Contents | Herbicide | Cotton

2010 Cotton Information

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture and Life Sciences North Carolina State University

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Copyright © 2010 by North Carolina State University
For information or permission, contact the Communication Services Department Head C.B. 7603, NCSU, Raleigh, NC 27695-7603 or commhead@ces.ncsu.edu

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CONTENTS 1. 2010 Cotton Cost of Production ......................................................... 1 2. The Cotton Plant ................................................................................ 5 3. Developing a Management Strategy ................................................ 16 4. Planting Decisions ............................................................................ 19 5. Variety Selection............................................................................... 22 6. Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions.................................... 30 7. Fertilization ...................................................................................... 33 8. Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use ............................................ 47 9. Disease Management in Cotton ...................................................... 54 10. Weed Management in Cotton (see index on page iv) ...................... 66 11. Managing Insects on Cotton. ......................................................... 125 12. Cotton Defoliation .......................................................................... 148 13. Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage.................................. 167 14. Avoiding 2,4-D Injury to Cotton ..................................................... 176 15. Sprayer Calibration ........................................................................ 178 16. Protecting Water Quality & Reducing Pesticide Exposure ............ 187 1 7. Cotton Classification....................................................................... 193 18. Cotton Terminology ........................................................................ 199 Prepared by Keith L. Edmisten, Fred H. Yelverton, Jan F. Spears, and Daryl T. Bowman, Crop Science Extension Specialists; Jack S. Bacheler, Entomology Extension Specialist; Stephen R. Koenning, Plant Pathology Extension Specialist; Carl R. Crozier and Alan D. Meijer, Soil Science Specialists; and A. Stanley Culpepper, Extension Agronomist, University of Georgia.

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10. INDEX TO WEED MANAGEMENT IN COTTON
page Crop Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Planning a Herbicide Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Burndown in No-Till or Strip-Till Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Weed Management in Conventional Cotton Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Weed Management in Roundup Ready Cotton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Comparing Glyphosate Brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Timing of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Need for Soil-Applied Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Tank Mixes with Glyphosate Applied Overtop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Tank Mixes with Glyphosate Directed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Glyphosate vs. Other Directed Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Difficult-to-Control Weeds in Roundup Ready Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Late-Season Glyphosate Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Weed Management in Liberty Link Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Postemergence-Overtop Herbicides—Any Variety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Postemergence-Directed Herbicides—Any Variety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Perennial Broadleaf Weeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Preharvest Herbicide Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Herbicide Resistance Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Table 10-1: Herbicide Information for Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Table 10-2: Grass and Nutsedge Response to Soil-Applied Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Table 10-3: Annual Broadleaf Weed Response to Soil-Applied Herbicides. . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Table 10-4: Annual and Perennial Grass, Nutsedge, and Dayflower Response to Postemergence Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Table 10-5: Broadleaf Weed Response to Postemergence Herbicides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Table 10-6: Comparison of Glyphosate Formulations and Acid Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Table 10-7: Burndown Herbicides for Conservation-Tillage Cotton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Table 10-8: Herbicide Ingredients and Modes of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Table 10-9: Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Roundup Ready and Liberty Link Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Table 10-10: Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybeans Rotated with Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Table 10-11: Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Corn Rotated with Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Table 10-12: Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Peanuts Rotated with Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124

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Coltrain Roger Galloway Charles Tyson CITY Wadesboro Washington Windsor Elizabethtown Concord Camden Beaufort Edenton Shelby Whiteville New Bern Fayetteville Lexington Kenansville Tarboro Gatesville Snow Hill Halifax Lillington Winton Raeford Swan Quarter Statesville Smithfield Trenton Sanford Kinston Williamston Troy Nashville TELEPHONE 704/694-2415 252/946-0111 252/794-5317 910/862-4591 704/920-3310 252/338-0171 252/728-8421 252/482-8431 704/482-4365 910/640-6605 252/633-1477 910/321-6875 336/242-2080 910/296-2143 252/641-7815 252/357-1400 252/747-5831 252/583-5161 910/893-7530 252/358-7822 910/875-3461 252/926-3201 704/873-0507 919/989-5380 252/448-9621 919/775-5624 252/527-2191 252/792-1621 910/576-6011 252/459-9810 (continued on next page) v . 2008. the county Extension director’s name is given.COUNTY EXTENSION PERSONNEL WORKING WITH COTTON The following are the county Cooperative Extension Service personnel with cotton responsibilities as of January 1. B. In some cases where a vacancy exists. COUNTY Anson Beaufort Bertie Bladen Cabarrus Camden Carteret Chowan Cleveland Columbus Craven Cumberland Davidson Duplin Edgecombe Gates Greene Halifax Harnett Hertford Hoke Hyde Iredell Johnston Jones Lee Lenoir Martin Montgomery Nash NAME Richard Melton Gaylon Ambrose Richard Rhodes Ryan Harrelson Mark Powell Lewis Smith vacant Mike Williams Steve Gibson Michael Shaw Mike Carroll Colby Lambert Troy Coggins Curtis Fountain Art Bradley Paul Smith Louie Johnson Arthur Whitehead James Choate Byron Simonds Keith Walters Malcolm Gibbs Mike Miller Tim Britton Jacob Morgan Taylor Williams Louie Johnson J.

Jr. Wayne Batten Lewis Smith Mitch Smith Paige Burns Rodney McLaurin Jim Cowden Janice McGuinn Kent Wooten David Morrison Shannon Braswell Frank Winslow vacant Paul McKenzie Lance Grimes Kevin Johnson Norman Harrell CITY Jackson Jacksonville Bayboro Elizabeth City Burgaw Hertford Greenville Rockingham Lumberton Salisbury Rutherfordton Clinton Laurinburg Albemarle Columbia Monroe Warrenton Plymouth Goldsboro Wilson TELEPHONE 252/534-2831 910/455-5873 252/745-4121 252/338-3954 910/259-1235 252/426-5428 252/902-1702 910/997-8255 910/671-3276 704/633-0571 828/287-6010 910/592-7161 910/277-2422 704/983-3987 252/796-1581 704/283-3739 252/257-3640 252/793-2163 919/731-1520 252/237-0111 vi .(continued from previous page) COUNTY Northampton Onslow Pamlico Pasquotank Pender Perquimans Pitt Richmond Robeson Rowan Rutherford Sampson Scotland Stanly Tyrrell Union Warren Washington Wayne Wilson NAME Craig Ellison Melissa Evans Bill Ellers Alton Wood.

2010 Cotton Information North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture and Life Sciences North Carolina State University vii .

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ag-econ. The budgets do not represent average costs and returns. budgets.ncsu.edu/extension/Ag_budgets. 2010 COTTON COST OF PRODUCTION Gary Bullen Extension Associate Cotton Budgets Information and Web links on the cotton program. Budgets are intended to be used as guides for calculating individual costs and returns. 1 .html The budgets in Table 1-2 represent costs and returns that are achieved by many growers in different regions of North Carolina using different production technologies. farm management.1. outlook and situation. and more are available at the North Carolina State University Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Web site: http://www.

00 1587. GROSS RECEIPTS COTTON LINT COTTON SEED TOTAL RECEIPTS: lb lb 950. ADDITIONAL MACHINERY TOTAL FIXED COSTS: $95. NET RETURNS TO LAND.00 $0.60 $16.00 1.50 $12.32 $0.29 $9.00 $95.61 acre 1. AND MANAGEMENT BREAK-EVEN YIELD VARIABLE COSTS: 573 LBS TOTAL COSTS: 1493 LBS BREAK-EVEN PRICE VARIABLE COSTS: $0.00 950.49 $13.49 $8.00 $85.72 $99.08 $665.00 0.33 1. VARIABLE COSTS SEED FERTILIZER: Nitrogen Phosphate Potash Boron Sulfur LIME (Prorated) HERBICIDES INSECTICIDES GROWTH REGULATORS & DEFOLIANTS GINNING CROP INSURANCE TRACTOR. FIXED COSTS TRACTOR.35 $274.00 1.75 $35.96 $791.20 $3.88 $25. Prepared by Gary Bullen.00 $85.70 $18.50 $12. 2010 900 POUND YIELD UNIT QUANTITY PRICE OR COST/UNIT TOTAL/ ACRE YOUR FARM 1.96 ______ ______ 2.54 $3.02 5. Emily Weddington North Carolina State University.72 $16.00 $126.Budget 1-1.55 $176.00 $717.61 $0.00 $17.00 1. TOTAL COSTS 6. INCOME ABOVE VARIABLE COSTS 4. ADDITIONAL MACHINERY LABOR INTEREST ON OPERATING CAPITAL TOTAL VARIABLE COSTS: lb lb lb lb lb lb ton acre acre acre lb acre acre hr $ 8.00 1.75 $50.00 $3.59 $612.41 $0. RISK.00 80.00 80.41 TOTAL COSTS: $0.25% $76.70 $18.00 1.08 $50.00 1.948 $179. COTTON — TIDEWATER — 2010 ESTIMATED COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics 2 .85 9.50 $51.00 40. Keith Edmisten.59 $95.72 $0.31 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ $517.40 $43.59 3.51 NOTE: THIS BUDGET IS FOR PLANNING PURPOSES ONLY.70 $0.00 15.105 $35.

00 1. ADDITIONAL MACHINERY TOTAL FIXED COSTS: 1.00 $17.37 $12.00 770.00 $0.48 TOTAL COSTS: $0.20 $9.00 3.00 $3.00 1. 2010 770 POUND YIELD UNIT QUANTITY PRICE OR COST/UNIT TOTAL/ ACRE YOUR FARM 1.70 $0.93 $16.08 $55.85 9.88 $89. VARIABLE COSTS SEED FERTILIZER: Nitrogen Phosphate Potash Boron Sulfur LIME (Prorated) HERBICIDES INSECTICIDES GROWTH REGULATORS & DEFOLIANTS GINNING CROP INSURANCE TRACTOR.85 $10.31 $79. COTTON — CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE — 2010 ESTIMATED COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE.40 $43.08 $539.48 $8. TOTAL COSTS 6. AND MANAGEMENT BREAK-EVEN YIELD VARIABLE COSTS:539 LBS TOTAL COSTS: 1387 LBS BREAK-EVEN PRICE VARIABLE COSTS: $0. ADDITIONAL MACHINERY LABOR INTEREST ON OPERATING CAPITAL TOTAL VARIABLE COSTS: lb lb lb lb lb lb ton acre acre acre lb acre acre hr $ 8.105 $10. Emily Weddington North Carolina State University.33 1. GROSS RECEIPTS COTTON LINT COTTON SEED TOTAL RECEIPTS: lb lb 770.32 $0.57 $168.00 10.50 $51.00 $79.88 ______ ______ 2.48 $15.31 acre 3. INCOME ABOVE VARIABLE COSTS 4.00 1.61 $0.70 $19. RISK.00 $102. Keith Edmisten.75 $55.31 $552. NET RETURNS TO LAND.88 $641.00 40.05 $71.21 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ $473.54 $3.Budget 1-2.82 $80.80 $175.00 80.00 1286.00 5. Prepared by Gary Bullen.41 $0.37 $12.60 $16.82 $0.00 0. FIXED COSTS TRACTOR.25% $76.00 80.70 $19.31 $79. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics 3 .00 1.88 $25.05 $71.00 $717.58 NOTE: THIS BUDGET IS FOR PLANNING PURPOSES ONLY.00 1.27 $9.

45 TOTAL COSTS: $0.00 1286.Budget 1-3. ADDITIONAL MACHINERY LABOR INTEREST ON OPERATING CAPITAL TOTAL VARIABLE COSTS: 3. VARIABLE COSTS SEED FERTILIZER: Nitrogen Phosphate Potash Boron Sulfur LIME (Prorated) HERBICIDES INSECTICIDES GROWTH REGULATORS & DEFOLIANTS GINNING CROP INSURANCE TRACTOR.85 $10.00 80.74 $15.40 $43.00 770.44 $452.55 NOTE: THIS BUDGET IS FOR PLANNING PURPOSES ONLY.70 $19.25% $76. GROSS RECEIPTS COTTON LINT COTTON SEED TOTAL RECEIPTS: lb lb 770.00 3.00 1.33 1.61 $0.00 $0.70 $19.00 $102.05 $61.75 $48. TOTAL COSTS 6.85 9.00 $3.50 $51.97 $69. Emily Weddington North Carolina State University.85 $189.06 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 2. 2010 770 POUND YIELD UNIT QUANTITY PRICE OR COST/UNIT TOTAL/ ACRE YOUR FARM 1.00 1.00 40.44 $166.97 $69.82 $0.74 $12.35 $12.05 $61. AND MANAGEMENT BREAK-EVEN YIELD VARIABLE COSTS: 511 LBS TOTAL COSTS: 1305 LBS BREAK-EVEN PRICE VARIABLE COSTS: $0.74 $8.105 $10.08 $48. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics 4 . ADDITIONAL MACHINERY TOTAL FIXED COSTS: 5. INCOME ABOVE VARIABLE COSTS 4.00 $69.82 $80.00 10.00 1.35 $12.88 lb lb lb lb lb lb ton acre acre acre lb acre acre hr $ 8. Prepared by Gary Bullen. Keith Edmisten.20 $9.08 $539.00 $17.03 acre 1. FIXED COSTS TRACTOR.00 80.89 $9.82 $119.00 $717.00 1.54 $3. RISK.00 0. NET RETURNS TO LAND.70 $0.60 $16.32 $0. COTTON — STRIP TILLAGE — 2010 ESTIMATED COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE.88 $25.00 1.97 $522.41 $0.88 $641.

60 = DD-60s For example. Perennial Growth Habit Another growth characteristic associated with cotton’s perennial nature is its indeterminate fruiting habit. cotton simultaneously produces vegetation and fruiting structures. During periods of drought in North Carolina. A cotton Fruiting 5 . In its native habitat. This trait is shown when cotton continues adding leaves and unharvestable bolls until a killing frost occurs. cotton will continue growing until environmental conditions become unfavorable. The consistent and reliable heat needed to continue to contribute significantly to yield rarely occurs past the middle of October in North Carolina. Along with this favorable drought-avoidance trait comes the undesirable feature of regrowth and the harvesting problems this may create. The relationship between cotton development and temperature is best described by DD-60s. the plant becomes dormant during periods of drought and resumes growth with the return of favorable rainfall. Unlike annual crops that die following seed production. if today’s high and low temperatures were 80° F and 60° F.2. cotton is a perennial that does not die in the fall. Instead. This characteristic is partially responsible for cotton’s reputation of being a dry-weather crop. This second growth presents some producers with defoliation challenges while inducing others to delay harvest in the hopes of realizing additional yield. a cotton plant will continue to grow the most mature bolls and abscise (or drop) the remaining boll load. THE COTTON PLANT Keith Edmisten Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton Successful cotton production depends on an integrated management strategy that recognizes and adapts to the unique characteristics of the crop. The development of vegetative growth and fruiting forms is highly related to temperature if adequate moisture is available. Rather than flowering during a distinct period following vegetative growth. then the formula would give this answer: (80° F + 60° F)/2-60 = 10 DD-60s. This trait enables cotton to produce some yield even during severe drought years. The equation for determining DD-60s is: (°F Max + °F Min Temp)/2 .

This strategy can increase a grower’s net return several cents per pound. Because of cotton’s prolonged fruiting habit. Although maturity is minimum at 750 DD-60s. Tropical Origins Lint Quality 6 . While the nonfood nature of cotton may persuade newcomers of the crop’s tolerance of harvesting delays. Green leaves resulting from incomplete defoliation or excessive regrowth also can cause grade discounts. especially when accompanied by chemical stress. Cotton is adapted to regions where temperatures range from warm to hot. strongly depends on favorable environmental conditions during the early season. normally our best indicator of high yields. some weathering of lint exposed to the elements is unavoidable. a reason to discount the ginned lint. Earliness. this longer fruiting period requires continued attention to pest management and complicates harvest timing decisions. and insects adapted to our environment can damage the crop. Nine hundred DD-60s are usually needed from white bloom until a boll is fully mature. overall lint quality is not seriously affected because the relative proportion of bolls set last is usually small. Cool and wet conditions during the early part of the growing season adversely affect cotton development. While cotton struggles to emerge from the soil and grow. diseases. The third distinguishing characteristic of cotton results from its tropical origins. Cotton normally will flower for up to 8 weeks in North Carolina. Grown as an annual crop in the United States. weeds. Lint exposed to wet weather will become discolored. However. When several pests are present simultaneously. This characteristic allows the crop to compensate partially for earlier periods of unfavorable conditions. These bolls should be full-sized by around mid. The new bloom is white the first day (pollination occurs on the first day) and turns red by the second day. It takes at least 6 weeks or 750 DD-60s after the last harvestable bolls are set before the crop can be terminated without reducing overall lint yield and quality. crop development may be severely retarded. A boll needs about 2 weeks of decent weather after it becomes full-sized to mature (increase in micronaire). Squares that bloom by around August 15 in the northern part of the state and around August 20 in the southern part of the state should have a reasonable chance of maturing.to late-September if we have a reasonable chance to harvest them. Growers should concentrate on developing a harvest preparation strategy that retains as much lint quality as possible. experienced growers recognize the value of timely harvests that preserve the maximum lint quality. The price received by cotton producers is determined by both the quantity and quality of the harvested lint. it is often necessary to plant cotton before the onset of consistently favorable temperatures.fruit begins as a small flower bud or “square” that flowers about 21 days after it reaches the size of a pinhead (just visible to the naked eye).

The same principle can be used throughout most of the plant to map when and where boll loading occurs. Fruiting branches are distinguished by their zigzag appearance where a leaf and flower bud are formed at each angle. The plant will normally continue to produce additional fruiting branches in an orderly manner up the main stem. These techniques require a certain amount of time and energy but can tell us a lot about our cotton crop and how the crop should be managed. or HFI (the interval between appearance of white flowers at positions one and two on the same fruiting branch). the bloom period. The progression of cotton fruiting can be followed by estimating the interval between the appearance of cotton flowers up the main stalk and out each fruiting branch. and prolonged periods of rain. the first square (flower bud) will be formed on a fruiting branch arising from the axil (node) of the fifth to seventh true leaf. rank growth. Boll-set at position one declines at higher fruiting branches. this relationship can begin to break down for nodes and fruiting sites developed following peak bloom. have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Each fruiting branch may produce several squares. the boll closest to the stalk on the lower branch is about 9 days older than the white bloom on the second position of the upper branch (3 days up and 6 days out). over 90 percent of the harvestable bolls will be found at either the first or second position on a fruiting branch. This process can be used to record and frequently identify the causes of fruit loss. North Carolina cotton normally produces between 12 and 15 of these fruiting branches. is approximately six days (100 DD-60s). For example. This important event marks the visible beginning of reproductive growth. 90 percent of the harvestable bolls may be found at the first position on the fruiting branch. The horizontal fruiting interval. When plant populations are high. such as monitoring nodes above white bloom and plant mapping. Research in North Carolina indicates that bolls produced at the first position of fruiting branches arising from nodes 6 through 10 have a 50 to 70 percent chance of becoming harvestable bolls (assuming protection from insects). in Figure 2-1. is approximately three days (50 DD-60s). appear on the day of cotton emergence. or VFI (the interval between appearance of white flowers at position one on adjacent fruiting branches). Bolls produced on fruiting branches arising from nodes 18 or higher have less than a 10 percent chance of finding their way into the picker basket. insect damage. Summary of Plant Development Plant monitoring techniques. or cotyledons. The vertical fruiting interval. However. This section is divided into three subsections called prebloom. cloudy weather. Plant Monitoring 7 . After 30 to 35 days of vegetative growth. such as water stress. The same trend is followed at position two except that boll-set peaks at 20 to 30 percent at nodes 6 to 10 and then declines.Seedling leaves. Due to boll load. True leaves will appear 7 to 10 days later. and the boll-opening period (postcutout). Growers can then use this information in refining their management strategies.

and preplant nitrogen applications almost always Prebloom 8 . 2-2. you should be able to detect pinhead squares in the terminal (top of the plant). Fruiting sites on vegetative branches and second or higher positions of fruiting branches are ignored. When determining the first fruiting node of older cotton. Low plant populations can lower the node of the first fruiting branch by as much as one node. the leaves below the first fruiting branch will shed. By counting the number of mainstem true leaves (ignore cotyledons) when a majority of the plants have a pinhead square. and the boll-opening period (postcutout). although this is rare because nitrogen requirements are low prior to fruiting. Nitrogen stress also can raise the node of the first fruiting branch. or unusually high temperatures (nights remaining above 80° F) can raise the node of the first fruiting branch by as much as 3 nodes. the bloom period. respectively. and 2-3 (at the end of this chapter) are examples of mapping sheets for use during prebloom. Factors Affecting the Onset of Fruiting Several factors alone or combined can influence the onset of fruiting.Figure 2. and vegetative branches may develop from these lower nodes. Do not count the cotyledon notches. The notches you are interested in are those that were formed by true leaves above the cotyledons. you can determine the node of the first fruiting branch. Full-season varieties usually start fruiting about a node higher.1. As the plant grows larger. Determining the Onset of Fruiting (Node of First Fruiting Branch)When the cotton plant has about 5 or 6 true leaves. cool temperatures (night temperatures below 60° F) during the weeks after emergence. The shedding of cotyledons will leave two notches directly across from each other just above the soil surface. you will have to count the “notches” if the lower leaves have been shed. thrips damage. Tables 2-1. This plant monitoring method involves mapping only first positions of fruiting branches. High plant populations. section of omain stem showing two adjacent branches. Well-managed early season varieties should begin fruiting on node 5 or 6 with an occasional plant fruiting at node 4.

In addition. For example. you should be able to detect pinhead squares in the terminal (top of the plant). % fruit retention = (number of fruit) x 100 (number of fruiting sites) Example: % fruit retention = 75 x 100 = 83% 90 Causes of Early Square Shed When squares are formed but then shed. cool weather. These fields should be monitored closely for fruit retention and the potential need for Pix applications to control plant height. a visible scar remains.5 nodes. Unnecessary spraying for plant bugs is not only a 9 . cloudy. Determining Fruit Retention When the cotton plant has about 5 or 6 true leaves. In 1992. cool temperatures following planting raised the node of the first fruiting branch about 1. But don’t be too quick to blame poor retention on plant bugs. our fruit retention prior to bloom is usually very high. then the cotton is not delayed in squaring but is shedding squares.supply enough nitrogen to avoid delaying fruiting. Nitrogen application above recommended rates may further delay the crop and add to the potential for a rank crop. If visible square scars or black squares are present at nodes 5 or 6. if you mapped 20 plants and came up with 75 fruit and 90 fruiting sites. Scout for pinhead square initiation to determine if the crop is developing on time. try to determine the possible cause. The percentage of fruit retention is determined by dividing the number of fruit by the number of fruiting sites. including insect damage. it may be helpful to determine fruit retention using plant-mapping techniques. The resulting number is then multiplied by 100. The more plants you can map per field. in-season nitrogen applications should be weighed carefully. From this time through first bloom. However. particularly if early squares are not retained. Because weevils have been eradicated in North Carolina and plant bug damage is rare in our state. Square shed prior to bloom can be caused by several factors. If one or more of these factors have delayed squaring. You should map plants from several areas of the field and map at least 20 plants per field. This corresponded to about a 5-day delay in maturity that resulted from slow growth during the cool period. the more accurately your mapping program will reflect the true fruiting pattern of the field. then no visible square scar should be present. Retaining early squares and bolls is of increased importance when cotton begins to fruit higher on the plant than normal. When square retention is lower than desired (below 80 to 90 percent). Delayed fruiting increases the likelihood of a positive response to Pix. or water-saturated soils. it is often difficult to distinguish early season square shed due to insect damage from square shed due to weather conditions. the fruit retention would be 83 percent. Implications of Delayed Fruiting Cotton that begins fruiting higher on the plant is more likely to grow rank.

Therefore. Fields with low early square retention are more likely to grow rank and have delayed maturity. Environmental stress. Scouting for insects should be intensified to avoid further excessive fruiting losses. especially in the southern parts of the state. Because fields with low early square retention tend to grow rank.waste of money. Nodes Above White Bloom (NAWB) Counting the nodes above white bloom (NAWB) is relatively easy during the bloom period. Poor fruit retention or excess nitrogen may result in a higher NAWB at first bloom. fields with low early square retention are more likely to respond to Pix applications. Cool. Unnecessary spraying also can cause aphid resistance. Plant mapping. NAWB should begin The Bloom Period 10 . Implications of NAWB NAWB should be eight to ten at first bloom. You will have to look for plants with a white bloom in the first position because not all plants have one at any given time. Although drought conditions can cause shedding of small-to-medium-sized squares later in the season. and fertility can shorten the bloom period significantly. as discussed under preblooming. while full-season varieties usually will be at the higher end of the range. such as drought. Never assume early square shed is entirely caused by weather conditions without first closely examining the insect situation in the field. cloudy weather (below 55° F at night) has been observed to cause square shed because of decreased photosynthesis. Each node above the highest first-position white bloom should be counted if the main stem leaf associated with the node is larger than a quarter. Cotton normally blooms for 7 or 8 weeks. This technique involves locating the highest first-position white bloom on a plant and counting the nodes above that bloom. use nitrogen judiciously to minimize rank growth and the potential for boll rot. can result in a lower NAWB at first bloom. monitoring the movement of first-position white blooms up the stalk during the bloom period gives us some insight into the condition of the crop. cool temperatures. square shed before bloom caused by drought stress is fairly rare. nematodes. Stresses associated with drought. Water-saturated soils (often combined with cloudy weather) can cause square shed. including second-generation (June) tobacco budworms. can cause square loss. can be beneficial during the bloom period. Significance of Early Fruit Retention Square retention before bloom can have an effect on how the plant grows for the remainder of the season and on how the field should be managed. or nitrogen deficiency. In addition. NAWB at first bloom for short-season varieties that fruit on the fifth to sixth node normally will be at the lower end of this range. The bloom period also can be lengthened by poor fruit retention or excess nitrogen (with adequate rainfall). but will also kill beneficial insects that in turn may result in a higher likelihood that the cotton will need to be treated for (June) tobacco budworms. depending on variety and growing conditions. Other insects.

look hard at insect-related fruit shed and consider Mepiquat to control plant height. When NAWB is lower than desired. Cutout occurs when NAWB reaches three or fewer. Table 2-3 can be used to determine the percentage of open bolls. one can expect a strong response to Mepiquat. When NAWB has reached five. but often can be defoliated earlier if fruiting is compact (see Chapter 12. An increase in NAWB during the season is usually caused by insect damage. the percent open would be 65. increasing the frequency of irrigation may be beneficial. avoid Mepiquat use and attempt to alleviate any drought stress or nutrient deficiencies. On the other hand. 11 .to decrease after 2 weeks of bloom because of fruit load. Under these situations the crop will grow rank and be late maturing if ample moisture and nutrients are available. The Boll Opening Period (Postcutout) Percent Open Plant monitoring during the boll-opening period can help you schedule defoliations and determine whether boll openers are justified. When NAWB is lower than normal at first bloom or decreases more rapidly during bloom than desired because of drought stress. Crops with a large NAWB may be suffering from poor fruit retention caused by insect damage. When NAWB is higher than normal. For example. Mepiquat may not be needed in crops with low NAWB at first bloom or in crops in which NAWB decreases rapidly during the bloom period. Foliar urea applications have been shown to increase NAWB and yield when NAWB is lower than desired because of nitrogen deficiency. if you mapped 20 plants and came up with 195 open bolls and 105 closed bolls (300 total bolls). If NAWB does not begin to decrease during the third week of bloom. The most common stresses that will cause a rapid decrease in NAWB are drought and nitrogen deficiency. The number of open bolls is divided by the total number of bolls (both open and unopen). In crops with higher than normal NAWB at first bloom or crops in which NAWB does not begin to decrease during the third week of bloom. Percent open is determined by counting the number of open and closed harvestable bolls on several plants in a field. NAWB should continue to decrease through the remainder of the bloom period as the plant moves toward “flowering out the top. Less than 2 percent of the yield is set after NAWB reaches four. one should attempt to identify stresses and alleviate them if possible. Cotton is almost always safe to defoliate at 60 percent open. fruit retention should be evaluated. the terminal has essentially ceased growth and cutout is imminent. “Cotton Defoliation”).” If NAWB is decreasing too rapidly.

” 12 . and these fruit will be less mature. Counting the nodes above cracked boll (NACB) is a good technique to help schedule defoliation. In these type fields.% open = (number of open bolls) x 100 (total number of bolls) Example: % open = 195 x 100 = 65% 300 Nodes Above Cracked Boll (NACB) Bolls within 4 nodes above a cracked boll should be mature enough for defoliation in most fields. and a yield loss of about 2 percent would be expected when defoliated at an NACB of six with normal planting densities. A yield loss of about 1 percent would be expected when defoliated at an NACB of five. there will be essentially no yield loss due to defoliation in fields with normal plant densities. This technique gives more focus to the unopened portion of the crop and is less likely to result in premature defoliation. an NACB count of three might be a better estimate for timing defoliation. Fields with low plant populations (less than two plants per foot of row) will set more fruit on vegetative branches and outer positions of fruiting branches. When NACB reaches four. In-depth information on the number of green bolls needed to justify Prep application is given in Chapter 12. Counting the number of mature green bolls per foot of row is helpful in making this decision. Green Boll Counts Deciding whether Prep is needed for boll-opening is often difficult. “Cotton Defoliation. This technique involves counting the nodes from the highest firstposition boll that has cracked open enough that lint is visible up to the highest first-position boll you plan to harvest.

Table 2-1. Prebloom Plant-Monitoring Form Field ___________________ Date ___________________ Height (inches) Total Nodes Node of First Fruiting Branch Number of Fruiting Branches First Position Squares Retained Plant # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Average 13 .

Bloom Plant-Monitoring Form Field ___________________ Date ___________________ Nodes Above White Bloom First Position Bolls Retained Fruiting Branches Below White Bloom Plant # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Average Height (inches) First Position Squares Retained 14 .Table 2-2.

Postcutout Plant-Monitoring Form Field ___________________ Date ___________________ Node Above Cracked Boll First Position Unopened Bolls Fruiting Branches Below Cracked Boll Plant # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Average Height (inches) First Position Open Bolls 15 .Table 2-3.

or harvest schedule. Plant-growth regulators help a producer achieve earlier harvest. although not always. For example. and harvest scheduling. The earliest variety may or may not be appropriate in a specific field. While in principle earliness is a worthwhile goal. Variety selection depends on soil type. earliness alone may lead producers to adopt practices that unnecessarily limit yield and profit. There are few production practices that do not require some season-toseason and within-season modification to improve their effectiveness within a production system. DEVELOPING A MANAGEMENT STRATEGY: SHORT-SEASON TIMELINESS Keith Edmisten Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton The key to successful cotton production in North Carolina is the adoption of a shortseason management strategy. 1. vegetative growth should be promoted through the judicious use of cultivation. nitrogen fertilization must be adjusted for residue left by the preceding crop. Strong emergence of healthy seedlings that establish a uniform stand is the foundation enabling maximum early season growth. Even at the northern margins of the cotton belt. Earliness and timeliness frequently mean the same thing in North Carolina. but sometimes that earlier harvest is not possible due to time constraints. as well as for the unique characteristics of the soil and environment currently encountered.3. there is sufficient time to consistently produce yields in excess of two bales per acre. Cotton growers may equate a short-season management strategy with the recently overworked “earliness” philosophy. and agrichemicals. There are five specific goals important to producing a profitable crop in a short-season production system. fertilizers. “Timeliness” is the key component of a management strategy that is fluid enough to accomplish this yield level. Cotton farmers and researchers alike recognize the yield benefits that result from rapid early season development. planting date. Once a stand is established. particularly in a short-season management system. picker availability. Maximum Early Season Growth 16 . as well as yield and quality potential. The key to successful cotton management is adapting the strategy to the specific situation.

Whatever 2. Over-the-top applications of Roundup to Roundup Ready cotton after the four-leaf stage can cause early fruit loss and delay maturity. A fruiting branch produces squares. (3) increased boll rot. (2) increased insect damage. If they are not. The imbalance can happen in several ways.Early flowering follows maximum early season growth. Unlike determinate. delay nitrogen sidedressing. increase insect scouting and treatments to avoid further loss. When cutout occurs or cotton blooms out the top. Abundant water and nitrogen accompanied by warm weather will support vigorous growth before bloom. Post-directed applications of Roundup to Roundup Ready cotton also can cause fruit loss if the application is made too high on the plant. Flowering is delayed when physiological. or flower buds. The development of cotton is a changing balancing act. Rank growth also can begin after the flowering starts. then you may need to alter your management plans to increase square formation and retention. The indeterminate. Vegetative growth ceases until a sufficient number of bolls have matured enough to allow vegetative growth to resume. (4) more difficult defoliation. As plant vigor and leaf area increase. sometimes referred to as pinhead or matchhead squares. cotton will support vegetative and reproductive growth simultaneously. are present on the plant. Rank growth occurs when this balancing act is disturbed and vegetative growth predominates over boll loading. Growers should carefully follow the Roundup label to avoid delays in maturity caused by Roundup applications. The earliest squares and bolls that form at nodes 5 through 7 are fed by leaves that may not photosynthesize sufficient energy to support fruit growth. Examine cotton plants with 5 to 7 true leaves and note whether small squares. Commercially desirable varieties raised in North Carolina normally produce their first fruiting branch when the plants have between 5 and 7 true leaves. Excessive vegetative or rank growth historically has been a common problem for cotton farmers. Once flowering and boll loading begin. Problems associated with rank growth include (1) delayed maturity. sunlight available for photosynthesis lower in the plant canopy decreases. Prevent Rank Growth 17 . Stimulate Early Flowering 3. annual crops such as corn and small grains. If they are. chemical. the plant’s energy and nutrients from the leaves have been entirely directed to the bolls. such as drought or nutrient deficiencies. Early season growth is dominated by vegetative growth. that may become harvestable bolls. and (5) decreased harvest efficiency. or insectrelated stress retards square formation or causes square abscision (shed). and avoid overtop treatments with fluometuron (Cotoran or Meturon) or MSMA/DSMA. particularly in a rainbelt like North Carolina. perennial growth habit of cotton is partially responsible for this undesirable trait. vegetative growth slows because bolls have preference over leaves and stems for available energy and nutrients. This may require you to apply Pix to reduce the likelihood of rank growth. Square and boll shed also may result from insect damage and pesticide damage or other environmental stress. then your cotton is developing properly. Individual bolls are supported by leaves growing nearby. The result of this increased shading and decreased available energy is square and boll shed.

these environmental conditions can reduce lint quality and yield. insects. Protect Investments from Pests North Carolina cotton producers can expect some harvest delays because of rain and high humidity. Cotton left in the field not only suffers losses in reduced quality but also in reduced yield because lint falls off the plant. The tools available to minimize economic damage from pests are limited. Cotton can better compete with pests if it is healthy and actively growing. In addition to delaying harvest. insect. In addition. Perform those agronomic practices that promote cotton fruiting development. (3) avoid irrigation. or diseases overran the cotton. gaining a week for potential added growth in late September or early October may delay the final harvest of the season by a much longer period. not another cost. a new producer may delay or avoid timely pest management. Timeliness is the essence of effective pest management in cotton. and (4) chop the tops out of rank cotton. days and hours suitable for harvest generally decline in the fall. The available solutions were to (1) plant on the sandiest drought-prone land. reduce the value of their cotton. To produce cotton profitably. rank growth can snowball by reducing boll load and thereby increasing the potential energy available for further vegetative growth. Timely harvest will increase or maintain the value of an investment in cotton. pest control must be viewed as a wise investment. 5. The effectiveness of cotton pesticides is entirely dependent on timely application in a technically appropriate manner. Veteran cotton producers can speak with experience about the field or crop that was lost because weeds. Typically. and disease management costs comprise a large and seemingly excessive part of the production expenses. with the availability of mepiquat chloride or Pix. particularly peanuts.the cause. This is a serious mistake. Harvest delays also may result from the harvesting of other crops. we can largely avoid rank growth. and timely insect control. particularly in varieties with poor stormproof characteristics. In many years there is a temptation for growers to delay defoliation in the hopes of increasing yields. (2) withhold nitrogen. 4. Some pesticide applications are inevitable because of the poor competitiveness of this tropical crop during the early part of the season and the attractiveness of cotton to insects. Losses exceeding 100 pounds of lint per acre over a six-week period have been observed in North Carolina. farmers were ill-equipped to control rank growth. As a result. Growers need to remember that these delays can. the judicious use of nitrogen. Harvest Quality Cotton 18 . a new grower may see the weed. Fortunately. Timely crop development is the first defense against pest damage. Growers in North Carolina need to remember that we seldom have the type of weather needed to increase yields after the first week or two in October. Therefore. and frequently do. In the past.

There are two distinct. Research conducted in other states has established a relationship between temperature during stand establishment and subsequent stand yield. plant growth regulator. and defoliation strategies indirectly. Avoid planting after May 25 if possible. direct effect on development. Late-planted cotton may also require more insecticide applications and be more difficult to prepare for harvest. and harvested yield. The second period of sensitivity is normally reached about two days after planting and may occur as the cotton seedling begins to grow. The cotton seed can die if temperatures dip to 41°F. While planting date is important. PLANTING DECISIONS Keith Edmisten Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton In a short-season cotton production region. Planting date also influences insect control. These findings indicate that temperatures below 50°F in the seed zone can cause chilling injury. Planting Date 19 . the more severe the damage. Temperatures below 50°F may either kill the seedling or cause growth retardation for weeks into the season. There is usually a period of rapid decline in yields due to delayed planting date sometime in late May or early June. First. Decisions on planting date should not be taken lightly. Cotton yields tend to yield substantially sometime after May 25. The cooler the temperature. Planting date trials have been conducted in North Carolina for a number of years.to mid-May are not likely to reduce yields as much as days delayed in late May or early June. the cotton seed is sensitive to temperatures below 50°F when it is absorbing water to begin germination. Many veteran cotton growers have observed the poor growth that occurs when recently planted cotton is subjected to cold temperatures. sensitive periods during seedling emergence. depending on the year.. and the damage is cumulative. planting date has a large. maturity. The results indicate that optimum yields are harvested when cotton is planted before May 5 when the data is presented in a linear fashion. soil temperature during the first 5 to 10 days after planting also influences early season cotton health and development. with yields declining approximately 12 pounds per day when cotton is planted after May 5. This is actually an oversimplification of the relationship between planting date and yields. as days delayed in early. This is actually a fairly conservative recommendation as yields do not typically fall off drastically until sometime in the first week or two of June in most years if the crop is managed well.4.

This strategy may backfire if seedling emergence is not hindered by a surface crust. “The Cotton Plant. planting should proceed after April 15 when (1) the soil temperature has reached 65°F by 10 a. A high emergence rate results in a plant population that cannot withstand drought stress. Choosing an appropriate cotton seeding rate is further complicated by an inherent weakness in cotton. Normally. Calculation of DD60s is described in Chapter 2. The risk associated with planting in cold soils is exacerbated under wet conditions.Ideally. moist. seedling emergence can be severely reduced. The relationship between predicted DD-60 accumulation for the 5 days following planting and planting conditions is shown in Table 4-1. Cotton cannot emerge through a thick soil crust.000 to 55. it is not always possible to plant cotton in a timely fashion following this guideline. However.” Plant population has a profound influence on crop development. high plant populations decrease the cotton crop’s ability to withstand drought stress. Temperatures above 70°F result in rapid germination. One response is to increase seedling rate. When cotton is planted deeper than ¾-inch and a surface crust forms following a packing rain. in a 3-inch-deep. During those years when July and August rainfall exceeds 5 inches per month and the crop does not undergo prolonged drought stress. germination is very slow at temperatures below 60°F. higher yields are achieved with plant populations of less than 2 plants per foot. Plant Population 20 . prepared seedbed and (2) when warm. Relationship Between Predicted DD-60s and Planting Conditions Predicted DD-60 accumulation for 5 days following planting 10 or fewer 11 to 15 16 to 25 25 to 50 More than 50 Planting conditions Very Poor Marginal Adequate Very Good Excellent Suggested Planting Dates Avoid planting cotton if the low temperature is predicted to be below 50°F for either of the 2 nights following planting. optimum yields can be achieved with plant populations varying from 2 to 4 plants per foot (28. High plant populations (greater than 3 plants per foot on 38-inch rows) increase the percentage of the crop set at the first position of fruiting branches while reducing the total number of fruiting branches. expecting normal seedling mortality. in years when drought stress is pronounced. emergence will occur after 50 DD-60s have accumulated.m. This tends to shorten the boll-loading period compared to planting lower populations.000 plants per acre on 38-inch rows). Unfortunately. Table 4-1. Unfortunately. dry weather is predicted for the next 5 to 7 days. The effect of plant population on final yield depends on rainfall patterns and crop/moisture relations.

more heavily fruited plants.A balance must be struck to achieve optimum yields. regardless of soil crusting characteristics and crop/moisture relations. Under most conditions. several points should be considered before making a decision. postemergence damping-off. The question. try to replant only those areas. if the skippy cotton was planted before May 5. work with what you have rather than replant. Replanting Decisions 21 . If you are totally at a loss. If there are sufficient plants. crusting potential. it frequently can compensate with larger. If the stand is unacceptable in many areas. Experienced growers will attempt to work with a skippy stand rather than replant. However. and moisture levels. The advantages of a more uniform stand must be weighed against the delay in maturity that results from cotton planted later. Finally. remember that a skippy cotton stand looks better at the end of the season than at the beginning. Calibrate the planter to place 4 to 6 seeds per foot. If germination and emergence are excellent. Additionally. No satisfactory rules have been set to guide you in replanting decisions. There is no simple answer to this question. “Should I replant?” rises from this concern. your cotton will still have some ability to rebound following drought stress. hail damage. or insect damage. you will have an adequate plant population. Finally. Set the planter to place the seeds ½. Seeding Rate and Depth Guideline Nonuniform “skippy” cotton stands may be caused by poor seedling emergence. This is particularly true if midseason drought occurs. The effects of planting date on yield are well known. there is no guarantee that replanted cotton will emerge satisfactorily. Growers are rightfully concerned that these stands may not be adequate to sustain high lint yields. ask for assistance from your county Cooperative Extension agent.to 1-inch deep depending on soil type.

Chiree Lopez 4010 82nd St. TX 79423 (806) 793-1431 Bayer CropScience Deborah Brown 2416 Cedar Springs Drive Elgin. Variety Selection Daryl. SC 29045 (843) 845-7708 Varieties Americot AM1550B2RF Americot NG4370B2RF Americot NG 3331B2RF Bayer CropScience FM1740B2F Bayer CropScience ST4427B2RF Bayer CropScience FM 1845LLB2 Bayer CropScience ST5288B2RF Bayer CropScience ST4498B2RF Bayer CropScience ST4554B2RF Bayer CropScience ST5327B2RF Bayer CropScience ST5458B2RF Winfield Solutions CG3020B2RF Winfield Solutions CG3220B2RF Winfield Solutions CG3520B2RF Winfield Solutions CG4020B2RF Winfield Solutions CG3035RF Monsanto DP141B2RF Monsanto DP0912B2RF Monsanto DP0920B2RF Monsanto DP161B2RF Monsanto DP174B2RF Monsanto DP0924B2RF Monsanto DP0935B2RF Winfield Solutions. TN 38125 (901) 355-4123 Monsanto Diane Freeman 800 N.5. St. Ste 250 Lubbock. Louis. MO 63167 (815) 754-4809 22 . West Ste. Lindbergh Blvd. LLC Jamie Yanes 8700 Trail Lake Dr. 100 Memphis. T. Currently. These companies and their addresses are as follows: Company American Cotton Breeders Inc. Bowman Crop Science Researcher Selection of a cotton variety or varieties for maximum economic return should be one of the first major management decisions a grower makes at the beginning of the crop year. six seed companies offer more than 30 different varieties of cotton seed for sale in North Carolina.

some varieties may be preferred in less productive soils and vice versa. if growers plant early (mid to late April). Prosperity. however. which is one of the wettest months of the year. insect pressure. plant hairiness. SC 29127 (803) 218-8158 PHY 367WRF PHY 370WR PHY 375WRF PHY 485RF PHY 565 WRF PHY5922WRF DynaGro DG2570B2RF Factors (not in order of importance) that should be considered when selecting a cotton variety include yield. These data provide information on relative varietal performance under many different conditions ranging from nearly ideal to suboptimum growing seasons. Research has shown that two-year multi-location data are best for choosing varieties. the larger the number of open bolls. therefore. Philip Jost 1832 Swynford Lane Collierville. they may wish to choose later maturing (full-season) varieties to avoid boll opening in August. seed size. Earliness or maturity potential is controlled by genetic factors but can be negated by such things as planting date. Tables 5-1 and 5-2 show three-year and two-year multi-location data for roundup-ready cotton varieties. some varieties tend to grow taller than others and may present harvesting problems if their vegetative growth is left unchecked. For example. the earlier that variety was at that particular location. Thus. and fiber quality. plant height. Table 5-3 provides one-year data across locations for roundup-ready cotton variety trials conducted in the major cottongrowing areas of North Carolina. it becomes critical that growers examine multiyear and multilocation data when comparing varieties. Table 5-4 shows data from the conventional trial where Liberty Link varieties and non-herbicide tolerant varieties are tested. Boll opening should occur in September and October.Monsanto D(0949B2RF Monsanto 09R619B2R2 Monsanto 09R621B2R2 Dow AgroSciences . two of the driest months of the year. or soil moisture. Growth regulators can control plant height for the most part. This is determined by fertility level. Earliness is measured by the percentage of boll opening (see the accompanying tables). maturity. TN 38017 (901) 861-4351 United Agri Products Bob Rozier 1115 Peninsula Dr. Yield is a primary concern and will vary among varieties from location to location and from year to year. 23 . Starting in 2007 the trials were not divided by maturity but by herbicide resistance.

with a premium for strength above 26 g/tex and a discount for strength below 23 g/tex.) in inches. DP0949B2RF. which results in less money for the grower.L. PHY5922WRF. micronaire (mike). December 2009). HQ110CT. Since 1991. CG 3520B2RF. DP0935B2RF. DG2570B2RF. DP161B2RF DP164B2RF. Yields were excellent in Johnston. DP143B2RF. Seed size is important to ginners and cotton mills because small seeds are difficult to remove from the lint. spotty rainfall in May and June. FM1880B2F. Boll opening for a particular variety varies according to environmental conditions and management.5 to 3. DP141B2RF. thereby reducing the grade placed on the lint. it is imperative that multilocation and multiyear data be examined. which is taken approximately two weeks before harvest and is the percent harvestable bolls of total bolls in a 6-foot section of row.6 and 4. and CG 4020B2RF.2 to 4. and 09R621B2R2 are varieties that are classified as having small seed. FM1740B2F. CG3020B2RF. therefore. ST5288B2RF. DP141B2RF. ST5458B2RF. and elongation. Some areas did receive some timely rains. uniformity index. The premium range for micronaire will be 3. 06R619B2R2. particularly those that have not been tested in the North Carolina Official Variety Trials.Percentage boll opening should be compared to other varieties in the test. the base will be 3. 228. The 2009 season was characterized with average temperatures. CG30335RF. which is a general indicator of gin turnout but tends to be higher. Premiums and discounts will be assessed. which is available at county Extension centers. The following varieties have been determined to have smooth or semi-smooth leaves: DG2570B2RF. percent bolls opened. strength in gram per tex.9. depending on values for each fiber trait. For fiber strength. Varieties do differ in fiber traits. ST4427B2RF.2. and rainy September and October . HQ212CT. plant height in inches (some locations use a growth regulator and some do not. the base will be 24 to 25 grams per tex. Many varieties have smooth or semi-smooth leaves that reduce lint trash. discounts will be assessed for micronaire above 4. lint percent. Scotland and Washington county in the OVT. which places major emphasis on lint strength and micronaire. upper half mean span length (Upper S. DP161B2RF. Growers are cautioned against planting a large acreage to new varieties.9. which may explain the small range in plant height). Plant hairiness is important because hairy leaves are a source of trash in the lint. Data in the printed tables include the following: lint yield in pounds per acre. all cotton has been classified by HVI (high volume instrumentation). Additional information on cotton varietal performance can be found in the Measured Crop Performance Bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Report No. AM1532B2RF.7 to 4. Cool temperatures during defoliation and rainy periods delayed defoliation and eventual harvest. With the advent of 24 .

