AMERICA

FEATURES YOU MUST KNOW:
WATER: Caribbean sea Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Mexico Titicaca Lake Great Lakes (Superior, CITIES: New York Washington Miami San Francisco Los Angeles Guadalajara Mexico DF La Habana Sao Paulo Buenos Aires Rio de Janeiro

Huron and Michigan)
Mississippi-Missouri Amazon River

MOUNTAINS: Rocky Mountains Sierra Madre Andes McKinley Peak Aconcagua

General characteristics of the American Continent This continent is located between the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and is separated from Asia by the Bering Strait. America is the second largest continent (42.9 million km-). It is divided into two masses of land: North America and South America; between them there is a narrow band of land called Central America. American relief The American relief can be divided into two large areas: • The west of the continent, where there is a long range of young mountains that goes from the Arctic to Tierra del Fuego. In North America, we can find the Rocky Mountains and in South America, the Andes. The Andes has the highest peak of the continent, the Aconcagua (6,960 metres). • In the East, there are large plains crossed by big rivers, such as the Central Plain in North America crossed by the Mississippi and the Missouri and the Amazon basin in South America.

American coasts The coasts in North and Central America are very irregular, with many peninsulas, such as Alaska, California and Florida; gulfs such as those of California and Mexico; and islands such as Greenland or Cuba. American waters The rivers are long and plentiful. • Rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean. They are frozen during the winter. • Rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean, like the San Lorenzo or the Mississippi in North America. The Orinoco, the Amazon or the Parana are also important in South America. The Orinoco is the most plentiful in the world. • Rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean like the Colorado in North America. In North America there are also many lakes; the most important are a group of lakes that separate Canada from the USA, known as the Great Lakes. In South America, Lake Titicaca is the highest navigable lake in the world.

FEATURES YOU MUST KNOW:
MOUNTAINS: Himalayas Mount Everest WATER: Dead Sea Yellow (or Huang) River Ganges Yangtze River Indus Caspian Sea Persian Gulf DESERT: Gobi Desert CITIES: Tokyo Seoul Delhi Bombay Manila Osaka Jakarta Beijing Hong Kong Shangai

General characteristics of the Asian continent Asia is located between the Arctic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Asia is the world's largest continent (43.6 million km"). It has diverse landforms and large rivers. Asian relief Important mountain ranges and high plateaus mean that Asia has a high average altitude (950 meters). Among its landforms there are: • Young mountains: the Himalayas, where we can find Mount Everest, the highest peak on Earth (8,848 metres), and the Zagros Mountains. • Plains: Western Siberia, Ganges, North China Plain. • Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth (395 metres below sea level).

Asian coasts

The coasts are very irregular, so this makes abundant coastal features possible, such as:
• Peninsulas: Anatolian, Arabian, Indochina, etc. • Gulfs: Persian Gulf, Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Tonkin, etc. • Islands: Sri Lanka, Japanese Archipelago, Philippines, etc. Asian waters Asian rivers are long and plentiful. They flow into three different oceans: • The rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean, like the Lena, remain frozen during part of the year. When they thaw, they can cause floods. • The rivers flowing into the Pacific Ocean include the Huang He (Yellow River), the Yangtze (Blue River) and the Mekong. Their level increases in the summer with the rains and winds brought by the monsoon. They are used for agriculture and navigation. • The rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean, such as the Ganges or the Indus, originate in the Himalayas.

AFRICA

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DESERT: Sahara Kalahari

MOUNTAINS: Atlas Mountains Drakengsberg M. Ethiopian highlands Kilimanjaro WATER: Orange river Congo river Niger river Nile Victoria lake Victoria falls
CITIES: Lagos Brazzaville-Kinshasha Cairo Alexandria Nairobi

General characteristics of the African continent The African continent is located between the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. It is separated from Europe by the Strait of Gibraltar, and from Asia by the Sinai Peninsula and the Red Sea. Africa is the third largest continent (30.3 million km2). African relief The relief of Africa is flat but its average altitude is high (750 metres) due to its plateaus and massifs. Among its landforms are: • Old and isolated massifs such as the Ethiopian Highlands • Depressions such as in Niger, Chad, and in the River Congo. • Geologic rifts: long faults such as the Rift Valley in East Africa. • Young mountain ranges: in the northern and southern extremes of Africa, like the Atlas and Drakensberg Mountains.

