father of Fred Lamphier. and J. and dogs of his breeding. and Mr. Judy and Queen. Peg. Jacob Lamphier. P. Madge. and later on Champion Britomartes. who bred Duke III. George Mosley. the former of which he owned.. Venom. Dawes. Guppy. Fred Lamphier bred Rush. Young King (re . J. in whose ownership this marvellous dog died. Besides London. and put to his credit Rob Roy. and Old Dogs. Hincks. Bismark (not Meagre's). and Sheffield. and Thunder. of Birmingham. Arria. the principal of the produce of his stud of dogs being King Dick. Webb. J. Wilkes. A. Sir Anthony. later on known as Champion Richard Coeur de Lion. Meg. Underhill. Romanie and Adam. Lyell. Mr. and later on Dona Sol and Maritana. Crack. and the accidental service of one of his bitches resulted in his being the breeder of Champion Queen Mab in later years. of Dundee. Duchess. Queen Bess. bred in the seventies. and W. Turton. and Farquharson. was very successful. Birmingham. whilst Mr. Tom Spencer. I refer to prizes won at important shows. worked hard with success in the earlier days of dog shows. Booth. Guymer. Wilkinson. all of London. Very old fanciers who bred in Sheffield long before dog shows became the vogue were the brothers Jim and Tom Gibbons. Hincks bred Nelson. J. G. E. were numerous. was a successful fancier. Nuttal. among the prize winners being Donald.28 Old Fanciers. Young David. And let me pause here to say that. Edwin Farquharson. Mr. Alpha. Minnie. G. Rust. who eventually became owner of Champion Crib. He . Among other breeders in this city wer« Jesse Oswell. also of Ipswich. bred a number of very useful animals. Jacob Lamphier. T. B. bred such notable specimens as Master Gully. now referred to. bred Leeb. and coming to times contemporary with those I am dealing with. and Julius Caesar. a fallow smut. Champion Diogenes and Draco. Fred Lamphier. Mr. Duke. Gipsy Queen. in the seventies. which won prizes. From Manchester hailed that ardent fancier. Sheffield was the third centre where the Bulldog was fostered in these days. other towns possessed Bulldog fanciers in the early days of dog-showing. and a good supporter of the breed was Mr. Fred Reeves bred Gambler and Punch. bred Meagre's Bismark. all of whom bred winners. Thos. and the most notable of the many of the workng class who cultivated the breed was Jacob Lamphier's son. and others. Dawes. Joseph Bowman was a well-known Ipswich breeder. Champion Sancho Panza.. Faust and Champion Ida.named Bumble). we find a curious character in "Fakey " Joe— Joseph Taylor was his real name—but his friends knew him as " Fakey. Peter Wilson. of Ipswich. Mr. Dick and Ben. Henshall." Other Sheffield breeders were Tommy Barber. E. and Fred Reeves. Mr. C. are not the same dogs as Champion King Dick and Champion Venom. the principal breeders being Messrs. who is the first Bulldog registered in the Kennel Club Stud Book. to prevent confusion. that the Lamphier's Venom and King Dick. Mr. Teddy Clinker. mostly under Kennel Club Rules. Adder. Jesse Oswell. too. Ajax III. Birmingham was a hotbed of the breed in the sixties and seventies. I should say. named later on as a Sheffield breeder. Dora. the notable Champion Crib (better known as Turton's Crib). A.

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and Old Dogs. and their names. from a show point of view. and the names of the principal breeders and exhibitors of later days are far too numerous to set out at length in this work. the Duke of Hamilton bred Champion Duke. All those named were enthusiastic supporters in the early dog-showing period. as long ago as 1807. so did the number of fanciers increase. and the names of many I am compelled to omit. and there were many others also who were aiming at breeding better specimens than the best. As 29 time advanced. can be found in the Kennel Club Stud Book. yet produced.Old Fa nciers. .

the First Annual Grand National Show was held at Cremorne. and at the first show held in Birmingham in the same year. Tbe abolition of bull and bear baiting and dog fighting brought to an end all excuse for the Bulldog's existence. at the Agricultural Hall. and provided one for dogs and another for bitches. no class was provided for the Bulldog breed. at the meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society. one for specimens over 18 lbs. We find. In the next year (18G4) at the second Cremorne Show. King Dick again being the conqueror. King Dick again turned up the winner in the dogs. Manchester's first show was held this year. but in the same year at Birmingham the entries in the class for Bulldogs were good enough to warrant extra first and second prizes. The next year (1863). Tupper's Floss. and the same owner's Venom took the first prize in bitches. Chelsea. two classes were provided for Bulldogs. CHAPTER IV. in 18(!0. and the other for under 18 lbs.30 Early Dog 5hows. the second prize not being awarded.. EARLY DOG SHOWS—BULLDOG CLASSIFICATION. which took place in Newcastle. and the second International Dog Show at the Agricultural Hall. and two classes were provided for Bulldogs. at the North of England Exhibition. In the " heavy " weight class the winner turned up in the redoubtable King Dick. This year Birmingham varied from its old classification of one class. Hincks. in the same year with . and in the following year. the winner in the heavy weights being Jacob Lamphier's King Dick with Bill George's Dan as runner-up In the small size class. Orme won with his Violet. a class was provided for Bulldogs. and here again Lamphier's King Dick carried all before him in the heavy weight class. and Orme's Violet took premier honours in the class for Bulldogs under that weight. which was now limited to dogs over 2C lbs. one for large size and the other for small-sized specimens. held at Leeds. and even the advent of dog shows did not cause the breed to be preserved and taken up by the rich. whilst the light weight winner was W. J. the first prize going to Mr. H. one class being provided for the National breed. we find two classes provided. The first show ever held. CREDIT must assuredly be given to the working man for the part be has taken in tbe preservation of the national breed. In the same year Birmingham Show provided only one class. London. with two prizes. one class allotted to Bulldogs at the Birmingham show of that year. In 18G1. In the same year was held the first great International Dog Show held at the Agricultural Hall. however. had only classes for pointers and setters. and Tupper's Brandy secured first prize in the light weights. King Dick again winning in the heavy weights.