7 83.1 82.2 6.3 5.4 4.4 30.12 1.0 PLANT % HEIGHT BOLLS INCHES OPENED 33 31 33 33 32 31 32 30 30 32 33 34 31 33 30 32 30 32 50 56 58 55 54 46 53 47 50 58 52 44 60 57 65 52 63 54 UHM S.3 29.6 6. *Not significantly different from highest yielder 25 .f.7 4.0 27.4 5.5 44.09 1.8 30. It is vitally important that growers plant only a small portion of their farm in any new variety.07 1.6 7.7 6.4 27. (%) BLSD (K-50) S.2 44.4 28.1 83.6 39.4 41.3 4.2 41.6 4.12 1.new technology.4 83.2 40.3 6.4 83. (IN.1 29.5 ELONGATION 6.7 30.0 82.2 31.2 5.4 83.3 MIKE 4.17 1.0 30. especially one with new technology.7 4.2 40. seed companies are rushing to get their varieties on the market.9 83.6 4.7 41.7 43.12 1.0 30.9 6.V.1 7. these new varieties are being entered in state variety trials at the same time they are being sold to growers.) 1.3 41.8 4.11 1.7 41.3 29.8 28.5 42.3 42.3 83.7 5.2009 VARIETY OR BRAND VARIETY DG2570B2RF AM1550B2RF PHY375WRF PHY370WR ST5327B2RF ST4554B2RF ST4427B2RF ST5458B2RF ST4498B2RF CG3220B2RF CG3035B2RF DP161B2RF CG4020B2RF PHY485WRF CG3520B2RF DP141B2RF CG3020B2RF MEAN Adj R2 (%) C.2 6.13 1.9 6.0 43.7 7.8 29.3 4.10 1.4 4.L.5 4.1 43.1 T1 (G/TEX) 29. Table 5-1.11 1. Error d.10 1.0 83.8 82.9 83.5 4.12 1.3 29.6 83.6 4.2 82.7 4.E.2 4.0 5.9 40.14 1.4 4.4 27. Three-year Statewide (North Carolina) Average Performance of Roundup Ready Cotton Varieties 2007 .13 1.6 4.11 1.4 **Highest yielder.0 42. Thirteen locations LINT YIELD LINT LB/ACRE % 1154** 1142* 1125* 1100 1094 1087 1086 1085 1075 1074 1042 1025 1023 1018 1003 978 951 1063 96 7 47 9 192 43.8 4.19 1.12 UNIFORMITY INDEX 83. Recently.12 1.4 7.0 82.5 83.9 28.4 84.2 6.

5 29.2 83.6 30.1 MIKE 4.8 4. Eight locations LINT YIELD LB/ACRE 1202** 1194* 1187* 1182* 1180* 1178* 1172* 1165* 1162* 1144* 1142* 1133* 1125 1122 1116 1115 1104 1083 1080 1072 1064 1054 1044 1009 1126 93 7 71 13 161 LINT % 42.7 4. (IN.2 83. 26 .7 43.4 4.4 7.13 1.12 1.08 1.6 4.0 6.6 44.2 32.7 5.3 83.2 29.0 82.5 4.4 6.3 83.5 4.5 5.4 4. *Not significantly different from highest yielder.9 43.2 83.8 4.L.1 31.18 1.7 5.0 4.10 1.4 6.2 40.5 30.3 41.3 30.5 42.8 84.2008 .13 1.4 5.4 41.13 UNIFORMITY INDEX 83.2 30.5 4.7 4.8 5.9 5.V.8 83.4 40.0 29.6 4.13 1.6 84.0 6.9 83.8 5.7 41.0 83.11 1.20 1.1 83.1 6.4 29.8 4.0 82.7 4.4 41.6 4.5 82.6 42.0 **Highest yielder.7 31.1 30. Error d.2 83.0 43.0 6.9 40.11 1.E.3 29.f.0 6.4 5.8 4.Table 5-2.2 T1 (G/ TEX) 30.2009 VARIETY OR BRAND VARIETY DG2570B2RF AM1550B2RF DP0924B2RF ST5288B2F PHY375WRF FM1740B2F ST4288B2F ST5458B2RF DP0935B2RF ST4427B2RF PHY370WR CG3220B2RF ST4554B2RF ST5327B2RF NG3331B2RF ST4498B2RF CG4020B2RF DP161B2RF DP141B2RF PHY485WRF CG3035B2RF CG3520B2RF NG4370B2RF CG3020B2RF MEAN Adj R2 (%) C.0 83.13 1.2 6.7 4.9 29.7 42.8 40.13 1.6 83.11 1.8 PLANT HEIGHT INCHES 35 32 36 34 35 31 31 32 35 34 35 34 34 35 34 31 33 36 35 36 35 33 35 32 34 % BOLLS OPENED 45 51 42 53 55 59 40 45 38 48 53 55 43 53 48 42 58 41 50 54 50 61 49 59 50 UHM S.13 1.11 1.14 1.7 41.0 83.2 31.8 4.9 83.9 28.1 5.9 6.16 1.1 29.4 29.5 4.0 6.1 6.3 43.9 41.7 ELONGATION 6.7 40.12 1.9 5.6 4.9 4.6 42.9 29.5 6.8 31.12 1.9 40.1 6.0 82.9 5.14 1.11 1.14 1.0 29.4 30. (%) BLSD (K-50) S.1 30.16 1.2 83.3 82. Two-year Statewide (North Carolina) Average Performance of Roundup Ready Cotton Varieties .4 84.4 41.6 39.3 83.2 30.8 39.) 1.9 4.5 4.13 1.

15 1.13 1.0 5.15 1.4 43.0 5.5 5.7 6.6 83.4 5.13 1.7 6.7 6.8 4.0 29.4 83.6 41.8 41.7 43.8 40.15 1.7 30.4 43.5 42.16 1.8 28.10 1.4 30.8 40.0 30.8 30.5 5.12 1.17 1.8 41.4 83.1 30.9 5.2 41.8 41.7 40.5 43.5 40.2 29.1 83.8 6.9 4.1 31.L.0 5.4 83.6 41.2 83.8 43.6 5.7 30.6 ELONGATION 5.3 5.4 4.1 45.1 5.8 6.9 83.8 83.9 30.9 43.8 5.13 1.4 43.3 83.9 30.9 4.9 6.0 83.4 83.14 1.4 5.4 84.13 1.16 1.8 4.7 84.14 1.9 4.12 1.20 1.16 1.3 82.8 84.7 4.3 83.12 1.9 84.7 40.18 1.3 29.0 28.1 31.14 1.8 83.5 29.) 1.2 29.2009 VARIETY OR BRAND VARIETY PHY367WRF DP0920B2RF DP0912B2RF DG257B2RF FM1740B2F DP0924B2RF 09R621B2R2 AM155B2RF ST5458B2RF ST5288B2F PHY375WRF ST4288B2F PHY565WRF ST4427B2RF ST4498B2RF PHY370WR CG4020B2RF 09R619B2R2 DP0949B2RF CG3220B2RF DP0935B2RF ST5327B2RF ST4554B2RF CG3520B2RF NG333B2RF CG3020B2RF PHY592WRF PHY485WRF DP141B2RF DP161B2RF NG437B2RF LINT YIELD LB/ ACRE 1364** 1331* 1328* 1328* 1314* 1310* 1305* 1304* 1304* 1289* 1276* 1272* 1265* 1261* 1257* 1252* 1251* 1251* 1241* 1240* 1225* 1223* 1210 1197 1171 1170 1169 1155 1130 1130 1078 LINT % 43.5 42.0 4.6 4.14 1.1 5.4 4.5 4.17 1.7 4.0 83.9 40.16 1.1 5.0 6.3 4. (IN.8 44.8 43.7 41.0 4.16 1.9 84.4 T1 (G/TEX) 30.7 30.5 42.9 84.9 5.22 1.1 4.8 4.6 5.9 PLANT HEIGHT INCHES 36 36 36 38 32 40 41 35 33 36 38 33 40 37 34 38 35 40 42 37 37 38 37 36 37 34 39 40 37 40 35 % BOLLS OPENED 48 45 45 39 50 32 31 43 38 44 44 35 40 45 40 46 48 33 34 48 35 48 39 50 45 50 42 49 42 33 38 UHM S.9 43.2 5.5 83.7 32.1 6.9 5.3 83.6 4.4 30.3 84.6 6.1 29.6 4.0 5.0 4.Table 5-3.3 29.1 83.0 5.0 29.0 6.3 6.7 4.3 43.14 1.8 4.6 39.0 28.1 29.8 4.15 1.5 4.0 6.12 1.6 MIKE 4.7 6.0 29.1 continued 27 .1 84.7 6.9 28. Statewide (North Carolina) Average Performance of Roundup Ready Cotton Varieties Across Locations .4 83.3 84.6 29.13 UNIFORMITY INDEX 83.9 4.1 42.6 5.4 28.5 83.16 1.9 5.9 27.16 1.2 84.

19 1.7 T1 (G/TEX) 29.21 1. Statewide (North Carolina) Average Performance of Roundup Ready Cotton Varieties Across Locations .) 1.4 6.Table 5-3.2 5.E.1 30.4 83.V.7 43.6 4.9 **Highest yielder.7 29.3 84. (%) BLSD (K-50) S.14 1.5 PLANT HEIGHT INCHES 38 39 38 37 % BOLLS OPENED 45 38 36 42 UHM S. (IN. Error d.5 5. *Not significantly different from highest yielder.L.4 4.1 31.8 MIKE 4.4 42.2 4. 28 .f.8 43. Three locations LINT YIELD LB/ ACRE 1043 986 782 1218 94 8 144 25 68 LINT % 44.2009 (continued) VARIETY OR BRAND VARIETY CG3035B2RF DP174B2RF PHY525RF MEAN Adj R2 (%) C.5 83.7 ELONGATION 6.15 UNIFORMITY INDEX 83.

2 4.2 83.7 44.3 4.7 81.4 30.2 5.Table 5-4.0 32.9 44.7 6.0 31.7 33.2009 VARIETY OR BRAND VARIETY +NC06 ST14 ST 5327B2RF +NC06 ST27 +NC05 AZ06/ NC08 AZ04 FM 1845LLB2 +NC06 ST59 +BCSX 1035LLB2 +NC06 ST61 +NC05 AZ21 +NC05-19/ NC06 AZ20 +NC06 ST04 +NC06 ST50 +BCSX 1005LLB2 +NC06 ST03 +BCSX 1025LLB2 HQ 212CT HQ 110CT +BCSX 1015LLB2 MEAN Adj R2 (%) C.2 81. +Experimental 29 . (%) BLSD (K-50) S.0 85.07 1.E.4 5.3 29.6 43.4 83.10 83.3 84.4 83.2 4.4 4. Average Performance of Conventional Cotton Varieties at Rocky Mount North Carolina .1 83.2 1030 90 9 150 54 64 43.3 43.09 1.07 1.15 1.6 31.0 4.5 5.2 5. *Not significantly different from highest yielder.3 5. LINT YIELD LB/ ACRE 1148** 1099* 1096* 1091* 1079* 1073* 1054* 1053* 1050* 1042* 1030* 1013* 1006* 996 996 927 899 882 LINT % 46.5 5.1 82.8 5.08 1.7 43.99 1.5 44.5 31.6 30.11 1.2 43.5 4. (IN.2 4.7 5.2 44.3 29. Error d.2 83.1 5.8 6.5 5.9 83.5 32.13 1.4 44.7 43.6 43.5 6.3 31.0 43.f.9 6.7 33.3 4.08 1.6 4.3 PLANT HEIGHT INCHES 29 28 30 27 24 29 27 29 33 29 28 32 30 30 28 29 26 30 % BOLLS OPENED 44 62 60 67 44 42 69 62 50 49 71 46 49 33 50 41 56 49 UHM S.9 41.2 26.1 4.1 42.14 1.0 5.8 5.08 1.0 ELONGATION 5.6 32.6 5.L.1 **Highest yielder.18 UNIFORMITY INDEX 83.8 5.1 5.8 5. Bayer CropScience ST5327B2RF is a check variiety.3 31.10 1.3 32.V.7 4.1 83.2 41.5 84.9 32.2 4.9 4.4 29 52 1.8 82.05 0.0 40.5 84.08 1.2 4.2 83.4 MIKE 5.7 42.11 1.6 5.18 1.) 1.0 33.7 83.9 5.2 T1 (G/TEX) 31.11 1.

ideal germinating conditions are approximately 86o F. wet conditions. If the stress is severe. It is important for growers to plant high quality seed of varieties adapted to their farm situations. many of which can be managed by cotton producers. Seed vigor is a measure of the seed’s ability to produce a normal. which is a measure of the seed’s ability to produce a normal. obtaining adequate stands is not always easy. wet soils during the early phases of germination and seedling growth. Most growers are familiar with germination. and intended market uses. there is a test known as the cool-germination Seed Quality and the Cotton Cool Test 30 . For cotton. healthy seedling under a wide range of conditions. timely and uniform emergence is critical. Several laboratory stress tests have been developed to estimate the vigor level and field performance potential of seed lots planted under less than ideal conditions. wet weather is expected. The potential of a cotton seed to germinate in cool. management styles. Young. Cotton yield and quality depend upon the seedlings established in the spring. The failure of seeds to germinate or the failure of seedlings to survive the initial few weeks of growth can be caused by a number of factors. wet soils depends upon the vigor level of the seed. tender seedlings also may be damaged or killed if exposed to prolonged periods of cool. therefore. most North Carolina growers plant cotton long before soils warm to 86oF. However. For cotton seed. However. Cotton seeds are extremely sensitive to cool. germination can be delayed or may not occur. COTTON SEED QUALITY AND PLANTING DECISIONS Jan F. Planting under these conditions can lead to poor stands and may result in the need to replant. vigorous seedlings is essential if growers are to achieve the yields and quality needed for profitable crop production. Planting Conditions High quality cotton seeds are those seed lots with high germination and vigor potential. Growers should not be tempted to plant cotton when cool. Spears Crop Science Extension Specialist—Seeds A uniform stand of healthy. healthy seedling when conditions are ideal.6.

when temperatures are more favorable for germination and early seedling growth. If growers have several seed lots from the same company but the lots differ in cool-test results. Interpreting Cotton Cool-Test Values Planting cotton seed in early spring when temperatures can vary dramatically is one reason cotton seedling emergence fluctuates during any given season and from year to year. But this does not mean that an 85 percent stand and a 60 percent stand will result from these two seed lots. the seed lots with higher cool-test readings (higher vigor) should be planted first. the seeds are planted and evaluated for growth at 64o F. It means the seed lot with an 85 percent cooltest result is likely to perform better in the field if stress conditions occur than is the lot with a 60 percent cool-test result. Seed companies have used the cool test to evaluate planting quality for decades. Studies have shown that high-vigor seeds germinate faster and seedlings develop more rapidly. Likewise. “Disease Management in Cotton. instead of planting the seeds in ideal germinating conditions (86oF). and this will affect the final evaluation of the seed lots. thus avoiding many of the pathogens that cause seedling diseases.” Seed Treatments 31 . This cool temperature places stress on the seed. if the lot with 85 percent cool germination is planted and soil temperatures immediately become extremely cool and wet. However. The low-vigor lot may do just as well as the high-vigor lot if both are planted when there is little or no stress. But growers should avoid comparing cool-test results from one company to another. Seed treatment chemistry has improved dramatically in the past decade.test or cool test. The results of the cool test are not printed on the seed tag. Growers should refer to the “Seed and Seedling Disease” section in Chapter 9. The cool conditions used in this test are usually more closely related to field conditions than the standard warm germination test. Company procedures for performing the cool test may vary slightly. There is a significant vigor difference between seed lots with 85 percent and 60 percent coolgermination test results. Unless planting when conditions are extremely stressful. Seed companies know that one way to maximize emergence of cotton seedlings is to treat the seeds with both protective and systemic fungicides. and each company has a set of standards to use as guidelines. In this test. germination and seedling survival may never get near the 85 percent mark. It is the responsibility of the grower to understand what the cool-test values mean. Growers are urged to ask their seed dealer about cool-test results of seed lots before they buy the seed. the use of additional fungicides applied as hopper-box or in-furrow treatments is not necessary. and only high-vigor seeds will germinate and produce seedlings with normal growth patterns. The quality assurance personnel of each seed company are familiar with the test they use and judge seed lots according to performance results. this information is often available from the seed dealer. Seed lots with lower cool-test results (lower vigor) should be planted later. This is especially true when planting early in the season or planting no-till.

poor germination. Growers who purchase seeds that fail to perform as labeled (for example. Seed Performance Complaints 32 . Details on filing a complaint can be found in Handling Seed Complaints. or mislabeled variety) may file a complaint with the Commissioner of Agriculture to have his or her seed compliant investigated by the Seed Board. weed seeds present. available from county Cooperative Extension centers or from the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA&CS). AG-596.The North Carolina General Assembly passed a law in 1998 to help resolve seed performance complaints outside court.

Soil-test results are the most accurate and economical way to determine the fertilizer and lime needs of cotton. Recommended rates of nitrogen.7. 33 . Fall or early winter is the best time to collect soil samples (September to November if you are sampling for nematodes at the same time). These fields would very likely not need additional phosphorus for 5 to 8 years. Typical nutrient deficiency symptoms can be seen at the following website. sulfur. For example.edu/nmp/deficiency/). cotton requires high availability of nutrients. sulfur (S).000 soil samples submitted to the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA&CS) laboratory in 2006 for cotton were either high or very high in phosphorus. NCDA&CS agronomist.ncsu. These nutrients can be removed by leaching rains. Consult your county Cooperative Extension Service center. Of these elements. This allows plenty of time to get the soil-test report back and to plan your fertilization and liming program before the busy planting season. sampling every 3 to 4 years is adequate. Crozier Soil Science Extension Specialist A good cotton-fertilization program begins with regular soil testing. two or more applications may be required to improve fertilizer efficiency and ensure adequate availability throughout the growing season. In the coastal plain. On soils subject to leaching. In the piedmont. Although small amounts of nutrients are removed from the field at harvest. sample every 2 to 3 years. particularly late in the season. FERTILIZATION Carl R. Annual applications of these nutrients are usually recommended for most soils. and boron (B).soil. Soil-test results can let you know when additions of these nutrients are required and when they are not. Cotton is very sensitive to deficiencies of nitrogen (N). A good liming program usually supplies adequate calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). many soils can meet the demand for phosphorus (P) and most micronutrients without annual fertilizer applications. More than 75 percent of the samples were also high or very high in potassium (K). and its availability can be determined from a routine soil-test sample. or local fertilizer dealer for details on sampling procedures. and boron are based on long-term field trials over a wide range of conditions. potassium (K). potassium is least subject to leaching. 85 percent of the more than 93. especially in sandy soils. although actual problem diagnosis should be based on soil and plant laboratory analyses (http://www.

Nitrogen Fertilization 34 . and yields drop sharply. and grower experience in that field. Marked growth and yield increases have repeatedly occurred when fields are properly limed. and others were organic or mineral-organic soils with target pH less than 6.5. expected rainfall patterns or irrigation. and plants will be rank. However. The optimum pH for cotton ranges from 6. as well as reduce plant growth. cotton is among the most sensitive to soil acidity.0. Soil Acidity and Liming Nitrogen fertilization practices strongly affect growth and lint yield of cotton. soil minerals.) The recommended amount of lime should be applied several months before planting to allow time for it to dissolve and react with the acidic components of the soil. lime applied just before planting is much more effective than lime not applied at all. late to mature. soil pH has become a major yield-limiting factor for cotton production in North Carolina. Lime rate can be determined only through periodic soil testing to document both soil pH and residual soil acidity (“Ac” on the NCDA&CS soil test. and magnesium.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AGW-439-50/SoilAcidity_12-3. see SoilFacts publication AGW-439-50. and more likely to have grade reductions from bark. apply too much nitrogen. more difficult to cover with crop-protection chemicals. We have paid too little attention to this requirement. Look for “J-shaped” taproots. and animal waste application history. Nitrogen Rate The recommended rate of nitrogen ranges from 30 to 80 pounds per acre for rainfed crops (20 to 25 percent higher for irrigated crops). slow to fruit. mix lime thoroughly with the soil to speed the reaction. potassium. Such a condition puts additional stress on cotton because stunted roots don’t reach as much water or nutrients. If possible. or apply it at the wrong time. Soil Acidity and Liming for Agricultural Soils (http://www. The amount of lime required for optimum cotton production varies with soil texture. Acidity also interferes with the availability and uptake of phosphorus. ncsu. organic matter content. but excess soil acidity continues to be one of our largest yield-limiting factors. quick to develop boll rot. For more information on soil acidity and liming. Many of these fields will be limed.2 to 6. but some guidelines are available. The best rate for a particular field depends on soil texture. and collect separate subsoil samples to confirm this. On the other hand. pH. Apply too little nitrogen. more troublesome and expensive to defoliate and control regrowth.pdf). In recent years.2. Poor nutrient uptake results in fewer and smaller bolls with poor lint quality. the previous crop.soil. aluminum and manganese dissolve from soil clays and can severely decrease root elongation. In 2006. Without knowledge of the field and of the specific management practices used.Of the crops grown in North Carolina. more than half of the NCDA&CS soil-test results for cotton fields were below the target pH of 6. This publication also describes how to evaluate alternative lime sources such as industrial slags. it is difficult to give specific recommendations. more attractive to insect pests. calcium. When the soil pH drops below 5.5.

Replacement N rates generally should not exceed 30 pounds per acre.Y.soil.edu/nmp/ or from your county Extension center. and management.12 pounds of nitrogen per pound of lint yield). a Norfolk soil has an R. or the last week of July. More information on realistic yield expectations is available via the Internet at http//www.09 pounds N per pound of lint = 79 pounds N per acre The nitrogen factor varies with residual nitrogen. subsoil storage.) are an estimate of the yield potential (average of the best 3 out of 5 years) of a soil series under a high level of management. Realistic yield expectations (R. with low residual nitrogen and low available water-holding capacity.10.12. as any of these factors increase.E. When soil nitrogen reserves are included. require low nitrogen factors ranging from 0. thus the calculated nitrogen rate is: 875 pounds of lint per acre x 0. 35 . Deficiency Nitrogen deficiency symptoms first appear on the lower leaves. If a deficiency develops. fading with age first to hues of yellow. and rainfall. or from 90 to 140 pounds per acre following other crops. Thus organic and mineral-organic soils. Why are the recommended rates so much lower? Numerous on-farm nitrogen-rate studies throughout North Carolina show that unfertilized soils can supply 40 to 100 pounds of available nitrogen from organic matter. and associated nitrogen factor for the site decreases.065 to 0.09. then variously tinted shades of red. values can be used to estimate total nitrogen needs for a specific field.Y. nitrogen can be applied to the soil until the second or third week of bloom. the efficiency of nitrogen use increases. The leaves become a pale yellowish-green. Deficient plants are stunted and generally unthrifty in appearance. require nitrogen factors ranging from 0.Y.ncsu. nitrogen should be replaced.Uptake studies across the cotton belt suggest that cotton needs about 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre per bale of lint produced.E. R.07 to 0. In conjunction with a nitrogen factor (for cotton this factor ranges from 0. while deep sands. with high residual nitrogen and available water-holding capacity. In general. the recommended rates are consistent with a range of total available nitrogen from 110 to 170 pounds per acre following peanuts or soybeans. Foliar applications can increase yields at this stage of crop growth when plants are deficient (see “Plant Monitoring and Foliar Fertilization”) If extended rainfall leaches nitrogen out of the rooting zone after final application but before the second week of bloom. and finally brown as they dry up and are prematurely shed. value of 875 pounds of lint per acre and a nitrogen factor of 0. soil applications become questionable.03 to 0. available water-holding capacity of the soil.03 to 0.E. Soil nitrogen reserves are generally highest on organic or mineralorganic soils and lowest on deep.065. well-drained sands. and fruit-set is poor. Beyond that point. A good crop of soybeans or peanuts will supply an additional 20 to 30 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Loamy soils require intermediate nitrogen factors ranging from 0. For example.

If rains were predictable. Frequently. About 45 days after emergence. ammonium nitrate. Cotton needs only 20 to 25 pounds of nitrogen per acre to get the plant through sidedress time. leaching rains and. ammonium sulfate. and anhydrous ammonia are most frequently used because of their high analysis. If the crop is following peanuts or soybeans. more compact root systems. Sources Of the many nitrogen sources available for cotton fertilization. Conversion of ammonium forms to nitrate occurs very rapidly under warm. even without 36 . when the processes of flower production. all the nitrogen is applied early in the season. Liquid nitrogen solutions are very convenient and exhibit little volatile loss when dribbled beside the row. no one source has proven to be superior to others. Heavy nitrogen applications early in the season also can lead to excessive vegetative growth. cotton takes up only a small portion of the nitrogen before flower buds (squares) begin to set (Figure 7-1). This is a region subject to unpredictable. thus. moist conditions. convenience. with half applied about 4 weeks after emergence and the remainder in 3 to 4 weeks. the sidedress nitrogen can be split. it is safer to sidedress 2 to 3 weeks after first square to ensure that adequate nitrogen is available during the earlybloom period. it makes little sense in North Carolina. Leaching losses during this period will need to be accounted for and replaced to attain optimum yield. and reduced early square retention. and boll maturation create a heavy demand for nutrients. Sodium nitrate and calcium nitrate can be used. Nitrogen solutions. and availability of equipment.Timing Timing is important for cotton. no initial nitrogen may be required. Unlike crops such as corn and tobacco. smaller. While this may be the most convenient means of application. the best time to sidedress would be just before first bloom. nutrient uptake begins to increase rapidly until it reaches a prolonged peak about two weeks after first bloom. but have no proven benefit over ammonium-type fertilizers and cost more per pound of nitrogen applied. The choice should be based on price. On deep. But since you can’t always count on rains at this time. sandy soils subject to rapid leaching. the applied nitrogen remains exposed to leaching rains for more than 60 days before demand begins to peak. urea. boll filling. or even at planting.

Higher than recommended nitrogen rates are not justified just because mepiquat chloride will be applied. potassium deficiency symptoms have appeared in the upper part of the plant. The premature shedding of leaves contributes to dwarfed and immature bolls. A good soil-testing program will help alert you to potential problems before they occur. In these cases. When high nitrogen rates are planned for irrigated cotton. split the nitrogen applications to provide the bulk of the nitrogen as flowering begins. Furthermore. Plan to use mepiquat chloride to help control vegetative growth. Plants deficient in phosphorus produce fewer and slower maturing bolls (see “Starter Fertilizers”). The centers of these spots die. dies. and is shed prematurely. and Irrigation The potential to reduce vegetative growth with the growth regulator mepiquat chloride has led some growers to increase nitrogen rates with the hope of increasing yields. the whole leaf becomes reddish-brown. around the margin. Take care to avoid root pruning. but the plants are unable to obtain adequate potassium. But the best results are still obtained when sidedress applications are knifed-in around the time of first square. The tip and the margin of the leaf break down first and curl downward. When irrigated. cotton yield potential on some soils can approach three bales. Urea is also a suitable nitrogen source. In recent years. Potassium. sandy soils. Onfarm tests in North Carolina consistently show that cotton yield response to nitrogen is not affected by mepiquat chloride applications. so placement in the root zone before planting is essential. In some cases. foliar potassium fertilization has improved Phosphorus. Phosphorus deficiencies are rare and usually associated with low pH. As this physiological breakdown progresses.cultivation. mepiquat chloride will not adequately control rank growth at labeled rates. The mottling changes to a light yellowishgreen. but don’t place nitrogen out of reach of developing roots. Treatments to correct phosphorus deficiency seldom prove effective. and yellow spots appear between veins. Nitrogen. Adequate supplies of phosphorus and potassium are critical for proper plant nutrition. but surface-applied sidedress applications should be lightly incorporated on light. and between the veins. but requires specialized handling equipment. and Sulfur 37 . and plants may appear stunted. soil potassium levels appear to be high. but be aware that primary control of rank growth depends on maintaining high square retention and a heavy fruit load. High humidity can make this source sticky and difficult to handle. Anhydrous ammonia is a very economical source of nitrogen. growth rate is slow. There is a temptation with anhydrous ammonia to apply all the necessary nitrogen prior to planting. Mepiquat Chloride. Higher nitrogen rates (90 to 120 pounds of nitrogen per acre) may be justified in these situations. Plants appear darker green than normal. where excessive rates of nitrogen are used and soil moisture is good. and numerous brown specks appear at the leaf top. The symptoms of potassium deficiency can be very pronounced and first appear on the older leaves as a yellowish-white mottling.

determinate-type cultivars that set a heavy fruit load over a very short period.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-43963W.ncsu. The best way to determine whether K deficiency exists is with a plant tissue sample (see below. mild to moderate drought stress following heavy fruit set. Annual applications to build soil potassium throughout the root zone will eventually correct these problems. an unidentified disease. the use of very high-yielding. or root damage. Routine application of foliar K is not recommended since it has been shown to reduce yields in some cases where there was already adequate K. soils that “fix” potassium in nonavailable forms. Sulfur accumulates in the subsoil. Throughout most of the state. Although potassium is retained by soils more strongly than nitrogen. sidedress applications of potassium have frequently solved the problem. deficiency symptoms may still develop. “Plant Monitoring and Foliar Fertilization”). Where deficiencies from leaching are likely. If sufficient sulfur is present in the subsoil and root growth is not restricted. 2.yield and quality. 38 .pdf). in-season leaching losses. Additional sulfur may still be needed for early growth. deficiency symptoms are rare and occur primarily on lower leaves of the plant. is mobile in most soils. Approximately 25 to 30 pounds per acre of potash should correct most leaching losses. Applications of foliar potassium (such as potassium nitrate) at mid-bloom on potassium-deficient cotton can increase yields. see “Soil Facts: Sulfur Fertilization of North Carolina Crops” (http://www. Low pH in the subsoil can decrease availability of accumulated sulfur. For more information on sulfur. older plants can take up enough for normal development. Even though soil-test levels at the surface may be adequate. A few cases of upper plant-deficiency symptoms have occurred in on-farm tests and experimental plots in North Carolina where 1) subsoil potassium levels were extremely low and short. At the present time. Sulfate-sulfur. indicating improper pre-plant fertilization. 3. plants will likely respond to foliar applications of potassium. Some sulfur is supplied by the decomposition of crop residues and organic matter. particularly in red clays. sulfur deficiencies have become more common in row crops with the decline in industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide and the increased use of higher analysis materials and bulk blends containing less incidental sulfur. and some is supplied by rainfall.soil. and 4. In recent years. these symptoms have been associated with four factors: 1. it can be lost through leaching and may need replacing. Prompt replacement is important.to mid-season cultivars were planted or 2) soils contained significant amounts of 2:1 clay minerals such as vermiculite or montmorillonite (soil surveys indicate these soils have “mixed mineralogy”). Deficiencies are most likely to occur in highly leached. especially early in the season. Symptoms are most common in parts of California and the Mid South. A two-bale cotton crop will take up 20 to 30 pounds of sulfur. the major form of sulfur taken up by plants. sandy soils with low organic matter content.

it is important to diagnose the problem correctly. Because of this. but the sulfur must first be oxidized by soil organisms to the sulfate form. it should be finely ground and applied early in the season to allow time for conversion to sulfate. Ammonium sulfate. A two-bale crop will take up 60 pounds of calcium and 23 pounds of magnesium. sulfate of potash-magnesium. Soil application of sulfur appears more effective than foliar treatments for correcting deficiencies. Table 7-1. Calcitic lime may be used if soil tests show that no magnesium is needed. but additional sulfur should be included in sidedress materials. especially on leachable. Sulfur-containing nitrogen solutions are now available in most areas. persistent yellowing of new leaves and reddening of the petioles are typical sulfur-deficiency symptoms.Sulfur and nitrogen reactions in the plant are interrelated. As a general rule. nitrogen is mobile within the plant. If sulfur is lacking. A variety of fertilizer materials contain sulfur (see Table 7-1). When attempting to correct the deficiency. depending on the rate of nitrogen Lime does more than raise soil pH. Sulfur is not mobile. There is increasing interest in adding 3 to 5 pounds of sulfur per acre in starter fertilizers. magnesium sulfate. or granular and pelletized gypsum can be included in dry blends as a sulfur source. while calcitic lime supplies only calcium. In severe cases. or applied in a separate application. Additional sulfur probably will not be needed if cotton follows peanuts that received gypsum (landplaster). sandy soils. Deficiency symptoms of both nutrients appear as general leaf yellowing. Plant analysis is recommended since visual symptoms are difficult to interpret. Early detection is critical because treatments after flowering begins have not increased yields in most cases. However. Elemental sulfur can also be used. the whole plant may become yellow. the addition of nitrogen will not correct the problem. It is also the primary source of calcium and magnesium for cotton. potassium sulfate. and deficiency symptoms for the two nutrients are sometimes confused. This practice can ensure adequate early season sulfur. Cotton has relatively high calcium and magnesium requirements. annual applications of 10 to 20 pounds of sulfur per acre are suggested. Dolomitic lime supplies both calcium and magnesium. In cotton. and its deficiency symptoms first appear on the lower leaves. However. Sources of Sulfur in Fertilizer Materials Nutrient Content Materials Ammonium sulfate Potassium sulfate Magnesium sulfate Sulfate of potash-magnesia Gypsum (landplaster) Sulfur-containing nitrogen solutions Elemental sulfur Percent Sulfur 24 16 14 22 17 to 20 3 to 5 88 to 100 Percent Other 21 (N) 48 (K2O) 10 (Mg) 22 (K2O) + 11% (Mg) 11 (Ca) 24 (N) – Liming to Supply Calcium and Magnesium 39 . and deficiency symptoms first appear on new leaves. with 4 pounds of calcium and 7 pounds of magnesium actually removed in seed and lint. Both nitrogen and sulfur deficiencies may be present.

while the veins maintain their dark green color. zinc. The most pronounced boron deficiency symptoms include: Micronutrients • Abnormal shedding of squares and young bolls. sandy soils.Calcium deficiencies are seldom seen because acidity (low pH) and aluminum toxicity usually limit growth first. • Mature bolls that are small. cotton grown on well-drained. deformed. and do not fluff normally. Boron that is held by the soil is associated primarily with organic matter and is released as the organic matter decomposes. the problem may not be noticed until harvest reveals an unexpectedly poor response to nitrogen and potassium applications. and manganese should be of most concern to North Carolina cotton growers. boron. magnesium deficiency appears first on the lower leaves as an intense yellowing between the major veins. resulting in a dwarfed and many-branched plant. Also. • Death of the terminal bud and shortened internodes near the top of the plant. • Dark green rings on leaf petioles accompanied by discoloration of the pith under the rings. a purplish-red color develops around the leaf margins and between veins. low-organic-matter soils is more prone to boron deficiencies. chlorine (Cl). If plants are not carefully monitored. Dry weather can trigger a temporary deficiency as organic matter decomposition slows. Boron occurs in the soil as an uncharged molecule (boric acid) and leaches readily. sandy. the first real indication of a problem may be excessive growth.5 or a heavy lime application in the recent past. The magnesium content of soils is usually less than that of calcium because less magnesium is added. Late in the season. especially in years of high rainfall or drought. molybdenum (Mo). • Ruptures at the base of squares or blooms or on the stem that supports the squares. copper. and it is more leachable than calcium. Heavy applications of landplaster or potassium applications can also result in magnesium deficiencies. then a source such as magnesium sulfate can be applied at a rate of 20 to 30 pounds of magnesium per acre. dry weather slows root growth and limits boron uptake. Boron (B). this color may be confused with the orange and red colors caused by normal aging of leaves. Boron Boron is needed throughout the life of a cotton plant. In cotton. Deficiencies can sometimes be induced by a soil pH greater than 6. In severe cases. Leaves shed prematurely. more magnesium is removed. manganese (Mn). A close look at the plant will usually reveal abnormal fruit shed as the reason for this problem. Thus. 40 . but adequate supplies are especially crucial during flowering and boll development. In many cases. copper (Cu). iron (Fe). and sometimes in cool soils. If magnesium is deficient. and zinc (Zn) are necessary for plant growth. but it is not desirable to raise soil pH by adding dolomitic lime. although the quantities needed are small. Magnesium deficiencies are most likely to occur on highly leached. Specifically.

the NCDA&CS Agronomic Division soil-testing laboratory prints a dollar sign ($) in the recommendation box if the soil level is low for sensitive crops. Foliar sprays of copper.2 to 0. enough boron should be supplied to account for uptake inefficiencies and to offset leaching losses. Boron can be applied to the soil or foliage. A soil-test index value less than 25 for any of these three micronutrients means that cotton may respond to an application. Copper. Once inside the leaf. Suggested foliar rates of manganese and zinc 41 . Some of the applied material will be taken into the plant and the remainder washed into the soil. untreated tissue can be deficient in boron unless boron is supplied by the root system. On deep. Determine applications of these elements based on soil-test reports. manganese. annual application of boron to cotton is strongly recommended. manganese. which gives valuable information about micronutrient use. The above suggested rates should be broadcast and soil incorporated. or 0.4 pound of actual boron per acre if a borated fertilizer is banded. Because boron is essential to successful production but availability is difficult to assess. A zero printed in the recommendation block for any of the micronutrients means that the soil’s level is adequate. boron moves very little. especially if the values are below 10 to 15.The actual uptake requirement of boron by a two-bale cotton crop is about 0. A good general recommendation is to use 0. Manufactured fertilizers containing boron or granular borate in dry blends can be purchased. Preplant applications are most effective for soils with limited leaching potential. Be sure to read the note accompanying the soil-test report. At present.5 pound per acre of actual boron applied at early bloom or 0. This allows supply through the root system as long as the boron remains in the root zone. The recommended rates of boron for foliar application will provide for the immediate needs of the plant and some residual to build soil reserves. split foliar applications ensure availability during the critical bloom and boll-filling periods.25 pound per acre at early bloom and another 0. This means that new. but there is no strong evidence that cotton is sensitive and will respond to additions of that element. sandy soils. For foliar applications. or 10 pounds per acre of manganese can be applied to increase the soil levels sufficiently so that micronutrients will not limit yields. The suggested rate of soil application is 1 pound of actual boron per acre broadcast before or during seedbed preparation. Foliar applications allow placement of boron on the crop during peak demand.25 pounds per acre about two weeks later. and zinc may be applied in emergency situations when the deficiency is discovered after the crop has been planted. When in doubt. 2 pounds per acre of copper or zinc. Manganese. Other crops in the rotation may benefit from the application. You also may consider banding 3 pounds per acre of either manganese or zinc near the seed (3 to 4 inches on the side and 2 to 3 inches below) with the mixed fertilizer. and zinc are seldom seen in cotton. if enough water is used to dissolve the compound. Soluble boron sources are generally compatible with mepiquat chloride and most insecticides.2 pound per acre. and Zinc Deficiencies of copper.

Granular forms work well. and possible uses or application methods are shown in Table 7-3.are 0. satisfactory in suspension fertilizer. or where pH values exceed 6. 0. and Relative Cost Micronutrient Source Sulfate Tribasic Oxide Oxy-sulfate Chelate Content (percent elemental) Copper 25 53 50 or 75 55 8 to 13 10 to 14 10 to 21 Most costly 70 to 80 25 to 28 Least costly Zinc 36 Manganese 25 to 28 Relative Cost per Pound Low cost Table 7-3. Micronutrient Sources.25 pound per acre. Premium-grade fertilizers containing a mixture of micronutrients are available. These granular forms are commonly available for blending into pre-plant broadcast applications of NPK fertilizers. Since the range between micronutrient deficiency and toxicity is quite narrow. Pulverized (finely ground) product shuld be bonded to fertilizer granules with a small amount of nitrogen solution or diesel fuel. Also.5. Oxides and oxy-sulfate materials are less soluble and require some time to react with the soil. Usually works in clear solutions. for copper. In general. compare prices because the cost of a premium-grade fertilizer may be more than the cost of a regular-grade fertilizer plus an application of the individual micronutrient needed. 42 . Read the analysis tag to make sure the fertilizer will supply enough of the micronutrient in question to truly correct a soil deficiency. Best to use low rates and make at least two applictaions about two weeks apart. and zinc are listed in Table 7-2. it is important to be sure that application equipment is accurately calibrated.5 pound per acre. Table 7-2. manganese. They are suitable for supplying micronutrients to the following crop and for building soil-test levels for later crops. Concentrations. 4 May cause some foliar burn. sulfate or chelated materials are recommended to correct sites with plants already established. Suitability of Micronutrient Sources for Selected Uses Micronutrient Source and Suitability Used in Fluid fertilizers 2 Sulfates Somewhat satisfactory Difficult to dissolve Usually satisfactory Satisfactory Usually satisfactory Usually satisfactory Oxides Satisfactory in suspensions only Not satisfactory Usually satisfactory Satisfactory Not satisfactory Not satisfactory Complexes or Chelates1 Satisfactory Usually satisfactory Seldom used Not used Satisfactory Satisfactory 30 % nitrogen solutions Dry blends 3 Manufactured fertilizer Water solution sprayed for soil application Foliar sprays4 1 2 3 Often the label suggests a rate that is not adequate. Some common sources of copper.

environmental stresses such as unusual wetness. Plant Monitoring and Foliar Fertilization 43 .com/agronomi/pwshome. In these cases. the plant has accumulated only about half of its total nutrient uptake (Figure 7-1). the plant directs most of its resources into making bolls rather than growing new roots and shoots. Leaf analysis provides a “snapshot” in time of the current nutrients that have accumulated in the uppermost mature leaves (three to four nodes down from the terminal). since critical levels for N and K change dramatically over the reproductive period. Much depends on fruit load (weather. Deficiencies also can occur when cotton is heavily fruited. but uptake continues). and may continue to add both vegetative and fruiting sites for several more weeks. But if drought continues.ncagr. soil moisture is good.and pest-related) and the ability of the soil to continue to supply needed nutrients over the next 10 or more weeks. leaf analysis in cotton is much less effective in predicting nutrient status of the plant for the coming weeks than in other crops. foliar fertilization can improve yields. Some researchers have observed that foliar nitrogen application may occasionally “stick a few more bolls” early in a drought as water (and nitrogen) uptake declines. the soil supplies adequate levels of nutrients. it is best to suspend sampling until more typical environmental conditions return. Contact your county Extension agent or Regional Agronomist for assistance if you would like to experiment with this management tool. The cotton plant still has an active root system (expansion slows during mid bloom. and insect control is excellent. and root uptake can be less than required to meet peak demands. Foliar fertilization is expected to increase yields only when deficiencies occur. these bolls will also shed. reactions in the leaf essentially shut down. As a result. The real key is knowing when deficiencies are present. Cotton leaf and petiole analysis is available from the Agronomic Division of the NCDA&CS at a cost of $7 per sample (http://www.Recent studies have proven that foliar-applied nutrients such as urea nitrogen. Deficiencies may result from improper fertilization or leaching of mobile nutrients by heavy rains. or cloudy conditions can alter leaf chemistry and complicate interpretation of results. When leaves begin to wilt before noon. potassium. Under most conditions. Satisfactory results are highly dependent on knowledge of the specific growth stage (week relative to first bloom). Leaf samples taken at this time effectively measure the remaining nutrients available in the plant for maturing the crop. After the first blooms appear on cotton. When deficiencies are detected using plant tissue or petiole analysis. however. dryness. Leaf analysis for cotton is valid only during the pre-bloom or early bloom period. Under these conditions. This is especially true for the mobile nutrients. and certain micronutrients can be absorbed through the leaf. These leaves are generally 10 to 16 days old in an actively growing cotton crop.htm). Leaching rains could remove available N from the soil. and foliar applications become ineffective. and the only way to be sure is to monitor plant and petiole nutrient levels. The amounts of nutrients absorbed will not meet the full daily demands for these nutrients. but can supplement the soil-supplied nutrients. and the loss could go undetected. Additionally.

starter fertilizers can enhance early season growth. Generally. also strongly affects petiole nutrient levels. By using hot water or extended agitation. Unfortunately. These are primarily used in aerial application. The petiole (leaf stem) has very little storage capacity for nutrients. wet soils with low phosphorus levels but are not limited to these conditions. Fields with “low” petiole nitrate will have a high likelihood of responding to additional nitrogen. This could be expected because the fertilizer is sprayed in a much wider band. and increase yields. As shown in Figure 7-2. Foliar applications of nitrogen or potassium to correct late-season deficiencies are usually made using either urea (46-0-0) or potassium nitrate (13-0-44) as the source. Both of these materials seem compatible with commonly used insecticides. nitrate concentrations decrease regularly following bloom. The most consistent responses have occurred when the starter is placed in a narrow band 2 inches below and 2 inches to the side of the seed. By comparing petiole nitrate levels each week of bloom with final yields in test plots. Thus. Use of warm water or agitation speeds dissolution. and effects may not be seen every year. such as surface bands 3 to 4 inches wide applied over the row. Enhanced growth frequently allows more timely and effective weed control. Both materials will cause the temperature of the water to drop as they dissolve. either applied to the soil or as a foliar application. Tests with nitrogen or nitrogen-plus-phosphorus solutions mixed with the preemergence herbicides have been the least successful. promote earlier fruiting. have been successful but are much less consistent. Other techniques. Applications during the first 5 weeks of bloom are most effective in correcting nutrient deficiencies. In some areas. but urea and potassium nitrate have proven to be effective in correcting deficiencies. replicated trials with soils testing high in phosphorus have shown an average increase in cotton lint yield of 60 pounds per acre. Responses are usually greatest in cool.Petiole monitoring has proven to be the most effective indicator of plant-available nutrients during the bloom period. such as drought or excess soil moisture. The extent of these effects varies with soil and climatic conditions. desired ranges for optimum yields have been established for North Carolina conditions and cultivars. the nutrient content in the petiole of the youngest mature leaves is an excellent measure of currently available soil supply and a much more sensitive indicator than leaf analysis. Other materials are available and are being tested. anything that affects nutrient uptake by the root system. petiole-monitoring programs are most effective when soil moisture is good to adequate. the solution is made by mixing 10 pounds of the fertilizer material with 10 to 20 gallons of water for each acre to be treated. Starter fertilizer Starter Fertilizers 44 . Over a period of several years. Check the pesticide label for warnings or instructions on mixing with fertilizers because mixing order may be important. Thus. premixed solutions are beginning to appear on the market. since its primary function is to channel nutrients to and from the leaf blade on a continuing basis. In a high-management situation. and the nutrient concentration in the row is greatly diluted. solutions as concentrated as 10 to 20 pounds of material in 5 gallons of water can be made. especially for nitrate-nitrogen.

and sulfur. Recent work in Alabama Animal Wastes as a Nutrient Source for Cotton 45 . insect management. In general. make sure tha t excess available nitrogen is not supplied. and lime. Excess nitrogen is more detrimental to cotton than excesses of the other nutrients. zinc. manganese. potassium. and nitrogen fertilization are not practiced. In many of the important cotton-producing areas of North Carolina. Starters will not help much where timely weed control. and with granular fertilizers such as DAP (diammonium phosphate. A maximum rate of 100 to 120 pounds of starter material per acre is suggested to maximize response and minimize the chance of seedling injury. Placement too close to the seed can mean replanting. poultry and swine manures are available for use on cropland. along with some magnesium.) trials throughout the Southeast have shown that responses are possible in some cases with nitrogen only. calcium. But they can help a well-managed crop perform better. 60 to 80 percent of the total nitrogen will be available for uptake by plants in the first year of application. (WB = Week Before. number after FB indicates weeks after first bloom. The largest quantity of nutrients will be nitrogen.Figure 7-2. phosphorus. copper. While the rate of manure applied can be adjusted to supply the requirements of any one of these nutrients. Manure is often a cost-effective substitute or supplement to fertilizer-supplied nutrients. trials throughout the Southeast support the use of starters on soils where potential yields are greater than 700 pounds per acre and where other good management practices are followed. In summary. Animal wastes should be analyzed prior to use to determine the kind and quantity of nutrients in the waste. Ratings for petiole nitrate concentrations during the bloom period. Careful setup is essential. FB = First Bloom. with one-to-one mixes of nitrogen solutions with 10-34-0 or similar ammonium polyphosphate solutions. 18-46-0).