African coasts African coasts have few coastal features. Some important ones are: the Somali Peninsula (Horn of Africa) and the Gulf of Guinea; and the cape of Good Hope. Among the islands, Madagascar is one of the largest. African waters African rivers are quite different depending on where their waters flow into: the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean or the Mediterranean Sea. • The rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are long and plentiful, like the Congo River, the Niger and the Orange. • The rivers that flow into the Indian Ocean are shorter. • The rivers that flow into the Mediterranean are short and have little water, except for the Nile, which is also the longest river in the world. There are numerous lakes in the area of the Rift Valley. The most important are the Victoria, the Tanganica and the Albert.

OCEANIA

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DESERT: Grat Victoria Great Barrier Reef

ISLANDS: Australia New Zealand New Guinea Hawai Micronesia Melanesia Polinesia
CITIES: Lagos Brazzaville-Kinshasha Cairo Alexandria Nairobi

• General characteristics and regions
It is located in the Pacific Ocean and is the smallest of the continents (8.9 million krrr'). Oceania is different from the rest of the continents in that it is formed by four groups of islands: • The group formed by Australia, New Guinea and New Zealand, which make up most of the territory. • Polynesia. • Micronesia. • Melanesia.

• Relief and waters in Australia
Western plateau, occupied mainly by deserts such as the Victoria. The Great Dividing Range on the eastern coastline.

• Relief in the rest of Oceania
The remaining islands can be divided according to their origin. • Volcanic islands: mountainous, with active volcanoes. • Coral islands: flat and small; and formed from coral reefs.

ANTARCTICA

Antarctica is the only uninhabited continent. Its whole surface is permanently frozen. It has a land mass of 14.2 million km2, During the winter, when the surrounding seas freeze, its surface increases to 30 million km2

• Relief in Antarctica
Its average altitude is above 2,500 metres, the highest in the world. The relief in the western half is a continuation of the Andes Mountain range, so it is elevated and mountainous. In the eastern half there are mainly plateaus. Its coasts are very irregular.

EUROPE

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MOUNTAINS: Scandinavian M. Ural Mountains Pyrenees Alps, Carpathian Caucasus Mont Blanc Elbrus Mt. WATER: Baltic Sea North Sea Adriatic Sea Black Sea Mediterranean Caspian Sea Rhine River Seine river Tajo river Ebro river Po river Danube river Volga river CITIES: Moscow Istambul London Paris Madrid Barcelona Saint Petersburg Milan Berlin Rome Athens ISLANDS: Iceland, Ireland, Great Britain, the Balearic islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, Crete, Cyprus Canary Islands

Europe has a land mass of 10.4 million km". It is the fourth largest continent. European relief The relief in Europe has an average altitude of 340 metres, which is comparatively low. It has diverse landforms: • Plateaus and old massifs (like the Iberian Peninsula) • Plains. The Great European Plain. • Young mountain ranges. The Pyrenees, the Alps, the Apennines, the Carpathians and the Caucasus. The highest peak in Europe is in the Caucasus (Mount Elbrus 5,642 metres). European coasts

The coasts of Europe are full of features such as peninsulas and gulfs. • Peninsulas: Jutland, Iberian, Italian and Balkan. • Gulfs: Finland, Bosnia, Biscay. In Europe there are also many islands. Among the most important are: Iceland, Ireland, Great Britain, the Balearic islands, Corsica, Sardinia,Sicily, Malta, Crete, Cyprus and the Canary Islands.

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