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Manchester (Free Trade Hall). the dividing limit being 25 lbs. In 1872. In 1870. In 1871 the classification was better at the Crystal Palace. but the dividing weight was raised to 30 lbs. two classes over and under 20 lbs. a Champion class for dogs only was added as well as classes for each sex. it is interesting to note that the dividing weight. although considerably higher than 12 lbs. This year Manchester again supplied a class for each sex. heavy weight class. one each for dogs and bitches over and under 24 lbs. held in December of that year. Orme's Violet doing the same in the light weight class. and did the like in 18G7. Thomas's Gambler winning. the classification remained the same as in 1872. another show was held in Manchester. The first Edinburgh and Glasgow Shows were held this year . King Dick being again to the fore in heavy weights. it suffices to say that the breed is well looked . At the Grand National Dog Show this year. This year.. and -Manchester had the same as Birmingham. It is unnecessary to pursue the subject into modern days. as it was also at Manchester. Islington. At Nottingham the same year there were two classes. It is notable that at Manchester this year. Birmingham. the classification was better. stuck to its old classification of two classes this year. but not at Birmingham. only one class was provided. one for each sex. Manchester following suit in the same year. ! and in the following year (1866) the classification was the same. At the Crystal Palace Show this year. Birmingham dropped its classification to two classes. held at Nottingham. while Glasgow. King Dick won the championship. Birmingham this year again provided two classes and Manchester only one. held in Islington. Mr. After this show. however. In 18GG. At the Crystal Palace Show. the third Great International Dog Show was held at the Agricultural Hall. however. at the first exhibition of the National Dog Club.Early Dog Shows. whilst in the light weights the first prize was not awarded. matters took a turn for the better. and the same may be said of Dublin. the allconquering King Dick again defeated all coiners in the.. however. being only 25 lbs. a show was held at Dublin. The year 1873 found Glasgow with only one class. Lamphier's King Dick again winning in dogs. the classification for Bulldogs gradually increased. the Bulldogs were given two classes. In 1869. the classification was the same as before. for the national breed.. one for dogs and another for bitches. one each for dogs and bitches. At the Birmingham Show of the same year two classes were provided. and classes were provided for dogs and bitches.and at Birmingham the same year. and two classes for Bulldogs were provided. and Edinburgh. two classes being provided for Bulldogs over and under 20 lbs. and we find that at the Birmingham Show. Two classes were provided. The foregoing particulars will afford the necessary information as to the classification adopted at early shows. the classification being for dogs over and under 12 lbs. but only two classes were provided for Bulldogs. and Edinburgh's second venture provided only one class each.. and also a mixed class for specimens under 21 lbs. the first Crystal Palace 31 Show was held. In 1865. was'still low. and neither provided any better classification in 1808. but the Birmingham executive made an advance in increasing its classification to four classes.. Manchester Belle Vue Show had two classes. one class again being provided for Bulldogs. the same owner carrying off the first prize in bitches with Madge.

32 Early Dog Shows. that it may safely be predicted that the breed will exist for all time after. Nowadays the classification of Bulldogs is all that can be desired. for it is so well looked after and supported by individual fanciers and societies alike. It is not at all likely that there will be any diminution in the interest taken in the breed. that it is generally one of the best catered-for breeds at all public exhibi- . in fact. so great is the support given to the breed by Show Committees. and the various Specialists' Clubs. tions.

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of Sheffield." also as Black wall Crib. but. still. Mr. Some of the earlier specimens acquired their peculiar names from other causes.. a publican and an ex-butcher of that town. No wonder some of these eighty acquired other designations to distinguish them from their numerous namesakes. and Turton's Crib was also known as Sheffield Crib. 33 CHAPTER V. Robert Fulton. he was not the earliest dog referred to in it. was an enthusiastic patron of "the fancy. He owned a lot of Bulldogs. for Percival's Captain. out of Slut I. THE first Bulldog registered at the Kennel Club was appro priately named Adam." and liked a "scrap" as well'as anybody. of Gilling Lodge. R. H. Jack Ashburne. whose name also appears in the first volume. whilst another fancier. was born ten years earlier." and is even so described in the Kennel Club Stud Book. Ford's Crib was also alias Tom Sayers.—THE PRINCIPAL STRAINS." "Fakey" Joe. while others whose names occur in the volume. MODERN BULLDOGS. too. Many famous animals among the earlier specimens were known by peculiar designations. Blewitt's Crib was known as " Turk. unfortunately. Mr. is also referred to in it as " Scotch Bob. for instance. Crib. some of his friends suggested. G. and Stockdale's Gruff was whelped in 1858. Heathfield and was bred by Jacob Lamphier. Baily's Dan was always known as the "Penny Dog. is a name which has been applied to nearly eighty known specimens. Joseph Taylor. J. scarcely be relied upon . were also whelped as early as the "fifties. was really Mr." The pedigrees of many of these early representatives of the national breed can. and first saw the light in 1864.. and this practice applied in some cases even to their owners. For instance." not because he was valued at this sum. In many instances the peculiar designations of the dogs were a matter of necessity. He belonged to Mr. This dog weighed about 30 lbs. the offspring of a Bordeaulais Bulldog.Modern Bulldogs. he did not gain his title through practising the gentle art of deceiving the judge. The late Mr. Brown. " Gentleman " Brown was the invariable designation of Mr." This latter was bred in Paris. from the quality of his stock in trade as a purveyor of meat. the genealogical trees proving the descent of famous contemporary Bulldogs are often (historically) of great interest. but because he was taken round the country with a caravan and exhi- . Although he went in for Bulldogs in early "faking" days. owing to so many bearing a similar name . Hinck's Crib was also known as "the cropped dog. and J. Hampstead. that is about 1854. a hare-lipped sister to King Dick. Although first in order in the initial volume of the Kennel Club. was better known in the fancy as "City Jack.

R. with pepper-coloured limbs. who kept him in the barrack yard chained to a post. Mullins. but the purity of their blood is questionable. and was a white dog with tulip ears and a frog mouth. T. but had reference only to the quality of the coat. was eaten during the siege of Paris in the next year. The Post Worrier could not stand the sight of a stick. owing to his tulip ears having been faked. J. and he appeared at a time when the Bulldog." Among the earlier Bulldogs there are those. so much so that the dividing weight at the earlier shows was generally about 20 to 25 lbs." Steve Kingston's Joe as " the Kensington Dog. and indifferent quality. Little Dick must have been a somewhat interesting specimen. B. a winner in 18G2. Percival's Toss. G. whilst Mr. R. was but at the beginning of his existence. the price of admission being one penny. and always seized it. Another representative of the national breed which was taken round the country on show was Gipsy. The " Penny Dog " was got by Bill George's Pan. hence his name. the most conspicuous were G. W. such as Mr. McDonald's Lady. at the period of which I am now speaking." and " the German's Dog " was really Brilliant. for instance. who on going to America left it with " Fakey'' Joe to dispose of. This fact has been quoted as an argument in favour of the French Bulldogs that have during the past few years been introduced to the English show bench. there were to be found quite a number of black Bulldogs. the first specimen owned by Mr. too. In the Midlands. whose only description is " the Navigator's Bitch. Whitehouse's Rush. and of all sizes. sixties. Of the winning dogs at the first shows at which classes for Bulldogs were provided. That gentleman sold it to a showman. Bill George's Dan. and implied a certain degree of coarseness." Oram's Billy as the " Cremorne Dog. after winning a prize at the Crystal Palace in 1870. and even less. In early days the term "rough haired" was often used. ex Adcock's Puss. an Irish bitch owned by Mr. owned by Mr. they were known as black-backed Bulldogs. The first really notable Bulldog on the show bench was Jacob Lamphier's King Dick. W. bad. but this did not imply that they were not smooth coated animals. J. bred in 185S. In those days there were all sorts of specimens about. Lloyd Price's Michael the Archangel. The small Bulldog was very much in evidence in the fifties and sixties.. Then there is a bitch recorded. and it was first exhibited at the Sheffield Fair as the Champion Bullbitch of the world. J. bred in 18G0. of good. owned to "the Stratford Dog" as her sire. Pike's Lord Nelson. Llovd bited. and a survival of days when light weight Bulldogs were commonly seen at shows. the suggestion being that they are really English Bulldogs.34 Modern Bulldogs. as a show dog. out of Bess. Spencer's Spring. which have become known to posterity for other than show reasons. Richards. was known as " the Bristol Road Dog. the Penny Dog being his sire. There are a number of other animals whose names raise curiosity. J. He was born in the . Berdetta. which he ultimately gnawed through. He was bought by an officer. He eventually got disqualified at Hanley. who. Percival's Captain. "Dan the Post Worrier" was another of the old Dans.