One solution is to apply animal wastes at a rate to supply sufficient P pre-plant. or visit or see http://www. then sidedress with a liquid fertilizer at the appropriate rate to obtain the rest of the N needed by the crop.ncsu. and AG-439-28. As with any nitrogen source for cotton. For more information on the use of animal wastes as nutrient sources. Animal wastes should be incorporated as soon as possible after application to decrease volatile losses of nitrogen and to lessen the impact of runoff on nearby water bodies.php.indicates that essentially 100 percent of the nitrogen in poultry litter is available when incorporated just before planting. 46 . Poultry Manure as a Fertilizer Source. ask your county Cooperative Extension agent for a copy of the SoilFacts publications AG-439-4. AG-439-5. it is preferable to sidedress most of the applied nitrogen to avoid problems with excessive vegetative growth and delayed fruiting. This leads to the major problem with use of animal wastes on cotton: All the manure really needs to be applied before planting. edu/about/publications/index. Swine Manure as a Fertilizer Source.soil. Ongoing research will evaluate the nitrogen availability and rate of release to cotton from various animal wastes. Dairy Manure as a Fertilizer Source.

The greatest advantage the wick seems to have over spray applications is that it makes it easier to apply Mepiquat to tall cotton and avoid application to shorter. as well as in other areas of the cotton belt. The total number of fruiting branches also may be reduced slightly. Mepiquat can help cotton growers manage the development and maturity of their crop. Energy is directed toward boll production and away from vegetative growth. SUGGESTIONS FOR GROWTH REGULATOR USE Keith L. the active ingredient in Mepiquat. Research at North Carolina State University has shown that Mepiquat also can be applied through a canvas wick applicator.ncsu. decrease boll rot. Mepiquat chloride. I will refer to them as mepiquat in this chapter. stressed cotton within the same field. Normally. These desirable features are caused by the inhibition of cell elongation in the cotton stems. edu/ccn/2000/2000. Edmisten Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton Growth regulators are used to control cotton plant height. those additional fruiting positions frequently are not harvested. Several non-mepiquat growth regulators are sold for use in cotton. has demonstrated that Mepiquat treatment can hasten maturity. In untreated cotton. reduce plant height. Internodes along the stem and fruiting branches are shortened. those positions are not formed. Mepiquat-treated plants are normally smaller and more compact. our North Carolina season does not give us enough time to mature the bolls produced on the highest fruiting branches. is now available under other trade names. but there are no data to support the use of any growth regulators that do not contain some form of mepiquat in North Carolina. Because the activity of Mepiquat chloride and Mepiquat pentaborate are similar. More detailed information about using a wick can be found on the Internet in Carolina Cotton Notes at http://www. In Mepiquat-treated cotton. Mepiquat pentaborate is the active ingredient in a new growth regulator named Pentia. Mepiquat can be applied as a broadcast spray or as a banded spray. Research conducted in North Carolina.htm. facilitate insect management. These growth regulators are both anti-gibberellens that control plant height and can increase earliness. Plant Modification 47 .cropsci. Information on calibrating a wick applicator can be found at the same site. and increase yield.8.

the situation may be quite different.In rain-fed cotton production. However. However. then Mepiquat-treated cotton frequently will out-yield untreated cotton because the Mepiquat-treated cotton sets a greater portion of the crop earlier. Season Considerations Mepiquat use is usually warranted when conditions favor rank growth and delayed maturity. cotton normally produces excellent yields. • Large. indeterminate varieties. the stress occurs during or immediately following the application of 1 pint per acre of Mepiquat (a normal application amount). the Mepiquat-treated cotton may have a difficult time resuming growth and boll loading because Mepiquat tends to reduce vegetative growth and the associated square production. • Fields with a history of rank cotton growth. whereas others will rarely require treatment. Some of these conditions are: • Cotton planted after May 15. the decision to use Mepiquat should be based on a consideration of its usefulness in a specific situation. Mepiquat treatment is usually an excellent investment. particularly increased yield. Conditions Favoring Mepiquat Use 48 . particularly when soil nitrogen is plentiful. As with any management tool. with or without Mepiquat. nothing will help. If we experience timely rainfall. • High nitrogen rates. If. If the drought breaks after one to two weeks. Yields of Mepiquat-treated cotton may be reduced when biological and environmental conditions do not favor excessive vegetative (rank) growth. what happens when drought or another stress occurs that limits square production? If the stress occurs three weeks into bloom and continues for the remainder of the bloom period. however. • Fields that will be defoliated and harvested first. If drought continues for the remainder of the season. the presence or absence of timely rainfall largely determines the length of the growing season and the plant’s ability to produce and mature bolls. Treatment with the plant growth regulator does not guarantee the results mentioned above. When excessive rainfall occurs. Your decision to apply Mepiquat in any given year should be made on a field-by-field (or portion-of-a-field) basis. a single application of Mepiquat with a rate appropriate for plant size rarely decreases yield. • Fields with delayed maturity. • Excessive rainfall within 7 days of treatment. • Thick stands (more than 4 plants per foot of row). Certain cotton fields may require treatment every year.

Treatment rates range between ½ and 1 pint per acre. then crop is on schedule. One exception might be a vigorous and latematuring variety. and time of the season. then apply ½ pint of Mepiquat per acre to compact the boll-loading period if the crop is not under drought stress. Several Mepiquat application strategies have been developed. The ½. if the above conditions are not present. The low-rate multiple approach is not recommended in North Carolina due to poor early season growth. such as Deltapine 555. I. Avoid Mepiquat application right away. particularly after July 20. particularly if plant height exceeds 28 inches within one week of early bloom. when early weather conditions favor rapid growth. environmental conditions.The more of these conditions that are present. even if early bloom has not yet occurred. Treatment may be required later. Early Bloom Strategy The most commonly used technique is the application of ½ to 1 pint of Mepiquat at early bloom (defined as 5 to 6 white blooms per 25 feet of row) on cotton that is more than 24 inches tall if conditions favor a response to Mepiquat. Situation 2 Plant height 20 to 24 inches tall at early bloom. Application Strategies 49 . If bloom begins after July 10. the greater the likelihood of a positive response to Mepiquat treatment. Mepiquat at 1 pint per acre may be required later. Response If bloom begins before July 10. Wait until stress is relieved before application. low-rate multiple. Consult the label for additional precautions. Response Relieve stress if possible. Mepiquat use decisions should be based on the development of the crop. The following guidelines will assist in making situation-specific decisions for Mepiquat use. Situation 1 Plant height less than 20 inches at early bloom because of stress. but wait and see. Remember that Mepiquat should not be applied to drought-stressed cotton. Applications may be made after early bloom if cotton growth becomes excessive (following early bloom).to 1-pint rate is also applied if the cotton averages 28 inches tall. and modified early bloom—are discussed below with guidelines for each. Mepiquat treatment may not be worthwhile. Cotton that is less than 20 inches tall at early bloom does not receive a treatment. Three—early bloom. Wait and see. Conversely. Note: Treatments applied later than 7 days after early bloom will have less impact on earliness and less potential to increase yield.

Remember that pinhead square occurs when a cotton plant’s first flower bud is just visible to the naked eye. plant growing rapidly. Response If prebloom cotton is 16 inches tall. an experienced producer may be able to make better decisions than the chart would recommend.Situation 3 Plant height more than 24 inches at early bloom. as compared to the early bloom or modified early bloom strategies. This approach is logical and should enable you to achieve the benefits of Mepiquat. This strategy employs the use of low-rate multiple applications (LRMA) of Mepiquat beginning at match-head square (50 percent of plants with one or more squares 1/8 to 1/4 inch in diameter). research in North Carolina has shown this strategy to be the one most likely to reduce yields. Because it is impossible to put all considerations into a usable chart. early bloom treatment. apply ½ pint per acre. 28 inches one week after early bloom or 32 inches two weeks after early bloom. Further treatments are made at 7. Growth rapid. An additional Mepiquat treatment may be necessary if plant height exceeds 24 inches at early bloom. Early bloom (5 to 6 white blooms per 25 feet of row) occurs within 5 to 7 days of first bloom. Low-Rate Multiple Application Strategy Recently. If prebloom height is 20 inches or more before first treatment. Match-head square (squares 1/8 to 1/4 inch in diameter) occurs about 7 days later. The first treatment of 1/8 to 1/4 pint occurs at match-head square if conditions favor a response to Mepiquat. Anticipated early bloom height more than 24 inches. an alternate strategy has been developed to reduce the risks associated with an early bloom Mepiquat treatment that precedes a drought period. you should be able to mete out smaller doses that enable you to fine-tune the crop’s development. First bloom occurs about 21 days after pinhead square and 14 days after match-head square. Situation 4 Plant height approaching 20 to 24 inches before early bloom. An additional ½ to 1 pint of Mepiquat per acre (depending on previous treatment rate) may be required if plant height exceeds 28 inches one week after early bloom or 32 inches two weeks after early bloom. This point system is much better than a “shot-in-the-dark” guess that an inexperienced producer might have to make. while reducing the risks associated with the product (early cutout). apply ¼ pint per acre.to 14-day intervals when conditions favor a response to Mepiquat. Table 8-1 provides a point system to help producers select rates for the LRMA approach. particularly if you have irrigation capabilities. Response Apply ½ pint of Mepiquat per acre to reduce shading and improve boll set. However. II. Instead of running the risk that drought stress may occur immediately after a larger. Use the appropriate portion of the 50 . condition well-watered.

do not apply. If soil moisture is poor. do not apply. do not apply. do not apply. > 8 oz Moisture NAWB Fruit retention Prior Mepiquat applied Internode length* fair 5 or less good 5 to 6 > 75% > 12 oz excellent 6 to 7 < 75% 8 to 12 oz > 2 in. > 75% 5 to 8 oz before July 10 1 excellent > 24 in. do not apply. before June 15 short or medium 1 excellent 44 to 48 in. If score is less than 3. If soil moisture is poor.7 1 excellent 44 to 48 in. If soil moisture is poor. do not apply. 10 TO 14 DAYS AFTER FIRST SQUARE Points -1 Moisture Stalk height history Square retention Prior Mequipat applied Height-to-node ratio < 36 in. < 1.4 to 1. 10 TO 14 DAYS AFTER EARLY BLOOM Points -1 0 1 2 4 0 good 20 to 24 in. after June 15 tall 2 > 48 in.4 If score is less than 3. do not apply. 50 to 75% 3 to 5 oz July 10 to 20 2 > 48 in. 0 fair 36 to 44 in. <75% 0 to 3 oz > 1.7 2 > 48 in. < 50% none after July 20 fair < 20 in. do not apply. Point System for Determining Mepiquat Rates Using an LRMA Approach FIRST SQUARE Points -1 Moisture Stalk height history < 36 in.Table 8-1.5 to 2 oz If NAWB is less than 5. do not apply. 0 to 8 oz 7 to 8 above 8 < 30% < 1. do not apply. >75% > 3 oz 1.5. Date of first square Variety If score is greater than 3. 1. If score is less than 3. *The largest of the internodes below the third and fourth mainstem leaf. Do not exceed a total of 4 ounces. 0 fair 36 to 44 in. If soil moisture is poor. EARLY BLOOM Points -1 Moisture Plant height Fruit retention Prior Mepiquat applied Date of first bloom If NAWB is less than 7.5 in. 51 .

at early bloom.table for the stage of growth. In our example. 8 oz 8 oz If soil moisture is poor.5 in.5 in. do not apply. If NAWB is <7. Plant height >24 in. 12 oz 12 oz If soil moisture is poor. using Table 8-1 at first square. first square on June 20.25 inches as the trigger. Total the points to determine Mepiquat rates. and 10 to 14 days after early bloom. 6 oz 6 oz > 20 in. 1. This often results in applications made too late to successfully control plant size and influence earliness. 9 oz 9 oz >30 in. This would total 4 points. or wet weather. one may want to be less conservative and use 2 or 2. Table 8-2 presents guidelines for its use. a stalk height history of 50 inches. do not apply.* 0 oz 6 oz 24 to 27 in. *The largest of the internodes below the third and fourth mainstem leaf. 2. EARLY BLOOM — if Mepiquat has already been applied Plant Height <24 in. This approach involves possible treatments 10 to 14 days before early bloom (10 to 14 days after first square). The last application is seldom necessary if this approach is used successfully. 52 .5 inches on the first two potential applications. Table 8-2. you would accumulate 1. and a short variety. III. 6 oz 6 oz 27 to 30 in. These producers may wish to use the modified early bloom approach on at least a portion of their acreage. For example. Note in the charts that the internode length that triggers Mepiquat application is 2. do not apply. Height-to-node ratio >1. if you had excellent moisture. On irrigated cotton or cotton on extremely productive soils. *The largest of the internodes below the third and fourth mainstem leaf. The total number of points equals the number of ounces of Mepiquat that should be applied.* 4 oz 4 oz 17 to 20 in. Modified Early Bloom Strategy Many producers have a difficult time treating their entire acreage in a timely manner using the early bloom strategy due to large acreage.85 Internode >2. the producer would apply 4 ounces. lack of equipment. and 0 points. Determining Mepiquat Rates Using a Modified Early Bloom Approach 10 TO 14 DAYS AFTER FIRST SQUARE Plant Height < 17 in. Internode >2.

5 to 3. do not apply.5 in.5 in. Internode >2.5 in. 8 oz 8 oz 27 to 30 in.* 0 oz 8 oz 24 to 27 in. 10 TO 14 DAYS AFTER EARLY BLOOM Mepiquat applied at early bloom >8 oz Internode <2. If NAWB is <5. Do not apply if NAWB <7. do not apply. Internode >3. 16 oz 16 oz Do not apply if soil moisture is poor. continued EARLY BLOOM — if Mepiquat has NOT been applied Plant Height <24 in. Plant height >24 in.5. 53 .Table 8-2.* Internode 2. *The largest of the internodes below the third and fourth mainstem leaf. *The largest of the internodes below the third and fourth mainstem leaf.5 in. 0 oz 8 oz 12 oz 0 to 8 oz 0 oz 12 oz 16 oz If soil moisture is poor. 12 oz 12 oz >30 in.

nematodes. or from air pollutants. whereas diseases caused by environmental factors produce symptoms on all plants in the affected area but will not spread from plant to plant. or environmental problems is covered in other chapters of this publication. herbicides.9. however. nematode or insect infestations. and bacteria. Injury to plants caused by fertilizer. Plants are more prone to attack by pathogens when stressed by an inhospitable environment. Diseases also can result from an inhospitable environment. poor seedbed conditions. contagious diseases are often associated with insect infestations and poor growing conditions. This chapter discusses cotton diseases that affect seeds. Other factors. while older plants usually survive but perform poorly. insect injury to bolls increases the chance of fungal boll rots. Several soil-borne fungi are responsible. and mature plant roots. Seedling diseases cause an estimated average annual yield loss of 5 percent and are usually the major disease problems in cotton production in North Carolina. Diseases caused by organisms are contagious (will spread from plant to plant) and usually affect only one plant species. Emphasis is placed on fungi and nematodes. Seeds and seedlings attacked by these pathogens often die. wet conditions and seems to be more prevalent on sandy. wet. DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN COTTON Steve Koenning Plant Pathology Extension Specialist Organisms that cause cotton diseases. cultural and environmental factors that delay seed germination and seedling growth make the problem more severe. and sometimes death. such as planting too deeply. As a result. poor color. reduced vigor and yields. such as a field with too much or too little water or fertilizer. or other causes. or chemical injury. may increase Seed and Seedling Diseases 54 . For example. and misapplication of soil-applied herbicides such as dinitroanalines. low-organic-matter soils. seedlings. such as herbicide carryover. Environmental Factors and Seedling Disease Control Seedling disease occurs more frequently under cool. temperatures unfavorable for plant growth. the two most important pathogen groups on cotton. Environmental factors are very important in influencing the development of seedling diseases (Table 9-1). cold soils often lead to fungal rotting of seeds and seedlings. insects. compacted soil. such as fungi. They often result in stunting of the plants. grow on and within plant tissues.

slow-growing stands with skips in the rows. allowing for more rapid emergence. Fungi Causing Seedling Diseases Several species of fungi can cause seedling disease. especially after heavy rains. stunted. Plants are more prone to attack by pathogens when stressed by insects or other causes. sunken lesions at or below ground level. Seedling diseases do not usually kill the entire seedling population. and cause it to shrivel. Symptoms include seed decay. contagious diseases are often associated with insect infestations and poor growing conditions. Damage from thrips in particular can delay seedling development and enhance damping-off diseases caused by various fungi. Point System for Determining the Need for In-Furrow Fungcides* Factor Soil temperature 5-day forecast Seed quality Field history Tillage Row preparation Seeding rate Poorly drained soil TOTAL When Does It Matter < 65°F Colder & wetter Cold germination < 59% Severe disease Minimum tillage Beds absent Less than 3 to 4 per foot of row — Points 75 50 75 100 50 75 100 50 ______ If total exceeds 200.Table 9-1. slower growing. Rhizoctonia solani. Examination of infected seedlings may reveal dark lesions on the stem and root. decay of the seedling before emergence. Plant-parasitic nematodes will generally enhance the ability of these fungi to cause disease. These disease-causing organisms can attack the seed before or at germination. girdle the stem. Planting on beds elevates the seed. Damaged seedlings that emerge are pale. and seedling root rot. *This point system is only a guide as to the probability of cotton seed benefitting from an application of an in-furrow fungicide. Seedling diseases tend to be more severe in reduced tillage situations and when beds are absent. These lesions enlarge. The “sore shin” phase of seedling disease is characterized by reddish-brown. partial or complete girdling of the emerged seedling stems. In some years. replanting is necessary.. and only shallow-growing lateral roots remain to support the plant. The fungi also can attack the young seedling before or after emergence. Often the taproot is destroyed. and Fusarium spp. consider using an in-furrow fungicide. Poor stand establishment causes problems with the management of other pests and may reduce yields. Phoma exigua (Ascochyta). but the primary agents are Pythium spp. 55 . watery rot. Seed and seedling disease is characterized by a soft. and sometimes die within a few days. the problem. but rather result in uneven. As a result.

htm. the stem becomes woody. exigua has not been evaluated. Fungicide effectiveness against P. well-drained soils. Several species of fungi in the genus Pythium can cause seedling disease in cotton as well as several other crops. are generally classified as water molds. Pythium spp. In general. which turn brown and shrivel. Seed-applied fungicides are generally effective in managing it. solani usually causes sore shin. and it has been observed when night temperatures fall into the 50s and are accompanied by foggy or misty conditions (see also Plant Pathology Cotton Information Note No. R. usually attack the seed and below-ground parts of young seedlings. Pythium spp. The program uses fungicides along with cultural practices to make conditions more favorable for the young cotton and less favorable for the disease-causing organisms. Be sure to plant only fungicide-treated seed. R. Using in-furrow fungicides may give further benefits. solani and P. Pythium spp. Pythium is commonly the culprit if the soil has remained saturated for several days or is poorly drained. and subsequent infection rarely occurs unless the stem is injured. and Rhizoctonia solani. and Fusarium spp. while R. the stem becomes woody. Phoma exigua (Ascochyta gossypii). exigua may attack seedlings from the time they emerge until they are about 6 inches tall. Various species of the fungal genus Fusarium are typically found on diseased cotton seedlings. After this stage. This fungus typically causes sore shin and is more common on sandy. Fusarium spp. Rhizoctonia solani. Plants injured by sand blasting are particularly susceptible to this pathogen. Terrazol) is necessary to control Pythium spp. However. The same fungus may cause seed decay. Often both fungi can be found on the same seedling. However. Fungicides Fungicides are a primary component in a program to manage cotton seedling diseases. seedling disease. and Fusarium spp. solani usually causes sore shin. Poor-quality seed with low germination potential should be avoided. iprodione (Rovral). The same fungus may cause seed decay. This disease is characterized by premature dying of cotyledons.edu/depts/pp/notes/Cotton/cdin1/cdin1. Mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) or etridiazole (ETMT. 2).ces. Be sure to follow label recommendations since formulations The most common fungi associated with seedling diseases in North Carolina are Pythium spp. and subsequent infection rarely occurs unless the stem is injured. Fungicides containing PCNB (Terrachlor). solani and P. For additional information see http://www. while R. or both. This fungus can cause postemergence dampingoff. usually attack the seed and below-ground parts of young seedlings. seedling root rot. and Rhizoctonia solani. producing spores that move actively in soil water.The most common fungi associated with seedling diseases in North Carolina are Pythium spp. exigua may attack seedlings from the time they emerge until they are about 6 inches tall. A control program for seed and seedling diseases is based on preventive rather than remedial treatments. Often both fungi can be found on the same seedling. Pythium spp. After this stage. seedling root rot.ncsu. or pyraclostrobin (Headline) are generally effective against Rhizoctonia solani. azoxystrobin (Quadris). or both. Seedling Disease Management 56 .

Pythium spp. Several species of fungi in the genus Pythium can cause seedling disease in cotton as well as several other crops. Pythium spp. are generally classified as water molds, producing spores that move actively in soil water. In general, Pythium is commonly the culprit if the soil has remained saturated for several days or is poorly drained. Mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) or etridiazole (ETMT, Terrazol) is necessary to control Pythium spp. seedling disease. Rhizoctonia solani. This fungus typically causes sore shin and is more common on sandy, well-drained soils. Plants injured by sand blasting are particularly susceptible to this pathogen. Fungicides containing PCNB (Terrachlor), iprodione (Rovral), azoxystrobin (Quadris), or pyraclostrobin (Headline) are generally effective against Rhizoctonia solani. Phoma exigua (Ascochyta gossypii). This fungus can cause postemergence dampingoff. This disease is characterized by premature dying of cotyledons, which turn brown and shrivel; and it has been observed when night temperatures fall into the 50s and are accompanied by foggy or misty conditions (see also Plant Pathology Cotton Information Note No. 2). Fungicide effectiveness against P. exigua has not been evaluated. Fusarium spp. Various species of the fungal genus Fusarium are typically found on diseased cotton seedlings. Seed-applied fungicides are generally effective in managing it. A control program for seed and seedling diseases is based on preventive rather than remedial treatments. The program uses fungicides along with cultural practices to make conditions more favorable for the young cotton and less favorable for the disease-causing organisms. Poor-quality seed with low germination potential should be avoided. For additional information see http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/notes/Cotton/cdin1/cdin1.htm. Fungicides Fungicides are a primary component in a program to manage cotton seedling diseases. Be sure to plant only fungicide-treated seed. Using in-furrow fungicides may give further benefits. Be sure to follow label recommendations since formulations change from year to year. In particular, Ridomil Gold generally is applied at lower rates than Ridomil. Seed Treatment. All cotton seed offered for sale in North Carolina are treated with fungicides. Fungicide seed treatments are categorized as protectants and systemics. Protectant fungicides, such as captan or thiram, provide surface protection from disease organisms carried on the seed and from organisms found in nearby soil that cause seed rot. Systemic fungicides, such as carboxin (Vitavax) or mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold), are absorbed through the seed coat of the germinating seed and are taken up by the young seedling. Systemic fungicides provide temporary protection from certain types of preemergence and postemergence damping-off. Several relatively new products are now available for cotton nematode control. These include Avicta’s complete pack system from Syngenta, which also has the insecticide Cruiser for thrips control and additional fungicide treatments on the seed, and Aeris, which has an an option to add Gaucho Grande for thrips

Seedling Disease Management

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control and additional fungicides if desired by the producer. Avicta complete pack has abamectin (a nematicide used for treatment of heartworm in dogs), and Aeris has thiodicarb (Larvin), which acts as a nematicide. For specific fungicide recommendations and formulations, refer to Table 9-2 or to the 2008 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual (http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/agchem/agchem.html). In most years, seed treatment fungicides are sufficient for controlling seedling disease, unless the quality of the seed is low or weather conditions are unfavorable for germination. If additional fungicide is desired, it is best to use an in-furrow treatment. Hopperbox seed treatments are also available, but coverage and effectiveness are much better with in-furrow sprays or granules. In-Furrow Fungicide Treatment. Protection obtained with seed treatment may not last long enough for the cotton seedlings to grow to a stage where their susceptibility to diseases is reduced. An in-furrow fungicide is suggested for fields with a history of seedling disease problems, when planting early, or when cool, wet weather is expected shortly after planting (Table 9-2). In-furrow treatments also are helpful if the seed quality is questionable. Fungicides, however, are not a substitute for high-quality seeds and good planting conditions. In-furrow fungicides will not be profitable in most years; however, if conditions are less than optimal, they can result in better and more uniform stands. Better stands may translate into higher yields. There are two methods for applying in-furrow fungicides: in-furrow sprays or in-furrow granules. An in-furrow spray is a very effective method, but it is not practical for most growers who use their spray tanks and pump to apply preemergence herbicides as they plant. For best results, apply the fungicide through two cone-type nozzle tips. Mount the front nozzle just behind the seed drop outlet to treat the soil around the seed. Direct the rear nozzle to spray soil as it tumbles into the seed furrow with a small amount of spray striking the top of the covered row. Using an in-furrow granular fungicide is practical and effective. Nearly all cotton planters already have one applicator box for systemic insecticide applications. A second applicator is a relatively inexpensive addition. If a second applicator cannot be added, combination treatments (insecticide and fungicide on the same granule) may be available (check with your chemicals dealer). Granules should be placed in the bottom of the seed furrow and mixed with the covering soil. Hopper-Box Treatments Soil fungicides cannot be applied very well by the hopper-box method with acid delineated seed unless the seed and fungicide are properly layered in the hopper box. When mixed well with seeds, some fungicide will fall out with each seed to treat the soil around it. Fungicides may reduce the seeding rate by 10 to 20 percent, so you must calibrate the planter with the seed and fungicide mixture to get the desired rate. The hopper-box method, while less expensive than in-furrow sprays and in-furrow granules, is sometimes less effective. When used properly, the hopper-box method may give better results than seed treatments alone.

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Table 9-2. Fungicide Treatments for Cotton Seedling Disease Control
Fungicide Formulation
PCNB (Terraclor) 15G 75WP 2E iprodione (Rovral) Fungicide 4F etridiazole (Terramaster) 4EC mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) EC GR PCNB + etridiazole (Terraclor Super X) 18G (15+3.8) EC mefenoxam + PCNB (Ridomil Gold PC) PCGR PC Liquid azoxystrobin + mefenoxam (Quadris Ridomil Gold F) mefenozam + PCNB (Apron-Terraclor) 6.25+25 D mefenoxam + chloroneb (Delta Coat AD) (3.5+30) carboxin + PCNB + metalaxyl (Prevail)

Rate
0.64 to 1.28 oz/100-ft row 0.16 to 0.34 oz/100-ft row 0.37 to 0.74 fl oz/100-ft row 0.25-0.5 oz/1,000-ft row 0.25-0.5 oz/1,000-ft row 0.30-0.60 oz/1,000-ft row 0.075-0.15 fl oz/1,000-ft row 1.5-3 fl oz/1,000-ft row

Precautions and Remarks
Effective against Rhizoctonia (sore-shin) only. See label for rotation restrictions.

Effective against Pythium only. See label for rotation restrictions. Effective against Pythium and Rhizoctonia, two of the most common seedling-diseasecausing organisms. See label for rotation restrictions.

0.67 to 1.23 oz/100-ft row 0.37 to 0.74 fl oz/100-ft row

0.86 to 1.2 oz/100-ft row 1 container/5 to 6.7 acres 1 co-pack/11.5 to 20 acres 8 oz/cwt (hopper-box treatment) 5.75 to 11.75 fl oz/cwt (hopperbox treatment) 8 to 16 oz/cwt (hopper-box treatment)

Additional Seed Treatments The addition of more seed treatments to treated seed is generally not recommended. This may result in more handling of seed, which may cause mechanical damage. Most cotton seeds are treated with three or more fungicides, which are sufficient to protect against the spectrum of disease-causing fungi that commonly occur in North Carolina. Additional seed treatment is likely to add more of the same fungicide that is already present on the seed. Cultural Practices Certain cultural practices and management options can reduce the severity of seedling diseases. Seed Quality. High-quality seed germinates and grows faster and produces more vigorous seedlings that are less susceptible to attack from seedling disease organisms than lowquality seed. With current technology and regulations, the standard germination test is a good indication of seed quality. Although quality differences (as measured under laboratory conditions) may exist among seed lots having the same germination percentage, it is

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currently assumed that seed with a minimum of 80 percent germination is suitable quality. A better indicator of seed quality is the cool-germination test (see Chapter 6, “Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions,” for a discussion of the cool-germination test and interpretation of results). Soil Temperature. The optimum temperature for cotton germination and seedling growth is higher than the optimum temperature for the growth and reproduction of most seedling disease organisms. Cotton seed germinates rapidly at soil temperatures of 70°F or above, while germination is slow at temperatures below 65°F. Rhizoctonia solani, the organism commonly associated with sore shin, grows best at temperatures between 63 and 73°F. If possible, growers should delay planting until the soil temperature is at least 65°F at the 3-inch depth at mid-morning for 3 to 5 consecutive days. Bedding the land, particularly if done a couple of weeks ahead of planting, promotes draining and warming of the soil. Reduced Tillage. The recent trend to reduced or no-till cotton has resulted in an increase in the frequency and severity of seedling diseases. The lack of a raised bed, inadequate seed bed preparation, and additional crop residue associated with reduced tillage all contribute to delays in emergence and stand establishment. The use of an in-furrow fungicide should be considered in reduced tillage situations. Rotation. Rotating cotton with other crops helps prevent buildup of some cotton diseases. Continuous cropping to one host crop usually causes an increase in disease. Rhizoctonia solani, for example, can grow on dead plant remains and later infect nearby seeds, roots, or stems of susceptible hosts. Other. Proper fertilization and liming promote early growth, which gets the seedling to a resistant stage sooner. Avoid excessive rates and deep incorporation of herbicides because this practice may worsen a seedling disease problem. When used as a preplant-incorporated herbicide, Command stresses cotton seedlings and can lead to increased disease. In-furrow use of Thimet or Di-Syston can help reduce this negative effect. Early cutting and shredding of stalks aid in the control of seedling disease by reducing the amount of inoculum that carries over from year to year. Also, it is important to prepare a good seed bed to control seedling disease. Raised beds give some control of seedling disease, especially in early planted cotton. Avoid planting when soil temperatures are below 65°F. Below this temperature, germination is slow, and the seed and seedlings are more vulnerable to infection.

Boll rot is generally a problem when excessive insect damage or excessively wet conditions exist. Boll rot typically starts with small brown lesions that expand until the entire boll becomes blackened and dry. Chapter 11, “Managing Insects on Cotton,” and Chapter 2, “The Cotton Plant,” explain how to reduce insect damage and lower humidity in the canopy (by preventing rank growth) to reduce boll-rot problems.

Boll Rot

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Numerous fields in the northeastern portion of the state and in Virginia were affected by cotton stem canker in 1999. Growers should monitor nematodes through soil Nematodes 61 . All varieties of cotton were apparently susceptible. Symptoms can include increased seedling disease (root-knot and reniform nematodes).cfm. Leaf spots may be minimized by using the proper amounts of fertilizer and adequate drainage and by minimizing rank vine growth. brown. Cotton leaves often get small. For additional information. In some cases. and specific controls are not recommended. although stands in many fields were reduced and cotton maturity was delayed in some instances. Nematodes are microscopic worms that feed on or in plant roots. which can promote excessively high humidity in the crop canopy.Leaf Spots. loss of green color. which may fall out. However. where as many as 50 percent of the fields may be infested with damaging levels of nematodes. But problems are more common and severe in the southeastern counties. soil samples with damaging levels of root-knot nematodes after cotton have increased significantly in all areas of North Carolina in recent years.htm. Unseasonably cool weather in June was largely responsible for the outbreak of this disease. It is thought that the northeastern portion of the state has no significant nematode problems due to extensive rotations of cotton with peanuts. there can be yield reduction without visible symptoms above ground. For example. dry weather prevented further development of the disease. Nematode problems are most common in coarse-textured soils. Yield losses caused by nematodes often result from abortion or dropping of bolls because of nematode-induced nutrient or water stress. and various nutrient deficiency symptoms. These lesions often are not a disease at all but rather phytotoxicity symptoms caused by a variety of crop protection chemicals. robbing them of nutrients and causing injury. Nematodes occur in damaging levels in approximately 5 percent of the cotton fields of the state (Table 9-3). although the reniform nematode is often a problem on heavier land. Damage caused by nematodes limits water and nutrient uptake and makes the root system more susceptible to other diseases. lower yield. stunting. No fungicides are currently labeled for foliar application on cotton in the southeastern United States. This high level of infestation is probably due to intensive cotton production (short or no rotation) and the lack of resistant varieties. This fungus typically causes a leaf spot in North Carolina during wet years.ces. Leafspot diseases are typically of minor importance.cotton. Table 9-3 lists the plant-parasitic nematodes that damage cotton and the current economic thresholds. Old lesions sometimes develop gray centers. More information on nematodes on cotton is available on the Web at http://www. circular lesions that enlarge to approximately ½ inch. Hot. reniform nematodes may cause 5 to 15 percent suppression in cotton lint yield in apparently healthy cotton fields. root galling (root-knot). This was caused by the fungus Phoma exigua (often referred to as Ascochyta).edu/depts/pp/notes/Cotton/cdin2/cdin2. org/cf/nematodes/region. Cotton Stem Canker. Rotation and cultural practices did not have an impact on the severity of the disease.ncsu. see http://www. poor stands. stunted roots (sting and Columbia lance nematodes).

and Scotland. The southern portion of the state has historically experienced nematode damage. 62 . were infested with reniform nematodes. and Sampson counties in past surveys. Columbia lance nematodes have been detected in fifteen counties.499 300-499 0* 1. respectively. some soybean varieties. Robeson. and other areas can expect similar problems if cotton production continues to intensify. Robeson (43 percent). Onslow.000+ 100-499 1. and Cumberland (35 percent). Hoke. approximately 35 percent and 47 percent of fields surveyed in Cumberland and Scotland counties. Information from North Carolina State University surveys and from the NCDA&CS Nematode Advisory Service provides a fairly accurate assessment of nematode infestations across the state. such as most vegetable crops. Probability of Nematode Damage to Cotton Numbers of Nematodes per Pint of Soil (fall count) Nematode Slight Moderate High Root-knot nematode Stubby-root nematode Sting nematode Lance nematodes: common Columbia Reniform nematode * Any detectable number can pose a serious problem. Jones. New Hanover.500+ 500+ 10+ 500+ 2. The highest infestations were in Scotland (83 percent). Table 9-4.999 1. tobacco. Cumberland. Brunswick.Table 9-3. Johnston.000+ sampling when cotton is grown without rotation or in rotation with other crops susceptible to the southern root-knot nematode. corn. Richmond. Craven. Robeson. Columbus. or cucumbers. Lenoir. Pender. Richmond. Hoke. Duplin. Resistance of Cotton Varieties to Root-Knot Nematodes1 Resistance Level Very Susceptible Susceptible Moderately resistant 1 Variety Febermas 989BR Deltipine 451BRR Deltapine 569ORR Deltapine 451BRR Stoneville ST5599BR Resistance ratings are based on information supplied by companies and limited field testing. root-knot nematodes were found in all counties and in most of the fields. As expected. This nematode also has been detected in Harnett. During 1990. 0-749 0-299 0* 0-999 0-99 0-999 750-1. including Bladen.000-1.

resistance. Some varieties have shown extreme susceptibility to Columbia lance nematode and should be avoided in heavily infested fields. For example. Thoroughly mix the collected soil in a bucket. when nematode numbers are highest. and that at least 20 probes of soil be obtained from the top 6 to 8 inches of soil using a soil probe approximately 1 inch in diameter. Subsoiling can help reduce losses due to Columbia lance and other nematodes in areas where a hardpan is common. sting. Cotton nematode control is accomplished through crop rotation. where nematodes are separated from the soil and counted. Columbia lance. Samples will be forwarded to the NCDA&CS Nematode Advisory Service. and stubby-root nematodes. Cover crops should be planted as late in the fall as possible and either killed or tilled under in the spring before soil temperatures increase above 55°F to prevent nematode reproduction. are fair hosts for root-knot. and Fibermax FM989BR appear to be relatively tolerant to this nematode. Make sure to carefully fill out the form that accompanies your sample. however. Rye and wheat. it suggests that a soil sample represent no more than four to five acres that have been farmed uniformly. Long-season cotton varieties generally perform better than short-season ones when Columbia lance nematode is present. Stoneville 5599BR. there are four common species of root-knot nematodes found in North Carolina. Meloidogyne incognita) is a parasite on cotton. Nematode control is best accomplished by preventing the buildup of harmful numbers of these parasites through rotation to crops that do not support their reproduction (Table 9-4). although samples can be collected anytime. Destroying cotton roots after harvest will help reduce nematode survival in general since cotton is basically a perennial plant and some reproduction may occur after cotton harvest if soil temperatures remain warm. and take it to your county Extension agent. and nematicides. Stoneville 4892BR. but only one species (southern root-knot. For example. place a 1-pint sample in a plastic bag. 63 . Nematode Control Strategies Cultural Practices and Varieties.Sampling for Nematodes The kinds and numbers of nematodes in fields can be determined through a soil sample. The general procedure for collecting a soil sample for a nematode assay is outlined in the pamphlet A Nematode Diagnostic and Advisory Service for North Carolina. Briefly. Soil samples collected in the fall (September through November). Crop rotation is used to aid the Nematode Advisory Service in interpreting the importance of nematodes found. available from your county Extension agent. Some weeds also serve as hosts for nematodes and should be controlled in cotton and rotational crops. provide the best information. Numbers reported to you and your county Extension agent represent the number of nematodes per pint (500 cc) of soil. Cover crops like rye or wheat may aid in suppression of reniform and Columbia lance nematodes. Include $3 for processing.

Coker 6847. Deltapine 7375RR. Maxcy. Asgrow A4702RR. Hartz H5181RR. Delsoy 5710. 1 2 64 . Centennial. Deltapine 5644RR. and Deltapine 5634. Deltapine 5644. Suitability of Various Crops for Reducing Cotton Nematode Populations Rotational Crop Nematode Southern root-knot Good Choice Sorghum Grasses Grain Alfalfa Peanuts Soybeans (resistant) Grain Corn Peanuts Watermelons Clover1 Alfalfa Grain Tobacco Grasses Peanuts Tobacco Small Grain Milo Grasses Corn Peanuts Small Grain Sorghum Mustard Turnips Peppers Soybeans (resistant)2 Bad Choice Cotton Corn Soybeans (susceptible) Lesion Cotton Soybeans Cotton Corn Soybeans Peanuts Sorghum Soybeans Cotton Cantaloupes Corn Soybeans (susceptible) Cotton Cantaloupes Sweetpotatoes Tobacco Cucumbers Sting Columbia lance Reniform Except for white clover. Syngenta NK S53-O7. Hartz 7190. Fowler.Table 9-5. Deltapine 726. Delta Grow 4710. Reniform-resistant varieties include Anand.