Modern Bulldogs. Price's Romanie and Madge, W. McDonald's Tiny and Wasp, Mike Lee's Kit, J. Hincks Madman and Rose, F. Adcock's Nelly, H. Orme's Violet, J. Lamphier's Venom and Kinj,r Dick. Of the prize winners of those days King Dick was the first to make a gnat name in the stud annals of Bulldogdom. This dog, although one of the earliest specimens exhibited on the show bench, was a first-class animal, and as a stud dog he transmitted his sterling qualities to his progeny and his career may well be taken as the starting point from which has proceeded most of the successful strains of later day Bulldogs. The dog has often been called " Old King Dick " to dissociate him from other King Dicks. In regard to this duplication of names, the regulation of the Kennel Club preventing it was a boon to the pedigree student, for the number of Cribs, Dans, King Dicks, Judys, Jessies, Joes, Bullys, Billys, Nells, Tumblers, Duchesses and so forth, became bewildering and threatened to become chaotic ; indeed, the loose method of naming Bulldogs in vogue in early days has in numerous instances altogether obliterated their identity. Even the same owners frequently possessed more than one dog with identical names and even with identical " sub-titles." Thus there were two dogs named King Dick II., whilst one of these also gloried in the name of "Jumbo,*' "Young Dick/' and "Young King Dick." Champion or "Old King Dick " was whelped in 1858, the year previous to that in which the first Dog Show was held, and he died in 1866. During his show career he carried off a number of prizes and attained the status of a champion, but this was not all, for at stud he was equally successful and was responsible for the good points of many a later day specimen, and the successful prize

35 strains of the present day mostly trace back to him. He got Meg, the dam of Sir Anthony and also King Dick II., who in his turn sired Michael the Archangel already mentioned. The greatest of all his descendants, however, was the noted Champion Crib, often called Turton's or Sheffield Crib. That Champion Crib was a direct descendant of Champion King Dick on his dam's side there is no question, but the accuracy of his pedigree on his sire's side is a matter that never has and probably never will be really cleared up. Historically this is to be regretted, although at this distance of time it is not of the slightest moment for breeding purposes. Champion Crib was bred by Fred Lamphier, of Sheffield, the son of Jacob Lamphier, of Birmingham, and was whelped in 1871. In the Kennel Club Stud Book it is stated that he was by Duke II., ex Rush, and described as "over251bs."in weight. He was, however, a dog of over GO lbs. weight. His pedigree is disputed, as his 3ire is also said to be one of the various Tumblers, probably the dog of that name by King Dick II. ex Slut II., and known as Sheffield Tumbler. Whatever may have been his parentage on his sire's side, he was certainly a wonderful specimen, and in the opinion of such good judges of the breed as Mr. J. W. Berrie, Mr. G. W. Richards and others who knew the dog, and have kept in touch with the breed ever since — which greatly adds to the value of their opinion at the present time—he was the best Bulldog that ever graced a show bench. Crib was a heavy weight brindle dog, short in back and limbs, without being in any way a cripple or monstrosity, with an immense skull- He died an unbeaten champion whilst in the ownership of the late Mr. Turton. As a show

and died in 1885. D. Hincks' Ben and Nell. E. Bill George's Dan. S. This dog's blood became so fashionable that the four great strains which sprang from him practically over-ran the show bench. while his reputation as a sire was even more so. and subsequently four great prize-winning strains . W. Britannia. G. F. commenced through these two animals being mated by Mr. by a couple of years. which did good service to the breed. E. Royal George. In the later seventies.36 Modern Bulldogs. and Blister. Nichols's Beauty. were established. and won. who exhibited him at Birmingham in 1880. Adcock's Ajax and Affable. the enormous influence of this dog as a veritable pillar of the stud book can be better realized. P. He was eventually sold to Mr. He. and the fourth from his union with Mr. Pike's Lord Nelson. Champion Gamester. Shirley's Beeswing. Paper's Prince. S. Else's Floss. surviving his brother. E. and so disgusted was Mr. G. the dog's career was remarkable. showed the dog at the Kennel Club Alexandra Palace Show. and when the fact is recalled that at the Bulldog Club Shows held at the Royal Aquarium in 1892 and 1893 every dog of known pedigree exhibited at those important shows had Champion Crib's blood in its veins. Fulton's Bowler and Falstaff. of Clifton. with a white mark on brisket. J. Oswell's Polly. where he was disqualified for having his ear faked. J. and Donna. however. There were. Payne's Nelly. From Champion Crib the four principal strains of present-day Bulldogs directly spring. Rust's Miss Smiff. S. Billy Shaw's Bill. and Mr. R. Reeves's The Cure and Fansy. W. however. Ward's Captain. Nichols's Noble. the second from his being mated with Mr. which goes back to Champion Crib and Berrie's Rose. Oliver's honour was never questioned. Gamester. King Brum. G. Nell. F. Berrie's Rose. the Chairman of the Kennel Club. all these were prize-winners in the sixties and early seventies. Champion Gamester. This litter was whelped on September 17th. Lamphier's Meg. He was. Dawes's Alexander. directly after the Birmingham Show. the influence of Champion Crib began to show itself. Berrie which produced the wonderfully fine litter which contained what were subsequently known to fame as Champion Monarch. C. and the best of the lot was Champion Monarch. 1878. Maggie Lauder. Henshall's Duke and Gambler. A. J. however. Harry Layton's Kit. Layton's Billy. also a brindle. and this at the zenith of his fame! Mr. and this descendant of Champion King Dick became one of the most celebrated stud dogs of the national breed. greatly used at stud and his specimen. Lawrence's Nettle. Parsley's Dan. Of these may be mentioned Redmond's Romany. Oliver. but the matter was a disagreeable one. many other good dogs not bred from Champion Crib (although a number of them trace back to his ancestor King Dick). He was a heavy weight brindle. the members of which have practically monopolised the prizes at shows ever since. Shirley. Clark's Daisy. Brent's Boniface. was not the equal of his illustrious brother for he possessed a pair of bad ears. the third from his union with Mr. although the objection at Birmingham had been laid by Mr. Beckett's Kit. CRIB-ROSE STRAIN The strain. and yet it was not disqualified. Lamphier's Meg. Stockdale's Gruff. The first of these strains is that arising from the union of Champion Crib with Mr. F. A. Oliver that he soon left the breed.

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Mr. W. W. Before finally taking leave of Champion Monarch. Mr. however. who was a white and brindie. Stevens's German Monarch. G. Cyril F. Mr. Peabody's Found It. A. G. whose stuffed remains were afterwards placed over the portal of the boxing room at the Blue Anchor. sired Mr. J. notably Mr. Ida Roberto's Young Monarch. E. She was ultimately sold to go to America. for he and his sister. who sired Mr.Mr.. Eord re-imported him. German Monarch was a fair specimen only. J. H. J. J. G. Royal George. who won numerous prizes whilst owned by Mr. Peabody's Eirst Attempt. C. was not by any means a "flyer. H. who. yet fine specimen. As a stud dog British Monarch did not shine as much as might have been expected. Marley's Pressmoor Eestus was also sired by Pathfinder. Smith's Carrie. died of rabies after having bitten Mr. who became the sire of Mr. Smith. R. and Royal George. W. J. and in his turn. the progeny of his illustrious son. was a son of Bill Richardson. Champion Taurus. J. Mr. J. H.. then a record price for a Bulldog. Gamester. had for their dam the celebrated . a wonderfully turned-up jawed dog. Monarch got Champion British Monarch. II. sterling qualities and notably a fine under jaw. W. Champion British Monarch. C. but greatly sought after for stud purposes. and Mr. British Monarch also sired Lady de Clifford's Queen Rose. who sired Mr. Pegg's Wild Fang. Berrie. Monarch also got Champion Wheel of Fortune. Bartlett's Monarch III. dealing with Monarch. the beautiful Queen Rose. Ellis's Tom Boy and Holy Friar. Murrell's King Lud. and Mr. a beautiful lemon and white bitch. Gamester. Mr. Clarke's Mersham Charmer Mrs. W. Barnes's Phulax. C. Ellis. owned by various fanciers and ultimately by Mr. W. Monarch also sired Mrs. but. Mr. who was the sire of Mrs. James's Little Bricks. Mr. as he was exported to America. Hodgson's Champion Harper. J. Sprague's Rose. He was soon lost to English breeders. and her early death was a great loss to the breed. besides being sired by Champion British Monarch. E. we find he also got that fine specimen. H. Mr. G. a point in which Monarch and Gamester were both deficient. Britannia was also a really good bitch. and Mr. and she on one occasion performed the feat of beating all the exhibits at a Bulldog Club Show. S. H. a most fortunate circumstance as the dog was hopelessly mad. then in the ownership of Mr. and this dog in its turn got Bill Richardson. who only scaled 231bs. W. W. Still. The perpetuation of the CribRose strain in this litter was well sustained by Monarch. Jackson's little bitch Sally Scattercash. S. and Mr. T. Sprague's. Oliver's Save Monarch. a good brindle and white heavy weight. Richard's Sheffield Monarch. H. J. W. Berrie suffered no ill effects from the bite. Murrell's Ivan. R. but in his old age Mr. and later by Mrs. who won numerous prizes tor her breeder. still he got some good ones. The dog Nap was also sired by Monarch. Sprague. Ellis's Champion Pathfinder. Alfred Benjamin's bitch Champion Britomartis too was sired by Champion Monarch. title indicates the prizes he won. J. Mr. Gurney. Next may bo mentioned Monarch's son. Queen Rose was undoubtedly the best of his progeny. who was the sire of Mrs. Sam Woodiwiss who gave £175 for it. W. M. who sired the apple-headed.Modern Bulldogs. alas ! too late to be of any benefit to the breed. must be referred to. Lord Yarmouth." He had. Sfaoreditoh.

and Mr. Hodgson's Heathen. As a puppy. Facey Romford sired Mr. The following owe their existence to Gamester : Champion Diogenes. Empress V. Messrs. G. just referred to. W. Dona Sol and Maritana (the two latter the foundation of the late Mr. Gardiners' Brooklyn Return. and Mr.. Mayhew's Bendigo. H. A. also did good service in getting Pagan. Pybus Sellons' successful kennel). W. we find that he was the sire of Mr. and aired Zeus the sire of Sheffield Barry. . and Mr. and Mr. and Bedgebury Lion got Mr.headed specimen. he got Mr. H. G. Susan. Morford and Rust's Ripon. By ford's Spartan. II. J. who sired his Slasher. in his turn sired Mr.. W. this white and brindle-marked dog created an immense sensation when shown for the first time at nine months old at the Bulldog Club Show at the Central Hall. Ford's White Venn and Village Maid. also sired Mr. J. Cassell's Champion Facey Romford.38 Modern Bulldogs. Tidman's Duke of Albemarle. Fletcher's Regent Street Prince. Marley's Felton Chance It and Mrs. Shirley's Firemaster. Crocker's Hushmueh. also sired Mr. C. Enfield Tartlet. Mr. He. who sired Mr. J. Mr. Alaric also sired Mr. Jack Ashburne's dudley. A. H. H. who sired Mr. A. Gurney's colours. Champion Dryad. Crabtree's Champion Boomerang (one of the very best ever whelped). Pemberton's Johnny Morgan. Harry Lay ton's Bend'or also did good service for the strain. Sewell's Champion Queer Street. Bruce II. and Mr. D. E. The strain as perpetuated through Champion Gamester was equally successful. J. also known as Master Biuce. and Mrs. Alaric.who. R. the sire of Mr. Ure's The Antiquary. S. got Mr. whilst he. who sired those splendid fawns. Bruce II. formerly known as Rosa Belle. Brookes' Baby Bacchus. who sired Mr. Bend'or also got Dick II. Thomas's Stratton Billy. and in view of tins must be considered really a failure at stud. Campbell's Satan II. who got Mrs. Hodgson's Champion Harper sired General Roberts. who sired that famous Champion. Alfred Robinson's Bingo. and Champion Katerfelto. Gamester's eon. Ellis's Captain Jack. C. the sire of Mr. Mr. who got Mr. R. G. as well as Mr. for in the first place. Beresford Hope's Bedgebury Lion. Holborn. W. B. Sam Woodiwiss's Boom-de-Ay. W. got Mr. who was responsible for Mr. L. The last-named was a large dog. Smaelen's Queen Lena. George Raper's Champion Rustic King. Gamester also got Mr. for that dog sired that marvellous . Mr. Murrell's King Orry. who became the sire of Mr. Returning again to Gamester. McDonald's Bruce II. German Monarch was put to an enormous number of good bitches. J. the beautiful bitch Acme. S. and like the same owner's Gladstonekoff won many prizes under the late Mr. in his turn. Mr. J. Harper is also to be credited with being the sire of Mr. E. P. Eumorfopoulos' Forlorn '94. A. Mr. Emperor. however. F. B Evans's Ivel Doctor. Bend'or. C. Alaric.. the sire of Mr. A. R. Champion Gladstonekoff. Champion Magic and Mr. Mr. Blucher. J. Frank Crowther's excellent bitch. and President Garfield. Thompson's Shylock. Reid's beautiful bitch. Mr. P. who sired his Rustic Model. T. H. Our Dick. J. and Lady de Clifford's Orphan Lad. M. Mr. Master Kildare. Naylor's Ashton Billy. Thayre'a Zohara. Murrell's Dunster Lad. Guy Boothby's Champion Monkey Brand. Ellis's Champion Guido. H. Sweet Briar. Bruce II. Ellis's Semolina. C. sired Mr. The Alderman also sired Mr. and The Alderman. O'Mahony's President Carnot. Roger's Bayrhum and Mr.