Apply Temik in-furrow at planting. Vydate. Nemacur. Nematicides have proven effective in increasing cotton yield when plant-parasitic nematodes exceed the damage threshold (Table 9-3). Incorporate in a 6-inch band. Inject Vapam 2 to 3 weeks before planting 8 to 12 inches deep. Vydate for root-knot and reniform nematode only.50 lb 5 to 7 lb + 8. Rates of litter should be applied according to an analysis of the nutrient levels of the litter and the crop requirements. and Vapam. Be sure to check the label for soil-type restrictions on the use of these materials. Poultry litter must be incorporated to be effective in suppression of nematodes. Poultry Litter. Apply Temik in-furrow at planting. Inject Telone 1 to 2 weeks before planting 8 to 12 inches deep. Temik. Generally. If Temik is not used with Telone II. another material is recommended for thrips control. Some suggested rates for nematicides are listed in Table 9-5.5 lb Precautions/Remarks Seed treatment Seed treatment. 4 to 6 tons per acre of poultry litter have proved effective in suppressing nematodes and enhancing cotton yield. Apply Temik in-furrow at planting.3-dichloropropene (Telone II) + Aldicarb (Temik) 15G Aldicarb (Temik) 15G + Vydate C-LV1 Metam-sodium (Vapam) + Aldicarb (Temik) 15G 1 Amount/acre — 5 to 7 lb 10-14 lb 1. Apply in-furrow.5 to 17 fl oz 3 to 12 gal + 3.Table 9-6.5 to 6 gal + 3. Labeled nematicides at this time include Telone II. 65 . Nematicides for Control of Cotton Nematodes Nematicide Aeris AVICTA Complete Pack Aldicarb (Temik) 15G Aldicarb (Temik) 15G 1. Chemical Control. Applications of poultry litter have been shown to suppress both Columbia lance and root-knot nematodes in North Carolina. Broadcast Vydate at 2nd to 5th trueleaf stage.

it can be a significant component of a weed management program. When selecting a herbicide program for crops that will precede cotton. By rotating cotton with other crops and selecting a herbicide program for the rotational crop that effectively controls the weeds that are difficult to control in cotton. Crop rotation aids in the management of nematodes and diseases. Crop rotation and properly planned herbicide rotation are also critical components of a herbicide resistance management strategy. Staple. one can reduce or prevent the buildup of problem weeds and help keep the overall weed population at lower levels. Jordan. especially early in the season. However. so ybeans. labels for products listed below contain significant rotational restrictions for cotton. Direx. Additionally. This information can be found on herbicide labels. See the section on Herbicide Resistance Management. consider rotational restrictions for the various products. Cotton requires better weed control than either corn or soybeans.10. and they can reduce lint quality because of trash or possibly stain. cotton herbicides. Cotoran. Crop Science Extension Specialist North Carolina State University Effective weed management is one of many critical components of successful cotton production. and tobacco do not carry over to cotton. and Suprend have rotational restrictions for other crops. a given number of weeds will reduce cotton yield more than corn or soybean yield. Similarly. such as Caparol. Many of the commonly used herbicides for corn. WEED MANAGEMENT IN COTTON David L. Crop rotation allows the use of different herbicides on the same field in different years. peanuts. Authority Assist Authority First Authority MTZ Cadre Extreme Finesse Finnesse Grass and Broadleaf Lightning Pursuit Python Scepter Spartan Crop Rotation 66 . Weeds also may interfere more with harvesting of cotton. Envoke. Because cotton does not compete well with weeds.

herbicide resistance in weeds may force growers to return to cultivation as a component of weed management programs. In-Season Monitoring During the first eight weeks after planting. This is best accomplished by weed mapping. Proper weed identification is necessary because different weed species respond differently to various herbicides. and how best to apply them. Survey the fields each fall and record on a field map or another suitable place the species present and the general population levels. check fields periodically to evaluate the success of the weed management program and to determine the need for preharvest control measures. and many have converted to no-till systems. If weeds are controlled for the first eight to ten weeks. Before using any herbicide. how best to apply them. Failure to adjust application rates for these soil characteristics may result in poor weed control or crop injury. you can detect shifts in the weed populations and make adjustments in the herbicide program to deal with changes that occur. you should know what weeds are present or expected to appear. Contact your local Extension center for aid in weed identification. the need for cultivation has decreased. As better weed management technology has become available. any later emerging weeds will seldom become problems. by referring to weed maps over a period of two or three years. what weeds they will and will not control. Cultivation Before selecting one or more herbicides. however. You can better plan a herbicide program if you know ahead of time what species to expect. Unfortunately. the capabilities and limitations of the various herbicides. Weed Mapping The first step in a weed management program is to identify the problem. After eight weeks. cultivation is of no value beyond weed control. Species present in the fall will likely be the predominant problems during the following year. Application rates for soil-applied herbicides depend on soil texture and organic matter content. check fields at least weekly to determine the need for postemergence herbicides or cultivation. On most soils. such as rotational restrictions. cultivation may improve early season cotton growth in tight or crusted soils. moisture loss. and root damage associated with the practice. and any special considerations.Cultivation has traditionally been a significant component of cotton weed management programs. the soil characteristics (such as texture and organic matter content). Most growers have successfully eliminated cultivation. In addition to controlling weeds. Eliminating cultivation reduces equipment and labor demands and the subsequent weed flushes. Planning a Herbicide Program 67 . learn the capabilities and limitations of the various products labeled for cotton. Additionally.

or Resource to cutleaf eveningprimrose.4-D or Clarity into their sprayers. The ideal time to apply 2. review the label for tank-cleaning procedures recommended after each day of use. Harmony Extra.e. Early control of cutleaf eveningprimrose and other weeds is recommended.Cover crops (or heavy stands of winter weeds) should be killed at least two to three weeks before planting. but it will provide effective residual control of later-germinating horseweed. An early burndown is normally advantageous.8 pound per gallon formulation. The suggested rate of application of 2. Before using Valor.4-D is early March. Harmony GT. after cutleaf eveningprimrose has begun blooming. For growers who do not want to put 2. Extensive research has shown little to no benefit from application of Aim. However. cutleaf eveningprimrose. if needed. If greater residue is desired. For recommendations on the burndown of natural cover. winter weeds). especially if ryegrass. such as wild radish and common eveningprimrose. reduce cutworm problems. If no-tilling or strip-tilling into natural cover (i.4-D alone or mixed with glyphosate at least 30 days before planting. Growers are strongly encouraged to incorporate 2. the need for an early burndown treatment will depend on the weed species present and the size of the weeds.4-D. ET. but control is poor under cool conditions.4-D to control cutleaf eveningprimrose is 6 to 8 fluid ounces of a 3. Recommended burndown herbicides and application rates for small grain cover crops are outlined in Table 10-1. an option for glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Table 10-1). Goal. will also control cutleaf eveningprimrose although it is somewhat less effective on primrose than 2. one can kill a strip over the row early and allow the cover crop in the row middles to continue to grow.. good control can be obtained with a combination of Gramoxone plus Direx. to kill streaks that may have been missed during the original application. allow the soil to warm quicker. one normally needs to apply glyphosate or Gramoxone at planting to kill any weeds emerging after the earlier burndown application. Valor does not control emerged glyphosate-resistant horseweed.4-D or Clarity into their no-till or strip-till management programs. wild radish. This will avoid soil moisture depletion by the cover crop or weeds. The most effective and economical option for cutleaf eveningprimrose is 2. Cutleaf eveningprimrose has been one of the most common and most difficult weeds to kill in strip-till or no-till fields. Clarity. curly dock. Cutleaf eveningprimrose is very difficult to control in emerged cotton. Burndown in No-Till or Strip-Till Cotton 68 . see Table 10-7. Ignite 280 is also effective on cutleaf eveningprimrose under warm conditions. or glyphosate-resistant horseweed is present. wild mustard. In addition to the burndown herbicide applied two to three weeks or more before planting. and allow time to apply additional burndown herbicide. This combination also is effective on most other winter weeds (see Table 10-7). Use 1 pint for other weeds. or 2 pints for glyphosate-resistant horseweed. a combination of glyphosate plus Valor is an option (see Tables 10-1 and 10-7). A small grain cover crop should be killed after the tillering stage but before enough residue is produced to interfere with the planting operation.

56 to 0. Weed Management in Conventional Cotton Varieties Roundup Ready cotton is any variety of transgenic cotton containing the gene that imparts resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. See Table 10-6 for assistance in determining the rate of formulated product that gives the desired rate in pounds a. See Chapter 5. Roundup Ready Flex cotton was commercially introduced in 2006. per acre. Most currently available products are formulated as isopropylamine salts or potassium salts. The severe burn seems to be associated with generic brands containing active ingredient made in China. The label-suggested rate for annual weeds is 0. depending on weed size.e. Comparing Glyphosate Brands A number of brand names and formulations of glyphosate are available. Products vary in their concentration of active ingredient. . brands of glyphosate can be applied overtop of Roundup Ready cotton any time from cotton emergence until the fourth true-leaf stage of the crop (or fifth true leaf no larger than a quarter coin). The best way to compare various glyphosate products and application rates is on the basis of acid equivalence (a. The higher application rates and later overtop applications allowed on Roundup Ready Flex cotton may occasionally lead to contact burn on cotton foliage.e. Growers planting conventional cotton varieties can find detailed information on weed management in the 2010 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual. “Variety Selection.e. but not all. Roundup Ready and Roundup Ready Flex varieties were grown on more than 98 percent of North Carolina’s acreage in 2008. Timing of Application: Roundup Ready (non-Flex) Varieties Most. Registered brands of glyphosate can be applied twice overtop of Roundup Ready cotton as long as the two applications are at least 10 days apart. Roundup Ready Flex technology allows for higher glyphosate application rates and later overtop applications. Weed Management in Roundup Ready Cotton 69 . Other brands are “loaded formulations”. but severe burn has occasionally been noted.). This new generation of Roundup Ready technology has better expression of the resistance trait in the reproductive tissues of the plant. This burn is usually very minor and of no consequence. and the second application is made before the cotton exceeds the four-leaf stage. Read the label of the brand you use to determine the need for surfactant.75 pound a. although a few products are formulated as dimethylamine salts or as mixtures of ammonium salt and potassium salt.” for variety trial results. Labels for some brands direct the user to add nonionic surfactant.Very little nontransgenic cotton is now grown in North Carolina. meaning additional surfactant is not necessary in most cases. two nodes of new growth have occurred between the applications.

e. and Traxion has not been adequately evaluated in North Carolina.e. and Traxion. can be applied during this time frame.e. Glyphosate labels caution users to be especially careful to minimize contact with the cotton plant when directing on cotton larger than the four-leaf stage. Glyfos X-tra. Research in North Carolina has demonstrated excellent tolerance of Roundup Ready Flex cotton to Roundup brands at the rates and numbers of applications mentioned above.e. Need for Soil-Applied Herbicides Extensive research in North Carolina has compared annual weed management with glyphosate in Roundup Ready cotton with and without various soil-applied herbicides. The maximum rate for any single application between crop emergence and the 60 percent open boll stage is 1.5 pounds a.75 pound a. Glyphosate applied overtop cotton larger than the four-leaf stage can and often does cause significant fruit abortion. MeyChem 41%. per acre. If application is desired on cotton larger than four leaves. The maximum rate per application is 0. Brands of glyphosate with specific labeling for Roundup Ready Flex cotton may be ap-plied overtop or directed any time from cotton emergence until seven days prior to harv-est. depending upon application rate. Two directed applications can be made per season. Field research in North Carolina. glyphosate can be directed until layby. Laboratory research has shown that cotton stems readily absorb glyphosate and that the glyphosate is translocated to fruit. Growers are advised to minimize contact with the crop as specified on the label when directing glyphosate.13 pounds a. excellent season-long weed control can be obtained without use of soil-applied herbicides. however. Hoss Ultra.Labels of glyphosate brands registered for application to Roundup Ready cotton prohibit over-the-top application on cotton larger than the four-leaf stage except in salvage situations. Hoss Ultra. Makaze. An additional 1. MeyChem 41%. GlyStar Gold. (see Table 10-6 for assistance in determining rates of formulated product). Glyfos X-tra. Significant fruit abortion has been observed with sloppily directed applications. Touchdown Total. Most fields will require two over-the-top applications and one or two directed applications in the absence of soil-applied herbicides. A total of 4.55 pounds a. Roundup Ready Flex cotton tolerance to GlyStar Gold. Touchdown Total. can be applied from the 60 percent open boll stage until seven days prior to harvest. Hence. Mad Dog Plus. whereas one over-the-top application and one or two directed ap- 70 . Roundup WeatherMax. Except for fields with Florida pusley or glyphosate-resistent weeds. four to six applications can be made overtop or directed. Mad Dog Plus. Makaze. has shown no adverse effects when glyphosate is directed according to label directions. Brands with labeling specific for Roundup Ready Flex cotton include Roundup PowerMax. Timing of Application: Roundup Ready Flex Varieties Only a few brands of glyphosate are labeled for overtop application to Roundup Ready Flex cotton after the four-leaf stage.

Do not apply additional preplant-incorporated herbicide. it is best to run the planter back in the original drill without any soil preparation if soil conditions permit. Staple LX rates in a glyphosate tank mix range from 1. Staple LX often causes temporary yellowing of the cotton bud. Staple LX applied overtop can cause moderate to severe injury. In heavily infested fields without soil-applied herbicides. do not apply any additional residual herbicides. If weeds have emerged. Weed resistance to glyphosate is becoming a serious problem (see “Herbicide Resistance Management”). morningglory (except tall morningglory). A mixture of glyphosate plus Staple LX will improve control of hemp sesbania. spreading dayflower. A key component of a resistance management strategy is to utilize multiple herbicide modes of action. Research has demonstrated that cotton recovers quickly. On occasion.or four-leaf stage of cotton.plications are usually sufficient where soil-applied herbicides are used. Applied overtop. Where soil-applied herbicides are used. and glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (assuming it is not also ALS-resistant) as compared with glyphosate alone.3 to 3. such as pigweed species. and there is seldom an adverse effect on yield or maturity. Tank Mixes with Glyphosate Applied Overtop Staple LX can be mixed with glyphosate and applied overtop of Roundup Ready cotton from the cotyledonary stage through the four-leaf stage. If the preemergence herbicide was originally banded. Except on soils with greater than 5 percent organic matter. Do not rebed without first disking. Staple LX also may give residual control of susceptible weeds.8 fluid ounces. use shallow tillage such as light disking. do not apply any more. a second preemergence banded application at the minimum rate for the soil type would be in order. use of preemergence herbicides in Roundup Ready or Roundup Ready Flex cotton is strongly encouraged. spurred anoda. Staple LX plus specific brands of glyphosate labeled for Roundup Ready Flex cotton can be applied to Roundup Ready Flex cotton from the cotyledonary stage until 60 days prior to harvest. If the original preemergence herbicide was broadcast. Compared with glyphosate alone. Gramoxone will also control emerged cotton from the first planting. glyphosate or Gramoxone can be applied for burndown. In this case. the first glyphosate application can often be delayed until the three. and velvetleaf. glyphosate applications usually have to be initiated by the one-leaf stage of cotton in order to avoid cotton yield loss from early season weed competition. Should replanting be necessary where soil-applied herbicides have been used. If reworking the seedbed is necessary. The potential for significant injury from Staple LX appears to 71 . a mixture of glyphosate plus Staple LX may injure cotton. Palmer amaranth resistant to Staple LX and other ALS inhibitors is common in North Carolina. Preemergence herbicides will not only aid in resistance management but also make timing of the first glyphosate application much less critical. Rebedding without disking can lead to severe crop injury. however.

severe injury has been observed when adjuvants were included in the mixture. and dove weed. Slower recovery from Staple LX injury has particularly been noted on cotton infested with thrips. The application window is much wider on Roundup Ready Flex cotton. Labels for generic brands recommend the same rate of formulated product per acre as 72 .” meaning it is the mixture of S and R isomers. This injury is temporary. Visually. Compared to the glyphosate products alone. Mixtures with glyphosate can be applied overtop of 3. Crop injury from a mixture of glyphosate plus Dual Magnum overtop is typically minor. the active isomers. However. Dual Magnum mixed with glyphosate may also broaden the window of application for directed herbicides on pigweed species. Growers should be aware that most generics (Brawl and Medal are exceptions) are not equivalent to Dual Magnum. Metolachlor is a mixture of four stereoisomers. and smartweed. or Traxion and applied overtop of Roundup Ready Flex cotton from the 5-leaf to 12-leaf stage. In some cases. Less response is typically observed on larger cotton.to 4-leaf Roundup Ready cotton. Generic brands of metolachlor are available. with only necrotic speckling noted on leaves exposed to the spray. and suppression of yellow nutsedge and spreading dayflower.be greater when the herbicide is applied during or shortly before a period of cool temperatures. Touchdown Total. if timely rainfall for activation is received. and no adverse effect on yield or maturity have been noted. other stresses such as wet weather. The active ingredient in Dual Magnum (and Brawl and Medal) is primarily S-metolachlor. Dual Magnum can be applied overtop of cotton that is at least 3 inches tall until 100 days prior to harvest. seedling disease. The mixture may cause some yellowing in the cotton terminal and shortening of internodes. Touchdown HiTech. The exception has been when additional adjuvants are included in the mixture. no stunting. Mixing Dual Magnum with glyphosate will have little to no effect on control of emerged weeds by glyphosate. morningglory. whereas the other two isomers (referred to as R-metolachlor) have little herbicidal activity. the cotton appears to recover when favorable weather returns. In addition to cool temperatures. pigweed species (including Palmer amaranth). The mixture should not be applied overtop of Roundup Ready (non-Flex) cotton. or thrips damage may worsen injury. Labels for most generic brands refer to the active ingredient as “metolachlor. Envoke can be mixed with Roundup brands of glyphosate. the mixture will give greater control of nutsedge. Injury will also be greater if Dual Magnum is applied when dew is on the cotton or when the weather is extremely hot and humid. Two of the isomers (referred to as S-metolachlor) are herbicidally active. but the glyphosate plus Dual Magnum mixture should be applied well before canopy closure to ensure that the Dual Magnum is deposited on the soil in the row middles. no speckling on later-emerging leaves. including Palmer amaranth. Sufficient research to verify the impact of this level of injury on yield and maturity has not been conducted. Dual Magnum in the mixture can provide residual control of most annual grasses (only suppression of Texas panicum).

Occasionally. it will provide residual control of annual grasses (Texas panicum is only suppressed). and the spray must be directed precisely to the woody portion of the stem. Cotton should be at least 12 inches tall before directing Caparol or Direx at these rates.e. Direx is generally more effective on pigweed. Direx. such as pigweed. Dual Magnum. This combination does not provide residual control. Staple.7 pound a. and Aim mixed with glyphosate will improve control of larger morningglory compared to glyphosate alone. and Valor. Potential tank-mix partners with glyphosate applied postemergence-directed include Aim. Aim is very effective on morningglory.5 pints per acre. Sequence is a prepackaged mixture of the potassium salt of glyphosate and S-metolachlor. This combination can be directed to cotton that is at least 3 inches tall through layby. 73 .5 pints will provide some residual control of small-seeded broadleaf weeds. Tank Mixes with Glyphosate Directed In many cases. Palmer amaranth resistant to Envoke and other ALS inhibitors is common in North Carolina. Envoke mixed with glyphosate will improve control of nutsedge and larger morningglory compared to glyphosate alone. including Palmer amaranth. Caparol at 2 pints or Direx at 1. if an activating rainfall is received. Suprend. Caparol or Direx mixed with glyphosate will improve control of larger morningglory compared to glyphosate alone. Dual Magnum mixed with glyphosate will not improve postemergence weed control compared to glyphosate alone. Sequence is equivalent to 0. Tank mixes are also recommended as part of a resistance management program (see “Herbicide Resistance Management”). However. Do not tank-mix Dual Magnum (or generic metolachlor) and Staple LX. than Caparol. Do not reduce the glyphosate rate when tank-mixing. One would have to increase the rate of generic metolachlor by 50 percent to get the same activity as Dual Magnum. This is most likely to occur under dry growing conditions when grasses are large. Caparol. Envoke. and dove weed and suppression of yellow nutsedge and spreading dayflower. Envoke has residual activity on susceptible broadleaf weeds. including Palmer amaranth. hence growers are getting less of the active form of the herbicide when using most of the generics.Dual Magnum. Applied at 2. Spray contact with green stem tissue will cause injury. Cotton should be at least 16 inches tall. if Dual Magnum is activated by rainfall. of glyphosate plus 1 pint of Dual Magnum. mixing Caparol or Direx with glyphosate will reduce grass control by glyphosate or at least delay death of the grasses. Cotton should be at least 6 inches tall. growers may wish to tank-mix another herbicide with glyphosate postemergence-directed to improve control of certain species or to provide some residual control. pigweed species.

morningglory (except tall morningglory). Suprend mixed with glyphosate will improve control of larger morningglory and nutsedge. a traditional directed herbicide can help in weed resistance management. in some experiments. Valor SX mixed with glyphosate will improve control of dove weed. and larger morningglory. Glyphosate will not control spreading dayflower or dove weed. and the spray should be allowed to contact only the bottom 1 to 2 inches of the cotton stem. and glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Both species are increasing problems in eastern North Carolina. Other herbicides may be mixed with directed glyphosate to enhance broadleaf control if needed. better broadleaf weed control has been observed when traditional directed herbicides were used. compared to glyphosate alone. lambsquarters. Cotton should be at least 6 inches tall when directing Suprend. glyphosate may be the more effective option. if grasses are a predominant problem and they are larger than 1 to 1. compared to glyphosate alone. Staple can also provide residual control of susceptible species such as prickly sida. a clear distinction often has not been observed between later directed applications of glyphosate and directed applications of traditional herbicides (Tables 10-4 and 10-5). you have the option of directing either glyphosate or a traditional herbicide combination. pigweed species. However. Dual Magnum appears to control dove weed well if the herbicide is applied and activated before dove weed germination. Suprend is a mixture of the active ingredients in Caparol and Envoke. spreading dayflower.Staple LX mixed with glyphosate will improve control of hemp sesbania. Gramoxone 74 .” This will also help in resistance management. Valor will provide residual control of susceptible broadleaf weeds. Less information is available on dove weed. Cotton needs to be 16 inches tall. Glyphosate vs. There could be a benefit from directing a herbicide that has residual activity. and spurred anoda. Palmer amaranth resistant to Staple and other ALS inhibitors is common in North Carolina. Additionally. However. Staple LX or postemergence-directed herbicides should be applied when spreading dayflower shoots are 3 inches long or less.5 inches. Florida pusley. MSMA at rates suitable for over-the-top application will not control it. velvetleaf. Spreading dayflower can be controlled with Staple LX applied postemergence or with directed herbicide combinations containing MSMA (see Table 10-4). and eclipta. Alternatives to glyphosate for directed application are discussed in the section on “Postemergence-Directed Herbicides – Any Variety. see discussion under “Tank Mixes with Glyphosate Directed. such as pigweed. In North Carolina research with glyphosate applied overtop early. It also will provide residual control of susceptible broadleaf weeds. Other Directed Herbicides On Roundup Ready or Roundup Ready Flex cotton. spurge.” Difficult-to-Control Weeds in Roundup Ready Systems Dayflower and Dove weed.

or 24 inches. a tank mix of glyphosate plus Staple LX is more effective than glyphosate alone. 4 or 6 ounces of Select on corn up to 12 or 24 inches.” is very effective on morningglory. One should consider using a preplant incorporated or preemergence herbicide in fields where this weed is expected (see Table 10-3). Envoke. This weed. directed applications of Valor plus MSMA. Glyphosate at 0. Morningglory. Combinations containing Cobra. Envoke. One application of glyphosate may not adequately control morningglory. respectively. Cotoran or Staple LX applied preemergence also will aid in control of morningglory. Volunteer Roundup Ready corn. Where heavy infestations of hemp sesbania are expected. or 8. Suprend. Volunteer Roundup Ready soybean. Direx. however. Caparol. Fusilade DX. which is usually confined to very sandy fields. or Valor. is very difficult to control with glyphosate. discussed under “Postemergence-Overtop Herbicides – Any Variety. Envoke. Follow with glyphosate plus Staple LX postemergence and then a postemergence-directed application of a conventional herbicide combination. However. respectively. or Select or Select Max may be mixed with glyphosate and applied overtop to control volunteer Roundup Ready corn in Roundup Ready cotton. or a later application of a conventional directed herbicide. these herbicides may be applied overtop alone later in the season. the addition of Aim. Florida pusley.75 pound a. Staple LX applied to three. 10 or 12 oz of Select Max on corn up to 8. per acre will control it only if applied when the weed is very small (two leaves or less) and growing conditions are good. Direx. Direx plus MSMA does not adequately control dove weed. Valor plus glyphosate. Assure II. Direx plus MSMA.e. Staple LX alone typically does not adequately control volunteer soybean. Suggested rates include the following: 5 or 8 ounces of Assure II on corn up to 18 or 30 inches. For morningglory (except the species tall morningglory) 3 inches or larger. Alternatively. However. or Suprend would be good options for the directed application. respectively. Layby Pro. Suprend. will often be more effective on morningglory than glyphosate. It will. multiple applications are often necessary. halt growth of small morningglory so that the weed can be taken out with cultivation.applied with a hooded sprayer is very effective on dove weed. Hemp sesbania is very difficult to control with glyphosate if the weed is beyond the first true leaf stage. and Direx plus glyphosate appear to be effective. And. Hemp sesbania. or Valor would be beneficial. conventional chemistries. a second application of glyphosate. Staple LX. if one chooses to use glyphosate. or Suprend plus MSMA may 75 . For layby application. 18. Cobra. a preemergence application of Cotoran should be considered. See labels for these products concerning maximum corn size and use of adjuvants when applying alone or mixed with glyphosate.to four-trifoliate soybean followed by a directed application of Caparol plus MSMA. 6 ounces of Fusilade DX on corn up to 24 inches. Cotoran applied preemergence may provide adequate control. such as MSMA plus Caparol.

and avoid spraying in windy conditions.e. A preharvest glyphosate application can be made to Roundup Ready Flex cotton seven or more days ahead of harvest. Research to date has shown no adverse effects when glyphosate is applied overtop Roundup Ready cotton two weeks after the last effective bloom date. A second directed application of glyphosate or MSMA can be made if needed. The herbicide can be applied overtop of Liberty Link cotton from emergence until the early bloom stage without concern over injury or fruit shed.75 pound a. which is sold under the trade name Ignite 280.e. depending on the weed species and growing conditions. Most glyphosate labels allow addition of a drift control agent. extreme caution is urged when applying glyphosate overtop near non-Roundup Ready crops. or Suprend. applied overtop. are highly susceptible to glyphosate.15 ounce per acre. Tank mixing MSMA with glyphosate applied overtop is not recommended. Avoid Spray Drift Non-Roundup Ready crops. Palmer amaranth should be no more than 3 Weed Management in Liberty Link Cotton 76 . Late-Season Glyphosate Application Current glyphosate labeling allows a late-season application to Roundup Ready cotton after 20 percent of the bolls have cracked. The optimum weed size for treatment with Ignite 280 varies. In severely infested fields. velvetleaf.and annual grasses should be no more than 3 to 4 inches tall.5 pints per acre or Envoke at 0.provide adequate control. a semi-directed application may be preferred in order to obtain better coverage on weeds under the cotton canopy. spurred anoda. especially tobacco. On cotton larger than about 10 inches. Liberty Link varieties have traditionally not performed well in North Carolina. However. Envoke.75 pound a. Timing of Application Liberty Link cotton has excellent tolerance of Ignite 280. and many vegetable crops. Two applications of glyphosate at 0. Liberty Link refers to transgenic cotton resistant to the herbicide glufosinate. The most effective option to control volunteer soybean is Envoke applied overtop to soybean with less than six trifoliate leaves. Florida beggarweed. Envoke may not control soybean that is taller than about 12 inches. tropic croton. Good results also have been obtained with glyphosate at 0. eclipta. groundcherry. Nutsedge. followed by a directed application of MSMA at 2. Pigweed species. best results will be obtained with two overtop applications of glyphosate followed by a directed application of glyphosate. Application of Ignite 280 should be based on weed size rather than crop size. common purslane. spotted spurge. corn. Avoid nozzle and pressure combinations that create fine droplets. Spray drift should not be much of a problem when directing glyphosate. MSMA. per acre normally control yellow and purple nutsedge.

inches tall. Tank Mixes With Ignite 280 Applied Overtop Staple LX can be mixed with Ignite 280 applied overtop. Prowl plus Reflex. Turbo TeeJet nozzles operated at 60 psi may be used. such as air-induction nozzles that are commonly used to apply glyphosate. Directed Herbicides in Liberty Link Cotton Ignite 280 can be directed to Liberty Link cotton up to the early bloom stage. Application Equipment Ignite 280 behaves much like a contact herbicide. and a minimum of 15 gallons per acre spray volume. Ignite 280 does not control Florida pusley.” Do not tank-mix both Dual Magnum (or generic metolachlor) and Staple LX with Ignite. the common weeds that can be difficult to control with Ignite 280.6 fluid ounces per acre to control or suppress spreading dayflower. Need for Soil-Applied Herbicides A preemergence application of Prowl plus Cotoran. it will provide residual control of annual grasses and pigweed species. however. The typical rate of Staple LX would be 1. 30 to 60 pounds pressure per square inch (psi). Ignite 280 does not control spreading dayflower.” Also see comments below in the section on “Difficult-to-Control Weeds in Liberty Link Systems. are not appropriate for Ignite 280 application. Additionally. If activation is timely. Direx. The label currently specifies a maximum of 43 fluid ounces per application and a maximum season- 77 . Staple LX. Alternatively. Staple LX does not control biotypes of Palmer amaranth and other species resistant to ALS inhibitors (see Table 10-8 for a list of ALS inhibitors). Alternatively. also will provide residual control or suppression of susceptible species. such as pigweed species. See comments concerning Staple LX and Dual Magnum use in the section on “Weed Management in Roundup Ready Cotton. Dual Magnum will not improve control of emerged weeds. These herbicides help control annual grasses and pigweed species. and goosegrass should be 2 inches or less. Reflex. pigweed species and annual grasses should be 1 to 2 inches when treated. or Staple preemergence. Other drift-reducing nozzles. Prowl plus Direx. a preemergence herbicide is necessary where Florida pusley is expected. Treflan or Prowl may be applied preplant incorporated followed by Cotoran.7 fluid ounces per acre to improve control of larger pigweed species. if activated by rainfall. so good spray coverage is necessary. The label recommends flat-fan nozzles. Two applications are normally needed to control goosegrass. Drift-reducing nozzles produce large droplets that may not give adequate spray coverage for a contact herbicide. Dual Magnum can be tank-mixed with Ignite 280 applied overtop to cotton 3 inches or larger until 100 days prior to harvest. or Direx plus Staple is recommended in Liberty Link cotton. Reflex plus Direx. Under dry conditions. The Staple LX rate can be increased to 2.3 to 1.

This weed is typically a problem only on very sandy fields. See comments on use of Envoke under “Postemergence-Overtop Herbicides— Any Variety. Gramoxone. is critical. Valor plus MSMA directed is also effective.” Difficult-to-Control Weeds in Liberty Link Systems Florida pusley. See the section on “Postemergence-Directed Herbicides—Any Variety. Ignite 280 can be directed alone or mixed with Aim. such as Prowl or Cotoran preemergence or Prowl or Treflan incorporated. can help tremendously in controlling goosegrass and other annual grasses. and especially goosegrass. Pigweed species. Use of a soil-applied herbicide is strongly encouraged on fields where this weed is expected (see Table 10-3). or Staple.6 fluid ounces per acre or directed herbicide combinations containing MSMA (see Table 10-4). In general. Adequate control of nutsedge can usually be obtained with Ignite 280 followed by Envoke applied overtop or Ignite 280 followed by one or two directed applications of MSMA. Dayflower and Dove weed. including Palmer amaranth. Pigweed species. but it can provide residual control. Postemergence herbicides should be applied when spreading dayflower shoots are 3 inches long or less. 78 .” Do not mix Envoke with Ignite 280. Ignite 280 has very little activity on Florida pusley. is very effective on dove weed. Select) can be applied 3 days before Ignite 280 or 7 days after Ignite 280. Timing of application to grasses. Additionally. Dual Magnum mixed with Ignite 280 will not improve control of emerged grasses. Fusilade DX. A soil-applied herbicide.al use of 87 fluid ounces. Ignite 280 should not be tank-mixed with postemergence grass-control herbicides. Use of a preemergence herbicide will make the timing of the first application of Ignite 280 much less critical. especially under dry conditions. Ignite 280 has some activity on dove weed. This weed can be controlled with Staple LX applied postemergence at 2. Except for organic soils. the weed often recovers and grows back. Two applications of Ignite 280 are normally needed to control or suppress goosegrass. can be controlled by Ignite 280. Preliminary results indicate that Dual Magnum is very effective if applied before dove weed germination. timing of application to pigweed species is usually critical. This can be important in control of goosegrass as this grass tends to emerge a little later than most other annual grasses. Nutsedge. applied under a hood. Goosegrass and other annual grasses. Direx. Alternatively. Ignite 280 is more effective on broadleaf weeds than grasses. any conventional directed herbicide can be applied to Liberty Link cotton. any of the grass-control herbicides (Assure II. Ignite 280 will not control spreading dayflower. Poast. However. Staple LX can be mixed with Ignite 280 to improve control of emerged pigweed. Caparol. Ignite 280 will significantly burn nutsedge. These tank mixes are very antagonistic (reduced grass control). but the weed typically grows back. If additional grass control is needed. a preemergence herbicide is recommended for fields with a history of pigweed. However.

Separate applications of Envoke and the grass-control herbicides by at least 3 days if the grass-control herbicide is applied first or 5 days if Envoke is applied first. Staple LX can be applied overtop of cotton from the cotyledonary stage until 60 days before harvest. or tropic croton. Carefully read the label for specific recommendations on weed size. Most susceptible broadleaf weeds should not be taller than 3 to 4 inches. or spurred anoda. Smaller cotton appears to be injured more than larger cotton. Fusilade DX. ragweed. Select. Tank mixes of Envoke with Assure II. Palmer amaranth should be 2 inches or less. or Select Max are not recommended because antagonism (reduced grass control) is often observed. Injury is expressed as yellowing in the growing point and shortened internodes. carefully follow label directions for adjuvant usage. Envoke and Staple LX have the same mode of action. spurge. spreading dayflower. Cotton will sometimes be injured by Envoke applied overtop. Also. However. Prickly sida must be 1 inch or less for acceptable control. Fusilade DX. Two applications per year are allowed as long as the total applied per season does not exceed 5. Other factors contributing to crop injury are unknown. but the Postemergence-Overtop Herbicides—Any Variety 79 . or Select Max should also be avoided. Tank mixes of Staple LX with Assure II. Select. Some degree of crop response can almost always be expected. In cotton larger than about 10 inches. In most cases. For best control. Poast Plus. moderate to severe injury has been observed.Envoke can be applied overtop cotton with a minimum of five leaves up to 60 days prior to harvest (see comments in Table 10-1). sicklepod.1 fluid ounces (see comments in Table 10-1). tall morningglory. If applied in a timely manner. directed or semi-directed application may improve spray coverage on weeds below the crop canopy. Hence. The Staple LX label allows a tank mix with Assure II for control of johnsongrass. and it is not adequately effective on tropic croton. Poast. Note that Staple LX applied postemergence does not adequately control lambsquarters. Staple LX controls many broadleaf weeds (Table 10-5). Palmer amaranth resistant to Staple LX will not be controlled by Envoke. weeds should be 2 to 4 inches tall. the injury is relatively minor and the crop recovers. Timing of application is critical. prickly sida. Tank-mix Envoke only with those insecticides specifically mentioned on the Envoke label. Control of Palmer amaranth may be inadequate. Envoke controls or suppresses nutsedge plus a number of broadleaf weeds (see Tables 10-4 and 10-5). and do not tank-mix Envoke with other herbicides when applying overtop cotton. Palmer amaranth resistant to both Envoke and Staple LX is common across eastern North Carolina. Palmer amaranth resistant to Staple LX is common across eastern North Carolina. however. Note that Envoke does not control jimsonweed. Poast. growers are encouraged to not apply Envoke to cotton with fewer than 5 leaves (7 to 8 leaves are preferred) and to not apply the herbicide to cotton under stress from wet or dry weather or thrips. Poast Plus. On occasion.

5 to 2 inches tall or less. The postemergence-directed herbicides listed above are primarily for annual broadleaf weeds and nutsedge. trumpetcreeper. the options listed above will also provide some residual control of small-seeded broadleaf weeds. and. and hemp dogbane. and Select Max can be applied overtop cotton from emergence through mid-season (see comments in Table 10-1). Options include MSMA. common milkweed. When using any of these herbicides. See comments in Table 10-1 and herbicide labels for minimum cotton size to treat. Acceptable control of horsenettle has been obtained with postemergence-directed herbicide combinations containing MSMA. Select. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. Dual Magnum may also be mixed with some of these herbicide combinations. use of adjuvants. When making sequential applications of Staple LX and a postemergence grass-control herbicide. Assure II. Select. application directions and precautions. Suprend plus MSMA. Fusilade DX. Longer intervals between application of the two herbicides are preferred. application methods. Postemergence-Directed Herbicides—Any Variety Perennial broadleaf weeds.label discourages tank-mixing with other grass-control herbicides or application to other grass species. These products control annual and perennial grasses but are ineffective on nutsedge and broadleaf weeds (see Tables 10-4 and 10-5). Grass-control herbicides. Cobra plus MSMA. Except for MSMA and Cobra plus MSMA. Poast Plus. MSMA in the combinations will also control annual grasses 1. Assure II. such as horsenettle. and Select Max tend to be more effective over a range of annual grass species and environmental conditions. All of these products are safe on cotton and are effective when applied to small grasses under good growing conditions. maximum weed size. Tank-mixing broadleaf herbicides such as Staple LX or Envoke with these postemergence grass-control herbicides is not recommended. Cobra plus Direx plus MSMA. Soil-applied herbicides will not control perennial broadleaf weeds. Envoke plus MSMA. However. conventional postemergence-directed herbicides are ineffective. Poast. and Valor SX plus MSMA (see Table 10-1). and optimum grass size for treatment. Cotoran plus MSMA. Two applications of MSMA or a combination containing MSMA will be needed for acceptable control. Select. Layby Pro plus MSMA. A number of herbicide combinations are available for directed application to any variety of cotton. Poast Plus. apply the Staple LX at least 3 days before or 1 day after application of the grass-control herbicide. follow label directions for application rates. Caparol plus MSMA. Staple plus MSMA. Linex plus MSMA. and rotational restrictions. Other species can be suppressed or controlled in non-Roundup Perennial Broadleaf Weeds 80 . Direx plus MSMA. and Select Max tend to be more effective on perennial grasses than Poast or Poast Plus. Poast. Fusilade DX. with the exception of horsenettle. can be problems in no-till situations.

two postemergence applications of glyphosate will suppress perennial broadleaf weeds. hooded sprayers must be used to obtain adequate spray coverage on taller weeds such as milkweed and hemp dogbane. Adequate spray coverage should be obtained on low-growing perennials such as trumpetcreeper and horsenettle with standard directed sprayers. The major exception would be fields heavily infested with viny weeds such as morningglory and cowpea. Preharvest Herbicide Application 81 .4-D plus dicamba can be applied to infested spots after corn harvest. Curly dock is best controlled by a preplant application of Harmony Extra (see Table 10-7). and stain if the cotton is packed into a module and the module is not properly monitored. Harvest-time applications of glyphosate are also an option to suppress perennial weeds for the following year (see “Preharvest Herbicide Application”). Good desiccation of morningglory and cocklebur has been observed with Aim if spray coverage is good. Aim will not desiccate grasses or sicklepod. There are no established guidelines for determining when the level of weed infestation justifies a preharvest herbicide application. if present in large quantities. Lint staining from weeds has not been a significant problem in spindlepicked cotton in North Carolina. Perennial broadleaf weeds can be suppressed or controlled in corn or Roundup Ready soybeans grown in rotation with cotton. desiccated plant parts.Ready cotton by glyphosate applied with a hooded sprayer. Desiccating mature weeds likely will not increase harvesting efficiency nor reduce harvesting losses. See the Aim label concerning use of crop oil concentrate. In non-Flex varieties. and two applications are more effective than one. Later applications are generally more effective on perennials. Problems with extraneous green matter in harvested cotton are probably overstated. Alternatively. However. glyphosate or a tank mix of 2. Annual Weeds Aim herbicide also is registered for use as a defoliant. rot. The information below is based on general observations in North Carolina and other cotton-producing states. an early postemergence application of dicamba alone or mixed with Accent followed by a layby application of dicamba is most effective. In Roundup Ready soybeans or Roundup Ready corn. Desiccating weeds will more likely increase rather than decrease trash in cotton because gins can remove green plant parts more easily than finely ground. Perennial broadleaf weeds can be suppressed or controlled with multiple applications of glyphosate applied to Roundup Ready cotton. In corn. Results on pigweed species have been inconsistent but generally not acceptable. extraneous green matter can increase the potential for overheating. Preharvest herbicide applications are of questionable value in most cases.

after most of the cotton leaves have dropped and either before or after harvest. For johnsongrass control. For other perennial weeds. for horsenettle and hemp dogbane. such as johnsongrass. and hemp dogbane.” for discussion on determining boll maturity). Application after defoliation may be preferred in rank cotton to improve spray coverage. common milkweed. Gramoxone will desiccate most annual weeds. the remaining bolls expected to be harvested are mature. a separate application of glyphosate allows treatment of only the infested areas of a field. trumpetcreeper. For tall-growing weeds. horsenettle. Glyphosate should be applied at least 7 to 10 days before the first killing frost. per acre may be tank-mixed with the defoliant.75 to 1. such as bermudagrass. If spray coverage is good.9 pints of Gramoxone Inteon (see Chapter 12. glyphosate may be applied after defoliation. Wait 5 days before picking. defoliate the cotton as usual. If you need to control these weeds. and most of the cotton leaves have dropped. the glyphosate should be applied after most of the cotton leaves have dropped but before harvest. Cotton growers in southern North Carolina and South Carolina are familiar with biotypes of common cocklebur resistant to MSMA and ALS inhibitors (see Table 10-8 for a list of ALS inhibitors). nutsedge. and Palmer amaranth resistant to Herbicide Resistance Management 82 . common milkweed. goosegrass resistant to dinitroanilines such as Prowl and Treflan. and bermudagrass. thus reducing herbicide cost. horsenettle. and trumpetcreeper.e. nutsedge. glyphosate at a rate of 0. trumpetcreeper. glyphosate-defoliant tank mixes are not recommended.e. the cotton is defoliated as normal. per acre for nutsedge. After at least 75 to 80 percent of the bolls are open. spot-spray only infested areas. apply 1.e. To reduce costs. Alternatively.5 pounds a. Additionally. Remember that glyphosate will not suppress regrowth on Roundup Ready cotton. Another option is Gramoxone applied after cotton defoliation. Broadcast the Gramoxone in a minimum of 20 gallons of water per acre and add 1 pint of nonionic surfactant per 100 gallons of water. and hemp dogbane. In this program.25 pounds a. Research in North Carolina has shown no adverse effect on Roundup Ready cotton from glyphosate applied 14 days after the last effective bloom date. Suggested application rates are 2. and 3 pounds a. “Cotton Defoliation. Perennial Weeds Glyphosate can be applied in the fall to control or suppress perennial weeds for the following year. Apply when at least 60 percent of the bolls are open. and then pick as soon as possible. Glyphosate can be applied to Roundup Ready Flex varieties seven or more days ahead of harvest regardless of the percentage of open bolls. The glyphosate can be applied to low-growing weeds. Herbicide resistance in weeds is not a new problem.Glyphosate can be applied to Roundup Ready cotton after 20 percent of the bolls have cracked. such as bermudagrass. Apply the glyphosate after most of the cotton leaves have dropped. common milkweed.

dinitroanilines and ALS inhibitors. The threat posed by herbicide resistance has, however, recently been elevated to a much higher level. Horseweed resistant to glyphosate is rather common across eastern North Carolina. Similarly, a number of growers have experienced control failures with Staple and Envoke on Palmer amaranth in cotton and with Cadre and Pursuit in peanuts. Common ragweed resistant to glyphosate exists in a few counties, and common ragweed resistant to ALS inhibitors is present in at least one county. And, of major significance, glyphosate resist Palmer amaranth is now present in most counties in eastern North Carolina and is beginning to appear in the piedmont. In previous years, growers with herbicide-resistant weeds were fortunate to have new herbicides (specifically, new modes of action) come to the marketplace before the problem became overwhelming. That will not be the case in the foreseeable future; new modes of action are simply not on the horizon. It is therefore imperative that growers begin to take herbicide resistance management very seriously in an attempt to maintain the usefulness of the products currently available. What Causes Resistance Herbicide resistance is the inherited ability of a biotype of a weed to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type. Herbicides do not cause resistance. Rather, herbicides select for resistance that may naturally occur in the weed population. Greater reliance on a particular herbicide, or group of herbicides with the same mode of action, puts greater selection pressure on any resistant individuals that may be in the population. A shift to conservation tillage and a corresponding decrease in cultivation have lead to greater reliance on herbicides and greater potential problems with resistance. Resistance Management Strategies There are two prerequisites for resistance. First, one or more individuals possessing genes conferring resistance must be present in the population. Second, selection pressure resulting from extensive use of a herbicide to which these rare individuals are resistant must be exerted on the population. Growers have no way to know if a few plants carrying resistance are present on their farm. Hence, the only way to prevent a buildup of resistant plants is to utilize management systems that reduce selection pressure on any resistant individuals that may be present. Ninety-nine percent of the cotton in North Carolina was planted to Roundup Ready or Roundup Ready Flex varieties in 2008. A high percentage of the soybean acreage also was planted to Roundup Ready varieties, and about 70% of the corn acreage was planted to Roundup Ready hybrids. Glyphosate is obviously being applied to this acreage, and it is often being applied multiple times. In many cases, growers have relied almost exclusively on glyphosate for weed control. Extensive reliance on a single mode of action (the mechanism by which the herbicide kills susceptible plants) over that much acreage puts tremendous selection pressure on any resistant weeds that may be in the population. The key component of a resistance management strategy is to integrate herbicides having different modes of action into the cropping system. Table 10-8 is included as an aid

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to help growers select herbicides with various modes of action. The table lists the brand names and active ingredients of herbicides used in agronomic crops in North Carolina. In addition, there is a numeric code for each mode of action. An effective resistance management strategy in cotton will incorporate herbicides having at least three different modes of action. Additionally, growers are encouraged to minimize their reliance on ALS-inhibiting herbicides as these chemistries are highly vulnerable to resistance. Cotton growers can incorporate the recommended diversity in modes of action into a glyphosate-based management program by using soil-applied residual herbicides, tank-mixing another herbicide with glyphosate applied postemergence, and using alternatives to glyphosate or at least a glyphosate tank mix at layby. Use of full rates of glyphosate, even in tank mixes, is encouraged. Crop rotation can aid in resistance management if herbicide modes of action for the rotational crop are wisely selected. Where practical, cultivation would also be a very effective component of a resistance management strategy. Glyphosate-Resistant Horseweed Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (also called marestail) was noted across much of eastern North Carolina in 2009. Further spread is expected as seed of horseweed are easily spread by wind and equipment. Growers planting no-till or strip-till cotton east of U.S. 1 should assume that horseweed present in fields could well be resistant to glyphosate. Horseweed emerges primarily in the fall. It will be in a rosette stage and large enough for easy identification by early March. Pictures of small horseweed and identifying characteristics can be found at www.ppws.vt.edu/scott/weed_id/erica.htm. It is critical that glyphosate-resistant horseweed be controlled before planting cotton; options to control this weed after Roundup Ready or conventional cotton emergence are very limited. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed can be controlled by tank mixes of glyphosate plus 0.95 pound a.e. of 2,4-D (2 pints of typical 3.8 lb a.e./gal formulation) or glyphosate plus 0.5 pint of Clarity. Mixtures with Clarity perform more consistently than 2,4-D mixtures. Application in early to mid March is recommended. The tank mix with 2,4-D should be applied at least 30 days ahead of planting (see comments in Table 10-1). Cotton planting must be delayed at least 21 days after the accumulation of 1 inch of rainfall following Clarity application. This often means a four- to six-week delay between Clarity application and planting. Although injury to cotton is possible from either 2,4-D or Clarity applied in a cold, dry spring, research to date in North Carolina has shown no problems when the above guidelines were followed. Horseweed normally germinates in the fall, but additional plants may emerge in late spring. These spring-germinating plants will not be controlled by previously applied 2,4-D or Clarity. Valor has poor postemergence activity on horseweed; hence adding Valor to glyphosate will not improve control of emerged plants. However, Valor has good preemergence activity on horseweed. Valor included in a tank mix of glyphosate plus 2,4-D or glyphosate plus Clarity will reduce problems with late-emerging horseweed. Weed scientists in Tennessee have found that Cotoran applied preemergence is probably the best option to control late-emerging horseweed. Gramoxone should be included with the Cotoran to kill emerged weeds at time of planting.