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. who got Mr. Baker's Aston Thornfield. Black Prinoe also got Mr. W. the sire of Mr. W. Berrie. and an 39 admittedly faked specimen.1. who worthily upheld the reputation of the strains founded by his illustrious grand-sire. and in the end died a Champion. J. F. and Rain—three dogs and a bitch (Rain). at the Nottingham Show of 1875. and history does not record the fate of Rain. J. upon the ground that the whole lot were faked. B. which was named Lightning. R. and of which Tiger was the progenitor. Turton's Crib. but one of the most useful animals belonging to this strain. Gheude's Leonidas. J. P. He was the sire of Beaconsfield. Black Prince also sired Pair Prince. R.headed animal. though not so successful a sire as his more illustrious brothers. Jackson's The Graven Tmage. Stichbury's good dog . J. Clay's Duke. Peace. Raper's Rosy Cross was also one of this strain. . won important prizes. covered with show bench honours. The litter soon got notorious through being shown and disqualified by Mr. \V. Reeve's Crib was the sire of that beautiful bitch. who sired Mr. The allegation was that the dogs had been cut under the upper lips. Raper's Rabagas. notwithstanding rebuffs in its infancy. Storm came to a sad end. Raper's colours. Lightning. and had he appeared at the close of the 19th century instead of in the year 1880 lie would have been in great demand at stud and a force to reckon with on the Show bench. Jackson's Bladud and Holy Terror. it must be allowed had never the same opportunities. Adrastus got Jumbo VIII. who got Byron II. which Lamphier named Thunder. Sandle's Lord Nelson III. being got by Tiger. G. Rust's Adrastus (a good . The result was four puppies. F. under the name of Duke. The litter responsible for its establishment was that containing the dog known to the Bulldog world as Tiger. CRIB-MEG STRAIN. G. as was his Champion Redowa and Ringleader. Upon Thunder being afterwards shown at Wolverhampton he was again disqualified and yet a third time at the Bulldog Club Show. Fred Lamphier owned the dog and put it to a bitch which "Fakey" Joe. . J. Ross's good bitch. and Mr. had bought for him for three sovereigns. Bartlett's Tonic. He got. was also a good one. Storm.. C. who got Mrs. who sired Mr. W. and. Murrell's Katapult. sire of Messrs. Crocker's Lady Hamilton IT. Some voted this latter a monstrosity. J. Champion Boomerang sired Mr. C.Modern Bulldogs. The third and last of Champion Crib's litter which assisted to perpetuate the Crib-Rose strain was the dog Royal George who. the late Mr. being poisoned. Adrastus also got Royal Rogue the sire of Mr. Thunder passed into the hands of Mr. and K. C. the dog had a celebrated career. and passed into the hands of Mr. W. The pup. but the fact is he was a little before his time. Salvo. Raper who re-named him Richard Coeur-de-Lion and under Mr. the judge. Fred Reeve's Crib. who got Mr. however. As the result of mating Champion Crib with Mr. and Mr. Prince George. W. who in his turn got Mr. King's Black Prince. a bitch of less than 20 lbs. A. Mr. C. and Thornfield. but deformed in the front leg) and the prize winning curiosity Fisherman. weight. and Mr. of Sheffield. E. was the late Mr. W. a strain was established which has among its representatives some of the best dogs seen on the show bench. Muir Drew's Ninepins. a brindle dog.lummy. Lamphier's Meg. which latter sired Kettering Jumbo. J. Mutter's Yorker and Mr. F.

W. who also won numerous prizes under the colours of the late Dr. and got beaten. Mr. another celebrated son of Reeve's Crib. Mr. Of other dogs got by Reeve's Crib. Mrs. Of this bevy of specimens Saleni. and Champion Dolores stand out prominently. Davis's Lion Seeker. who. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Dockleaf. and Mr. however. notably the celebrated "little big 'un. A. sired the bitch Mischief. Laing's Lord Marmion. who was destined to become one of the best of Bull bitches. A. G. Ruling Passion. bred by Mr. Marfleet's Champion Bromley Crib. Smith's Bo'swain. Ross's Tomsh. Taylor's Bully Boy II. and at public auction directly afterwards was purchased by Mr. and the service of her dam. also performed the feat under Mr. J. S. Grabber II. II. F. E. Baker's Aston Lion. who Mr. Enfield Grabber sired Mr. who got Mr. Edgar Farman's Champion Ruling Passion. Mr. was the dam of Mr. on one occasion. Ellis's Saleni. J. it should be noted. Pybus Sellons' Diomed. Enfield Grabber. who died in the ownership of Mr. and Mr. Mr. W. Pearson's Ashton Duke. that she was sired by Reeve'fl Crib when ho was but ten months old. J. Mr." Mr. J. Lewis and Everill's Despot. incidentally here. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Forceps. and Mr. George R. J. A. Sprague's Champion Grabber. Farman's colours of carrying off the Kennel Club Prize at the Bulldog Club's Show in 1894 for the best dog or bitch in the show. E. Guy Boothby's Black Watch and Mr. A. who got Messrs. and by others declared to be a monstrosity or cripple. Bedel Benison and sired the former's good bitch. P. H. Ross's Champion Blackwall Beauty. R. This dog had a short and brilliant career. Mr. Muir Drew's Grabber II. Also numbered among his progeny were Mr. but suffered defeat in the match with S. J. He was only once beaten on the show bench (by Champions Ruling Passion and Guido). J. E. but these really belong to another branch of Champion Crib's strains. Baker's Aston Bit of Fashion. J. was a celebrated prize winner. A. Aston Lion also sired Mr. Pybus Sellon's Dandelion. Pybus Sellon matched at £50 to £5 against Mr. and did good service at stud. He sired Mr. Smartt's Royal Duke. W. H. J. Oswego. S. and was the bone of much contention. Shaw's . Dr. It is a curious fact in connection with the breeding of this bitch. Mr. H. Mutter's Fresh Start. beat all the dogs and bitches at a Bulldog Club Show. who got Mr. Thomas's Orient Forceps and the Duke of Glos'ter. D. it may be remarked.. Sims's Barney Barnato. who maintained the reputation of the Crib — Meg Strain. Sellon. Bedel Benison's Sir Tristan. by some deemed to be a wonder. Alfred George for £80 on an American commission. besides giving birth to a most celebrated litter. did not alter the fact that she was a most beautiful bitch. Sam Woodiwiss's Master John Bull.40 Modern Bulldogs. Woodiwiss's Champion Baron Sedgemere. A. This.Fred Nash's Champion Dolores. W. Joe Davis's Bull Ring Nell and Bull Ring Rose. Stevens's Claudian. Mr. Mr. Pybus Sellon's Champion Queen Mab. the sire of Mr. W. Crib also sired Mr. Mab. G. Champion Boas and Champion Battledora. who got Mr. Forceps also sired Mr.. J. who. Ellis. Jolly Sailor should be named as the sire of Mr. by getting a lob of good stock. Champion Ruling Passion. and Mr. Another notable son of Reeve's Crib was Mr. was an accidental one. Preece's Young Dolly. S. Champion Blackberry. H. Mr. Best's Oswego—truly a notable list.