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Although less effective and less consistent in performance than a tank mix of glyphosate plus 2,4-D or Clarity, a mixture of Gramoxone plus Direx may adequately control horseweed if the mixture is applied when daytime temperatures exceed 70 degrees F. Gramoxone plus Direx (see Table 10-1 for rates) plus crop oil concentrate should be applied 15 to 45 days ahead of planting. Warm temperatures are critical for success with this treatment. Ignite 280 at 29 ounces per acre will also control horseweed if applied when daytime temperatures exceed 75 degrees F. Ignite 280 is an option to control spring-emerging horseweed at planting time or in situations where growers have failed to follow one of the programs previously outlined. Ignite 280 can be applied anytime prior to cotton planting or during planting. It is critical that Ignite 280 be applied under warm conditions. Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth Palmer amaranth is a very aggressively growing pigweed species common across the cotton-producing region of North Carolina. This weed grows very rapidly and often becomes six to eight feet tall by cotton harvest. It is highly competitive with cotton, it is very prolific, and it has long been considered one of our worst weeds in cotton. Palmer amaranth resistant to glyphosate is in most coastal plain counties and is beginning to show up in the piedmont. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth may well be the most serious pest problem facing North Carolina growers since introduction of the boll weevil. Growers must take this threat seriously. That means undertaking an aggressive program to control existing resistant populations to slow further spread and a very proactive program to reduce further selection for resistant biotypes. Palmer amaranth is a dioecious plant, meaning there are separate male and female plants. Hence, it is an obligate outcrosser; pollen must move from male to female plants for seed production to occur.Research in Georgia has demonstrated that resistant pollen can move at least 1,000 feet and fertilize susceptible females. At least some of the offspring are resistant. Rapid spread can be expected through pollen movement and seed movement on equipment or in gin trash. That implies that excellent control of existing glyphosateresistant populations is necessary to slow the spread of this biotype. In formulating a resistance management program for Palmer amaranth and glyphosate, growers must keep foremost in their minds the need to prevent further selection for ALS resistance. Weed biotypes resistant to ALS inhibitors, including a biotype of Palmer amaranth, exist in North Carolina. Unfortunately, Palmer amaranth resistant to both glyphosate and ALS inhibitors exists on some farms. This multiple resistance is particularly bad because there are no effective postemergence over-the-top options left in conventional or Roundup Ready cotton. Additionally, there is increasing concern over potential resistance to PPO inhibitors (includes the Authority products, Cobra, Flexstar, Reflex, Valor, Ultra Blazer and others). Although resistance to PPO inhibitors has not been encountered in the Southeast, growers are putting tremendous selection pressure on this group of herbicides.

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Various herbicide programs for Palmer amaranth control in Roundup Ready cotton are outlined in Table 10-9. These programs are more expensive than glyphosate-only programs, but aggressive programs will be required to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth or to avoid further selection for resistance. Note that Staple is recommended, as needed, to control emerged glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. This reliance on Staple emphasizes the need to prevent further ALS resistance. Palmer amaranth must also be effectively controlled in crops rotated with cotton, and this should be done with minimal reliance on ALS inhibitors. Because Staple is critical in a program to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, it is in a cotton grower’s best interest to prevent or at least slow further selection for ALS resistance. The herbicide programs outlined in Tables 10-10, 10-11, and 10-12 should be effective on glyphosateresistant Palmer amaranth in soybean, corn, and peanut, respectively, while minimizing selection for ALS resistance. Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed A biotype of common ragweed resistant to glyphosate is known to occur in at least three counties. To avoid further selection for glyphosate resistance, Cotoran, Direx, or Reflex can be applied preemergence (Table 10-3). Additionally, a number of non-glyphosate layby options are available for common ragweed (Table 10-5). Envoke can also be applied postemergence to control or suppress common ragweed, but caution should be exercised in using Envoke if Palmer amaranth is present. Ignite 280, applied to Liberty Link cotton, is also effective on common ragweed.

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Many.e. Rates for small grain cover crops: Wheat < 12 inches: 0. or stale seedbed systems Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Glyphosate (numer0. Note there are some weeds that glyphosate alone will not control.75 lb a.8 lb a.4-D was applied 30 or more days ahead of cotton planting. but not all.e.Table 10-1. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + 2. Rye > 18 inches: 0. See Table 10-7 for weed response. See Table 10-7 for weed response. + 0.13 ous brands) lb a.4-D is the most effective option available for cutleaf eveningprimrose. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Aim (2 EC) Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Clarity (4 L) 0. Excellent control can be obtained with 6 to 8 fl. See Table 10-7. This tank mix will not control cutleaf eveningprimrose or glyphosate-resistant horseweed.13 lb a.e. Rye < 18 inches: 0. It is important that this restriction be followed to avoid cotton injury. Add surfactant according to the Harmony Extra label. This rate of 2.e. See comments for glyphosate alone.38 to 1.e. See comments below for glyphosate-resistant horseweed.13 lb a. No problems with cotton tolerance have been observed in NC research when any formulation of 2.56 lb a.e. See comments for glyphosate alone. + 0. See comments for glyphosate alone. This tank mix will not control cutleaf eveningprimrose or glyphosate-resistant horseweed. 3. brands of 2. see later section. Following application of Clarity and a minimum of 1-inch rainfall. Aim added to glyphosate will increase speed of control. See Table 10-7 for weed response. Glyphosate plus 2. + 8 fl oz Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Harmony Extra XP with Total/Sol (50 WDG) 0. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds EARLY PREPLANT BURNDOWN: Emerged annual weeds in no-till. See comments for glyphosate alone. Wheat > 12 inches: 0.5 to 1 pt.75 oz continued 87 .38 to 1.13 lb a.e.4-D are labeled for application at least 30 days ahead of cotton planting. This combination suppresses Carolina geranium and curly dock but is somewhat less effective on primrose than glyphosate + 2. Comments Apply anytime prior to planting to control emerged weeds.e.75 lb a.e. See Table 10-6 for equivalent rates of various glyphosate products.56 lb a. oz./ gal) 0.38 to 1.5 to 1 fl oz 0. Harmony Extra should be applied at least 14 days prior to planting.13 lb a. a waiting period of at least 21 days is required before planting. This tank mixture will control glyphosate-resistant horseweed.4-D. striptill.38 to 1.38 to 1. + 0.4-D is not sufficient for glyphosate-resistant horseweed.e.4-D (numerous brands.

38 to 1.13 ous brands) lb a. the Valor label recommends a nonionic surfactant. See Table 10-7 for weed response. Valor will give 2 to 4 weeks residual control of lambsquarters. spurge.6 to 4 pt Gramoxone Inteon (2 L) + Direx (4F) 2. 21 days must pass when applied at 1.6 to 4 pt + 1 to 2 pt 88 . See comments for glyphosate alone. Applied at 1 oz/acre. reduce Cotoran rate to account for residual activity of Direx. the waiting interval can be reduced to 14 days for the 2 oz. These products should be applied at 1.e. + + Resource (0. Application to cover crop or dense stand of winter weeds may reduce residual control. Add surfactant or crop oil according to label directions. and 1 inch of rainfall must occur. Carefully follow label directions for cleaning out sprayer after each day’s use. If Cotoran is applied preemergence.7 pt. Resource added to glyphosate will increase speed of control and may improve control of some species. active ingredient per gallon are available. See Table 10-7 for weed response. A minimum of 30 days must pass. or stale seedbed systems (continued) Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Glyphosate (numer0.e. One pint of Direx is sufficient to enhance activity of Gramoxone. between Valor application and planting of conventionally tilled cotton. See Direx label for application rates based on soil texture.Table 10-1. If strip-tillage will follow Valor application. At 2 oz/acre. Tillage after application will reduce or eliminate residual control. Apply 2 pints for rye cover crop or 2.7 to 2. Generic brands of paraquat containing 3 lb. Regardless of glyphosate product used. per acre.5 to 2 oz/acre. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds EARLY PREPLANT BURNDOWN: Emerged annual weeds in no-till. and Florida pusley. Crop oil is the preferred adjuvant. pigweed.5 pints for wheat cover crop. This tank mix will not control cutleaf eveningprimrose or glyphosate-resistant horseweed. Higher rates may be used for greater residual control. Gramoxone Inteon (2 L) 2.13 lb a. + 1 to 2 oz Comments See comments for glyphosate alone. strip-till. Apply anytime prior to planting to control emerged weeds.38 to 1. prickly sida. Valor will give 6 to 8 weeks residual control of these species. Apply 15 to 45 days ahead of planting.86 EC) 2 to 4 fl oz Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Valor SX (51 WDG) 0. A minimum of 14 days must pass and a 1-inch rainfall must occur between Valor application and cotton planting when Valor is applied at 1 oz/acre. See comments for Gramoxone alone. rate.

Glyphosate rates for small grain cover crops: Wheat < 12 inches: 0.4-D may be added to this mixture for better control of emerged horseweed. + + 2.e. apply glyphosate or Gramoxone 7 to 21 days ahead of planting. Rye < 18 inches: 0. Ignite is recommended for fields where growers have failed to control glyphosate-resistant horseweed and cotton will be planted in less than 15 days after application. see specific labels for details.e.38 to 1.38 to 1.e. See previous comments concerning waiting intervals between application of 2. 2. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds EARLY PREPLANT BURNDOWN: Glyphosate-resistant horseweed Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Glyphosate 0.6 pt. as long as appropriate waiting intervals between application and planting are maintained. Add 1 gal of crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray solution. Need for adjuvants with glyphosate depends upon brand used. Adjust Direx rate according to soil type. as described on product label. Best results will be obtained if sprayed when daytime temperatures exceed 75 degrees. + 3.Table 10-1.e. If an early burndown treatment was not used. and Valor SX and planting.4-D 2 pt.38 to 1. Add surfactant or crop oil to Gramoxone according to label directions. Clarity. Glyphosate and Gramoxone rates depend upon weed species and size. continued 89 . (numerous brands.6 to 4 pt See Table 10-6 for equivalent rates of various glyphosate products. The 2. Clarity or 2.0 pt.e. See Table 10-7 for weed response.e.e.4-D or Clarity is needed in the mixture to control emerged resistant horseweed.13 lb a.8 lb a. If an early burndown treatment was applied. Rye: 2. and the Valor SX will control horseweed that germinates after application./gal) 1 to 2 oz + Valor SX (51 WDG) Glyphosate 0.56 lb a.4-D.56 lb a.75 lb a.13 (numerous brands) lb a. Glyphosate plus 2.e. make a second application in combination with desired residual herbicides. Wheat > 12 inches: 0. Gramoxone plus Direx must be applied 15 to 45 days ahead of cotton planting.4-D plus Valor SX or glyphosate plus Clarity plus Valor SX are the preferred treatments. apply glyphosate or Gramoxone in combination with desired residual herbicides at planting. see labels for details.13 (numerous brands) lb a.34 L) 29 fl oz Comments Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (marestail) is becoming common in eastern North Carolina. If weeds are emerged at planting. Rye > 18 inches: 0. Growers east of highway US 1 should assume horseweed present in their fields may be glyphosate-resistant. Best results will be obtained if sprayed when daytime temperatures exceed 70 degrees. AT PLANTING BURNDOWN: Burndown of cover crops and weeds at planting Glyphosate (numerous brands) Gramoxone Inteon (2 L) 0. Gramoxone rates for small grain cover crops: Wheat: 2. + + Clarity (4 L) 8 fl oz + + Valor SX (51 WDG) 1 to 2 oz Gramoxone 4 pt Inteon (2 L) + + 1 to 2 pt Direx (4 F) Ignite 280 (2.75 lb a.

1 fl oz Do not apply to soils with less than 0. 1. See labels for specific rates on various soils. Immediate incorporation suggested. May be mixed with Cotoran. or 1% methylated seed oil. may cause stunting and delayed crop development. Follow Treflan label for incorporation directions. Generic brands available. Cotoran usually more effective on broadleaf weeds as a preemergence application if adequate rainfall for activation is received. ANY VARIETY: annual broadleaf weeds Cotoran (4 F) Direx (4 F) Karmex (80DF) Reflex (2 L) Staple LX (3. Do not cultivate for 7 days before or after application. Apply before crop 1.3 EC) Prowl H2O (3.8 L) ANY VARIETY: annual grasses and Treflan (4 EC) small-seeded broadleaf weeds Broadcast Rate per Acre 1. See Tables 10-2 and 10-3 for weeds controlled. Prowl. 2. See above comments for Treflan preplant incorporated. ANY VARIETY: annual grasses. or Reflex. 1% crop oil concentrate.25 lb.25% nonionic surfactant. To Select Max. Add crop oil concentrate at 2 pt per acre with Poast or Select. See Tables 10-2 and 10-3 for weeds controlled. pigweed. and lambsquarters Prowl (3. emergence. See Tables 10-2 and 10-3 for weeds controlled. Reflex.5 EC) Poast Plus (1 EC) Select (2 EC) Select Max (0. or Staple. Not effective on organic soils. especially on sandy soils. 1 to 2 pt See label for specific rates on various soils.97 EC) 8 to 12 fl oz 16 fl oz 24 fl oz 6 to 8 fl oz 9 to 16 fl oz 90 . Prowl.6 pt Prowl alone applied preemergence suggested only 2. Generic brands available. PREPLANT INCORPORATED.2 L) PREEMERGENCE. Direx. respectively. of final seedbed according to label directions. Prowl is more effective when incorporated.Table 10-1. Palmer amaranth biotypes resistant to Staple are common in North Carolina. Not effective on organic soils. Add either crop oil concentrate at 1 gal per 100 gal or surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal with Assure II or Fusilade DX. 7 to 8 fl oz See labels for maximum weed size to treat and suggested rates for specific species. May be mixed with liquid nitrogen.63 to effective on organic soils. Also effective on yellow nutsedge. Reflex. 1 to 2 qt POSTEMERGENCE OVERTOP. Generic brands available. 1 to 1. add 0. See Tables 10-2 and 10-3 for weeds controlled.6 pt 2 to 4 pt 1 to 2 pt Comments Incorporate in top 2 in.3 EC) INCORPORATED. See Table 10-4 for weeds controlled. Do not apply Di-Syston or Thimet in-furrow. See Tables 10-2 and 10-3 for weeds controlled.4 to 3. See Tables 10-2 and 10-3 for weeds controlled.5 pt Label restricts application only to coarse-textured soils. or Staple. Not effective on organic soils.2 to 3. Prowl H2O (3. ANY VARIETY: annual grasses and most broadleaf weeds Treflan (4 EC) + Cotoran (4 F) 1 to 2 pt + 1 to 2 qt PREEMERGENCE. Deep incorporation.7 to 2. or Staple.88 EC) Fusilade DX (2 EC) Poast (1.8 L) See label for specific rates on various soils. Not 0. May be mixed with Prowl. May be mixed with Prowl.5% organic matter. May be mixed with Cotoran. Apply before crop emergence. Incorporation of Treflan and Prowl can be delayed 24 hours and 7 days. ANY VARIETY: annual grasses Assure II (0. See labels for specific rates on various soils.1 to 4 pt in Roundup Ready cotton or Liberty Link cotton. Suggested primarily for control of Palmer amaranth. Generic brands available. See rotational restrictions on label. See labels for specific rates on various soils. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method Herbicide Trade and Target Weeds Name PREPLANT Prowl (3. Direx.

especially with second application. or 12 to 32 oz Select Max. or less. Use crop oil concentrate or surfactant at rates listed above for annual grasses. tall or less. A second application may be made if needed when regrowth is 6 in.97 EC) 10 to 12 fl oz 24 fl oz 36 fl oz 8 to 16 fl oz 12 to 32 fl oz Comments Apply to actively growing johnsongrass 24 in. may be improved by directing spray under cotton.Table 10-1. ANY VARIETY: rhizome johnsongrass Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Assure II (0. 8 to 16 oz Select. A second application may be made if needed when regrowth or new plants are 6 to 12 in. 8 oz Fusilade. Use crop oil concentrate or surfactant at rates listed above for annual grasses.5 EC) Poast Plus (1 EC) Select (2 EC) Select Max (0. Rates for the second application are 7 oz Assure II.88 EC) 10 fl oz Fusilade DX (2 EC) Poast (1. or 9 to 24 oz Select Max.88 EC) Fusilade DX (2 EC) Poast (1. 6 to 8 oz Select. 8 oz Fusilade. See Table 10-4 for weed response. 16 oz Poast. Apply to actively growing bermudagrass before runners exceed 6 in.97 EC) Assure II (0. Rates for the second application are 7 oz Assure. 24 oz Poast Plus. Spray coverage. 24 oz Poast Plus. See Table 10-4 for weed response.5 EC) Poast Plus (1 EC) Select Max (2 EC) Select Max (0. ANY VARIETY: bermudagrass 10 fl oz 12 fl oz 24 fl oz 36 fl oz 8 to 16 fl oz 12 to 32 fl oz continued 91 . Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds POSTEMERGENCE OVERTOP. tall. 16 oz Poast. Do not cultivate for 7 days before or after application. POSTEMERGENCE OVERTOP.

Avoid application during or near a period of cool weather or to thrips-infested cotton.6 fl oz Suggested only on conventional varieties. Will not control ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth. such as very dry or very wet conditions or thrips-damaged cotton. but do not exceed 5. Apply to cotton 3 to 6 in. Cotton should be in at least the fifth leaf 0.9 fl oz See comments for Staple and Envoke applied + alone.1 oz Comments Apply overtop after cotton has a minimum of five true leaves (minimum of seven preferred) until 60 days prior to harvest. May be applied twice. Do not apply to cotton under stress. Minor cotton injury (yellowing. See label for weeds controlled and recommended weed size to treat. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal spray solution. Can apply twice per season.8 fl oz Apply from cotyledonary stage of cotton until 60 days before harvest. mixture is more effective on ragweed. Envoke may be applied overtop at 0. mixture is more effective on eclipta. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal spray solution. tall morningglory. Make only one application per season. 2. Tank mix may delay 1 pt maturity or reduce yield. To aid in resistance management. 1. jimsonweed. and nutsedge.2 L) + MSMA (numerous brands) Staple LX (3. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal.1 oz stage. See label for precautions on mixing with insecticides and for weeds controlled and weed size to treat. To aid in resistance management. for this application. it is suggested that an ALS inhibitor (Staple or Envoke) be applied only once a year. sicklepod. directed application preferred for better coverage on weeds under canopy. do not use other types of adjuvants. Tank mix suppresses sicklepod and tall morningglory better than Staple alone. separate Staple and Dual applications by 5 or more days. shortened internodes) may be observed. Semi-directed application provides better weed coverage in larger cotton. 2. Do not mix with postemergence grass control herbicides.15 oz per acre if needed for larger weeds. On larger cotton. Will not control ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth. tall. Staple LX (3. Compared to Envoke alone. lambsquarters. See + comments for Staple alone.3 to 1. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds POSTEMERGENCE OVERTOP.0188 pound active ingredient trifloxysulfuron per acre per year from combined use of Envoke and Suprend. it is suggested that an ALS inhibitor (Envoke or Staple) be applied only once a year.1 fl oz per season. Do not mix with malathion-containing insecticides. and spurred anoda.2 SL) Staple LX (3.Table 10-1.6 to 3. ANY VARIETY: annual broadleaf weeds Herbicide Trade Name Envoke (75 WDG) Broadcast Rate per Acre 0.2 L) + Envoke (75 WDG) 92 . preferably larger. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. but do not exceed 0. Compared to Staple alone. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. Do not mix with Dual.

Staple rate can be increased to 2. Increase spray volume if weed or crop canopy is dense. and velvetleaf. Surfactant or crop oil is not needed. recommended weed size for treatment.62 EC) Ignite 280 (2. Adjuvants are not necessary. lambsquarters. In general. tank mix will improve control of larger pig1. Compared to Ignite + alone. prickly sida. Do not tank mix Staple with Dual.7 fl oz weed. application directions and rates. 22 to 29 fl oz See comments for Ignite alone. See label for weeds controlled.34 L) + Staple LX (3. smartweed. tall until 100 days prior to 1 to 1. LIBERTY LINK VARIETIES: annual grasses and broadleaf weeds Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Ignite 280 (2. Apply in a minimum of 15 GPA using flat fan nozzles at 30 to 60 PSI. Do not tank mix Staple and Dual. semi-directed application may give better spray coverage on weeds under the crop canopy. broadleaf weeds should be 2 to 3 in. and precautions.6 oz to suppress or control spreading dayflower.2 L) continued 93 . Multiple applications are allowed. Do not mix with postemergence grass control herbicides.Table 10-1.33 pt harvest. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds POSTEMERGENCE OVERTOP. On larger cotton. spurred anoda. jimsonweed.34 L) + Dual Magnum (7. Do not add any adjuvants. Ignite 280 (2. or less and grasses no larger than 1 to 2 in. Use of a preemergence herbicide to assist in control of grasses and pigweed species is recommended. 22 to 29 fl oz See comments for Ignite alone. Dual provides residual control of annual grasses and pigweed species.34 L) 23 to 43 fl oz Comments APPLY ONLY TO LIBERTY LINK VARIETIES. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. Can be applied overtop or directed anytime up to the early bloom stage of cotton. but do not exceed a total of 87 fl oz per acre per year.3 to 1. Apply overtop + to cotton at least 3 in. responses to ammonium sulfate have been variable. and will provide residual control of pigweed. including Palmer amaranth. Apply overtop from cotyledonary stage to early bloom stage.

such as pigweed. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions.75 lb a. morningglory. or hemp sesbania greater than 1 in. and precautions. Do not include Dual in the tank mix. do not add surfactant.56 to 0.5 pt APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY VARIETIES. spurge. Add nonionic surfactant according to Staple label. Sequence at 2. READY VARIETIES: annual and perennial grasses. the active ingredient in Dual Magnum. Acceptable morningglory. jimsonweed. Avoid application during or near a period of cool weather and application to thripinfested cotton. May apply overtop twice per season. Compared to glyphosate alone.56 to APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY VARIET0. Dual will give residual control of annual grasses and pigweed species. Staple may also provide residual control of susceptible species. 0. Glyphosate will not control dayflower. Glyphosate plus Staple at 0.3 to 3. smartweed. suppression of perennial broadleaf weeds Comments APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY VARIETIES. See the discussion on glyphosate resistance management in the text of Chapter 10. Sequence is a mixture of glyphosate and S-metolachlor. Apply to cotton in cotyledonary to 4-leaf stage. Other generic brands containing metolachlor (not S-metolachlor) are less active per unit of product than brands containing S-metolachlor.70 lb acid equivalent glyphosate and 0. Can apply overtop from crop emergence through four-leaf stage. Do not add any adjuvant. or glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.75 APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY VARIETlb a.8 fl oz rate conversions. annual broadleaf weeds. Apply to 3. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. and spreading dayflower. See above comments for glyphosate alone. Brawl and Medal are generic brands containing Smetolachlor. 0. lambsquarter. 2.2 L) 94 . Use a “loaded” formulation of glyphosate that does not require additional surfactant.8 to 1.e. or other adjuvants. ammonium sulfate. Direct if cotton is larger than four leaves. Florida pusley. and velvetleaf.e. See above comments for glyphosate alone and glyphosate plus Dual Magnum.to 4-leaf cotton. spurred anoda. + See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and 1 to 1.to 4-leaf cotton. separate applications by at least 10 days and two nodes of new growth. application directions. and bermudagrass control will require multiple applications of glyphosate. and nutsedge.75 OVERTOP. or dove weed. Do not include Staple in the tank mix. IES. IES. Make only one application per season. + See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and 1. nutsedge. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method Herbicide Trade Broadcast and Target Weeds Name Rate per Acre POST-EMERGENCE Glyphosate 0.56 to 0.62 EC) Sequence (5.94 lb S-metolachlor (equivalent to 1 pt Dual Magnum). Follow adjuvant recommendations for the brand of glyphosate used.e.33 pt rate conversions. tank mix will improve control of hemp sesbania. prickly sida. See label of brand used for recommended weed size for treatment. See above comments for glyphosate alone. ROUNDUP (numerous brands) lb a.Table 10-1.3 fl oz may be applied overtop twice per season. Apply to 3.5 pt gives 0. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Dual Magnum (7. Follow all directions and precautions.25 L) Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Staple LX (3.

For corn up to 36 in.1 oz See comments for glyphosate alone Use 4 oz Fusilade for corn up to 12 in.Use 4 to 6 oz of Select or 6 oz of Select Max for corn up to 12 in. continued 95 .. If the brand of glyphosate does not contain adjuvant. Soybean should have no more than five trifoliate leaves.e.56 to (numerous brands) 0.75 lb a.25 to 0. Assure II may also be applied alone. Also add crop oil concentrate at 0.Table 10-1. add surfactant according to the glyphosate label.e.e. Envoke may be mixed with glyphosate on Roundup Ready Flex cotton.75 lb a. respectively.. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds POSTEMERGENCE OVERTOP.88 EC) 5 to 8 fl oz Comments See comments for glyphosate alone. Fusilade may also be applied alone. See comments for glyphosate alone.25% by volume. Use 6 to 8 oz Select or 9 oz Select Max for corn up to 24 in. + 4 to 8 fl oz or 6 to 12 fl oz 0. add 0.56 to 0. ROUNDUP READY VARIETIES: volunteer Roundup Ready corn in Roundup Ready cotton Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Glyphosate 0. Add 2.97 EC) POSTEMERGENCE OVERTOP. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Fusilade DX (2 EC) Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Select (2 EC) or Select Max (0. ROUNDUP READY VARIETIES: volunteer Roundup Ready soybean in Roundup Ready cotton Envoke (75 WDG) 0. Add any adjuvants suggested on the label of the glyphosate product used.75 lb a. Use 6 oz for corn up to 24 in. use Select Max at 12 oz. If brand of glyphosate used does not contain surfactant.125% nonionic surfactant by volume. Apply to cotton with at least five true leaves. add nonionic surfactant at 0.5% by volume. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal. If the brand of glyphosate used contains adjuvant.56 to 0. Use 4 oz Assure for corn up to 12 in. Select or Select Max may also be applied alone. + + Assure II (0.5 lb per acre of ammonium sulfate or equivalent. and 30 in. Use 5 and 8 oz for corn up to 18 in. + 4 to 6 fl oz 0.

Do not 1 to 1. MeyChem 41%. Do not exceed a total of 128 fl oz (4.55 lb a.2 L) See the discussion on glyphosate resistance management in the text of Chapter 10.33 pt mix Dual Magnum and Staple. cotton Envoke should have at least 7 to 8 leaves at time of application.5 lb a. Roundup PowerMax or Roundup WeatherMax + Dual Magnum (7. Roundup PowerMax 16 to 32 fl oz See comments for Roundup alone applied to or Roundup Ready Flex cotton. Do not exceeed a maximum of 44 fl oz (1. See respective labels for application rates. Glyfos X-tra. annual (4. Staple LX (3. ROUNDUP (4. Brawl and Medal are generic brands containing Smetolachlor. Caution is urged when applying a brand not specifically registered for Roundup Ready Flex as severe foliar burn can sometimes be observed./gal) READY FLEX VARIor ETIES: Roundup annual and perenWeatherMax nial grasses. Also see comments Roundup Weath+ for Staple applied alone. Tank mix can be applied WeatherMax overtop cotton from 5-leaf stage until 60 days prior + 0. Directed application may improve weed coverage in larger cotton.). The maximum rate for any single application between emergence and 60% open bolls is 32 fl oz (1. Makaze. and nutsedge. Mad Dog Plus. These glyphosate products may be applied overtop or directed to Flex cotton any time from cotton emergence to 7 days prior to harvest. Roundup plus Staple tank erMax mixes may be applied overtop Flex cotton from the + 1.8 fl oz cotyledonary stage until 60 days prior to harvest. Certain other brands. Touchdown Total./gal) broadleaf weeds. Roundup plus Dual + tank mixes may be applied overtop Flex cotton from 3 in.3 to 3.62 EC) See the discussion on glyphosate resistance management in the text of this chapter.5 lb a. however.e. Also see comments Roundup + for Envoke applied alone. Roundup PowerMax 16 to 32 fl oz See comments for Roundup alone applied to or Roundup Ready Flex cotton. and Traxion are registered for application to Roundup Ready Flex cotton.) between 60% open bolls and harvest.13 a.5 lb a.e. See the discussion on glyphosate resistance management in the text of this chapter. Do NOT follow these suggested uses on Roundup Ready cotton not designated as Flex. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method Herbicide Trade Broadcast and Target Weeds Name Rate per Acre POST-EMERGENCE Roundup PowerMax 16 to 32 fl oz OVERTOP.e. tall until 100 days before harvest. 96 . Hoss Ultra. Other generic brands containing metolachlor (not S-metolachlor) are less active per unit of product than brands containing S-metolachlor. 16 to 32 fl oz See comments for Roundup alone applied to Roundup Ready Flex cotton.Table 10-1.e. suppression of perennial broadleaf weeds Comments APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY FLEX CULTIVARS. the active ingredient in Dual Magnum.1 oz to harvest. such as Gly Star Gold.) applied from emergence through 60% open bolls. For better crop safety.e. Multiple applications are allowed.

Add 1 qt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray solution for cotton less than 12 in. Dual improves residual control of annual grasses. Direct to cotton at least 6 to 8 in.6 lb/gal) Caparol (4 F) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6. Do not allow Aim to contact green stem tissue. Direct 1.3 pt Caparol on cotton up to 12 in.67 pt 2. 1 to 1. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method Herbicide Trade and Target Weeds Name POSTEMERGENCEMSMA DIRECTED. tall. See previous comments for Caparol plus MSMA. See rotational restrictions on Direx label.6 lb/gal) Annual broadleaf weeds.5 pt + 1 to 1..3 pt Caparol after cotton is at least 6 in.4 pt + 2. preferably larger. Direct to cotton at least 12 in.5 pt 1. preferably larger. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom.6 lb/gal) Cobra (2 EC) + Direx (4 F) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6. Add 1 qt per acre of crop oil concentrate. and dove weed. Direct to cotton at least 3 in. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response.6 lb/gal) + Dual Magnum (7. tall. tall. See rotational restrictions on Caparol label.2 pt + 2. Cotton should be at least 16 in.4 pt + 2. ANY (6 lb/gal) VARIETY: (6.5 pt Direct 1. Caparol (4 F) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6. add 0.5 pt Comments Many brands available.33 pt 12. or larger. such as pigweed. pigweed species.6 lb/gal) Cotoran (4 F) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6.67 pt 2.67 pt 2.62 EC) Cobra (2 EC) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6.8 to 1.6 lb/gal) 1.. continued 97 . Check label of brand you are using for directions on surfactant usage.67 pt 2. At the higher rate. tall.Table 10-1. increase rate to 2 to 2. tall when applying Aim.67 pt 2. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response.0 lb/gal) (6. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. Two to three applications usually needed for acceptable nutsedge control.5 pt Direct to cotton at least 6 to 8 in. and nutsedge Caparol (4 F) + Cobra (2 EC) + MSMA (6. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal. Aim 2 EC at 1 fl oz or Cobra at 6 to 8 fl oz may be added to this combination to improve control of large morningglory.67 pt 2.67 pt 2.5 to 1 pt per acre crop oil concentrate on cotton larger than 12 in. tall.5 pt 12. tall. can increase rate to 2 pt on cotton 12 in. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom.3 pt + 6 to 12.6 lb/gal) Broadcast Rate per Acre 2.5 pt 1 to 2 qt + 2. Do not apply these rates overtop.3 to 2.3 to 2. Add nonionic surfactant at 2 qt per 100 gal.5 oz + 2. See rotational restrictions on Cotoran label. small annual grasses. Do not apply after first bloom. Add 1 to 2 pt per acre of crop oil concentrate.5 fl oz + 0.5 fl oz + 2. Caparol may give limited residual control of susceptible broadleaf weeds.4 pt after cotton is at least 12 in.

and rotational restrictions. Cotton should be at least 16 in. See rotational restrictions on Direx label. tall. ANY + VARIETY: MSMA Annual broadleaf (6 lb/gal) weeds. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. See label for weeds controlled. Label prohibits use on sand or loamy sand soils or on any soil with less than 1% organic matter. See label for weeds controlled. prometryn. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom.Table 10-1. recommended weed size to treat. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom. See label and adjust rate according to soil types.5 pt Comments Direct to cotton at least 3 in. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom. Do not allow Aim to contact green stem tissue.33 pt 1.793 lb a.67 pt 2.i. No rotational restrictions. Dual improves residual control of annual grasses and pigweed species.25 lb + 2. Add surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal.5 pt + 1 to 1.5 pt 1 to 1.0188 lb a. Do not allow Aim to contact green stem tissue.67 pt 2. small annual (6. Direct to cotton at least 6 in. Aim 2EC at 1 fl oz per acre may be added to improve control of larger morningglory.67 pt 2. Direct to cotton at least 20 in. Do not exceed 0. tall when applying Aim. Add crop oil concentrate at 1 gal per 100 gal spray solution. Direct to cotton at least 12 in. and rotational restrictions. tall. recommended weed size to treat. and nutsedge + continued Dual Magnum (7. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method Herbicide Trade and Target Weeds Name POSTEMERGENCECotoran (4 F) DIRECTED. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 to 2 qt per 100 gal spray solution. of trifloxysulfuron and 0.6 lb/gal) 2 pt + 2. Label prohibits use on sand or loamy sand soils.62 EC) Direx (4 F) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6.6 lb/gal) Suprend (80 WDG) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6.67 pt 2. Layby Pro (4 F) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6. Aim 2EC at 1 fl oz or Cobra at 6 to 8 fl oz may be added to this combination to improve control of larger morningglory.i. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom. tall. or any soil with less than 1% organic matter. preferably taller. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. Linex (4 F) + MSMA (6 lb/gal) (6. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom.5 pt Direct to cotton at least 15 in. tall.007 lb a. See Linex label for weeds controlled and recommended weed size to treat. See comments for Cotoran plus MSMA. Add 2 qt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray solution. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response.6 lb/gal) 2 pt + 2. per acre per season of trifloxysulfuron from combined use of Envoke (active ingredient trifloxysulfuron) and Suprend.i. Each pound of Suprend contains 0.6 lb/gal) grasses.5 pt 98 . Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal spray solution.67 pt 2. tall.6 to 2.6 lb/gal) Broadcast Rate per Acre 1 to 2 qt + 2.4 pt + 2.

nutsedge. Precision. delayed maturity. tall. + 1 to 1.3 lb a.56 to 0. organo-silicone adjuvants. continued 99 .e.e. however. do not allow Aim to contact green stem tissue. and suppression of perennial weeds Glyphosate (numerous brands) 0.6 lb/gal) 2. Add crop oil concentrate according to Aim label.Table 10-1. See above comments for glyphosate alone. ANY + + VARIETY: MSMA Annual broadleaf (6 lb/gal) 2. Do not allow spray to contact green stem tissue. ROUNDUP READY OR ROUNDUP READY FLEX VARIETIES: Annual grass and broadleaf weeds. On varieties not designated as Flex. Sloppy directing can lead to fruit abortion. POSTEMERGENCEDIRECTED.75 lb a. Do not apply MSMA after first bloom.5 fl oz APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt pr 100 gal spray solution. See Valor label for weeds controlled and recommended size for treatment. See precautions on labels concerning risk of boll loss. Direct spray to lower 2 in. See all precautions on glyphosate and Aim labels. No rotational restrictions of concern. of cotton stem. is required when directing tank mixes. Roundup PowerMax and Roundup WeatherMax at rates up to 32 fl oz (1. this combination will improve control of larger morningglory. Refer to label of brand used for adjuvant recommendations. Precise directing to avoid contact with the crop is not necessary on Flex cotton. tall. and spray contact with the cotton should be avoided as much as possible. methylated seed oil.67 pt weeds. Fruit loss has not been a concern in NC research where glyphosate was precisely directed to the base of the cotton plant. Two applications may be made during this period. small annual (6. and yield loss. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions. Do NOT use crop oil concentrate. but applications must be separated by at least 10 days and two nodes of incremental growth. and nutsedge (continued) Comments Direct to cotton at least 16 in.e. Direct to cotton at least 16 in. or any adjuvant product containing any of these. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method Herbicide Trade Broadcast and Target Weeds Name Rate per Acre POSTEMERGENCEValor SX (51 WDG) 2 oz DIRECTED. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response.5 pt grasses.56 to 0. Compared to glyphosate alone.75 lb a./acre) can be directed to Roundup Ready Flex varieties at any stage. direct to cotton from fifth leaf stage through layby stage. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions. See Tables 10-4 and 10-5 for weed response. APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES. The spray should be directed to the base of the cotton plant. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Aim (2 EC) 0.

Direct to cotton 3 in. this combination will improve control of larger morningglory and nutsedge. rate can be increased to 1.5 pt on cotton at least 12 in. See above comments for glyphosate alone. ROUND(numerous brands) lb a. This tank mix may give less control of larger grasses or grasses under drought stress compared with glyphosate alone. Compared to glyphosate alone.1 to 0. Use 1 pt Direx on cotton 8 to 12 in. + 1 to 1. Add surfactant according to the Envoke label.5 pt Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Dual Magnum (7. See all precautions on glyphosate and Dual labels. such as pigweed. APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES.56 to 0. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method Herbicide Trade Broadcast and Target Weeds Name Rate per Acre POSTEMERGENCEGlyphosate 0. Add surfactant according to the label of the brand of glyphosate used.75 lb a. nutsedge. this combination will improve control of larger morningglory and may provide residual control of small-seeded broadleaf weeds. tall.e. Also see previous comments on Dual Magnum compared with generic brands. but it can give residual control of grasses and pigweed species. Compared to glyphosate alone.e.75 lb a. tall. See all precautions on glyphosate and Direx labels and rotational restrictions. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Direx (4 F) 0. and suppression of perennial weeds (continued) Comments APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES. Add surfactant according to the label of the brand of glyphosate used.e. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions. tall.33 pt APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES.75 lb a. tall.56 to 0. See all precautions on glyphosate and Caparol labels and rotational restrictions. rate can be increased to 2 pt on cotton at least 12 in. Add surfactant according to the label of the brand of glyphosate used. Direct to cotton at least 6 to 8 in. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Envoke (75 WDG) 0. This tank mix may give less control of larger grasses or grasses under drought stress compared with glyphosate alone. Direct to cotton at least 8 in. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions.Table 10-1. + 1 to 1. tall. See above comments for glyphosate alone. tall.62 EC) 0. See all precautions on glyphosate and Envoke labels and rotational restrictions. See section on Sequence below. tall through layby.3 pt Caparol on cotton 6 to 12 in. UP READY OR + + ROUNDUP READY Caparol (4 F) 1 to 2 pt FLEX VARIETIES: Annual grass and broadleaf weeds. this combination will improve control of larger morningglory and may provide residual control of small-seeded broadleaf weeds.56 to 0. See above comments for glyphosate alone. Compared to glyphosate alone. such as pigweed.75 DIRECTED.2 oz 100 . tall. Direct to cotton at least 6 in.56 to 0. APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES. this combination will not improve control of emerged weeds. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions. Compared to glyphosate alone. Use 1 to 1. preferably taller. + 0. See above comments for glyphosate alone. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions.e.

5 pt POSTEMERGENCE WITH HOODED SPRAYER.4 pt continued 101 . Speed should not exceed 5 mph. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal spray solution. ANY VARIETY: Annual grass and broadleaf weeds. Other herbicides as discussed in the section on directed applications may be mixed with glyphosate to improve burndown on morningglory and other problem weeds and to provide residual control. organo-silicone adjuvants.e. Compared to glyphosate alone.e. this combination will improve control of larger morningglory and provide residual control of a number of broadleaf weeds.56 to 0.25 L) 2.2 to 2. perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. nutsedge. Rate depends on weed species and size: see label of brand used for specific rates. Do NOT allow the spray solution to contact cotton plants. Compared to glyphosate alone. APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES. Do not use liquid nitrogen as the carrier. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions.56 to 0. Hoods should be kept as close to the ground as possible. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions. and nutsedge Glyphosate (numerous brands) 0. Application to base of non-Roundup Ready cotton will cause injury. Sequence is a mixture of glyphosate and S-metolachlor. tall. ANY VARIETY: Annual grass and broadleaf weeds. See all precautions on glyphosate and Suprend labels and rotational restrictions. This tank mix may give less control of larger grasses or grasses under drought stress compared with glyphosate alone.75 lb a. this combination will improve control of larger morningglory and nutsedge and may provide residual control of small-seeded broadleaf weeds. Add nonionic surfactant according to label. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds POSTEMERGENCEDIRECTED. and suppression of perennial weeds (continued) Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Glyphosate 0. Use 5 to 10 gpa and maximum pressure of 25 PSI.75 lb a. Hoods should be kept as close to the ground as possible so spray solution does not contact crop. See above comments for glyphosate alone. Glyphosate (numerous brands) + Valor SX (51 WDG) 0. APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES. tall. suppression of nutsedge Gramoxone Inteon (2 L) 1. See above comments for the tank mix of glyphosate plus Dual Magnum. Higher rates can be applied for control of perennial weeds. Tank mixes are usually more effective than Gramoxone alone. See above comments for glyphosate alone.56 to 0. + + Suprend (80 WDG) 1 lb Comments APPLY ONLY TO ROUNDUP READY OR FLEX VARIETIES. It is suggested cotton be at least 6 in. Do not allow spray to contact green stem tissue. + 1 to 2 oz Sequence (5. Apply in a minimum of 10 gpa at maximum pressure of 25 PSI.Table 10-1.75 (numerous brands) lb a. Add surfactant according to the label of the brand of glyphosate used. the active ingredient in Dual Magnum. POSTEMERGENCE WITH HOODED SPRAYER. Do not exceed 5 mph. Direct to lower 2 in. ROUNDUP READY OR ROUNDUP READY FLEX VARIETIES: Annual grass and broadleaf weeds. such as pigweed.e. Caparol or Direx may be mixed with Gramoxone. or less of stem on cotton at least 16 in. See Table 10-6 for glyphosate formulations and rate conversions. tall. Direct to cotton at least 6 to 8 in. or any adjuvant product containing any of these. See all precautions on glyphosate and Valor labels. Do NOT use cropoil concentrate. methylated seed oil.

Do not let glyphosate contact non-Roundup Ready cotton. ANY VARIETY: Weeds taller than crop HARVEST AID: Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds Herbicide Trade Broadcast Name Rate per Acre Glyphosate See labels (numerous brands) Comments Follow label directions carefully.5 lb a.Table 10-1. other broadleaf weeds are less susceptible. Apply to any variety after at least 60% of the bolls are open.e.75 to 1. Defoliate cotton as normal. Wait 5 days before picking. Add nonionic surfactant according to the label of the brand of glyphosate used. apply Gramoxone in a minimum of 20 gal per acre and add 1 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal. Johnsongrass and other tall grasses and pigweed are most susceptible. the remaining bolls expected to be harvested are mature. Gramoxone Inteon (2 L) 16 to 32 fl oz 102 . Can be applied to Roundup Ready cotton after 20% cracked boll stage or to Roundup Ready Flex cotton up to 7 days before harvest. then pick as soon as possible. Herbicide Information for Cotton (continued) Application Method and Target Weeds POSTEMERGENCE WITH WIPER APPLICATOR. After at least 75% to 80% of the bolls are open. and most of the cotton leaves have dropped. Glyphosate (numerous brands) 0. May be tank mixed with some defoliants. see label for details.

PRE = preemergence E = excellent. Grass and Nutsedge Response to Soil-Applied Herbicides Weed Bermudagrass Broadleaf signalgrass Crabgrass Crowfootgrass Fall panicum Foxtails Goosegrass Johnsongrass Seedling Rhizome Texas panicum Nutsedge Purple Yellow Prowl or Treflan PPI N G E E G E E E P G N N Cotoran PRE N P FG FG F FG F P N P N N Direx PRE N P FG FG P — F P N P N N Prowl H2O PRE N F G G F G G G N F N N Reflex PRE N FG FG — — — — — — F — GE Staple PRE N P P — PF P PF FG N N F F Note: PPI = preplant-incorporated.Table 10-2. 90% or better control G = good. less than 25% control 103 . 50 to 80% control P = poor. 25 to 50% control N = no control. 80 to 90% control F = fair.

90% or better control G = good.Table 10-3. Annual Broadleaf Weed Response to Soil-Applied Herbicides Weed Citronmelon Prowl or Treflan PPI N N E N N N P P E N N G P P GE G N N N N N N N N Cotoran PRE FG FG E E P G G G FG P G E G G E FG G G G PF F G F PF Direx PRE F F E G P G — G PF P G E F F E G F F G F F F PF P Prowl H2O PRE N N G N N N P N FG N N G P P FG F N N N N N N N N Reflex PRE Staple PRE FG N G N FG — — G F N FG G P F G G2 G PF G G E P E P — G G G — — GE P P P — Cocklebur Common purslane Common ragweed Cowpea Crotalaria Eclipta Florida beggarweed Florida pusley Hemp sesbania Jimsonweed Lambsquarters Morningglory species Tall Others Pigweed species Redroot or smooth Palmer amaranth E PF PF E E Prickly sida Sicklepod Smartweed 1 Spurge Spurred anoda Tropic croton Velvetleaf Volunteer peanuts — P — — — FG — P Note: PPI = preplant-incorporated. PRE = preemergence E = excellent. 80 to 90% control F = fair. 104 . 25 to 50% control N = no control. No control of ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth. 50 to 80% control P = poor. less than 25% control 1 2 Includes ladysthumb and Pennsylvania smartweed.

Select Max1 Poast. Staple1 N N N N N N continued 105 . Poast Plus1 Fusilade DX1 Assure II1 Envoke1 N N P N NP NP NP F P NP G FG — N Weed Bermudagrass Broadleaf signalgrass Crabgrass Crowfootgrass Fall panicum Foxtails Goosegrass Johnsongrass Seedling Rhizome Texas panicum Nutsedge Yellow Purple Dove weed3 Spreading dayflower4 1 2 G2 GE G G E E GE E E G N N N N G2 GE G F E E GE E GE G N N N N F2 E GE FG E E GE E G E N N N N G2 E GE G E E GE E GE E N N N N NP P NP N PF PF N FG Applied overtop Two applications may be needed for adequate control. and Dayflower Response to Postemergence Herbicides Select.Table 10-4. Nutsedge. Annual and Perennial Grass.

Applied postemergence-directed only.Table 10-4. Dove weed is the species typically found in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina. Good control can be obtained with two applications of MSMA. and Dayflower Response to Post-emergence Herbicides (continued) Layby Pro + MSMA5 Caparol + MSMA5 Valor SX + MSMA5 N F FG FG FG F F F P PF — G Suprend + MSMA5 Cotoran + MSMA5 Cobra + MSMA5 Direx + MSMA5 Weed Bermudagrass Broadleaf signalgrass Crabgrass Crowfootgrass Fall panicum Foxtails Goosegrass Johnsongrass Seedling Rhizome Texas panicum Nutsedge Yellow Purple Dove weed3 Spreading dayflower4 N FG FG FG FG FG FG FG P F FG8 F8 N G N F F F F F F F P P N F F F F F F F P P N F F F F F F F P P G F8 — G N FG FG FG FG FG FG FG P F G F8 — G N F F F F F F F P P FG8 F8 N G N FG FG FG FG FG FG FG P F E E — G E GE E FG8 FG8 F8 F8 N G N G G F7 FG8 FG7 P P Dove weed is commonly referred to as marsh dayflower. dove weed and marsh dayflower are different species. Good control with two applications of glyphosate. Nutsedge. Annual and Perennial Grass. 106 Glyphosate6 F7 E E E E E E MSMA5 . 3 4 5 6 7 8 Spreading dayflower should be 2 to 3 inches or less. Applied overtop or directed to Roundup Ready cotton only. Although closely related.

Good johnsongrass control can be obtained with two applications of Ignite 280. Although closely related. dove weed and marsh dayflower are different species. Applied overtop or directed to Liberty Link cotton only.Table 10-4 Annual and Perennial Grass. Applied overtop or directed to Roundup Ready cotton. Applied postemergence-directed to Roundup Ready cotton only. Dove weed is the species typically found in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina. 3 4 7 9 Spreading dayflower should be 2 to 3 inches or less. Nutsedge. Good control with two applications of glyphosate. and Dayflower Response to Post-emergence Herbicides (continued) Glyphosate + Valor SX9 Glyphosate + Suprend9 Glyphosate + Caparol9 Glyphosate + Envoke9 Glyphosate + Staple10 Ignite 280 + Staple11 N GE G G G G P G F12 G PF PF P FG Glyphosate + Direx9 Glyphosate + Aim 9 Weed Bermudagrass Broadleaf signalgrass Crabgrass Crowfootgrass Fall panicum Foxtails Goosegrass Johnsongrass Seedling Rhizome Texas panicum Nutsedge Yellow Purple Dove weed3 Spreading dayflower4 F7 E E E E E E E GE E F7 FG7 P P F7 GE GE GE GE GE GE GE G GE F7 FG7 P P F7 GE GE GE GE GE GE GE G GE F7 FG7 — P F7 E E E E E E E E E E GE — P F7 E E E E E E E GE E FG7 FG7 P FG F7 GE GE GE GE GE GE GE G GE E GE — P F7 E E E E E E E GE E GE G E P FG G G G P G F12 G P P P PF Dove weed is commonly referred to as marsh dayflower. 10 11 12 107 Ignite 28011 N G .

5 Includes ladysthumb and Pennsylvania smartweed. N = no control. 25 to 50% control. 90% or better control.Table 10-5. Applied post-directed only. 3 Ratings assume directed rates of MSMA. F = fair. 50 to 80% control. P = poor. 1 2 108 . less than 25% control Applied overtop or directed. 80 to 90% control. Annual Broadleaf Weed Response to Postemergence Herbicides LaybyPro + MSMA2 Valor SX + MSMA2 Suprend + MSMA2 Cotoran + MSMA2 Caparol + MSMA2 Cobra + MSMA2 Direx + MSMA2 Envoke1 Weed Citronmelon Cocklebur Common purslane Common ragweed Cowpea Crotalaria Eclipta Florida beggarweed Florida pusley Hemp sesbania Jimsonweed Lambsquarters Morningglory species Tall Others Pigweed species Redroot or smooth Palmer amaranth Prickly sida Sicklepod Smartweed5 Spurge Spurred anoda Tropic croton Velvetleaf GE GE — G GE G F P G FG E G E G G G E F PF G G GE GE E FG GE GE F G F G G G E G E FG G E E F F GE F E E GE GE GE PF F G F E G G E FG GE G G G E F PF GE G E G E G G E E F PF G G GE GE E GE GE GE F G F G G — E G E MSMA3 Staple1 F E PF F FG G — E E E — E G GE G G — PF — — E E F — — E E F — G G NP GE E N P G E F4 F PF G FG G N G — E E FG — E P N F PF F F PF P P F P N P F P GE NP — N G G G P F4 N E G — G G GE GE E GE GE GE F — G GE E E E GE GE E — E G E E E G GE GE G G G E G G G G G FG FG G G PF FG G F — — — GE — P PF G — F G G — Volunteer peanuts PF P FG PF FG FG FG PF G FG Note: E = excellent. 4 No control of ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth. G = good.

N = no control. 8 Applied overtop or directed to Liberty Link cotton only. F = fair. 10 Poor to fair on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. G = good. 7 Applied postemergence-directed to Roundup Ready cotton only. 9 Poor on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. 25 to 50% control. 90% or better control. 5 6 109 . Annual Broadleaf Weed Response to Postemergence Herbicides (continued) Glyphosate7 + Supren d Glyphosate7 + Valor SX Glyphosate7 + Caparol Glyphosate7 + Envoke Glyphosate6 + Staple Glyphosate7 + Direx Ignite 2808 + Staple E E FG E GE Glyphosate7 + Aim Glyphosate6 Weed Citronmelon Cocklebur Common purslane Common ragweed12 Cowpea Crotalaria Eclipta Florida beggarweed Florida pusley Hemp sesbania Jimsonweed Lambsquarters Morningglory species Tall Others Pigweed species Redroot or smooth Palmer amaranth Prickly sida Sicklepod Smartweed5 Spurge Spurred anoda Tropic croton Velvetleaf Volunteer peanut GE E FG E GE G E E PF PF E G FG FG E E9 FG E G G E E E GE E FG E GE G E E G GE E GE E GE G E E G GE E GE E GE G E E G E E E E E E GE E E G E E G E E GE E E — E GE — E GE G E E PF GE E GE GE GE E E10 G E E G E E E — E E PF — E E GE Ignite 2808 G E F E G — G G PF — GE GE PF GE E GE E E E E10 FG E GE GE E E E — E GE GE GE E E9 G E G GE E E E — E GE GE GE E E9 G E G GE E E E — E GE GE GE E E11 FG E E G E E E — E E E E E E10 G E E E E E E — E GE E E E E10 GE E G G E E E — E E E E G FG GE E GE GE E E E E E G GE E E G G G G FG P G — F FG FG FG FG F FG FG GE GE Note: E = excellent. 12 Glyphosate-resistant common ragweed is known to occur in a few areas of North Carolina. 80 to 90% control. 50 to 80% control.Table 10-5. P = poor. Applied overtop or directed to Roundup Ready cotton only. 11 Good on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. less than 25% control Includes ladysthumb and Pennsylvania smartweed.

375 lb a. = 19.0 lb/gal Brand names1 Comparative rates on basis of acid equivalent (a.e. = 15.2 fl oz 1. = 34.750 lb a. = 32 fl oz 0.3 fl oz 0.4 lb/gal 4. = 36 fl oz 0.0 lb/gal 3.e. = 18 fl oz 0.e.5 lb/gal 4.750 lb a.125 lb a.e.8 fl oz 0. = 10.6 fl oz 1.e.e.563 lb a.125 lb a.375 lb a.e.375 lb a. Comparison of Glyphosate Formulations and Acid Equivalence Formulation isopropylamine salt 4.e.e. = 11.e.6 fl oz 0.750 lb a.0 lb/gal 5.5 fl oz 0. = 32 fl oz 1.125 lb a.e.e.e. = 21.e.4 fl oz 0.5 lb/gal Roundup PowerMax Roundup WeatherMax potassium salt 6.125 lb a.) Allecto Buccaneer ---Buccaneer Plus Cornerstone Cornerstone Plus 0.75 lb/gal Buccaneer 5 Extra Credit 5 0.17 lb/gal potassium salt 5.8 fl oz isopropylamine salt 5.750 lb a.e.563 lb a.375 lb a.750 lb a.e.e.563 lb a. = 19.125 lb a.9 fl oz 0. = 12 fl oz 0.e.e.e.375 lb a.e. = 38.563 lb a.e.3 fl oz 0.2 fl oz 0.0 lb/gal 4.3 fl oz 1.125 lb a.Table 10-6.563 lb a.= 9.7 fl oz 0.e. = 24 fl oz 1.e.5 fl oz 0.= 28. = 24 fl oz 0. = 17. = 23 fl oz 1.0 lb/gal Touchdown HiTech 110 .750 lb a.375 lb a. = 48 fl oz Credit Credit Extra CropSmart Glyphosate 41 Plus Gly-4 Gly-4 Plus Glyfos Glyfos X-TRA Glyphogan Glyphomax Glyphomax Plus Glyphosate 4 Gly Star Original Gly Star Plus Honcho Honcho Plus Hoss Ultra Makaze Mirage Mirage Plus Rascal Rascal Plus Rattler Rattler Plus isopropylamine salt 5.e. = 12.0 lb/gal Glyphosate acid equivalent (a.) 3. = 14.563 lb a.e. = 25.0 lb/gal Cinco Durango Gly Star 5 Gly Star 5 Extra Glyphomax XRT Touchdown Total potassium salt 5. = 16 fl oz 0.

e. Comparison of Glyphosate Formulations and Acid Equivalence Formulation Glyphosate acid equivalent (a.0 lb/gal NuFarm Credit NuFarm Credit Extra Other brands may also be available. are registered for overtop application to Roundup Ready Flex cotton after the four-leaf stage r 111 . Makaze. Not all brands are registered for overtop application to Roundup Ready cotton.e.125 lb a.0 lb/gal Duramax Durango DMA Rapid Fire 0. = 12 fl oz 0.Table 10-6.125 lb a.e.e.e.65 lb/gal 1 3.563 lb a.e. see specific labels for details.375 lb a.375 lb a.563 lb a. = 24 fl oz 1. = 48 fl oz ammonium salt 1.750 lb a.750 lb a.4 lb/gal 4. = 18 fl oz 0. Touchdown Total.e. Gly Star Gold. = 16 fl oz 0. including Roundup PowerMax. Mad Dog Plus. Only a few brands.) Brand names1 Comparative rates on basis of acid equivalent (a. Roundup WeatherMax.8 lb/gal + potassium salt 1.e. Glyfos X-tra. = 32 fl oz 1. = 36 fl oz 0. MeyChem 41%.e. = 24 fl oz 0.and Traxion.e.) dimethylamine salt 5.

1 to 2 oz. 5 A minimum of 14 days must pass and 1 inch of rainfall must occur between application of Valor at 1 oz and planting. 1.56 lb a.e.6 pt. Valor SX. or rye less than 18 in.Table 10-7.4-D2 Weed Annual bluegrass Little barley Buttercups Carolina geranium Chickweed Cudweed Curly dock Cutleaf eveningprimrose Field pansy Henbit Horseweed (marestail) Prickly lettuce Ryegrass Smartweed Speedwell Swinecress Vetch Virginia pepperweed Wheat or rye cover crop 10 Wild mustard. 11 Wild radish and wild mustard control by 2. or 0. wild radish N N G PF P NP F E P PF GE8 G N F PF F E GE N FG11 E E E PF E E F PF F G GE9 E G FG E FG F G E FG E E E G E E GE G F E E E G E E FG E GE E G E E E F E E FG E F E E8 E G G E G E E E E E E E GE E E E F F E GE9 E G E E GE G G E GE E E E G E E F FG F E E9 E G — E — FG GE E G Note: E = excellent.75 oz. 0.75 lb a. G = good.5 to 2 pt of 2. 0. 80 to 90% control. Gramoxone Inteon. 0. or rye greater than 18 in.5 to 1 pt. 10 Glyphosate rate is 0. Burndown Herbicides for ConservationTillage Cotton1 Glyphosate + Valor SX5 Glyphosate + Harmony Extra4 Glyphosate + Clarity3 Gramoxone + Direx6 E E E E E G P G7 GE E G PF FG G E G F G GE12 G Glyphosate + 2. 2. 25 to 50% control. P = poor. See exceptions for strip-tillage in Table 10. 1 112 Gramoxone Inteon GE G E GE E FG NP F7 G E PF P F F E P PF G G12 FG Glyphosate 2. glyphosate. 9 Control will be poor on glyphosate-resistant horseweed..5 to 2 oz of Valor.5 pt.4-D to control these species. 50 to 80% control. 3 Following application of Clarity and a minimum of 1 in. 7 This level of control requires that the primrose be blooming when treated.e. for wheat greater than 12 in.4-D. 6 Direx should be applied 15 to 45 days ahead of planting.75 lb a.5 to 3 pt.1. for wheat less than 12 in. 0.e. 90% or better control.4-D is good if application is made beforeplants begin flowering.. a minimum 21-day waiting period is required before planting.4-D. less than 25% control Application rates per acre: Clarity. 2 Apply 2. F = fair. N = no control. 12 Wheat or rye must have visible seedheads for this level of control. Use 1 pt per acre of 2. 2.4-D at least 30 days ahead of planting. 4 Delay cotton planting 14 days after Harmony Extra application.4-D2 . Direx. 8 This level of control requires 1. of rainfall. Delay planting 21 days after application of 1. Harmony Extra XP.

Celebrity Plus Active Ingredient(s) atrazine nicosulfuron pendimethalin carfentrazone alachlor naptalam clethodim atrazine quizalofop sulfentrazone + imazethapyr sulfentrazone + cloransulam sulfentrazone + metribuzin pinoxaden flufenacet + metribuzin dicamba dicamba + atrazine bentazon rimsulfuron + thifensulfuron imazamox s-metolachlor + atrazine acifluorfen s-metolachlor + metribuzin s-metolachlor s-metolachlor + atrazine s-metolachlor + atrazine pronamide bromoxynil alachlor + atrazine 2. Herbicide Ingredients and Modes of Action Brand Name(s) AAtrex Accent Acumen Aim Alachlor Alanap Arrow Atrazine Assure II Authority Assist Authority First Authority MTZ Axial Axiom Banvel Banvel-K + Atrazine Basagran Basis Beyond Bicep II Magnum Blazer Boundary Brawl.Table 10-8.4-DB imazapic mesotrione mesotrione + s-metolachlor metribuzin + chlorimuron chlorimuron + tribenuron sulfentrazone + chlorimuron prometryn nicosulfuron + dicamba Mode(s) of Action1 5 2 3 14 15 19 1 5 1 14 + 2 14 + 2 14 + 5 1 15 + 5 4 4+5 6 2+2 2 15 + 2 14 5 + 15 15 15 + 5 15 + 5 3 6 15 + 5 4 4 2 27 27 + 15 5+2 2+2 14 + 2 5 2+4 (continued) 113 .4-DB 2. Brawl II Brawl II ATZ Breakfree ATZ Break-up Buctril Bullet Butoxone Butyrac Cadre Callisto Camix Canopy Canopy EX Canopy XL Caparol Celebrity.

Herbicide Ingredients and Modes of Action Brand Name(s) Charger Basic Chateau Cinch Cinch ATZ Clarity Classic Clethodim Clopyr AG Cobra Command Confidence Confidence Xtra Cotoran Cotton-Pro Curbit Dacthal Define Degree Degree Xtra Devrinol Diablo Dicamba Direx Distinct Diuron Double Team DSMA. Dual II.Table 10-8. numerous brands Dual. Dual II Magnum Envive flumioxazin + cloransulam + thifensulfuron 14 + 2 + 2 Active Ingredient(s) s-metolachlor flumioxazin s-metolachlor s-metolachlor + atrazine dicamba chlorimuron clethodim clopyralid lactofen clomazone acetochlor acetochlor + atrazine fluometuron prometryn ethalfluralin DCPA flufenacet acetochlor acetochlor + atrazine napropamide dicamba dicamba diuron dicamba diuron acetochlor + atrazine DSMA metolachlor or s-metolachlor Mode(s) of Action1 15 14 15 15 + 5 4 2 1 4 14 13 15 15 + 5 7 5 3 3 15 15 15 + 5 15 4 4 7 4 7 15 + 5 17 15 Envoke Eptam Equip Eradicane Establish trifloxysulforon EPTC foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron EPTC dimethenamid 2 8 2+2 8 15 (continued) 114 .

Table 10-8. Herbicide Ingredients and Modes of Action Brand Name(s) Establish ATZ ET Active Ingredient(s) dimethenamid + atrazine pyraflufen ethyl Mode(s) of Action1 15 + 5 14 Evik Expert Express Extreme Finesse Finesse Grass & Broadleaf ametryne glyphosate + s-metolachlor + atrazine tribenuron glyphosate + imazethapyr chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron chlorsulfuron + flucarbazone paraquat 5 9 + 15 + 5 2 9+2 2+2 2+2 22 Firestorm Firstrate Flexstar Flexstar GT FulTime cloransulam fomesafen fomesafen + glyphosate acetochlor + atrazine 2 14 14 + 9 15 + 5 Fusilade DX Fusion Galigan Gangster Glyphosate (numerous brands) Goal. Goal Tender Gramoxone Inteon Gramoxone Max Guardsman Max Halex GT Harmony Extra Harmony GT. Ignite 280 Intrro Karmex Kerb Keystone Lariat fluazifop fluazifop + fenoxaprop oxyfluorfen flumioxazin + cloransulam glyphosate oxyfluorfen paraquat paraquat dimethenamid + atrazine s-metolachlor + glyphosate + mesotrione thifensulfuron + tribenuron thifensulfuron acetochlor acetochlor + atrazine diclofop glufosinate alachlor diuron pronamide acetochlor + atrazine alachlor + atrazine 1 1+1 14 14 + 2 9 14 22 22 15 + 5 15 + 9 + 27 2+2 2 15 15 + 5 1 10 15 7 3 15 + 5 15 + 5 (continued) 115 . Harmony SG Harness Harness Xtra Hoelon Ignite.

Table 10-8. Herbicide Ingredients and Modes of Action Brand Name(s) Laudis Layby Pro Lexar Liberty Liberty ATZ Lightning Linex Linuron Lorox Lumax Marksman Matrix Medal. Medal II Medal II AT Me-Too-Lachlor Metribuzin Metri DF Micro-Tech Moxy MSMA (numerous brands) Option Osprey Outlook OxiFlo Parallel. Parallel PCS Parallel Plus Parazone Parrlay Peak Pendant Pendimax. others Permit Powerflex Prefar Prefix foramsulfuron mesosulfuron dimethenamid oxyflurofen metolachlor metolachlor + atrazine paraquat metolachlor prosulfuron pendimethalin pendimethalin halosulfuron pyroxsulam bensulide s-metolachlor + fomesafen 2 2 15 14 15 15 + 5 22 15 2 3 3 2 2 8 15 + 14 Active Ingredient(s) tembotrione diuron + linuron mesotrione + s-metolachlor + atrazine glufosinate glufosinate + atrazine imazethapyr + imazapyr linuron linuron linuron mesotrione + s-metolachlor + atrazine dicamba + atrazine rimsulfuron s-metolachlor s-metolachlor + atrazine metolachlor metribuzin metribuzin alachlor bromoxynil MSMA Mode(s) of Action1 27 7+7 27 + 15 + 5 10 10 + 5 2+2 7 7 7 27 + 15 + 5 4+5 2 15 15 + 5 15 5 5 15 6 17 (continued) 116 .

Table 10-8. Prowl H2O Pursuit Python Raptor Reflex Resolve Resolve Q Resource Roundup. others Sandea Scepter Select. others Prometryn Prowl. Stalwart C Stalwart Xtra Staple Status Steadfast Steadfast ATZ Stealth Sterling Stinger Storm Stout Strategy Strongarm Suprend Active Ingredient(s) simazine prometryn pendimethalin imazethapyr flumetsulam imazamox fomesafen rimsulfuron rimsulfuron + thifensulfuron flumiclorac-pentyl glyphosate halosulfuron imazaquin clethodim metribuzin glyphosate + s-metolachlor simazine simazine terbacil ethalfluralin sulfentrazone + cloransulam sulfentrazone imazaquin + pendimethalin metolachlor metolachlor + atrazine pyrithiobac dicamba + diflufenzopyr nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + atrazine pendimethalin dicamba clopyralid acifluorfen + bentazon nicosulfuron + thifensulfuron ethalfluralin + clomazone diclosulam prometryn + trifloxysulfuron Mode(s) of Action1 5 5 3 2 2 2 14 2 2+2 14 9 2 2 1 5 9 + 15 5 5 5 3 14 + 2 14 2+3 15 15 + 5 2 4 + 19 2+2 2+2+5 3 4 4 14 + 6 2+2 3 + 13 2 5+2 (continued) 117 . Herbicide Ingredients and Modes of Action Brand Name(s) Princep. Select Max Sencor Sequence Simazine Sim-Trol Sinbar Sonalan Sonic Spartan Squadron Stalwart.

4-D (numerous brands) 2. different binding behavior than groups 5 and 6 Inhibition of lipid synthesis – not ACCase inhibition EPSP synthase inhibition Glutamine synthetase inhibition Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis at PDS Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis.4-D 2.4-D + dicamba halosulfuron + dicamba 2. Herbicide Ingredients and Modes of Action Brand Name(s) Sutan Surpass Synchrony XP Targa TopNotch Treflan Triangle Trifluralin Trigger Trilin Trizmet II Trust Ultra Blazer Valor SX Valor XLT Vision Volley Volley ATZ Volunteer Weedmaster Yukon 2.4-DB (numerous brands) 1 Active Ingredient(s) butylate acetochlor chlorimuron + thifensulfuron quizalofop acetochlor trifluralin metolachlor + atrazine trifluralin clethodim trifluralin metolachlor + atrazine trifluralin acifluorfen flumioxazin flumioxazin + cloransulam dicamba acetochlor acetochlor + atrazine clethodim 2.4-DB Mode(s) of Action1 8 15 2+2 1 15 3 15 + 5 3 1 3 15 + 5 3 14 14 14 + 2 4 15 15 + 5 1 4+4 2+4 4 4 The numerical system to describe modes of action is taken from the Weed Science Society of America. Modes of action are as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 17 19 22 27 ACCase inhibition ALS inhibition Microtubule assembly inhibition Synthetic auxin Photosystem II. different binding behavior than groups 6 and 7 Photosystem II.Table 10-8. different binding behavior than groups 5 and 7 Photosystem II. unknown target PPO inhibition Inhibition of very long-chain fatty acids Unknown mode of action Auxin transport inhibition Photosystem I electron diversion Inhibition of HPPD 118 .

or Valor SX4 preplant followed by Cotoran. Direx. or Prowl preemergence Lighter infestations: Glyphosate 119 No Palmer emerged: Glyphosate + Dual Magnum5 or Sequence Palmer < 2 in. or Prowl preemergence Roundup Ready Heavier infestations: Glyphosate + Dual Magnum5 or Sequence No Yes Cotoran. Direx.Table 10-9. Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Roundup Ready and Liberty Link Cotton1 Postemergence 1. or Valor SX4 preplant followed by Cotoran. or Prowl.to 4-leaf cotton Layby options (Palmer < in. Reflex + Prowl. or Prowl. Direx.: Glyphosate + Staple LX3 Roundup Ready Yes No Reflex + Direx. or Direx + Staple LX3 preemergence. or Valor SX4 preplant followed by Direx + Staple or Prowl + Staple preemergence MSMA + Direx MSMA + Layby Pro MSMA + Suprend MSMA + Valor SX (continued) . preemergence.) Cotton variety Lighter infestations: Glyphosate Heavier infestations: Glyphosate + Dual Magnum5 or Sequence MSMA + Direx MSMA + Layby Pro MSMA + Suprend MSMA + Valor SX Glyphosate + Direx Glyphosate + Layby Pro Glyphosate + Suprend Glyphosate + Valor SX MSMA + Direx MSMA + Layby Pro MSMA + Valor SX Glyphosate + Direx Glyphosate + Layby Pro Glyphosate + Valor SX Glyphosate resistance suspected ALS resistance suspected Preplant or Preemergence2 Roundup Ready No No Cotoran. Direx. preemergence.

Strip-tillage following Valor application will eliminate residual control by Valor in the tilled strip. Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Roundup Ready and Liberty Link Cotton1 Postemergence 1. or Direx + Staple LX3 preemergence. brands containing s-metolachlor are more effective on Palmer amaranth and other weeds. 4 For no-till cotton. On medium- and fine-textured soils. Direx. a mixture of R and S isomers. trifluralin (Treflan). Valor SX must be applied preplant 14 to 21 days ahead of planting. 5 Dual Magnum contains s-metolachlor. . 2 Prowl or Treflan may be applied preplant incorporated in lieu of Prowl preemergence. Generic brands of pendimethalin (Prowl). A preemergence herbicide application in a band over the tilled strip should be considered.Table 10-9. The generic brands Brawl and Medal also contain s-metolachlor.and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth are very serious concerns. and diuron (Direx) are available and perform well. fluometuron (Cotoran). or Valor SX4 preplant follwed by Cotoran. Per unit of product.: Ignite + Dual Magnum5 Palmer > 2 in. use Cotoran or Direx in lieu of Reflex.: Ignite + Staple LX3 Palmer 1 to 2 in. or Prowl 120 1 Glyphosate. Reflex + Direx.to 4-leaf cotton Layby options (Palmer < in. or Valor SX4preplant followed by Prowl + Direx Palmer 1 to 2 in. All applications in fields with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth should be broadcast. See comments in Table 10-1. Other generic brands contain metolachlor. or Prowl Liberty Link Yes Yes Reflex + Prowl. Prowl or Treflan incorporated may be more effective than Prowl preemergence. Sequence contains a mixture of glyphosate plus s-metolachlor. Direx. A broadcast preemergence application following Valor is recommended in fields with heavy infestations or where glyphosate resistance is expected. Staple use should be limited to one application per year.) MSMA + Direx MSMA + Layby Pro MSMA + Valor SX Cotton variety Glyphosate + Dual Magnum5 or Sequence before Palmer emergence Glyphosate resistance suspected ALS resistance suspected Preplant or Preemergence2 Roundup Ready Yes Yes Reflex + Direx. or Reflex + Prowl preemergence.or Reflex + Direx preemergence.: Ignite + Dual Magnum5 MSMA + Direx MSMA + Layby Pro MSMA + Valor SX MSMA + Direx MSMA + Layby Pro MSMA + Suprend MSMA + Valor SX Liberty Link Yes or No No Reflex + Prowl. An aggressive management program is necessary to slow spread of resistant biotypes and to reduce selection pressure in areas currently not infested with resistant biotypes. 3 To reduce selection for ALS resistance. or Valor SX4 preplant followed by Cotoran.

Prowl.and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth are very serious concerns. Additional herbicide options are available for soybeans not rotated with cotton. glyphosate + Reflex11. do not rely on gly-phosate alone postemergence. Follow label directions carefully for use rates on various soils. 3. or glyphosate + Ultra Blazer14 Glyphosate + Flexstar11. Reflex13. or Valor SX13 + Prowl Glyphosate.5 pt for Palmer amaranth up to 4 inches. Envive5. 14 Control of emerged Palmer amaranth will be similar with Flexstar. Valor) preemergence since a postemergence PPO inhibitor (Flexstar. a mixture of R and S isomers. or Valor SX 2. Reflex. Per unit of prod-uct. 9 One can apply glyphosate alone to control weeds other than Palmer amaranth. Intrro.13 + Prowl. Envive5. Prefix6. Injury may occur on lighter soils.Table 10-10. 7 Follow Sencor label directions carefully for use rates on various soils. Envive5.12. 6 Prefix contains a mixture of s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum) plus fomesafen (Reflex or Flexstar). Increase rate to 1.13. heavy infestations Yes Yes or No Boundary2. or Ultra Blazer (Palmer greater than 3 to 4 inches). Soybean Variety Roundup Ready Glyphosate Resistance Suspected No. Injury may occur on light soils. lighter infestations ALS resistance expected Yes or No Preemergence Boundary Canopy Dual Magnum4. Sencor7. Prefix6. Reflex.13. or Valor SX13 Glyphosate. Envive5. Canopy3. 8 Sequence contains a mixture of glyphosate plus s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum). Other generic brands contain metolachlor. 4 Dual Magnum contains s-metolachlor. Apply Flexstar or Reflex at 1 pt/acre when mixed with Classic.12. Storm. Intrro. Flexstar and Reflex will provide additional residual control whereas Ultra Blazer does not. If glyphosate resis-tance is suspected and Palmer amaranth escapes the preemergence treatment. Reflex. 5 Envive contains a mixture of flumioxazin (Valor SX) and chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron (Synchrony). tall. Follow label directions carefully for use rates on various soils. An aggressive man-agement program is necessary to slow the spread of resistant biotypes and to reduce selection pres-sure in areas currently not infested with resistant biotypes. 10 Harmony SG is an ALS inhibitor. it is preferred to not use a PPO inhibitor (Envive. Sencor7. Prefix. or Valor SX Boundary2. or glyphosate + Ultra Blazer14 No Yes Yes Boundary2. 2 (continued) 121 . Canopy3. glyphosate + Flexstar11. 1 Boundary contains a mixture of s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum) plus metribuzin (Sencor). Canopy plus Prowl. see 2009 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual. Ultra Blazer) will likely be needed postemer-gence. brands containing smetolachlor are more effective on Palmer amaranth and other weeds. How-ever. Use suggested only where ALS resistance is not suspected and where Palmer amaranth are too large for Flexstar. Injury may occur on light soils. Reflex. glyphosate + Dual Magnum4. Intrro. Sencor7. Reflex. Reflex. Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybeans Rotated with Cotton1. Prefix6. glyphosate + Reflex11. and Ultra Blazer. Canopy + Intrro.12.12. 13 To reduce potential to select for PPO resistance (see Table 10-8 for listing of herbicide modes of action). or Sequence8 Glyphosate9. glyphosate + Harmony SG10. 3 Canopy contains a mixture of metribuzin (Sencor) plus chlorimuron (Classic). Storm. The generic brands Brawl and Medal also contain s-metolachlor. 12 Apply Flexstar or Reflex at 1 pt/acre to Palmer amaranth up to 2 in. Canopy3 + Dual Magnum. Postemergence Glyphosate No. 11 Do not use Flexstar or Reflex postemergence if Prefix was applied preemergence.

Prefix6. Sencor + Intrro. tall. Reflex. 11 Do not use Flexstar or Reflex postemergence if Prefix was applied preemergence. 10 Harmony SG is an ALS inhibitor. Injury may occur on lighter soils. Ultra Blazer) will likely be needed postemer-gence. Envive5. Envive5.12.12. Reflex11. Canopy plus Prowl. Canopy3 + Dual Magnum4. 3 Canopy contains a mixture of metribuzin (Sencor) plus chlorimuron (Classic). Storm. or Ultra Blazer (Palmer greater than 3 to 4 inches). see 2009 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.13 + Prowl. and Ultra Blazer.13.13 + Prowl. Canopy + Intrro. Prowl + Reflex13. Increase rate to 1. Valor) preemergence since a postemergence PPO inhibitor (Flexstar. Canopy + Intrro. Use suggested only where ALS resistance is not suspected and where Palmer amaranth are too large for Flexstar. Canopy + Intrro. Canopy plus Prowl. Flexstar and Reflex will provide additional residual control whereas Ultra Blazer does not.and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth are very serious concerns.13. or Ultra Blazer + Harmony SG Flexstar11. Storm. Flexstar + Harmony SG10. Reflex + Harmony SG.12. 5 Envive contains a mixture of flumioxazin (Valor SX) and chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron (Synchrony). Reflex. Additional herbicide options are available for soybeans not rotated with cotton. Canopy plus Prowl. Follow label directions carefully for use rates on various soils. Canopy plus Prowl. Reflex. Reflex + Harmony SG. Storm. Other generic brands contain metolachlor. 12 Apply Flexstar or Reflex at 1 pt/acre to Palmer amaranth up to 2 in. Soybean Variety Conventional Glyphosate Resistance Suspected Yes or No. 9 One can apply glyphosate alone to control weeds other than Palmer amaranth.5 pt for Palmer amaranth up to 4 inches. Dual Magnum4. Envive5.Canopy3 + Dual Magnum4. or Sencor + Prowl Yes or No Yes Conventional with sicklepod Yes or No Yes or No Flexstar11. Injury may occur on light soils. do not rely on gly-phosate alone postemergence.12 + Classic. How-ever. Canopy + Intrro. Storm + Harmony SG.13 + Prowl. Flexstar + Harmony SG10. Storm. Reflex. Prefix. Canopy + Dual Magnum. Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybeans Rotated with Cotton1. 14 Control of emerged Palmer amaranth will be similar with Flexstar. a mixture of R and S isomers. Ultra Blazer14. Intrro. or Prowl + Valor SX13 Boundary2. 4 Dual Magnum contains s-metolachlor. Reflex11. or Ultra Blazer14 + Classic Glyphosate. Prefix6.12. or Prowl + Valor SX13 2 3 Postemergence Flexstar11. 6 Prefix contains a mixture of s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum) plus fomesafen (Reflex or Flexstar).Table 10-10.12 + Classic. Sencor7 + Dual Magnum. it is preferred to not use a PPO inhibitor (Envive. heavier infestations No Boundary2. Reflex11.12.12. 1 Boundary contains a mixture of s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum) plus metribuzin (Sencor). Follow label directions carefully for use rates on various soils. lighter infestations ALS resistance expected No Preemergence Boundary . If glyphosate resis-tance is suspected and Palmer amaranth escapes the preemergence treatment. Apply Flexstar or Reflex at 1 pt/acre when mixed with Classic. or Ultra Blazer + Harmony SG Flexstar11. Prefix6. The generic brands Brawl and Medal also contain s-metolachlor. Reflex11. 2 122 . 8 Sequence contains a mixture of glyphosate plus s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum). Per unit of prod-uct. 7 Follow Sencor label directions carefully for use rates on various soils. or Prowl + Valor SX13 Boundary2.13. Storm + Harmony SG. Canopy3 + Dual Magnum. Injury may occur on light soils. brands containing smetolachlor are more effective on Palmer amaranth and other weeds. An aggressive man-agement program is necessary to slow the spread of resistant biotypes and to reduce selection pres-sure in areas currently not infested with resistant biotypes. or Ultra Blazer14 Yes or No. 13 To reduce potential to select for PPO resistance (see Table 10-8 for listing of herbicide modes of action). Ultra Blazer14.

and vegeta-bles. Lariat. Bullet.1 Corn hybrid Conventional 2 Glyphosate resistance suspected Yes or no Preemergence Bicep II Magnum. Use only amine formulations of 2. 3 The maximum allowable rate of atrazine per year is 2. or Lexar at 66% normal rate Bicep II Magnum. Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Corn Rotated with Cotton. glyphosate + Impact. or Outlook Bicep II Magnum.or 2. and Status. Guardsman Max. 5 Use extreme caution to avoid drift to sensitive crops. Liberty + dicamba4.i. See labels for rotational restrictions. glyphosate + Impact. Lariat.4-D5 or Evik or Linex Liberty Link Yes or no. Distinct. 7 Halex GT contains glyphosate plus s-metolachlor plus mesotrione 1 123 . glyphosate + dicamba4.Table 10-11.4-D5 or Evik or Linex Roundup Ready No No 2. 4 Dicamba-containing products include Banvel. These products may not provide the same length of residual control as Dual Magnum (which contains s-metolachlor). tobacco. Clarity. soybeans.5. Guardsman Max.5. or Lexar Light infestation: None Heavy infestation: Atrazine at full rate or Bicep II Magnum. such as cotton. or Lexar Postemergence as Needed Atrazine . 2 See 2009 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual for additional options.5. glyphosate + dicamba4. Heavier infestations Liberty + atrazine3 2.4-D5 or Evik or Linex Glyphosate.5.4-D5 or Evik or Linex Liberty + atrazine3 . Guardsman Max. Bullet. Dual Magnum6. Lariat. MicroTech. Carryover to cotton should not be a concern.4-D5 3 Layby as Needed 2. Bullet.Lighter infestations Yes or no. or Halex7 + atrazine Glyphosate + atrazine3. An aggressive manage-ment program is necessary to slow spread of resistant biotypes and to reduce selection pressure in areas currently not infested with resistant biotypes. Follow all label directions for drift management. Lariat. dicamba4.4-D5 or Evik or Linex 2. or Halex7 + atrazine 2. atrazine + Impact. glyphosate + atrazine3.and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth are very serious concerns.5 lb a. Guardsman Max. or Liberty + Impact Glyphosate + atrazine Glyphosate. or Lexar Atrazine.4-D5 or Evik or Linex Yes 2. 6 Generic brands containing metolachlor are available.4-D. Bullet.

or Ultra Blazer Glyphosate. Storm. Strongarm is suggested only when other non-ALS options are not adequate for the weeds expected. Storm.) Cobra.and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth are very serious concerns. or Ultra Blazer Cobra.Table 10-12. Storm. Cadre or Pursuit may be included with Cobra. or Ultra Blazer Cobra. or Ultra Blazer Cobra. Cadre and Pursuit are ALS inhibitors. Cotton should not be planted the year following Cadre application. 2 3 Apply cracking or early postemergence treatment only if weeds are emerged. or Ultra Blazer Cobra. Herbicide Programs for Palmer Amaranth Control in Peanuts Rotated with Cotton. a mixture of Cobra. Storm. or Gramoxone + Storm Dual Magnum5 or Outlook + Gramoxone + Basagran Postemergence3 (Palmer < 3 in.1 Preplant Incorporated Prowl4 or Sonalan + Dual Magnum5 or Outlook Prowl4 or Sonalan Prowl4 or Sonalan Prowl4 or Sonalan Valor Strongarm6 Valor + Dual Magnum5 or Outlook Strongarm6 + Dual Magnum5 or Outlook 1 Preemergence Cracking or early postemergence2 (Palmer < 2 in. 4 5 Generic brands of pendimethalin (Prowl) are available and perform similarly. 6 124 . However. Because of concerns with weed resistance to ALS inhibitors. Because of concerns with weed resistance to ALS inhibitors. An aggressive management program is necessary to slow the spread of the resistant biotypes and to reduce selection pressure in areas currently not infested with resistant biotypes. Gramoxone + Basagran. see supplemental Pursuit label for details. Cotton can be planted the year following application of Pursuit if certain conditions are met. Storm. or Ultra Blazer with Cadre or Pursuit would be preferred over Cadre or Pursuit alone. these products may not provide the same length of residual control as Dual Magnum (which contains S-metolachlor). Strongarm is an ALS inhibitor. Generic brands of metolachlor are available. Storm. Storm.) Gramoxone. or Ultra Blazer Cobra. Storm. or Ultra Blazer if needed for control of other species.

11. Because no weevils have been found in the Southeast for the past four years. producers can keep insect damage to a minimum following five practices: Recognize the major pest and beneficial insects. module builders. begun in 1978 on approximately 15.  Use cultural and biological controls when possible. In three replicated thrips tests conducted during the normal planting window. Insect control costs in North Carolina are lower than in most other regions of the cotton belt. though individual cases of very high and very low levels were experienced in areas of the state. boll weevils may still be unintentionally transported back into weevil-free areas. pests such as bollworms and stink bugs lower lint quality directly by feeding and indirectly by causing maturity delays. These “hitchhikers” are most often the result of either passive transport of weevils aboard vehicles or cotton equipment. The Boll Weevil Eradication Program. However.  Adhere to recommended thresholds. The Southeastern Boll Weevil Foundation has now assumed monitoring responsibilities for our largescale. Bacheler Entomology Extension Specialist Cotton insect pests can cause significant yield losses from the time of plant emergence through boll maturity. Additionally. and module haulers.  Follow established scouting procedures. North Carolina cotton producers will be assessed a fee of $1. the Mid South. MANAGING INSECTS ON COTTON Jack S. and most of the Far West. such as cotton pickers.25 in 2010. providing our producers with an economic advantage over their counterparts elsewhere.  Follow insecticide-use recommendations designed to stall resistance. pheromone trap-based Boll Weevil Containment program. resulted in the eradication of the boll weevil from the southeastern United States.  Apply insecticides quickly after a threshold has been reached. the pheromone trapping density and associated containment costs have been reduced during the past 5 years.000 acres in northeastern North Carolina. However. Thrips Thrips levels were generally moderate most areas of the state. an average of 204 pounds of 2009 Cotton Insect Summary 125 .

Bollgard.05 percent damage to bolls on conventional. with an average of just over 80 percent of the cotton acreage treated with a foliar insecticide following the use of a seed treatment such as Avicta or Aeris. Fall armyworms.” and in the fungus Neozygites fresenii in reducing cotton aphids to subeconomic levels in most cases. Foliar treatments were also down in 2009. Bollworms caused an average of 1.3.91. and Bollgard II cotton. with only 1.7. were also very low. 0. Stink Bugs Stink bug damage to bolls was moderate across most of the state in 2009. Though not as low as in 2008. Other caterpillars Beet armyworms and soybean loopers.8. causing a mean of approximately 5. were moderate in some areas of the state this past year. however. Bollworm The major late-season bollworm moth flights were mostly low to occasionally moderate in 2009. Plant Bugs Plant bugs were also very light during both the pre-bloom and blooming period across most of the state again in 2009. and under 50 percent following Temik. though occasionally found in cotton in 2009.25 and 0. the average boll damage cited above for bollworms was extremely low for all technologies. To our knowledge. 126 . In one situation near Irish potatoes (an attractive host for plant bugs).0 percent of our cotton acreage treated in 2009. which is somewhat less lost than during the past three years. however. 0. 5. migrating plant bugs from potato plants during harvest were high enough to trigger up to 3 insecticide applications for plant bugs in adjacent and nearby cotton.lint was lost to thrips (Temik 15 at 5 pounds vs. Growers and consultants have become more confident of the effectiveness of beneficial insects. Temik was used on approximately half of North Carolina’s cotton acreage (46 percent) and seed treatments were used on the remainder (54 percent). Bollgard. respectively. very little of the limited cotton acreage on which Temik was used along with a seed treatment was treated subsequently with a foliar insecticide for thrips. but caused little economic damage. the odds of needing to treat for spider mites and cotton aphids is higher following the use of seed treatments than following Temik.5 percent internal damage to bolls on conventional. WideStrike. In 2009. Though the trend was not apparent in 2009. respectively. the untreated check). and Bollgard II cotton. primarily “mummies.5. and 3. Cotton Aphids Aphids were generally a minor problem on most farms. 5. in most years. WideStrike.

2006. In this case. thrips damage may have become worse in recent years. Also. When a systemic insecticide fails to control thrips. Aphid and mite populations may increase. a foliar spray may be warranted. However. keeping the plants susceptible longer and exceeding the time frame of the product’s effectiveness. as was the case across much of our acreage in 2005. This in turn may force large numbers of flying adult thrips to abandon these plants in search of younger. This damage stunts growth. far more persistent. Then they consume plant juices. Damage from thrips can be significant when plants fail to grow because of cool conditions. Gaucho Grande. and sometimes produces higher yields. Dry weather may inhibit the uptake of at-planting insecticides. greener hosts. for example. and reduced yields. systemic insecticide (Temik 15G) or seed treatment (Cruiser. or 4) some combination of the above. making the seedlings more susceptible to damage. The following are several options for controlling thrips: 1. Thrips damage cotton seedlings by puncturing and rasping the outer cells of young leaves and buds. and in 2008. Avicta Complete. Avicta. The thrips control provided by Cruiser. Dry spring weather also results in the premature drying of alternate thrips hosts (for example. dry weather may retard the uptake and performance of the product used. Thrips control options are 1) treated seed. as was the case in 2007. As mentioned above. Even when a soil-applied systemic insecticide is used.Bt Cotton Varieties Bt varieties (those that have been genetically altered to express the caterpillar toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis) were planted on just over 98 percent of the state’s cotton acreage in 2009. in some cases. Temik 15 G—Temik at 5 pounds of product per acre generally provides good thrips 127 . Despite somewhat of a break in 2009. this pest group must be controlled every year. An at-planting. extended cool weather may delay plant growth. resulting in fruiting at higher positions. and Aeris is similar. various crops like wheat and weeds) during dry periods. Gaucho Grande. 3) foliar application(s). In most cases. maturity delays. and Aeris). the persistence of a product’s activity can be very important. Early-Season Insect Management Thrips Thrips are probably North Carolina’s and Virginia’s most economically damaging insect complex. Because thrips have the potential to cause significant yield losses and maturity delays. a spray may give rise to other problems. the use of an at-planting insecticide is successful and is recommended over a foliar-spray-only approach because it is less disruptive to the beneficial insects. thrips may still occur in damaging numbers. 2) at-planting granular insecticide. is recommended. Damage frequently results in ragged-looking plants with crinkled or “possum-eared” leaves. such as cotton seedlings.