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The third strain which was established by the redoubtable Bulldog Champion Crib was that which resulted from the litter for which he and Mr. bred by Mr. Tom Ball. dying in the Ettington Park Kennels in 1887 at the ripe age of nearly eleven years. B. and again in the walking match against Mr.Bulldog Club. and sired among others Mr. 41 CRIB-MISS SMIFF STRAIN. In this work in dealing with the strains of Champion Crib I have adopted the Salic method and traced down the offspring on the male side and by following this system. G. He was bred by Mr. Mr. and got. Mr. Another notable son of Champion Crib be longing to the same strain was Sir Anthony. J. This dog also got some good stock. A. S. Russ's Miss Smiff wera responsible. Austin's Delaware. and Mr. Edgar Farman's Evil Beast and Defendant. G. still Sancho Panzo distinctly influenced the breed in his day and his immediate descendants were extremely successful and his blood flows in the veins of many a specimen who perhaps comes within the category of other strains. among others. Parker's Baby II. and the very pretty and good bitch. Sir Anthony also got Mr. S. too. And in this respect it may be as well to say that although a dog may belong to a particular strun it does not thereby follow that he may not be closely connected with another. Royal George and Tiger were. events which were fully described in my History of the . S. George Murrells King Orry. for even with the little opportunity he had he gave evidence pf his worth by getting such excellent specimens as Mr. Conqueror. Mr. W. L. Mr. E. J. A. and Captain Holdsworth's Doon Brae. E. W. It cannot for one moment be contended that Champion Crib's son Champion Sancho Panza was the forerunner of a long lineage of prize winners such as Crib's sons Monach Gamester. K. G. Lord Mandeville's Slenderman. Smith's Champion His Lordship. was by no . Charles Hathaway's beautiful bitch Homestead Lady Dockleaf. Peacock's Great Govan and Mr. Sellon's Dabchick and Dacoit (the latter being known as Stonewall Jackson when the property of Mr. He also sired Mr. J. All these dogs did a lot of winning and rendered good service at stud. a fawn dog. P. J. owned by Mr. was one of Sancho Panza's best progeny.Modern Bulldogs. P. Lord Nelson in his time got a lot of good stock. which was originally named Gordon Murray. W. and Slenderman also established a reputation in the same way. the sire of that good specimen Surplice. Lord Nelson. Shirley's fine specimen of the breed Champion Sancho Panza. This union produced Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Baronius. Doon Brae sired some good ones. Parson's Champion Billy. Smartt's Smartt's Punch. but there is no doubt of his excellence. Pybus Sellon's Donax. I have found it possible to indicate in a systematic way the main strains from which the modern Bulldog is derived. Alfred Robinson's Aurora was another beautiful bitch got by Dandelion and Mr. Byford's Lady Nelson. N. a white dog. Mr. W. Richards). for which we have the best of precedents in the human race. Donax in his turn sired Mr. Rust. who got Mr. Oliver's Champion Rozelle. who did a lot of winning for Captain Holdsworth. which won numerous prizes under the colours of the Chairman of the Kennel Club. P. Wilkes. As a stud dog he had little chance of showing his qualities. was an excellent heavy weight got by this dog.

Muir Drew's Champion Kitty Cole. Besides the strains already alluded to. Walter Jefferies's Rodney Stone. Mr. Another of Don Pedro offspring. the sire of Cameron. Mr. S. and himself besides being. H. E. who got Mr. but more interesting to later day fanciers is the fact that he sired Mr.who got Mr. S. Ford's Champion Petramosse. Jaquet's Ayessha. and the success of his more remote has proved as successful as that of his immediate descendants. although a direct lineal . E. Don Quixote and Julius Ctesar. Harding Cox's Bilali. Mr. however. S. Mr. Lord Nelson got Sir Garnet Wolsley. Ross's Don Carlos. Champion Crib was responsible for a fourth. T. C. Julius Caesar in his turn got Lambkin. She was a heavy weight brindle. Don Pedro was a London-bred one—full of old London blood. was the dam of Lady de Clifford's Queen Rose. Tod's Stiletto. Mr. W. W. and Mr. Mr. and Mrs. Hopton's L'Ambassador. and won important prises. was another good one. who got Wadsley Jack. the great grandson of an illustrious great grandsire. The same owner's Champion Bellisima too claimed Champion Sancho Panza as her sire. Beckett's Kit. Empress III. who was got by Don Pedro.—KIT STRAIN. Ford's Don Salano was a successful son of Don Pedro.and Dona Venn. Cervantes was another good one of Sancho Panza's get. A. L. Mr. H. This bitch was destined to become the dam of Champion Diogenes. were all sons and daughters of this noted stud dog. Ford's Ivy Leaf. Hudson's dudley nosed Sahib. as we have seen. CRIB. Captain Houldsworth's Faust was another of this strain. Mr. G. R. who would most assuredly have been a champion had she lived. Ford's Catalina. Longmore's Orient Don. and did a lot of winning. H. Pegg's Don Cervantes and Woodcote Galtee More. Incidentally I may say here that his daughter. established by his breeding with Mr. W. Mr. Roger's Dona Disdain. H. and also were Farewell. Don Alexis became the sire of Mr. C. Davis's Ilford Mikado. Mr. R. J. through their offspring Mr. J. being got by Sancho Panza. W. II. Champion Dryad. W. and who in his turn got Mr. J. had less of that dog's blood in him than many of his contemporaries. II. Vicary's Primula. A. was in his turn the sire of some illustrious specimens. W. This latter dog. W. He sired amongst others that capital little bitch. Mr. means the least celebrated of his progeny. W. A. Tod's Exodus was sired by Moses. Joel's Lord Francis and Don Alexis. Mann's John of the Funnel the sire of Mr. Mr. the sire of his Don Leon. Don Salano also got M r. W. who in his turn became the progenitor of Mr. B. Mr. J.42 Modern Bulldogs. W. J. Smith's Champion His Lordship. Mr. Thomas's Champion Bicester Beauty and Bicester Daisy. Sprague's Don Pedro. Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Dryad. and besides getting other stock he sired Mr. Ellis's Champion Ida. Mr. Vero Shaw's Sepoy. Fred Reeve's Stockwell. Coxon's Cyclops. and Mr. descendant of Champion Crib. both at stud and on the show bench. Sahib's best get. This strain is noticeable as responsible for bitches producing good progeny which following their paternal ancestry belong to another strain. J. H. was certainly the celebrated stud dog and prize winner. W. Ford's Champion Don Salano. Edgar Farman's Champion Cigarette and Felon. She won a lot of prizes and was a really beautiful light weight. G. This dog was bred in 1S74. Certainly Don Pedro has left his mark most distinctly upon the modern Bulldog. D. Mr.