This product has not been implicated in phytotoxicity problems noted with the above material under cool.0pound rate (sometimes recommended for nematodes) can sometimes show phytotoxicity symptoms. whichever comes first. If cotton is planted after May 15 to 20. and adhere to the Worker Protection Standard requirements. it may show poor uptake under very dry conditions. averaged over the past ten years. 3 pounds of Temik 15 G should suffice. or three weeks after planting. 128 . like other at-planting insecticides. In pre-blooming cotton. plant bugs have required treatment on approximately 6 percent of the cotton acreage in North Carolina. just as with Gaucho. where long residual activity is usually unnecessary. 4. Plant Bugs Prior to bloom. plant bugs. Avicta Complete and Aeris – Avicta Complete (Cruiser. a seed treatment without a follow-up spray) and sometimes provided earlier fruit maturity. A foliar treatment for thrips is usually needed with Gaucho Grande-treated seed and is often tank-mixed with an early herbicide. although.html). ideally in first true leaf cotton. Temik at the 7.control and suppression of thrips for up to 4. For recommended scouting procedures for thrips and other insects. the nematicide thiodicarb. Gaucho Grande without a follow-up spray may also fit in cotton planted after May 15 to 20. the need to spray for spider mites following Temik is generally less than that following a seed treatment plus the recommended foliar treatment for thrips. damage cotton by feeding in tender terminals and.ncsu. causing the squares to abort. Additionally. The correct calibration with at-planting insecticides is important. A foliar insecticide is recommended to compensate for this product’s short residual activity. directly on small squares with their needle-like mouthparts. producers should plan on an insecticide application at the first true leaf stage or within approximately three weeks after planting with either product. On-farm and research station tests have shown that Temik often gave a yield advantage over other alternatives (for example. or Lygus. and Gaucho Grande is very safe to humans and wildlife. plus the nematicide abemectin. 3. 2. Consult the label carefully before using this product. In rare instances. Gaucho Grande—In replicated 2005 to 2009 tests. refer to the Cotton Insect Scouting Guide (ENT-cot-6 in brochure form or at http://ipm. Generally. plus the three-way fungicide Dynasty) and Aeris (Gaucho Grande.edu/cotton/insects/ scout_insects. more commonly. Cruiser Seed Treatment—Cruiser seed treatment is in the same insecticide class as Gaucho Grande and shows thrips activity similar to Gaucho’s. these benefits offset the relatively high cost of the product.5 or 6 weeks. plus fungicides added either by the manufacturer or dealer) offer thrips control similar to Cruiser and Gaucho Grande. Thus. wet conditions. Temik is very toxic to humans when wet. Gaucho Grande provided thrips control for approximately three weeks.

square retention is a less reliable indicator of possible plant bug feeding. is recommended. This boll damage is often identical to that caused by stink bugs. such as Bt cottons. indicating that reproduction has occurred. Early-season monitoring for plant bug activity. However. primarily in southern and in parts of northeastern North Carolina.or secondposition square (or its missing position) two or three nodes from the top of the plant are inspected per plant from 25 randomly selected plants within a field (50 squares total). Budworm and Bollworm Resistance to Pyrethroids Unlike several Mid South and western cotton-growing states whose producers must sometimes treat portions of three or four tobacco budworm generations per year in conventional cotton. At this point. one terminal square (or its missing position) and one first. especially retention counts of small squares (approximately ⅛ to 3/16 inches long. plant bug feeding on small bolls up to approximately 11 days old may cause stink-bug-like external boll spotting and internal boll damage. However. deformed or rotted fruit. or where Irish potatoes or a substantial acreage of corn is present. If nymphs are also easily seen. Plant bug damage to bolls is more common in untreated or minimally treated cotton. for small bolls with signs of internal bug damage. Once blooming has been underway for two to three weeks. and other first-or second-position squares drop below the 80 percent level. which causes “dirty blooms” (white blooms with darkened pollen anthers and sometimes with small circular deformities on the petals). the plant may show natural square loss due to mostly weather-related reasons and energy directed to bolls. the population is regarded as potentially more damaging to squares and young bolls. Plant bugs are capable of causing all of the damage symptoms shown in Table 11-1. plant bug damage can occasionally occur in blooming cotton before the major bollworm moth flight. These areas are a likely source of migrating adult plant bugs.When blooming begins. Additionally. If retention rates of small. To date. Late-season damage by plant bugs may be assessed by monitoring cotton plants for dirty blooms. in the past decade our growers have treated only 1 to 8 percent of their cotton acreage for the June to early-July budworm generation. plant bugs continue to feed on smaller squares and also on larger squares. such as callous growth (warts). essentially all of the cotton now planted in NC (over 98 percent) is either single or stacked Bt gene cotton. including bracts). If square retention counts remain high (80 percent or more). upper. further sampling for live plant bugs may be needed. Usually. or small boll abortion. and for the plant bugs themselves via sweep nets and/or drop cloths. further sampling for plant bugs is probably unnecessary. no tobacco budworms have survived on a Bt cotton plant in the field from a naturally-occurring tobacco budworm population. Drop cloth (ground cloth) sampling is usually the preferred method of direct sampling for plant bugs once blooming is underway. Be mindful of field edges along ditch banks. adjacent host plants such as weedy flowering fields. Sweep net sampling for plant bug adults and large nymphs typically involves the taking of 25 sweeps at 8 to 10 locations per cotton field and is recommended before bloom. 129 .

typically composed of mostly bollworms. Third-generation (sometimes referred to as the second field. and because cotton damaged at this time of year usually compensates little for boll damage. resulting in a loss of apical dominance (crazy cotton). and in Bollgard. leaving a scar at the fruiting site. Bollgard II. and stink bugs can be moderate to serious pests in low bollworm treatment situations in conventional cotton. and stained lint. Bolls Plant bug. and finally aborting. or F2.Table 11-1. small petal deformations. same as above. Bollworms in Conventional Cotton The first two generations of bollworms occur primarily on field corn.” wart-like growths. generation) moths usually emerge in large numbers from mid July to early August when corn is drying. the start of the major mid-July to early-August bollworm (corn earworm) moth flight usually signals the onset of potential bollworm and stink bug damage. external spotting. Because of the potential for severe boll damage from one or more of the above pests. hard lock. then black. Small squares Squares yellowing. European corn borers (ECB) and fall armyworms (FAW) also occasionally cause some boll damage in some years (although not in Widestrike or Bollgard II cotton). blooming cotton. is the primary target for foliar insecticides in conventional cotton. Plant Bug and Stink Bug Damage to Cotton Plants Plant stage Prebloom Plant part Terminals Bug type Plant bug Damage symptoms With heavy feeding. may cause boll rots. terminals may be deformed or killed. Darkened pollen anthers (dirty blooms). or WideStrike cotton. internal feeding “stings. Mid-Season Insect Management 130 . Stink bug Aborted small bolls. Although technically beginning at first bloom in late June to early July. Blooming Various squares White blooms Small squares. larger squares with internal damage to pollen anthers. turning brown. insect damage to bolls must be minimized during all or part of late July through mid-to-late August in North Carolina. and they fly to the more attractive. The bollworm-tobacco budworm complex. Stink bugs are now the dominant late-season pest in Bt cottons.

depending on the insecticide rate used. pyrethroids may be ineffective. and dried flowers and on stems. in some years this species does not reach North Carolina cotton fields in appreciable numbers. with the emphasis on finding eggs and small worms. Deploying tobacco budworm pheromone traps. the tobacco budworm. Bollworm scouting can normally be stopped at that time—usually in late August to early September. Weekly scouting is adequate until egg laying or light-trap catches increase. particularly in the more northern counties.edu/cotton/insectcorner/. If 20 to 25 percent or more budworms are suspected or confirmed as part of the bollworm/budworm flight. tobacco budworm populations persist into the major bollworm moth flight period. a 4. After the upper bolls that will be harvested have become difficult to cut with a pocketknife.to 7-day scouting schedule usually will suffice for conventional cotton. the egg pressure. if this species is present. especially in fields of late-maturing cotton or in green areas. and the susceptibility of the cotton plants.Systematic. Tracer. the counts from approximately 20 light traps are available online during the moth flight at http://ipm. European Corn Borer Note: Although the management of the European corn borer (ECB) is discussed in some 131 . fields should be scouted weekly (and a proportion of these fields twice weekly). although light traps are ineffective in monitoring budworm moths. the field is normally safe from further bollworm attack. Spot scouting for FAW in conventional or Bollgard fields should continue through approximately September 1. Once the egg threshold has been met and treatment(s) made (see “Thresholds” section). After the onset of the moth flight and initial application(s). Because FAW are migratory pests. especially clusters of 5 to 10 traps on a farm. Fields are also normally safe from further bollworm establishment when blooms and/or non-terminal squares are less than one per 1 to 2 row feet or more. pink. Because tobacco budworm adults are not readily attracted to black-light traps and because they sometimes begin laying eggs on cotton before the bollworm egg threshold is met.ncsu. However. At times. (Check with your county Extension agent for possible light-trap counts for the major bollworm moth flights. until insecticide treatments begin. and the use of either Steward. Employing an egg threshold remains the most profitable way to manage this generation of bollworms in conventional cotton. pheromone traps are not always a reliable indicator of moth levels and attract only males. regular weekly scouting of conventional (non-Bt) cotton for the bollworm and its cousin. so one should interpret pheromone counts cautiously. the primary focus of scouting shifts toward finding small bollworms feeding on squares and bolls. occasional fields may reach a 3 percent larval threshold on conventional cotton before bollworm treatment begins. and correctly identifying adult tobacco budworm moths within fields can help you recognize this situation.) At the beginning of the major bollworm moth flight. additionally. particularly down in the plant canopy or in yellow. including those under pink flowers and bloom tags. Eggs also should be monitored. should begin in early to mid July in North Carolina. or Belt may be more appropriate for the initial application. Coragen. however. Denim.

flat egg masses. Under this condition. Limiting ECB damage to bolls can be difficult. The flight peak of the major August to early September ECB generation usually occurs a few days to three weeks later than the peak of the major bollworm flight. However. Fortunately. usually in mid July through late August. penetrating caterpillars are spotted too late to achieve effective control. In rank or late-maturing cotton. 132 . Because finding the egg masses is virtually impossible and the live. because egg laying of the corn earworm (from its major flight) usually occurs somewhat earlier than the ECB flight. additional application(s) may be required for adequate suppression. An insecticide should be selected that is effective against both insects (see recommendation tables in the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual). Although this damage looks serious. ECB moths around or within cotton fields. sometimes within 48 hours. An earlier tunneling type of damage may occur within stems and leaf petioles. but then they begin to enter and feed on large bolls. can help confirm the need for this extended treatment. especially if they show rank growth. Finding moths of this species in local light or pheromone traps. are hard to find. flat. most infested bolls are destroyed. fields may be susceptible. The female moths lay small. no control threshold has been developed for the ECB. particularly if stem tunnel penetration and the associated “sawdust”-like frass (droppings) are noted. or flushing the adults from around or within cotton fields. Treatment at this time is targeted at trying to prevent or minimize further establishment of ECB larvae. employing the egg threshold for bollworm control usually works well for ECB if treatments are extended into the ECB infestation period. Growers instead must depend on another observation as a trigger for directing insecticides against this pest. this damage has been minimal for the past decade. boll damage can be significant. BG II. If small larvae are present (3 percent or more associated with bolls). scouting to detect the caterpillars is advised. However. or Widestrike cotton. located on the undersides of leaves. treatment may be indicated if an active flight is confirmed—that is. By the time the larvae are found feeding on or within bolls. This approach is recommended only where late rank growth points toward a high probability of ECB damage. At first. insecticidal treatments are usually ineffective. particularly after mid August. with wilting and eventual death of the tissue above the feeding site. Larvae of the ECB damage cotton by feeding on medium and large bolls of conventional cotton from early August through mid September. Although the caterpillars of this species generally do not feed as extensively within the bolls as do bollworms. it causes no known economic loss. this pest species has been almost absent from North Carolina cotton (even conventional cotton) during the last decade. scale-like egg masses that contain 15 to 75 eggs each on the underside of cotton leaves deep within the canopy. This species causes very little damage to Bollgard. early instars feed within the leaf petioles and stems. The small.detail below. even by trained scouts searching a moderately infested field. If the major part of the ECB flight occurs after the bollworm flight has subsided and spraying has been completed.

At this time. Internally. stink bug damage to bolls is more common than plant bug damage in most areas of the state in most years. Where the bollworm population is high enough that the field has been treated twice or more (as is often the case with conventional cotton). often the case with Bollgard.” Internal boll damage may be present without obvious external evidence. bug-damaged bolls will often have a yellowish to tan to brown stain in the seed areas. At present. When stink bugs feed on slightly larger to medium-sized bolls (up to about 3. purplish depressions. Stink bug damage is more prevalent in fields where bollworm treatments have been minimal (that is. be reduced enough to limit damage to low levels. the external boll spotting caused by stink bugs and plant bugs may be difficult to separate from other kinds of spotting on the boll surface. boll damage is characterized by small.European corn borers seldom become established on Bt cotton varieties. none or one in North Carolina). 133 . Stink Bugs In situations of low insecticide use. round. developing seeds. shallow. and WideStrike cotton. that caused by bloom tags that adhere to the side of the boll. These spots tend to be larger than the tiny gossypol gland spots usually seen on maturing bolls. often. Other damage symptoms include small wart-like growths and/ or dark “pin prick” spots on the inside of the boll wall. research into using external damage from stink bugs as a potentially more efficient way to scout is underway. stink bug levels were already high in many cotton fields prior to the onset of blooming during the last week of June. for example. However. Also.to 1/16-inch range. stink bug numbers will usually. but not always. Stink bugs often invade cotton fields in early to mid July and may reach damaging levels from this time through late August and sometimes into early September. they may introduce boll-rot pathogens. BG II. Heavy feeding on rare occasions completely destroys small bolls. hard-lock. Externally. Because stink bug and plant bug damage to bolls is often indistinguishable. usually in the 1/32. resulting in partially or entirely destroyed locks. under the external feeding spots. causing them to abort.5 weeks old). in 2004. damaged bolls may be the result of feeding by either bug group. but not always. Stink bugs damage cotton by puncturing the carpal walls of bolls with their “beaks” and by feeding primarily on the soft. but not external boll spotting or internal “pin pricks. the green stink bug (Acrosternum hilare) and the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) have become more abundant and damaging in recent years. and a lower grade of harvested cotton. We recommend counting stained lint and warts as damage. Research conducted in 2004 though 2009 here and in South Carolina and Georgia suggests that most yield-reducing damage to bolls takes place during weeks 3 to 5 or 6 of blooming.

The distribution of stink bugs and plant bugs in a cotton field may be uneven, with bug numbers and damage higher at field edges and in rank areas, but also dispersed in a clumpy manner throughout the cotton field. Do not oversample unrepresentative areas; however, they should be noted. In Bollgard, BG II, or Widestrike cotton, or in conventional cotton in areas with a history of stink bug damage or light bollworm pressure, a sample of 25 quarter-sized bolls (more in larger cotton fields approximately 1 boll/acre) should be inspected at each scouting session, beginning at early boll development, but with an emphasis on weeks three through six of bloom. To determine if a boll has been damaged by stink bugs, the quarter-sized bolls should either be crushed by hand or cut open to examine the locks and inner boll wall surface. Except for “pin pricks,” count all internal boll damage, including stained or spotted lint and callous growth or inner boll wall warts. Current research suggests that a threshold of 50, then 30 percent internal damage may be more appropriate during the first two weeks of blooming, as well as using higher thresholds later in the boll production period, when the ratio of larger, “safe” bolls to smaller, susceptible bolls increases (Table 11-2). Table 11-2. Suggested stink bug internal boll damage thresholds Week of Bloom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Threshold (%) 50 30 10 10 10 20 30 50

Prior to the 2010 growing season, a stink bug scouting field template should be available to assist cotton scouts in sampling for stink bugs (Figure 1). The template shown in Figure 1 has two sides and provides the recommended threshold information, the correct size of bolls to sample, and images of stink bug damage. Quarter-sized bolls should be too large to fit through the smaller diameter hole (0.9 inches in outside diameter) and small enough to fit though the larger hole (1.1 inches in diameter). The sampling of bolls larger than the recommended size runs the risk of detecting boll damage that occurred earlier and may not reflect an active stink bug population. If two or more consecutive scouting checks reveal stink bug damage at approximately two-thirds of the threshold level, treatment may be justified.

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Side 1

Side 2 Figure 1. Image of field template for stink bug scouting. Color version available at: http://ipm.ncsu.edu/cotton/insectcorner/PDF/Managing%20Stink%20 Bugs%20in%20Cotton.pdf

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Once the damaged-boll threshold has been met, it may be helpful to determine if the brown stink bug (Ecschistus servus) or green stink bug (usually Acrosternum hilare) is the predominate species group, as brown stink bugs are more difficult than green stink bugs to control with pyrethroids. To discover which stink bug species is more prevalent, make general observations while scouting (in the case of high population levels), sample with a beat cloth (six 6-row-foot samples or more until adequate stink bug numbers are observed), or use a sweep net (sample until adequate numbers of stink bugs are observed). Since these observations or samples are conducted solely to determine if the stink bugs are brown or green, they may be done quickly and include visual observations. For beat cloth sampling, a 3-by-3 or 3- by-2.5-foot beat cloth is unfurled between two adjacent rows, and the cotton plants in the two adjoining rows are beaten, or shaken over the cloth, causing the large nymphs and adults to fall onto the cloth so they can be counted. Count any adult stink bugs seen flying if the color can be distinguished. In sweep net sampling, individual sweeps should be made with firm, pendulum-like motions (handle up, net down), swinging down with both hands through the upper middle canopy while walking down the row. If the sweeping motion is correct and vigorous enough, some bolls and leaves usually will be knocked into the net. In either of the above approaches of assessing live stink bugs, count adults and large nymphs. This quicker sampling may be stopped once an adequate sample (approximately 10 stink bugs) has been counted. As the proportion of large “stink bug safe” bolls increases relative to the smaller susceptible bolls during the end of July and throughout August and early September, the threshold may be raised, as indicated in Table 1. Once-a-week scouting for stink bugs on Bt (or minimally treated) cotton is recommended under most situations. External stink bug damage assessments The option of using external stink bug spotting to quarter-sized bolls for treatment decisions is also being investigated. This approach of scouting for stink bug damage appears to be faster than the internal damage assessments now recommended, though deciding what constitutes external damage from stink bugs is difficult. An additional “hybrid” method of boll inspections for stink bug damage is also being evaluated. In this case, external boll damage may be used to more quickly assess whether a threshold has been met in the more obvious cases (for example, finding external damage on the first 5 bolls examined out of a 25-boll sample during week 4 of the bloom period would equal 20 percent damage at a time when only 10 percent internal boll damage was needed to meet the threshold). Also, in cases where treating is less likely (high internal damage thresholds are in place; that is, during the first and after the seventh week of bloom), low external boll damage could cancel the need for the more tedious internal boll examinations.

Bollgard varieties and other Bt cultivars (in 2010, the 2-gene “stacked” lines represented by Bollgard II and WideStrike varieties) control only caterpillars, not other pest insects,

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such as thrips, cotton aphids, plant bugs, and stink bugs. Also, different caterpillar pests are not controlled to the same degree. For example, field tests have shown that tobacco budworms attempting to feed any Bt cotton lines in the field are all killed (at least for now). However, bollworms can damage squares and bolls, though generally at a low rate. Although fall and beet armyworms are not controlled by Bollgard varieties, 2-gene Bt technology typically provides good control of both armyworm species. In BG II cotton, unless bollworm pressure is very high and chemical disruption has occurred such as an overspray with Bidrin or Orthene just prior to or during the bollworm egg lay), sprays for bollworms will probably not be needed in most situations; they are also less likely to be needed on Widestrike than on Bollgard varieties. Because beneficial insects are not adversely affected by Bollgard cotton, their abundance and impact have increased in situations where disruptive insecticide applications are either less frequent or not made. Higher beneficial insect numbers present with fewer sprays for caterpillars have led to somewhat more effective suppression of third-generation bollworms and other caterpillars in Bt cotton lines.

With the exception of seed purchased by September 30, 2009, the planting of Bollgard cotton varieties will no longer per permitted in the U.S. Essentially all cotton planted beginning in 2010 will be composed of at least 2-gene Bt technology (for now, Bollgard II and WideStrike). Because these new lines have been shown to be highly resistant to bollworm establishment, a refuge will no longer be mandated for 2-gene varieties. The effectiveness of Bt genes against North Carolina’s major caterpillar pests is influenced by a number of factors, including the pest in question, the number and effectiveness of Bt gene(s), the level of supplemental, beneficial insect “help,” and the phenology or maturity of the cotton crop. A summary of research collected to date and of producer experiences in North Carolina with Bollgard cotton from 1996 through 2009 suggests that Bollgard cotton, if treated when needed, will usually provide better bollworm and European corn borer control than that provided by insecticides alone in conventional cotton under most grower circumstances. Under irrigation, and/or if a beneficial-insect-reducing spray is applied just before or early in the bollworm moth flight (for example, a spray for stink bugs), moderate to occasionally heavy bollworm establishment may occur with associated significant yield reductions. In addition to greater bollworm effectiveness than Bollgard cotton, the stacked, two-Bt gene products (presently Bollgard II and WideStrike) also provide good to excellent control of beet and fall armyworms and cabbage and soybean loopers. Information collected in North Carolina from 1996 through 2009 shows stink bug damage in typical grower-managed Bt cotton fields is usually greater than the levels found in grower-managed conventional cotton fields. A large-scale comparison of bollworm and stink bug damage (including some plant bug damage) in conventional, Bollgard, Widestrike, and Bollgard II cotton fields under

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As indicated by the table footnote.producer conditions was undertaken in 2005 to 2009. Utilization of a very high egg threshold for the major bollworm generation: Because bollworms must hatch from eggs and consume enough of the Bt toxin to be killed.36 *A stink bug/plant bug-damaged boll = 40% as much yield-reducing damage as a bollworm. **Total boll damage may reflect some minor European corn borer and fall armyworm damage. the 2-gene Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton lines have offered North Carolina producers no apparent short term economic advantage in insect control over Bollgard cotton under grower conditions. As seen in Table 11-3. technology fees range as high as $30/acre. Scouting Transgenic Bt Cotton 138 . the Cotton Insect Scouting Guide was revised in 2006 to include guidelines on monitoring insects in transgenic cotton. the predicted lower probably of resistance development to bollworms and tobacco budworms with these 2-gene products suggests a significant potential long-term advantage.50 0.84 4.58 0.29 3. Boll Damage to Conventional.59 Total Boll Damage 4. Table 11-3.23 5. most of the WideStrike and Bollgard II lines are also stacked with Roundup Flex technology and lack a refuge requirement. we counted stink bug/plant bug-damaged bolls as reducing yields approximately 40 percent as much as bollworm-damaged bolls. with WideStrike technology fees intermediate between Bollgard II and Bollgard cotton lines. However.66 2. Bollgard.12 5. the economic advantage of one insect management system over another varies by area and circumstance. with the boll damage experienced by each of the three technologies essentially equal. More than 717 cotton fields were examined in this comparison. but with higher technology fees for the 2-gene Bt lines. Over the 14 years in which Bollgard cotton has been commercially available. Because a number of aspects of scouting Bt cotton are different from those of scouting conventional cotton. A few of the more significant changes follow: 1. bollworm damage was considerably lower in the three Bt cotton types than in conventional cotton. However. WideStrike. lower late-season boll damage has allowed producers to more than break even after the technology fee.75 2. compared to conventionally protected cotton with its higher economic boll damage and higher insect protection costs. In North Carolina.43 2. Additionally.49 0. and Bollgard II Cotton Under Grower Conditions in North Carolina from 2005 to 2009 Technology Conventional Bollgard WideStrike Bollgard II Number of Fields Sampled 121 300 77 239 Damaged Bolls Bollworm Stink Bug 3. while the three transgenic lines also showed greater stink bug damage. the conventional cotton sustained approximately two times more damage than any of the Bt lines. in the case of Bollgard II technology. As can also can be seen in Table 11-3. With this conversion. a plus for many.

remember to raise the 3 percent bollworm treatment threshold according to the ratio of total bolls to bloom-tagged bolls. Beneficial insects: Beneficial insects will likely be more abundant in untreated or lesstreated Bt cotton. then sampling only bloom tags (100 percent bloom tags) would result in overestimating the bollworm population in the field tenfold. Scouting for other insects: Stink bugs and plant bugs will. 5. Use of “multiple pest thresholds” is encouraged: If sub-threshold levels of different pests add up to or exceed a one-pest threshold. In this case. 7. Bollgard and other Bt cottons likely will not require scouting for ECB. Summary: Bollgard and other Bt cottons will require no scouting for second-generation tobacco budworms. if a bollworm is present under each of these bloom tags. Pay particular attention to weeks 3 through 5 of the bloom period. and their identification and population levels should be at least informally monitored. A high proportion of the bollworms that become established often do so under red flowers and bloom tags. and to respond only to bollworms that are second stage larvae or larger (1/8-inch and longer). Focus on economic bloom tag or boll damage and second instar bollworms: The point at which Bt cotton lines may require a supplemental insecticide for caterpillar control will be the point at which bollworm establishment occurs at a potentially high enough level to cause economic loss. Thus. cotton. a time of high cotton plant susceptibility to stink bug damage. or more than 100 percent of the treatment threshold). more often-treated. an emphasis on the appearance of second instar bollworms. 2. however. and major emphasis on stink bugs and plant bugs as the trigger for foliar insecticide treatment. in the absence of insecticides directed toward bollworms. it will be essential to recognize the difference between both the first and second bollworm stages. Weekly scouting is recommended for Bollgard. 139 . if bloom tags represent 10 percent of the sampled boll population in the field. and Widestrike cotton. 75 percent of the stink bug threshold equal 115 percent. and if no bollworms are found on the remaining (non-bloom-tagged) sampled bolls. For example.neither the egg stage nor the small. 6. 3. 40 percent of the bollworm threshold. This is a very common “trigger” for treatment: In monitoring blooms and bloom tags. with a subsample of fields assessed twice weekly to detect cases of rapid establishment. BG II. first instar bollworms are now used as the basis for the treatment threshold in Bt cotton (see “Thresholds”). the threshold for bollworms on Bt cottons is low—it takes very few worms under bloom tags in late July to mid August to justify treatment. become more numerous and require more intensive scouting than they would in conventional. the treatment threshold for this sample containing only small bolls with bloom tags should be raised from 3 percent to 30 percent. soon-to-die. On the other hand. treatment is advised (for example. 4.

cotton under stress. along with ineffective insecticides. Cruiser. cotton under stress. However. which provides aphid control similar to the chloronicotinoids. Gaucho Grande. Chloronicotinoid insecticides (Centric. is listed as having a different mode of action (MOA class 9C) and thus may provide an alternative to the above chloronicotinoid class of insecticides (MOA class 4A). is often common in our region. occacional plants heavily infested. The new aphid material Carbine. Most plants with some aphids. and Aeris). Table 11-4. this chemical may take somewhat longer to achieve successful control. On the Aphid Rating Scale. cotton aphids are typically only at very low levels. high levels of aphid mummifying parasites and the fungus Neozygites fresenii that. because all but one of the new insecticides are of the same class (which is also the same chemical class used in the seed treatment Avicta Complete. Many heavily infested plants. usually justifies our general recommendation not to treat cotton aphids. Management of Miscellaneous Insects Spider Mites Spider mite damage. Heavily infested plants common. Occasional plants with low numbers of aphids. beginning in the second or third week or July. aphids clumped on upper leaves. rare in North Carolina in most years but sometimes more common 140 . Treatments for cotton aphids have been low for the past 10 years. etc. subeconomic numbers. Aphid Rating Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 No aphids. honeydew visible occasionally. having already occurred in the Mid South. especially in early to mid season. may be a good indicator of the need to treat (see Aphid Rating Scale. Trimax Pro. honeydew common. In opening cotton. Additionally. plus honeydew presence.) that provide good aphid control are effective but costly. heavily infested plants rare. except under dry. usually hold or reduce aphids to low. infestations are on most plants in large areas of the field. in most cases. along with low levels of mummies or the fungus. a level of 4 or higher in cotton just before opening. and fungi. The combination of predators. stressed conditions. honeydew easily visible in most areas of the field. Fortunately. Table 11-4). parasites. After the defoliant has been applied.Aphids Cotton aphids are an occasional headache in a number of North Carolina cotton fields. Plants with low numbers common. very high aphid levels. aphid resistance to this new and effective class of insecticides is a major concern. aphid-caused sooty mold or sticky cotton (from the heavy presence of honeydew) may become a problem. however. though not typically in the Southeast. and little evidence of mummies or the fungus.

Coragen and Belt insecticides also show fall armyworm activity. although with the widespread adoption of strip-till and no till cotton. beginning with the lower leaves. and they can become established late in the season. Because FAW migrate into North Carolina from farther south. Control of medium-sized to large FAW is at best mediocre with all labeled insecticides. Be on the alert if scouts find egg masses. their numbers vary greatly from year to year and normally reach higher levels in the southern and southeastern counties. because fall armyworms are difficult to control with insecticides. Mite damage appears as a slight yellowing of the leaves. Initial mite infestations often occur at field borders adjacent to drying corn. Fall armyworms prefer blooms and bolls of all sizes. Fall Armyworms and Beet Armyworms The presence of fall armyworms and their damage are recorded as part of bollworm scouting. it is very important that they be identified correctly. Fall armyworms have sometimes been a complicating factor in the bollworm fight in a number of cotton fields in the southeastern counties. noting and recording egg masses on the undersides of leaves in the upper third of plants and checking flowers for FAW are helpful. Even with obvious yellowing and defoliation. spider mites can sometimes build up throughout cotton fields. If fall armyworms are found. Visual spot checks for mites can be made while scouting for other pests. treatments are best applied at an early boll bract feeding stage. Tracer. or mowed ditch banks or roadways. In treating for mites. Mite damage also can be recognized by the presence of fine webbing on the underside of the affected leaves. sometimes requiring the use of Intrepid. 141 . and may be more common following seed treatments with follow-up foliar sprays for thrips. A hand lens of 10x magnification or greater is indispensable when scouting for these tiny arthropods and their eggs and in identifying the fungal parasite. can occur almost any time during the season.on cotton in the northeastern peanut-production counties. In severe infestations. Steward. one to two expensive applications with excellent coverage are sometimes required and often provide only fair control. These caterpillars can be extremely damaging if present in moderate to large numbers. and may greatly reduce mite numbers while the damage symptoms are still present. They can feed on mature bolls normally resistant to bollworm penetration. which later changes to a purplish or bronze color. Additional samples are usually unnecessary. weeds. Coragen. but they have received only limited testing on this pest in North Carolina through 2009. the presence of an active mite population in the field should be confirmed before treating. Also. A fungus that preys on mites is often present. This webbing often traps blown sand grains. with the rare exception of beet armyworms moving into adjacent cotton from pigweed infestations. though rarely after September 1. particularly under rainy or humid conditions. or Belt to achieve effective control of small FAW. the damage can cause widespread leaf yellowing and defoliation. Because the insecticides that control bollworms do not always control FAW effectively. Damage from fall and beet armyworms is typically low or absent in Bollgard II and in WideStrike cotton lines. is usually more prevalent during dry conditions and on sandy soils. Do not spray if rain is likely. Diamond.

foliage feeding may be beneficial in preharvest cotton that has begun to open. and several types of spiders. their population levels are usually low. These hatching egg masses with their initial feeding are called “hits. big-eyed bugs. the average percentage of defoliation across the entire field should be recorded. usually provide acceptable to good control of BAW. Beneficial Insects About a dozen beneficial insects are commonly found in North Carolina cotton: ambush bugs. post-hatching larvae are dispersing from the egg masses. green lacewings. Their presence often means that 142 . are very difficult to control with insecticides. However. if defoliation exceeds 30 percent in cotton with a significant portion (25 percent or more) of the bolls still immature and filling out. common sense dictates that producers use them as a management tool. Because foliage feeding typically begins at the bottom of the cotton plant and proceeds upward and out. as well as cotton aphids. Because these allies lessen the impact of pest insects.particularly if the small. migratory. two species of ladybird beetles. Soybean loopers. When BAW occur initially. and occur sporadically. with more cotton being grown in the far eastern counties. When BAW are present in higher numbers and the larvae attain some growth. Beet armyworms are seldom an economic problem in WideStrike and Bollgard II cotton. At times defoliation can be substantial. while Intrepid most often offers good to excellent activity. Fall armyworms have a more difficult time becoming established under a bollworm spray regime with certain pyrethroids. If significant leaf feeding is seen. and feeding is typically confined to leaves. Denim. although a few are noted on cotton almost every year. Steward. treatment may be needed. These insects. are prone to virus attack (less so with the soybean looper). The brownish larval frass can be plentiful and temporarily stain opening cotton. this is not thought to be an economic problem. Steward and Tracer insecticides appear to offer good control of soybean loopers. Loopers Cabbage and soybean loopers rarely damage cotton in North Carolina because they prefer foliage. particularly at row ends or in plant skips in the field. and possibly Coragen and Belt. however. insecticide-resistant soybean loopers may occasionally be a problem and could warrant closer attention. unlike our other labeled materials. minute pirate bugs. Beet armyworms are rarely cotton pests in North Carolina. Early stage larvae tend to feed in groups on leaves and are often associated with webbing. Observing foliage during routine late season scouting for other pests in most cases suffices for looper monitoring. As a general rule. particularly the predators.” Initial spotting of a potential beet armyworm infestation is best accomplished by the finding and examining of brownish areas on the undersides of leaves. They are of two types: (1) predators that prey upon an insect pest or (2) parasites that live within the host insect. however. Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton lines provide excellent resistance to loopers. reduce the number of eggs and larvae of bollworms and other caterpillars. Tracer. they often begin to feed on squares and blooms and into small developing bolls.

growers can delay—and, on occasion, eliminate—some insecticide applications, particularly aphid treatments. Many complex factors are involved in determining just how many of each beneficial insect species are needed to influence a given level of pests. Therefore, it is usually not practical to assess the value of these insects except in a very general way. That is, if relatively high numbers of beneficial insects are consuming a large proportion of aphids or bollworm eggs and larvae, the treatment threshold will be reached later than would otherwise be the case, reducing the number of insecticide applications needed. Or in the case of fungal pathogens attacking spider mites or cotton aphids, the finding of even small amounts of the pathogen may signal the beginning of an epizootic that often reduces pest levels significantly over a widespread area. By the same token, beneficial insects appear to have only a limited impact on stink bugs in most situations. Presently, the careful observation of sound economic thresholds offers the producer the best odds of balancing beneficial insect numbers against damaging insects. Cotton aphid infestations are usually best managed by avoiding insecticides and allowing beneficial insects and fungi to limit populations. Cultural Control of Cotton Insects Fortunately, most of our agronomic and weed management recommendations geared toward providing the cotton crop a fast start, rapid development, and early maturity also aid in the management of late-season insects, particularly bollworms and stink bugs. Practices that encourage early maturity, such as avoidance of late planting, render the cotton plant less attractive to moths and bugs and less attractive and susceptible to boll damage. In our fall boll-damage surveys, late rank plants often sustain 2 to 4 times the damage of those that mature early. These are a few recommended practices: 1. Matching varieties to soil type—Some mid- and late-season varieties can grow excessively large, rank plants, precipitating late season insect problems; reserve these varieties for earlier planting and/or sandy soils. 2. Avoidance of late planting—While employing the earliest possible planting date is not critical (and may result in higher thrips damage), avoidance of late planting (after the third week in May) can have a dramatic effect on minimizing late-season insects. This is the single most important cultural factor in reducing late-season insect damage. 3. At-planting application of Temik—The use of Temik at recommended insecticide rates in conventional cotton often promotes accelerated growth, earlier maturity, and increased yields, thereby controlling thrips and helping late-season insect management, although the new seed treatments at the present rates, coupled with a thrips spray at about the first true leaf stage, offer similar growth rates and yields. The latter generally increases the odds of having to treat for cotton aphids and spider mites.

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4. Adherence to recommended nitrogen levels—High levels of nitrogen, particularly when coupled with late planting and favorable rainfall patterns, can trigger rank cotton growth and high bollworm populations on conventional cotton and higher stink bug and plant bug levels on Bt cottons. 5. Use of PGRs (plant growth regulators)—The use of mepiquat chloride and other similar products on fields with either a history of rank growth or a propensity for fast plant growth hastens maturity and may facilitate late season insect control. Thresholds A threshold is the level of plant damage or the number of insects at which treatment is recommended—that is, the level at which treatment will pay for itself. Threshold numbers are usually expressed in terms of the percentage or number of insects or instances of damage observed per sample (e.g., a given number of bolls, sweep net samples, or drop cloth samples). Based on years of research, these thresholds form the basis for sound treatment decisions. Thresholds, however, are only general guidelines applicable to the entire state. A knowledgeable consultant or advisor may be able to modify a threshold, depending on the region of the state, its history of insect problems, and the amount of risk that the consultant and the farmer are willing to take. Also, these thresholds are refined periodically on the basis of new research or changes in the status and behavior of the various pests. Current thresholds for the important cotton pests are: Thrips On cotton from the cotyledon to the 5 true leaf stage:  An average of 2 immature thrips per plant.  Alternatively, an average of 1 immature thrips per plant for each 1 true leaf. Timing of thrips applications, especially following seed treatments, is often best targeted at the first true leaf stage. Plant Bugs Prebloom thresholds to be used when square retention rate drops below 80 percent. From initiation of squaring until the first or second week of blooming: • 8 plant bugs per 100 sweeps. • The sweep net threshold may be raised to 10 if fruiting begins on nodes 4 through 6 or lowered to 6 to 7 if fruiting begins on node 8 or higher. Thresholds also may be lowered somewhat in stressed cotton. Postbloom thresholds • 15 percent dirty blooms. Count any brown anthers as damaged. This threshold should be used along with other assessments, if indicated. • 10 to 50 percent initial internal damage to quarter-sized bolls based on week of bloom (assessed as overall bug damage). • Use sweep net or beat cloth to confirm presence and size (number of adults vs. nymphs).

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Cabbage and Soybean Loopers • 30 to 35 percent defoliation and presence of more than 25 percent immature bolls. Spider Mites • General leaf discoloration (chlorosis, bronzing, or both), plus live mites over most of the field and defoliation from mites in 25 percent or more of the field. (If rain is imminent, delay treatment and reevaluate 3 to 4 days after the rain. If a miticide is used, two applications are sometimes necessary.) Stink Bugs Damaged Bolls (dynamic threshold) • 10 to 50 percent stink bug internal damage to quarter-sized bolls (see Table 11-1). The higher thresholds are used (only a suggestion at this point) during the initial two weeks of blooming or later in the season to reflect advancing boll maturity (see Table 11-2). The lower 10 percent threshold is probably more appropriate during weeks 3 to 6 of blooming. Yield losses resulting from stink bug damage are less likely during the initial two weeks and final weeks of blooming. Beat Cloth (shake cloth) and Sweep Net (15-inch diameter) • These devices should be used to confirm the presence of green vs. brown stink bugs and are thus technically no longer employed to determine if threshold levels are present. Conventional Cotton—Bollworms and Tobacco Budworms Prebloom (With Bollgard, WideStrike cotton, early damage from bollworm and tobacco budworms is essentially non-existent.) On our few remaining acres of conventional cotton limit a possible treatment to one well-timed application of a nonpyrethroid, such as Coragen, Belt, Tracer, Steward or Denim. Treatment before bloom seldom pays, however). • 15 bollworms per 100 terminals. or • 8 bollworms per 100 squares. Postbloom: Egg Threshold (after the onset of the major bollworm moth flight) • 10 or more eggs per 100 terminals. or • 2 to 3 eggs per 100 fruiting forms. Larval Threshold (usually after the egg threshold has been employed; but also used after blooming begins and before major bollworm flight, particularly if tobacco budworms are present). • 3 live worms per 100 fruit (squares, blooms, or bolls).

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Transgenic Bt Cotton* (used against the major bollworm generation) Larval threshold only • 3 second-stage (⅛ inch or larger) bollworms per 100 squares or bolls. Pay particular attention to bollworms in or under yellow, pink, and dried blooms, but sample only in proportion to their occurrence. or • 2 second-stage bollworms (as above) on 2 consecutive scouting trips. or • 1 second-stage bollworm (as above) on 3 consecutive scouting trips. Egg ** • 75 to 100 eggs per 100 terminals. (Bollgard cotton only. Do not use the egg threshold in Bollgard II or WideStrike cotton.). or • 15 to 20 eggs per 100 fruit (blooms, tags, and bolls). (Do not use this threshold on Bollgard II or WideStrike cotton). *Scouting Bt cotton for other insects will be similar to scouting conventional cotton, although population levels of some pests, and thus scouting emphasis, may be different. ** Egg thresholds, met only following very high egg deposition, should not be used within a week or less of an insecticide application. Fall Armyworms Same as the postbloom larval threshold for bollworm but may be revised upward late in the season (after September 1). The fall armyworm is primarily a late-season cotton pest. Pay particular attention to the small, grayish, fuzzy egg masses deposited on the undersides of leaves and to “windowpaning” in the bracts of lower bolls and blooms for the presence of larvae. Correct identification is critical; many bollworm insecticides are ineffective against fall armyworms. Large FAW are very difficult to kill with insecticides. European Corn Borers Use of the bollworm egg threshold will often control much of the late ECB generation on conventional cotton. Bt cotton lines are seldom damaged. Follow the more detailed guidelines in the Cotton Insect Scouting Guide (ENT-cot-6). Beet Armyworms • 10 percent live beet armyworms in squares, blooms, or small bolls in blooming cotton. or • 10 beet armyworms per foot of row later in the season (when squares and blooms will not produce harvestable bolls). or • 15 percent of blooms with one or more live larvae. Cotton Aphids • Using the Aphid Rating Scale, treat at a rating of 4 in opening cotton (15 percent open bolls or greater) or at a rating of 5 in pre-opening cotton if plants are under stress or

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stunted and if aphid mummies and fungi are at low levels. Treatment is discouraged under most circumstances because of its deleterious effect on beneficial predators and parasites that attack aphid populations. The Aphid Rating Scale may help define situations where treatment may be indicated. Recommendations 147 . In opening cotton. treat only if plants are heavily infested and honeydew is detected in significant portions of the field. A complete listing of recommended insecticides for use in controlling cotton insects may be found in the 2010 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

allowing picking to begin earlier in the day. desired defoliation materials and rates of application often change during the season with changes in crop condition and weather. Quicker drying of dew. When to defoliate? Poor defoliation can be economically costly. Crop condition and air temperatures will largely determine the selection of defoliation materials and rates. 6. and desired harvest schedule. Defoliating too late increases the likelihood of boll rot and lint Defoliation Decisions 148 . yield. 5. Potential stimulation of boll opening. Benefits include: 1. resulting in better grades. COTTON DEFOLIATION Keith Edmisten Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton Defoliation is the application of chemicals to encourage or force cotton leaves to drop from the plant in order to harvest the crop in a timely manner. they must determine when the chemical should be applied. The result is a leaf that is frozen or “stuck” to the plant. If the leaf is killed too rapidly. Defoliation is a balancing act between killing the leaves and not affecting the leaf. Harvest-aid application decisions are made based on crop maturity. creating unnecessary trash. Defoliating too early lowers yield and fiber quality or micronaire. which can increase earliness. 2. and how much material(s) to apply. In the end. 4. Retardation of boll rot. Once producers decide that defoliation is needed. Still. Faster and more efficient picker operation. Elimination of the main source of stain and trash. Proper defoliation is a profitable part of a total cotton management system. Straightening of lodged plants for more efficient picking. the two most important factors in determining when to defoliate are crop maturity and desired harvest schedule. For successful defoliation. the leaf must stay alive long enough to begin the formation of an abscission zone that results in leaf drop. crop condition. weather conditions. 3. the chemical signals are not sent from the leaf to the abscission zone. what material(s) will be applied. and profit.12.