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Mr. and Captain C. Old Sixpence. Champion Dimboola sired Mr. and excelled himself when he sired the famous litter of which Blackberry was the dam. also got Lady de Clifford's Cats Eye. whose pedigree is unknown. Murrell's Lady Essex. and. Thomas's Balaclava. who in his turn got the typical little bitch. Selon used so much as a cross out from the Crib strain. might be named as a dog probably not belonging to any of the foregoing strains. Mr. Possibly there are some animals whose male ancestry steer clear of these venerable Pillars of 43 the Bulldog Stud Book. He also got Mr. containing Mr. . E. Egg's Bully II. be unprofitable to enter into an enumeration of the various dogs which twenty-five years ago then traced their pedigrees back. on being put to Dextrine by Mr. whose blood Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Baron Sedgemere. Sixpence was the sire of King Cole. His Lordship. was certainly useful at stud. in concluding this chapter I will merely remark that some excellent specimens have from time to time cropped up on the show bench whose pedigrees are unknown and ever will be. in addition to getting Queen of Sheba. Austin's True Type. Stiletto sired Mr. Sims' Barney Barnato. S. K. G. and among other notable specimens exhibited in more modern days. K.Modern Bulldogs. Oliphant's Chatley Nob. A. Sellon. Peabody's The Unknown. Le Poer Trench's dogs Crust and Crumbs. Mr. It would. Champion Boas and Champion Battledora and Mr. Tod's Housewife. her sire being Champion His Lordship. a dog sired by Nelson. D.however. In this chapter I have endeavoured to deal with the principal modern strains of Bulldogs in such a manner that the reader can at once appreciate the fact that practically the whole of the present day show Bulldogs trace directly back through one or other of the strains I have dealt with to Champion Crib or that still more ancient specimen King Dick. although not a show specimen. Champion Alexander and Champion Duke. and Mrs. Mr. may be mentioned. the result was Champion Dimboola. and been built up during the last quarter of a century. his Queen of Slieba was also got by a member of this strain.. G. and in earlier show days a number of such naturally did exist. G. the latter bred by the Duke of Hamilton. Tod's King Soloman. Sellon's Dairymaid. Mr. and Mr. whose parentage never will be known. Woodiwiss's Romance. G. along strains different to those which have since predominated. for this dog. He was a dog that was got by Blondin. Jeffenes' Dick Swiveller. Stockwell. K. G. Sam Woodiwiss's white Champion Dog Datholite. Gr. E. J. This dog sired King Cole Juniors an excellent specimen. otherwise known as Tramp. both deserve mention as animals not coming within the King Dick or Crib strains. One of the most notable of these was Mr. Another of Stock well's get was Mr. H.

The standard description of points of the old English Bulldog was drawn up by the Bulldog Club in 1875. CHAPTER VI. It is one thing. as in all other breeds. first to read up the description. broad. the various points can be easily and readily grasped. without knowing what extent of turn-up amounts to a well-turned-up one. By following this course. A good plan for the novice to adopt is. take the temples or frontal bones. and the comparison of one or two descriptions then existing and formulated by enthusiastic owners in the very early days of the breed's existence as a show dog. The best possible plan by which to acquire knowledge of the points of the breed. DESCRIPTION OF A BULLDOG AND SCALE OF POINTS. squareness and elevation without actual observation and comparison. There should be " very prominent. and carefully study its formation. and go through all the points one by one. The student will. to read a formal description. and altogether another to apply it. and can also apply it. It's no use to know that a Bulldog should have a Well-turned-up under-jaw. And this leads me to say that. the establishment of an accepted code of points whereby the breeder could have a guide. and what should and what should not be. is to place a good specimen and a rank bad one side by side. square and high. however. proceed to seek out an acknowledged crack. Again. by this means. and which I have adopted myself when desiring to describe a Bulldog's points to others. after most careful enquiries amongst the most prominent breeders. If the reader has once mastered the Bulldog Club's description. The institution of dog shows and the consequent xhibition of dogs for competition on the show point principle necessitated. is a carefullycompiled description of an ideal Bulldog. point by point. and the judge a standard to place in their proper positions the dogs paraded before him. get a basis in his mind to work upon. quickly fixed in the mind. can a proper knowledge of the points of the breed be acquired. Probably the earliest of these descrip- . and those who are inexperienced in the breed can only become experts by constant observation of the various specimens exhibited at the many shows now held. THE standard of points of a perfectlyformed Bulldog.44 Description of a Bulldog." but it would tax the ability of the smartest to grasp the amount of breadth. he should be a good judge of the breed. comparing those possessed by the good dog with those of the bad one. drawn up by The Bulldog Club (Incorporated) and which will be found set out at the conclusion of this chapter. and having obtained such a general idea as it conveys to him. by comparison only.

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it carried out a most important piece of work in thus recording the views of those most capable in those days of giving an opinion upon the points and properties of the national breed. I am enabled to give an exact reproduction. Samuel Wickens. often noticed. Many will draw a long breath on reading that he was an extraordinary water dog. adopted as correct. J. was that drafted by Mr. If the Club did nothing else. by the way. 45 which.ancient animal. J. with matchless courage he will give up only with life itself." Up-to-date breeders. Borne years ago. W. The description further records that "if treated with kindness. and he is a dog of which Englishmen may be proud. and published in February of the following year. possessed specimens which were wonderful water dogs. "The British Bulldog is a majestic." and "there is nothing a good Bulldog will not attack. The cause of the drafting of this particular standard of points was the establishment about that time by Mr. . These would spring into the water from a height of fifteen feet. he is a quiet and tractable dog. as a rule. Rockstro and his friends of a club called The Bulldog Club. and is perfectly identified with old England." Doubtless this was a very fair description of the breed in those days. The description. tions was that drafted by that very old time fancier. but. powerful. and. tenacity and British character. however. The reader will observe the general " getup " of this record of what the national dog should be. but also by reason of the peculiarity of some of the views expressed in it. there were plenty of specimens years ago who would readily take to the water Mr. Jacob Lamphier." and the reminder that the Bulldog is in truth "a national animal. and ever brave and unappalled.Description of a Bulldog. Such is the train of thought which must pass through the minds of all those who peruse the lines which constitute the Thilo-Kuon description. which the Bulldog Club found of the greatest service. much maligned. yet active and courageous in the extreme. and it concludes with the remarkable statement that this noble dog becomes " degenerate abroad. it being issued under that nom de plume in the year 1864. very little understood. Ross. Berne. so far as temperament went. and bring ashore heavy planks and even anchor buoys. in formal manner. interesting not only on account of its antiquity in bench competition annals." Altogether the opening statements are descriptive of an animal the embodiment of pluck. and never beaten until life is extinct. and. as a matter of fact. from an original copy in the possession of Mr. and other instances might be quoted to prove that Rhilo-Kuon's statement was quite correct. whose career was very short and whose only work was the drafting of this description. W. pause and think : Is this the sort of animal you are breeding today ? Such is the description which. of Birmingham. its quaint wording and the general idea running through the whole description that of a dog. of this extremely interesting document. and known as the Philo-Kuon standard. and a great portion of which it adopted. well-known breeders accepted." is the opening statement in the descriptive head note. discloses the fact that the word Bulldog was then a hyphenated word. very scarce. It is further stated that " He is the boldest and most resolute of animals. whatever may be the objection to water often displayed by present day specimens. in the year 1864. and frequently with his master.

and weedy animals with good heads are often in the running. emblem Excellent as an example of distorting nature by patient imbreeding. good-natured. the descriptions differ. Again in tails. In connection with the various points of a Bulldog. heavy-boned animal. when a plainer-faced good-bodied specimen is about. Friendly with all. may at times think himself lucky to get into the money. in a general way. In fact. and that the perfect dog in the minds of the authors of the one was the same perfect dog which was in the minds of the authors of the other. as. In certain particulars they differ. but as a whole. moderately cloddy big-skulled. doubtless the attempts to get heavier bone all through has caused them to become thicker. In some of its details. and it is not coarse. and button ears does not mention either. powerful. it is curious to note how great a part the fashion of the hour plays in the breeding of Bulldogs and their respective positions in the judging ring. but it is an incontrovertible fact that certain points come. and a good headed dog. and no distinction whatever is made in their value from a show point of view. The standard description of the Bulldog Club whilst not expressly denouncing these tulip . the references materially differ. and the national dog in many instances is not possessed of those characteristics of which he always figures as tin. At one time the great essential is a mass of wrinkles. go and return again in estimation and value. so long as the animal does not get it over its back. seems to be the very last point breeders take the smallest trouble about. for instance. Philo-Kuon's standard specifically allows tulip ears. in connection with ears. by the way. able to get along very fairly by himself. unwieldy specimen of caninity. he is a manufactured article—a mass of show points.46 Description of a Bulldog. From one extreme breeders have gone to the other. a whip tail did once exist but only on light-boned dogs. with a moderate body. whilst in another period bodies are all the rage. whilst and although a little high flown. No doubt the number of tulip and button-eared specimens about in PhiloKuon's day was answerable for the inclusion of these types of ears in his standard. short-faced. both aim at describing the same beau ideal. there is no doubt that it fitted Bulldogs of that time a great deal better than it does those of presentday specimens. For instance. the average Bulldog is a harmless. How long the cycle of time lasts before the old long-sought-for and bred-topoint again becomesthe point above all things to breed to. a thickset. Philo-Kuon's standard mentioning a formation of the caudal appendage which does not appear in the Bulldog Club standard . and endeavour to imagine the heart and ability of his ancestors inside him. so surely does fashion prevail and change in connection with the various points of a Bulldog in theeyes of the fancy. I do not pretend to say. A comparison of the standard of the Bulldog Club with that of Philo-Kuon reveals the fact that the two are. will produce a feeding of sadness in the observer at the painful results of inbreeding for points. to pause a moment before a pampered champion nowadays. The contents of both documents disclose that their authors had the same ideas in view. As surely as fashion prevails and changes among the fair sex. and simply says the shape termed rose ear is the most correct. dog breeders are at one time all for size of skull and head. the tail. as well as button and rose. identical. Speaking of tails.

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and compact. No doubt the cause of these fashions is that so soon as breeders have succeeded in attaining their object in one direction they turn their attention to another. but broad. which is not so grand or as well developed as a dog :— 1. rather low in stature. the general appearance—which is the first impression the clog makes as a whole on the eye of the judge—should be first considered. Certain it is that fashion has decreed for the moment that 47 the English Bulldog should not be what Rosa was. short-backed. Inbreeding has been going on to an alarming extent with the result that whilst the dog has been reduced to the required shape. after having run the gauntlet of adoption by the first Bulldog Club. Its head strikingly massive. or rather its proportions in the relation they bear to each other. and therefore necessarily not so active as in times gone by. and the student of the Bulldog must turn to the standard for information for present-day practical use. and size of the ideal type of the Bulldog. The prevailing fashion of the past ten years has been to breed Bulldogs extremely cloddy.) It was drawn up by the Bulldog Club in 1875. due allowance being made for the bitch. The general appearance of the Bulldog is that of a smooth-coated thick-set dog. (No point should be so much in excess of the others as to destroy the general symmetry. the present must be dealt with. &c. and is as follows :— The Bulldog. ten years later. Its . the committee of the Bulldog Club in the year 1894 ruthlessly dragged her from her high estate and cast her away because.Description of a Bulldog. but for practical purposes. his style." Rosa after having been held up by Philo-Kuon in his standard as possessing a perfect shape . and make. and after ascertaining the views of old breeders upon the subject. Standard Description of the Correct Appearance and the several points in Detail of a Perfectly-formed Bulldog. or make the dog appear deformed. temper. and her retention became a farce in consequence of the continued disregard to her model by the judges one and all. gait. Tempora mutantur. and large in proportion to the dog's size. at another this is not so requisite as a well out at shoulder front. his temperament and activity have been seriously impaired. By the old school this act on the part of the Bulldog Club was considered little short of vandalism.) Thirdly. In forming a judgment on any specimen of the breed. The description of the English Bulldog accepted all the world over is that of the Bulldog Club (Incorporated. so much so that an important deletion was made a few years ago in the standard description so as to make it the better fit the dog. shape. In fact. or interfere with its powers of motion. Whether the Club was right or wrong is not for me to decide. been adopted by the present Club and after having retained the honourable position in its standard for nearly a quarter of a century. as follows. powerful. carriage. forsooth. So much for the past. This deletion was the statement in the standard that " the outline of Rosa in the picture of Crib and Rosa is considered to nearly approach perfection in shape. Secondly. and low to the ground. the present day animals will not fit her beautiful outline. and his several points should be considered separately in detail. after careful consideration. should be noticed its size. make. after having.

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