The younger bolls in question will be the bolls toward the top and outer portions of the plant. No matter which technique is used. If you have low plant populations (less than two plants per foot of row). This is done by selecting plants with a first-position cracked boll (cracked enough that lint is visible) and counting the nodes above the cracked boll up to the highest node that has a harvestable boll. Early defoliation of excess acreage can decrease yields. Producers should walk each field and decide which bolls they intend to harvest and examine these bolls to determine whether they are mature.damaged or lost due to weathering. Another method that is often used to time defoliation is counting the nodes above cracked boll (NACB). could safely be defoliated at 40 to 50 percent open boll. the boll is mature enough not to be adversely affected by harvest-aid chemicals. Low plant population results in a less mature crop because of the number of bolls set on vegetative branches and outer positions of the fruiting branches. If the fibers do not string out. The seed coat is light brown and the kernel completely fills the seed cavity with no jelly in the center. An NACB of 4 is usually safe for defoliation. In general. When the seed coat becomes light brown. Applications should be timed so that harvesting can keep up with defoliation. The fibers should string out when the boll is cut. On the other hand. Defoliation should be coordinated with picker availability. depending on temperature. an NACB count of 3 would be safer. Defoliating too late also increases the possibility that defoliant activity may be inhibited by lower temperatures. 2. and increase the likelihood of significant regrowth. It is generally safe to defoliate when about 60 percent of the bolls are open. defoliate only as much acreage as can be harvested in about 12 days. expose lint to weather more than necessary. bolls will need extra time to mature. In cool weather. They are hard and difficult to slice into cross sections with a sharp knife. This type of crop may have a high proportion of immature bolls at 60 percent open. In North Carolina. Example B illustrates that a crop set in a short period of time. The seed coat is a pearly white in young bolls and turns from white to black as the boll matures. But this strategy may not work well in situations where the crop is set faster or slower than normal. such as three weeks. producers should also cut and examine unopened bolls to ensure that harvestable bolls are mature. A boll that is set in July or early August will mature in about 40 to 45 days. When harvesting capacity is low for the acreage involved. Example A in Figure 12-1 illustrates that a crop set over a long period may have a fruiting “gap” due to fruit loss associated with stress or insect pressure at peak bloom. bolls set (white bloom) after August 15-25 are likely to never mature. consider abandoning the “once-over” strategy and plan to “scrap” or “second-pick” the acreage 149 . Bolls need 40 to 60 days to mature. Bolls will be mature enough for defoliation when: 1. This technique places more emphasis on the unopened portion of the crop than the percent open. Defoliation at 60 percent open would cut short the development of the top bolls and reduce yield and micronaire. whereas a boll set in mid August through early September may require about 50 to 60 days to mature. the boll is not mature.

mature leaves. Klean-Pik. and at normal rates it is usually not as effective as other defoliants. As Aim appears to be fairly hot in early research. Aim does not prevent regrowth. Herbicidal vs. oils. Thidiazuron (Dropp. This results in desiccation or “leaf stick” instead of the desired defoliation (leaf drop). Although cytokinins promote leaf health in most plant species. Def. Better defoliation will occur if you can wait for a warm spell that is predicted to last for at least 3 to 4 days.picked during the first week. then defoliation may not be needed. Aim is a PPO-inhibitor herbicidal type defoliant that appears to be similar to Def 6 and Harvade and is probably most similar to Harvade as it does not appear to be as rate dependent as Def 6. Harvade. Aim. or other defoliants. pick a trailer full and see how well it cleans up at the gin. Aim. Cotton that is completely cutout with “tough” leaves may not need defoliation if harvested with care. ET. and Klean-Pik) is a type of hormone called a cytokinin. If you are considering picking without defoliation. It appears that Aim could be used to replace any of these defoliants in defoliation mixtures. Defoliation is not always justified. Defoliants work best on mature cotton under warm. Aim has excellent desiccation activity on juvenile growth but. Dropp. FreeFall. and Prep are hormonal defoliants that result in increased ethylene synthesis by the plant. cytokinins promote ethylene synthesis and act as a defoliant. growers may need to be careful in fields with conditions that Defoliation Materials 150 . If the gin can clean the lint so that it will grade a 41 or better. It is probably used most in the rainbelt to defoliate older. CottonQuik. This may improve grades and prevent losses should unfavorable weather shorten the harvest season. humid. and Quickpick are herbicidal-type defoliants that injure the plant. they kill the leaf too quickly before ethylene can be produced. Prep releases ethylene. it is important not to pick too early or late in the day to avoid excess moisture. It is not a strong inhibitor of terminal regrowth and is not very effective on young. insecticides. causing it to produce ethylene in response to this injury. Finish. The ethylene promotes abscission and leaf drop. like other herbicidal defoliants. Leaf sticking may occur with high application rates. resulting in abscission zone formation in the boll walls and leaf petioles. immature leaves. sunny conditions. If these defoliants are applied at rates too high for the temperature. in cotton and related species such as velvetleaf. Cool temperatures at the time of application and for the 3 to 5 days afterward can retard the activity of defoliants and cause less than desirable defoliation. which stimulates further ethylene synthesis in the plant. Sodium chlorate is generally not used as a defoliant on spindle-type picked cotton in North Carolina. they are not as likely to cause desiccation (leaf stick) as herbicidal defoliants. Defoliants can be categorized as having either herbicidal or hormonal activity. defoliants should not be applied during cool snaps. Hormonal Defoliants Sodium chlorate. Because these hormonal-type defoliants bypass herbicidal injury. In this situation. FreeFall. Blizzard. Do not mix sodium chlorate with surfactants. If possible.

A crop coil concentrate or surfactant should be added to tank mixes containing Blizzard. Blizzard has excellent desiccation activity on juvenile growth but. immature leaves than sodium chlorate but is less effective than Ginstar. This phosphate-type material has been a standard defoliant for several years in North Carolina. a tank mixture with another defoliant will improve defoliation with CottonQuik. Blizzard should be very useful in desiccating juvenile foliage and as a second application prior to harvest. It is more effective on young. or FreeFall. However. Tank-mixing Dropp or FreeFall plus adjuvants such as petroleum-based crop oils has been shown to improve performance during low nighttime temperatures (60° F to 65° F). Blizzard does not prevent regrowth. It provides effective. Dropp and FreeFall are sloweracting than the phosphate materials and are more sensitive to cool weather. tank-mixing Dropp or FreeFall plus the phosphate defoliants or Prep will enhance defoliation during cool conditions.are prone to desiccation. A nonionic surfactant should be used in place of crop oil in high temperatures to reduce desiccation. Def 6. The labels state that when nighttime temperatures fall below 60° F. Make sure to follow the label instructions for tank cleanup when using Dropp or FreeFall. Dropp and FreeFall provide excellent removal of juvenile growth and are strong inhibitors of terminal regrowth. CottonQuik and FirstPick contain the boll opener ethephon. Dropp 50WP and FreeFall 50WP. Blizzard. CottonQuik/FirstPick. Dropp and FreeFall defoliate mature leaves essentially as well as the phosphate-type defoliants. and Resource. The use of surfactants or crop oil has only enhanced the performance of these materials under very adverse conditions. A crop-oil concentrate should not be used when a phosphate insecticide or Def or Prep is tank-mixed with Dropp or FreeFall. CottonQuik can be tank-mixed with Dropp or FreeFall if regrowth is expected. Acceptable defoliation with CottonQuik alone requires cutout cotton with mature leaves. Def is very effective in removing mature leaves but does not inhibit regrowth. economical defoliation over a wide range of environmental conditions. The addition of 2 to 4 ounces of Def will reduce the rain-free period required by Dropp or FreeFall alone. Under adverse conditions. Failure to 151 . Blizzard is a PPO-inhibitor herbicidal-type defoliant similar to Aim. Aim appears to have good activity on morningglories. like other herbicidal defoliants. Leaf removal is rapid. with rank growth or with juvenile growth. Similar to other PPO-inhibitor defoliants. CottonQuik and FirstPick will provide defoliation of mature leaves and have excellent boll-opening activity. such as rank juvenile growth or high temperatures. ET. Blizzard can be tank-mixed with ethephon-based products. The label states that Aim should be applied with a 1 percent by volume crop oil. Also. less than desirable defoliation can result. Higher rates will result in longer periods of regrowth inhibition.05 lb ai per acre is needed for 10-14 days of regrowth inhibition. A minimum of 0. Dropp. Dropp and FreeFall require a 24-hour rain-free period. and a rain-free period of two hours is sufficient for phosphate-type defoliants. plus a material that acts as a synergist to improve the defoliation characteristics of ethephon.

Liquid formulations are Dropp SC. and Thidiazuron 50 WSB (lb product/acre) 0.10 Dropp SC. Limited research has indicated that the liquid formulations may be more prone to low levels of leaf desiccation when applied in combination with higher rates of Def and/or crop oil concentrate. especially in rank cotton.5 percent nonionic surfactant is recommended by the manufacturers to improve tank cleanout. and Thidiazuron 50 WSB. Def). A nonionic surfactant should be used in place of crop oil in high temperatures to reduce desiccation. ET appears to be rather hot and may cause desiccation. Table 12-1 can be used to determine equivalent rates of thidiazuron in liquid and dry formulations.075 0.05 0.15 0.follow label tank-cleaning instructions may cause premature defoliation of cotton when the sprayer is used the following year. Finish will provide defoliation of mature leaves and has excellent boll-opening activity. Freefall SC.i. and Thidiazuron 4 SC. Thidiazuron is produced in dry and liquid formulations. Finish. defoliation and regrowth control activity of liquid and dry formulations are similar. ET appears to have good activity on morningglories. This is also a new Dropp formulation that includes Dropp (thidiazuron) and the herbicidal defoliant Diuron. When tank-mixing Dropp or FreeFall with organophosphates (phosphate insecticides. per acre of Dropp or FreeFall will provide regrowth control for a short period (10 to 14 days). A minimum of 0. Klean-Pik.10 0. Finish contains the boll opener ethephon. Freefall SC. Klean-Pik.20 ET. Finish also displays a level of regrowth control. but basal regrowth control is not comparable to products that contain thidiazuron. At equivalent rates of active ingredient per acre. Finish provides good terminal regrowth control. This synergist is different from the one found in CottonQuik/FirstPick. or Harvade. Table 12-1. plus another active ingredient that acts as an enhancing agent. Def. plus a material that acts as a synergist to improve the defoliation characteristics of ethephon.4 3. and Thidiazuron 4 SC (oz product/acre) 1. Ginstar. Equivalent rates of thidiazuron in liquid and dry formulations Active ingredient (lb/acre) 0. Adjuvants should not be added to this 152 .2 Freefall.6 2. Defoliation is faster than with Dropp alone. The label states that ET should be applied with a crop oil. Higher rates are needed for longer periods of control. ET is a herbicidal defoliant that is similar to Aim.05 pounds a. the use of 0. Dry formulations are Freefall.

Growers may want to add Harvade to bring the Harvade rate up to 8 ounces per acre along with Prep where morningglory desiccation is desired. The use of a boll opener in this situation may well make the difference in the need to make a second Boll-Opening Materials 153 .5-1 pint per acre of crop oil is necessary for acceptable defoliation. Research with Leafless is limited in North Carolina. Harvade 5F.15 pounds of Dropp per acre and 6. Prep or other forms of ethephon can be added to enhance defoliation and boll opening.05 pounds active ingredient per acre of Thidiazuron. For example. The label does not allow this defoliant to be tank-mixed with Def. Similar to Aim and ET. Resource.formulation. Harvade has been reported to have better activity at low temperatures.7 ounces of Harvade per acre. or a non-ionic surfactant in hotter weather. This portion of the crop may not benefit from boll-opening materials because the number of unopened bolls on these plants may justify a second picking even if a boll-opening material is used. Picking capacity. Boll-opening materials are often used in combination with defoliation materials to increase the percentage of the crop harvested during first picking or possibly to eliminate the need for a second picking. especially in mixtures with Prep. Boll maturity is very important when using a boll-opening material. Rainfall within six hours may reduce the effectiveness of Harvade. the first third of the acreage to be harvested is often defoliated early when a large number of bolls have not opened. The application of boll-opening materials may be justified at any time during the harvest season. but they are often used on only part of the crop. Lint micronaire and strength can be adversely affected if immature bolls are opened. Do not exceed 10 ounces per acre unless under extremely cool conditions. Leafless is a mixure of Dropp and Harvade. Harvade provides excellent desiccation of mature morningglory in cotton. The addition of 6 ounces of Ginstar per acre provides the equivalent of 0. because of time constraints. The recommended rate of 10 to 12 ounces per acre provides 0. The second third of the crop to be harvested is most likely to benefit from boll-opening materials because it is less likely that a second picking will be justified. Resource should provide acceptable defoliation of mature leaves and desiccation of juvenile regrowth. In this case the farmer may want to avoid using boll openers and plan to use a second harvest on this portion of the crop. The addition of 0. Leafless.4-7. and the cost of second picking determine whether boll opening is economical. Resource is a PPO-inhibitor herbicidal-type defoliant. The addition of 1 pint per acre of crop oil is necessary for acceptable defoliation. the number of unopened bolls. Harvade has generally provided defoliation equivalent to that of the phosphate-type materials and is also not a strong inhibitor of terminal regrowth. The Resource label suggest the addition of 1-2 pints of COC be added.125-0. In certain years cotton micronaire is improved by mixing higher micronaire cotton from the bottom of the cotton plant with lower micronaire cotton from the top.

the farmer has fewer time constraints at this point. and Resource. a crop with 25 to 50 green bolls per 10 feet is a more likely candidate for Prep treatments. about 6 bolls would be expected to open naturally and another 6 or 7 would be opened within 7 to 14 days by Prep. Deciding whether to use Prep for boll-opening purposes is often difficult. Demonstration work conducted in Georgia suggests that a crop of about 20 green bolls per 10 feet is needed to justify the expense of Prep as a boll opener at the lower-labeled rates. it does have some defoliant activity. and under cool temperatures Prep does not work as well (see Table 12-5 for boll-opening chemicals and instructions).Although Prep is not labeled as a defoliant. The final third of the crop to be harvested is usually the least likely portion of the crop to justify the application of a boll-opening material because most of the bolls there are more likely to have opened naturally. Prep is compatible with Aim. Prep stimulates boll opening by increasing ethylene synthesis that normally occurs at boll opening. and best results are obtained when Prep is applied when night temperatures are above 60°F. ET. it is helpful to consider that Prep plus defoliant mixtures usually give sufficient defoliation for harvest after 7 to 10 days. When making such a decision. Gramoxone Super Tres.picking.52 lb/gal of endothal concentrate) can be added to Def at 1. it is better to apply the Prep after defoliation to ensure coverage of the bolls you want to open. Prep 6. Def. Higher rates have been shown to actually cause bolls to “freeze” and not open under certain conditions. Paraquat (Gramoxone Max. but it should never be mixed with sodium chlorate. Therefore. Mature bolls will usually open 10 to 14 days after application. The addition of Prep at lower rates with other defoliants has been reported to increase the degree of defoliation and hasten leaf drop under adverse conditions. Prep usually doubles the number of green bolls that will open within 10 to 14 days after treatment. Paraquat is generally used when weather conditions are cool and bolls are fully mature. Also. therefore. Ginstar. Accelerate (0. at least 80 percent of the bolls should be open before application. The remaining 8 bolls will probably not open until later. Dropp or FreeFall. However. which leads to boll cracking and opening. Prep can be applied with other defoliants or in a second treatment after leaf drop has occurred. Harvade. Paraquat at lower rates (3-6 oz/acre) in addition to conventional defoliants may increase defoliation of juvenile growth and stimulate boll opening. Gramoxone Inteon). Day temperatures between 65°F and 75°F will require twice the rate of Prep to produce the same speed and degree of boll opening as will be achieved if application is made when temperatures are 85 to 95°F.5 pints per acre to increase leaf drop by approximately 25 percent during the first few days of defoliant Additives 154 . Paraquat has been used to open mature bolls by causing outside boll injury. the advantage of Prep is often reduced. Development of immature bolls will be inhibited. If harvest is delayed longer than 14 days after treatment. If the bolls you wish to open are under a canopy of leaves. Prep has provided satisfactory defoliation at a high rate of application (2 lb active ingredient/acre) under optimum conditions on well-matured cotton. Out of these 20 bolls. Blizzard. In addition. boll opening is very rare and temperature dependent.

Aim. Blizzard. Sodium chlorate. The problem with this approach is that the high rates of defoliants will tend to stick the leaves. the use of the defoliant alone may be preferred if early harvest is not important. under less than desirable defoliation conditions. Harvade. Defoliant Combinations Deciding how to defoliate rank cotton is always difficult. Aim. According to labels. Def. The Def label does suggest high rates for defoliating rank cotton. and Resource. 90 percent of the crop should be open before applying a desiccant. This may allow an earlier application of Prep to open bolls where early harvest is important. There is some indication that the activity of the PPO-inhibitor herbicidal defoliants. Desiccants The application of a single defoliant may be more economical than defoliant mixtures and can result in satisfactory defoliation. Desiccants are generally not used as harvest aids for cotton harvested with spindle-type pickers. Blizzard. One defoliant may not provide all of the desired characteristics. is so rapid that less thidiazuron makes it into the plant and may result in a shorter period of regrowth control when these materials are mixed with thidiazuron containing defoliants. A list of the common defoliants and their characteristics is shown in Table 12-7.activity. Starfire. Be careful with diesel oil because of drift problems. Therefore. Producers who wait for rank cotton to finish a top crop may very well lose much of their bottom crop to boll rot. wait until leaf drop occurs. This has not been verified under North Carolina conditions. so defoliant mixtures may be preferable. and the temperature at and following application. Because total leaf drop after 7 to 10 days has generally not been improved with Accelerate. and Resource can be used in combination with Dropp/FreeFall or Prep. Desiccants can kill the entire plant and burn immature bolls. Defoliant selection should be based on whether juvenile growth needs to be defoliated. Producers often have to decide whether they will defoliate early in an effort to save the bottom crop (and lose the top crop) or wait for the top crop to develop before defoliating. the need for regrowth control or boll opening. A common tendency when defoliating rank cotton is to use high rates of defoliants in an effort to cover and defoliate the entire plant. it is best to apply a defoliant. and then apply the desiccant. and you should anticipate picking within seven days to avoid possible bark contamination (Table 12-6). Defoliating Rank Cotton 155 . ET. The safest approach is to apply the same rate of defoliants that you would if the cotton were not rank under the same crop and weather conditions. ET. If desiccation is necessary due to regrowth or weeds. especially on the top of the plant where most of the defoliant is intercepted. diesel oil can be added to Def to improve performance in cool weather or under drought-stress conditions. especially if wet weather occurs and continues. However. realizing that you may have to make a second application to defoliate the bottom portion of the crop. mixtures are likely to provide better results.

Successful defoliation by airplanes requires a uniform swath width and coverage of each leaf. growers are advised not to use high rates of defoliants or complex mixtures. A weedy cotton field can present unique problems that standard defoliation practices won’t handle. and their general use is not recommended at this time in North Carolina. Still. Weeds not only interfere with harvest options. “Weed Management in Cotton. For detailed information on defoliating weedy cotton. resulting in increased chances for boll rot. The use of well-trained flagmen or permanent markers Defoliant Application 156 . the uptake of Dropp or FreeFall does appear to be reduced on drought-stressed cotton. Recent research in other states suggests that the addition of either a silicone surfactant or crop oil plus ammonium sulfate increases Dropp or FreeFall uptake on drought-stressed cotton. these additives also increased the likelihood of leaf desiccation. The lower labeled rates are usually used for bottom defoliation unless otherwise specified.You may consider bottom defoliation to decrease loss to boll rot in extremely rank cotton. They should be applied at the earliest possible date to avoid new leaves reaching enough size to decrease grade. Defoliate as high on the plant as possible until immature bolls are found. but that often provides less than desirable results because of poor coverage of small leaves and continuing emergence of new leaves. Desiccants can be used to eliminate unwanted regrowth. and this condition may affect the plant’s ability to take up the defoliant. see the section on “Preharvest Herbicide Application” in Chapter 10. However. Defoliants can be successfully applied by airplane or ground machines. but can stain lint and almost certainly increase the trash content of harvested bolls. The idea is to remove enough leaves from the middles to allow air movement and light penetration. Defoliating Weedy Cotton Defoliation of Drought-Stressed Cotton Regrowth is most likely to be a problem on cotton that has adequate moisture and excess nitrogen. Defoliation by aircraft.” Drought-stressed cotton often has thick and leathery leaves. Regrowth Control Defoliants should be applied in the late afternoon or early morning when humidity usually is high and winds are calm. Mixtures of Def and Dropp or FreeFall have worked well in the past under these conditions. Therefore. Reapplication of defoliants is permitted. higher rates of Dropp or FreeFall may be needed on drought-stressed cotton. Controlling potential regrowth with Dropp is more effective than reapplying defoliants after regrowth has occurred. Coverage is very important because each leaf that is to be removed must receive some defoliant. However. Some research indicates that bottom defoliation can do more harm than good by mechanically injuring bolls and stems.

Spray pressure.will keep uniform swath widths and result in more uniform defoliation. Thorough coverage by air requires a finished spray volume of 4 to 12 gallons per acre. See Table 12-5 for defoliants.to 120-mph aircraft and straight back on 120. Less mature leaves and bolls are more likely to be negatively affected by frost because of their higher water content. atmospheric conditions. A light frost can defoliate cotton fairly well. and nozzles should be matched to apply a finished rate of 10 to 20 gallons per acre. Producers should wait several days following a frost to make defoliation decisions. Table 12-3 summarizes harvest aid label restrictions for planting wheat following cotton. It is common for a frost to take off the top leaves.to 150-mph aircraft. smaller spray droplets provide better coverage and canopy penetration but are more likely to drift in windy conditions or evaporate in high-temperature. and the amount of foliage. low-humidity conditions. Defoliation by ground machines. they are stuck. Some producers like to wait and let frost defoliate cotton. With increased interest in double-cropping wheat following cotton. If you can thump leaves and they fall off a week following a frost. and 12 disks or number 46 and 56 cores are recommended. Medium-sized droplets by disk and core-type hollow cone nozzles with number 8. Larger spray droplets reduce drift and evaporation but provide less coverage and canopy penetration. Bollopening materials usually do not work following a frost that was strong enough to turn bolls brown. Two equally spaced hollow cone nozzles per row should give adequate coverage. Coverage depends on spray droplet size. especially on large plants with lush foliage. If the leaves do not drop. Research indicates that cone-type nozzles are superior to flat fan or flood nozzles for foliar coverage. In general. those leaves will probably drop off. ground speed. some consideration should be given to label restrictions of harvest aides for rotational crops. but a hard frost (below about 28° F) can stick leaves and rot bolls. Higher finished spray volumes improve coverage and give more thorough defoliation. These nozzles should be turned down and 45 degrees back on 100. Typical swath widths for popular agricultural aircraft are listed in Table 12-2. This is generally not desirable because of the loss of quality and yield that can occur while waiting for a frost. Removing nozzles from at least the outer 20 percent of the aircraft wing is recommended to reduce drift. leaving enough bottom leaves to require chemical defoliation following the frost. 10. Frost Defoliation Rotational Crops Restrictions 157 .

High temperatures usually will enhance leaf burn and can increase leaf sticking. Lower rates of the herbicidal defoliants should be used to reduce leaf burn. but these are some more commonly used combinations. while higher rates of defoliants controlling regrowth may be needed because of reduced penetration into the cotton plant. High Temperatures (90s F). Lows (70s F) Drought-stressed cotton leaves have thickened cuticles that often reduce penetration of defoliant materials. Defoliation rates and materials are suggested as guides to use under different weather situations. Defoliation and Boll-Opening Scenarios 158 . Ginstar can be used in combination with ethephoncontaining. Regrowth is usually a problem when rainfall occurs. The new defoliants Aim and ET could be substituted for Def in the situations listed below. Ginstar can be used as a stand-alone treatment under all the scenarios presented below. so the rates would tend to stay the same for the scenarios listed below. Drought Stress. Their activity is not very temperature-dependent. Under these conditions. Def can be replaced with ET or Aim in any of the following mixtures at recommended rates. Other combinations may work equally well. others CottonQuik/FirstPick Finish Glyphosate Sodium Chlorate Paraquat Recrop interval following application for planting small grains None 14 days 6 months 1 month 6 months None None None 30 days 30 days 30 days 1 month None None None The following are some defoliation situations typically encountered in North Carolina.Table 12-3. Rates can be reduced in combination with Finish or CottonQuik. A nonionic surfactant should be used in place of crop oil in high temperatures to reduce desiccation. boll-opening materials. combinations of three or more materials often result in leaf sticking. Ginstar should not be used in combination with other herbicidal defoliants unless the rates of one or both are reduced. Label Restrictions for Planting Small Grains Following Application as a Harvest Aid in Cotton Material Def/Folex Thidiazuron Harvade Ginstar Leafless Aim ET Blizzard Resource Prep/SuperBoll.

5 .0.1 lb ai) + Prep (5.0. Aim. High Temperatures (90s F).33 oz) (defoliation or regrowth control) 4. Def (0. and warm day and night temperatures generally defoliates well. ET or Resource (recommended rates) + Dropp or FreeFall (0.1.0. Sodium chlorate (3 lb active ingredient) (defoliation.0 pt) (defoliation or regrowth control) 3. Def (1.50 pt) +Prep (1. CottonQuik/FirstPick (2 qt) + Dropp or FreeFall (0.0. soil moisture.5 .1 lb ai) (defoliation or regrowth) 4.05 . Lows (70s F) Cotton with a good boll load.3 pt) (defoliation) 2. Dropp or FreeFall (0. Dropp or FreeFall (0. lb ai) (defoliation or regrowth control) 3.1 lb) or Def (0.33 pt) (defoliation or regrowth/ boll opening) 6.0.5 pt) if rank growth or regrowth is present) 9.5 . . Blizzard.0.075.05 .5 pt) Normal Cutout.0.33 pt) (defoliation or boll opening) 11.1 lb ai) + Def (0.05 .75 pt) + Prep (1. add Dropp or FreeFall (0. Dropp or FreeFall 50 (0.0. Dropp or FreeFall (0.25 .1 lb ai) + Prep (5.33 oz) (defoliation or regrowth control) 5. Blizzard.25 pt) + Prep (1.1 pt) + Dropp or FreeFall (0.1 .33 pt) (defoliation or boll opening) 7. Def (0.3 pt) + Prep (1. and night temperatures after defoliation.1. Aim.75-1.1 lb ai) + Def (0. depending on boll load.05 . .0 pt) (defoliation) 2.33 pt) (defoliation or regrowth control/boll opening) 5.0. ET or Resource (recommended rates) (0. Def (0.0.33 pt) (defoliation and boll opening) 159 .75 .05 .0. Def (0.1. Finish (1.1lb ai) or Def (0.3 pt. Dropp or FreeFall (0.) (defoliation and boll opening. Def can be replaced with ET or Aim in any of the following mixtures at recommended rates.05 .15 lb ai ) (defoliation or regrowth) 10. Regrowth is often a problem.1.05.1 lb) + Prep (1.05 . A nonionic surfactant should be used in place of crop oil in high temperatures to reduce desiccation.1. less effective) 8. 1. Dropp or FreeFall (0.1 ai 0. normal cutout.

normal cutout. and warm day and night temperatures generally defoliates well.2 lb) + Prep (5. depending on boll load and night temperatures after defoliation. Dropp or FreeFall 50 WP (0.5 .125 . or Resource (recommended rates) + Dropp or FreeFall (0.0.05 .20 lb) (defoliation or regrowth) 160 . add Dropp or FreeFall (0. . High Temperatures (80s F).5 . Harvade (0. Ginstar (3-5 oz) (defoliation or regrowth control) add boll opener if needed Normal Cutout.33 pt) (defoliation and boll opening) 6.0.0. Good coverage is important.0. Aim. ET or Resource (recommended rates) + Dropp or FreeFall (0.50 pt) + Prep (1. Lows (60s F) Cotton with a good boll load.1 lb) or Def (0.0.Finish or FirstPick can be substituted for Prep 9.125 lb) + Def (0.1 .33 pt) (defoliation or regrowth/boll opening) 5. Aim.0.5 pt) if rank growth or regrowth is present) 10.5 . Dropp or FreeFall 50 WP (0. 1.125 .2 pt) (defoliation) 2.33 pt) (defoliation or boll opening) .33 oz) (defoliation enhancement) 4. Def (1.5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt) + Prep (1.4 lb active ingredient) (defoliation or weed desiccation) (less effective) 9.0. Blizzard. Sodium chlorate (3 lb active ingredient) (defoliation.2 pt) + Prep (1. Regrowth may or may not be a problem. Harvade (0. Def (1.75 pt) + Prep (1. Dropp or FreeFall 50 WP (0.05 .1 lb ai) (defoliation or regrowth) 8.1lb ai) or Def (0.5 pt) 11.25 . less effective) 7. ET. CottonQuik/FirstPick (2 qt) + Dropp or FreeFall (0. Aim.2 pt) (defoliation or regrowth) 3.0.6. Finish (1.0.5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt) (defoliation) 7. and higher rates of herbicidal defoliant can generally be used. Blizzard. Blizzard.2 lb) + Def (1 . Sodium chlorate (3.125 .3 pt) (defoliation and boll opening.33 pt) (defoliation or boll opening or weed desiccation) 8. Def can be replaced with ET or Aim in any of the following mixtures at recommended rates.05 .5 . ET or Resource (recommended rates) (0.

ET.125 .5 pt) + Harvade (0. less effective/weed desiccation) 7. Dropp or FreeFall 50 WP (0.1. or Resource (recommended rates) + Def (1 .5 pt) + Def (1 .25 pt) (defoliation) 12. Harvade (0. 1. ET. Aim. Blizzard. or Resource (recommended rates) + Prep (1.05 -0.5 pt) + Prep (1. Def can be replaced with ET or Aim in any of the following mixtures at recommended rates.1 lb) or Def (0. boll opening. Aim. or Resource (recommended rates) (1 .0. Aim.1. or Resource (recommended rates) (1 .5 pt) (defoliation and boll opening.1 .33 .5 pt) + Dropp or FreeFall (0.1 lb) or Def (0. Blizzard. and weed desiccation) 16. High Temperatures (60s to 70s F). Blizzard.1. Finish (1.2 pt) (defoliation or boll opening at higher rates of Prep or weed desiccation) 5.3 pt) (defoliation) 2.0.3 . ET. Ginstar (7 . add Dropp or FreeFall (0. Harvade (0. Blizzard. ET. CottonQuik (2 qt) + Dropp or FreeFall (0. Finish (1.1. Aim. or Resource (recommended rates) (1 .5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt) + Prep (1. or Resource (recommended rates) (1 .3 .125 lb) + Def (2 pt) (defoliation or regrowth) 3.05 . if possible. Sodium chlorate (4 lb active ingredient) (defoliation.5 pt) if rank growth or regrowth is present) 14.10.5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt) + Def (1 pt) (defoliation) 6.5 pt) or CottonQuik (2 qt) + Harvade (0.5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt)(defoliation.8 oz) (defoliation or regrowth control) add boll opener if needed Late Season.2 pt) (defoliation/boll opening at higherPrep rates) 9.5 pt) (defolia-tion and boll opening) 15. Blizzard. Harvade (0.1.1. Aim.5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt) (defoliation) 4. Def (2 .33 pt) (defoliation or boll opening) .0.1. ET.Finish or FirstPick can be substituted for Prep 11. Aim.1.5 pt) (defoliation) 161 .2 lb) (defoliation or regrowth) 8. Lows (50s F) For best results. ET.5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt) (defoliation) 10.33 . defoliation should be delayed until warmer weather occurs. Blizzard.

5 qt) (defoliation and boll opening. Finish (1.3 . add Dropp or FreeFall (0.0. others Finish CottonQuik/FirstPick Glyphosate Sodium Chlorate Paraquat Mature leaves Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Fair Excellent Excellent Fair Fair Desiccation Juvenile growth Fair Excellent Fair Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Poor Poor Fair Fair Excellent Regrowth prevention Poor Excellent Poor Excellent Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Fair Poor-Fair Excellent Poor Poor Boll opening None None None None None None None None Excellent Excellent Excellent None None Fair 55oF 60oF 55 F o 55oF 55oF 55oF 60 F o 60oF 60oF 55oF 55 F o 55oF 162 . Harvest Aid Performance Expected activity Estimated minimum temperature 60oF 65 F o Material Def/Folex Thidiazuron Harvade Ginstar Aim ET Resource Blizzard Prep/SuperBoll. Ginstar (8 . and weed desiccation) 14.0.2 pt) or CottonQuik (2 qt) + Harvade (0.11.1lb) or Def (1-1.5 pt) if rank growth or regrowth is present) 12. CottonQuik (2 qt) + Dropp or FreeFall (0..5 pt) (defoliation and boll opening) 13.10 oz) (defoliation or regrowth control). Table 12-4.05 . Finish (1.1 lb) or Def (1-1. boll opening.05 . add boll opener if needed.5 pt) + crop oil (1 pt)(defoliation.

14 lb) + AMADS (7.3 lb) Application Instructions Apply in 5 to 50 gal/acre of water when 40 to 60 percent of the bolls are open and when there are sufficient mature. depending on the stage of maturity. Prep can be used 4 to 7 days before application of defoliants as a preconditioning agent. Trade Name (product/a) Paraquat (various brand names) (1. unopened bolls to produce the desired yield.5 . tank-mixed with defoliants. desiccants should be used only as a last resort to eliminate second growth. Immature bolls also will be affected.0. DO NOT mix Prep with sodium chlorate products because toxic chlorine gas fumes will be produced. 163 . seed quality lower. Paraquat is a Restricted Use pesticide.5 lb) + Cyclanilide (0. damp conditions occurring within 48 hours before or after treatment may severely inhibit the effectiveness of Prep.Table 12-5.5 pt) Common Name (rate a.66 pt) Finish (1. apply when 80 percent or more of the bolls are open and the remaining bolls to be harvested are mature.i. Cool.25 .1. and.2.5 pt) CottonQuik FirstPick (2 qt) Common Name (rate a.33 2. especially on ultra narrow row stripper cotton.5 . unopened bolls have developed to produce the desired yield of cotton. Application should not be made until enough mature. fiber may be immature.75 lb) ethephon (1./a) paraquat (0. Rank cotton will often require defoliation before Prep application in order to obtain good spray coverage of bolls. Trade Name (product/a) Prep 6 (1. Paraquat may also be applied at 3 to 6 oz/ acre with defoliants to hasten boll opening. Prep (ethephon) has been shown to accelerate the opening of bolls and enhance defoliation. or applied after defoliation. These chemicals usually act so rapidly that leaves are killed and stick to the stalk.5 lb) Application Instructions For use as a desiccant. DO NOT harvest cotton sooner than 7 days after Prep application. DO NOT apply within 3 days before harvest. Boll Opening Rates It may be desirable to accelerate the opening of mature cotton bolls for earlier harvest or for a once-over harvest operation. In North Carolina. Table 12-6. Desiccants are generally recommended in areas where cotton is harvested by strippers. and yield reduced.3 . and defoliation does not occur.2 lb) ethephon (1-1.0./a) ethephon (1 .i. Desiccant Rates Desiccants primarily dry plant tissue.

Some regrowth will occur with all of these products.52 lb/gal (1 . Defoliants The chemicals below are labeled for use as defoliants.3 qt) sodium chlorate with fire suppressant ethephon + synergist Def 6 (1 .5 to 0.66 fl.5 pt/acre to speed leaf drop by approximately 25% during the first few days of defoliant activity.2 pt) phosphorotrithioate Dropp 50 WP or FreeFall 50 WP (0. Aim does appear to desiccate morning glory.4 lb) thidazuron 164 . Similar to other PPO-inhibitor defoliants. Apply in 10 to 25 gal of water per acre by ground equipment and in 2 to 10 gal/acre by air. Dropp or FreeFall should be applied to plants ONLY when 60 to 70% of the bolls are open.0.2 . CottonQuik/FirstPick (1.1. Trade Name (products/a) Accelerate 0. Apply at least 5 days before picking. May be tank-mixed with Def or Prep.7. Blizzard is a PPO-inhibitor herbicidal-type defoliant. Spray tanks should be cleaned immediately after using Dropp or FreeFall. Blizzard can be tankmixed with ethephon-based products.1 lb of product per acre may be used in tank mixes. A nonionic surfactant or compatibility agent is recommended when using tank mixes of Dropp or FreeFall plus Def to facilitate cleanup. Dropp or FreeFall rates as low as 0. Always add Accelerate to organic phosphates (Def) previously tankmixed with water. When plants are still green and actively growing. The label states that Aim should be applied with a 1% by volume crop oil. a tank mixture with another defoliant will improve defoliation. with rank growth or juvenile growth. use 10 to 20 gal of spray solution per acre. In adverse conditions. Use higher rates only during cool weather. and by air use 5 to 10 gal/acre. Aim 40 DF (0.) Fluthiacetmethyl sodium chlorate (several name brands) Read label for rates. With ground equipment.) Common Name endothal Application Instructions Accelerate may be added to Def at 1. Experience with Blizzard in North Carolina has been limited. The rate of leaf drop after 7 to 10 days has generally not been improved with Accelerate. Apply to mature cotton plants after the (youngest bolls expected to make cotton are at least 30 days old. DO NOT apply later than 7 days before harvest. use higher rates or a tank mix with another defoliant. A crop coil concentrate or surfactant should be added to tank mixes containing Blizzard according to label directions.5 pt. Def should be applied when 50% or more of the bolls are open and 7 to 10 days before anticipated picking. Use higher rates during periods of low temperatures. oz. A spray mix of 5 to 25 gal/ acre should be applied.91 lb/ gal (0. or the weather is dry. Growers should be careful about using Aim in conditions that are subject to causing desiccation until more research is conducted. CottonQuik can be tank-mixed with Dropp or FreeFall if regrowth is expected. Aim can be used in place of other herbicidal defoliants.Table 12-7. Use the low rate when the crop is mature and the weather is warm. They will defoliate cotton but will not kill the stalk under normal usage. See label for more information. the temperature is cool. Blizzard should be very useful in desiccating juvenile foliage and as a second application prior to harvest. Limited experience suggests that CottonQuik will provide defoliation of mature leaves and has boll-opening activity.66 to 1 oz) carfentrazone-ethyl Blizzard 0.

5 or at least 5 gpa if applied by air.5 EC(6. Dropp or FreeFall rates as low as 0.5 . Some states recommend that crop oil rates be reduced or eliminated in high temperatures to avoid desiccation.5 or at least 5 gpa if applied by air. or the weather is dry. and thereforre an adjuvant should be used. There is little experience in North Carolina with ET applications in high temperature.) ET can be applied using one or two applications. Do not use crop oil when mixed with CottonQuik. Def should be applied when 50% or more of the bolls are open and 7 to 10 days before anticipated picking. the temperature is cool.1 lb of product per acre may be used in tank mixes. Def 6 (1 . but do not exceed a total of 5. Crop oil at a rate of 1% should be used with ET and defoliant mixtures with ET. Use the low rate when the crop is mature and the weather is warm. No surfactant or a nonionic surfactant should be used in mixtures with CottonQuik. A 2% rate of crop oil should be used if applied by air. When plants are still green and actively growing.2 pt) phosphorotrithioate Dropp 50 WP or FreeFall 50 WP (0. No surfactant or a nonionic surfactant should be used in mixtures with CottonQuik.2 . but do not exceed a total of 5. Spray tanks should be cleaned immediately after using Dropp or FreeFall.) ET can be applied using one or two applications. May be tank-mixed with Def or Prep. Ginstar is similar to Dropp Ultra but contains an enhancing agent. Some states recommend that crop oil rates be reduced or eliminated in high temperatures to avoid desiccation. Crop oil at a rate of 1% should be used with ET and defoliant mixtures with ET.5 fl oz of product per acre. A spray mix of 5 to 25 gal/acre should be applied. See label for more information. pyraflufen ethyl Ginstar 1.10 oz) thidazuron + diuron continued 165 .4 lb) thidazuron ET (-2 oz). Defoliants (continued) Trade Name (products/a) ET (-2 oz). use higher rates or a tank mix with another defoliant.5 fl oz of product per acre.0. Do not exceed 10 o/z/acre unless under extremely cool conditions. Apply in 10 to 25 gal of water per acre by ground equipment and in 2 to 10 gal/acre by air. Dropp or FreeFall should be applied to plants ONLY when 60 to 70% of the bolls are open. There is little experience in North Carolina with ET applications in high temperature. Use higher rates during periods of low temperatures. A 2% rate of crop oil should be used if applied by air. Do not use crop oil when mixed with CottonQuik. A nonionic surfactant or compatibility agent is recommended when using tank mixes of Dropp or FreeFall plus Def to facilitate cleanup.Table 12-7. Common Name pyraflufen ethyl Application Instructions ET should be applied in 20-30 gpa by ground (1. Apply at least 5 days before picking. ET should be applied in 20-30 gpa by ground (1.

3. Complete coverage is essential. Defoliants (continued) Trade Name (products/a) Finish 6 4 Pro 6 EC (1.2. Finish will provide acceptable regrowth control in many situations. Resource only needs a 1-hr rain-free period.) Common Name ethephon +cyclanalide Application Instructions Use higher rates in cool weather. add a NIS at 1 qt per 100 gal of spray solution. Apply in a minimum of 10 gal per acre for ground applications and a minimum of 5 gal per acre for aerial applications. Under dry or cool weather.86 lb. Dropp/ FreeFall would provide more acceptable regrowth control. In situations where extended regrowth control is needed (in the 20. especially under cooler conditions. Harvade5F(0. Terminal regrowth control is stronger than basal regrowth control.) + Crop oilconcentrate(1 pt) dimethipin + crop oil concentrate Resource 0.5 pt. a methylated seed oil (MSO) or organosilcone adjuvant may be used.gal (4-6 oz) Flumiclorac-pentyl 166 . Harvade should be applied to mature cotton plants when 70% or more bolls are open.Table 12-7. Finish is a defoliant and boll opener. Harvade is a harvest growth regulant that affects certain plant processes that lead to defoliation. Finish also provides some regrowth control.7 pt. Finish performance may benefit from the addition of a low rate of a standard defoliant in situations where cotton is actively growing with juvenile growth. Do not use flood jet or air induction nozzles. Resource can be tank mixed with other products if boll opening or regrowth control is desired.to 28-day range). A mixture of Harvade plus 1 1/3 pt of Prep has been effective in drying annual morning glory vines entangling cotton Under ideal defoliation conditions (warm sunny days). Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) is 7 days.

This may require careful cover crop management to insure optimum stands and sufficient residue. COTTON PRODUCTION WITH CONSERVATION TILLAGE Alan D. Conservation tillage is often the agreed-upon and most effective approach to protect against soil erosion and to meet conservation compliance requirements on highly erodible land. and the inherent erodibility of the specific soil). No-tillage planting into a residue cover offers the additional benefits of conserving moisture on drought-prone soils and protecting young cotton seedlings from sandblasting. Also. Producers need to consider that long-term no-till currently requires a 5-year time commitment and that the cropping system must provide 80 percent ground cover. Fundamental to these bills were efforts to reduce soil loss associated with cultivation of annual crops on highly erodible land (HEL.13. a no-tillage system can save time during the planting season. Cotton also provides relatively little residue to return to the soil or to leave on the surface to protect it from erosion during the winter. erodible land has a well-deserved reputation for contributing to soil erosion. Consult with local program offices for details. Soil Science Extension Specialist—Tillage Keith L. To be eligible for program benefits. Edmisten. which is defined according to a formula that considers normal rainfall patterns. Cotton and Soil Conservation 167 . Meijer. Cultivation enhances the potential for soil erosion. Conservation compliance was introduced in the 1985 Farm Bill and reinforced in the 1990 and 1996 Farm Bills. The 2002 Farm Bill maintains this focus on conservation. the gradient and length of slopes. growers were required to have and follow an approved conservation farm plan if highly erodible land was involved. including “market transition payments” and conservation cost share. allowing growers to plant cotton and other crops closer to the optimum planting date. Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton Conventionally tilled cotton on sloping. Cotton grows slowly during early summer and provides little crop protection from raindrop impact and soil erosion. Provisions related to conservation tillage include cost-share opportunities for long-term no-till through the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and perhaps other opportunities through a new Conservation Security Program.

allowing more time to get cotton and other crops harvested before seeding the cover crop. Many sources of information exist. Small-grain cover crops are generally preferred for no-till cotton. A cover crop will be required in most situations. additional fertilizer nitrogen to apply. The seed is more economical. The major disadvantage of rye is that it will become too tall unless mowed. Small grains can be successfully established later in the fall than can legumes. do not perform any tillage operations between harvest of the previous crop and planting of the cotton.Research results. surface residues must provide at least 30 percent ground cover after planting. residues from soybeans. it can interfere with planting and the application of postemergence-directed herbicide sprays. For that reason. However. this nitrogen production can be a liability in that it is difficult to accurately predict the amount and timing of the nitrogen availability to the following cotton crop. wheat is generally preferred. show that cotton can grow successfully under conservation tillage systems. small-grain mulch is more persistent than that of legumes and provides better weed suppression. and small grains are easier to establish and easier to kill than legumes.” success requires planning and a high level of management. Additionally. including the successful growers in many counties where thousands of acres of conservation-tilled cotton are now being grown. if any. Small grains typically provide more protection from soil erosion during the fall and winter months than do legumes. which are sometimes collectively referred to as “no-till cotton. Potential cover crops include small grains (most commonly wheat or rye) and winter legumes (vetch or crimson clover). If the rye is allowed to become excessively tall. If relying on residues from a previous crop to provide sufficient cover. Thus. However. Residues from a good previous corn crop may provide sufficient cover. grazed. small-grain cover crops can help by “scavenging” leftover nitrogen from the crop season to reduce its movement to groundwater.” seeking to resolve the practical challenges of this system within their own operations. peanuts. tobacco. Growers are encouraged to start with a small acreage of “no-till cotton. Excess nitrogen can lead to substantial problems. in these methods of cotton production. both in production of cotton and in protection of the environment (see the discussion of nitrogen fertilization in Chapter 7. Nitrogen production is the primary advantage of a legume cover crop. Rye produces more mulch than wheat. With increasing concern about nitrogen and protection of water quality. as well as the experience of growers in North Carolina and other states. or killed well ahead of planting. To meet conservation-tillage requirements in North Carolina. Vetch or crimson clover typically will provide nitrogen to cotton equivalent to 50 to 70 or more pounds of fertilizer N per acre. “Fertilization”). it may be difficult to decide how much. and the mulch provides better weed suppression. or cotton will not be adequate. Cover Crop Selection and Management 168 .

it may be necessary to do the planting in a separate pass. Strip-till equipment currently on the market generally includes combinations of coulters. especially when rolling baskets or spider gangs are included and are properly adjusted to accomplish that function. During the last decade or so we have seen increasing acreages of North Carolina cotton being grown with some form of conservation tillage. it also would make the small-grain cover less effective in removing soil nitrogen for the benefit of water quality protection. These serve to do some soil conditioning in the row zone and to close the slits left by the subsoilers or other types of shanks that offer deep tillage and are included with these strip-till machines. rolling baskets. However. and/or other devices. This may be done with an arrangement of coulters or spider gangs to till a row zone of about 8 to 12 inches in width. The width of the tillage is narrow. typically Planting Methods 169 . This commonly includes a fluted.Soil samples should be taken in early fall to allow time for analysis before seeding the cover crop. 2. Due to the tractor power required for a six. Although often referred to simply as “no-till cotton. It is imperative that adequate levels of these amendments be applied to the soil and incorporated throughout the root zone before initiating a strict no-till system. No-till planting using a row planter only. Fall tillage to prepare a cover crop seedbed also will help to avoid problems with horseweed and cutleaf evening primrose and will provide some suppression of perennial weeds.” several approaches are being used successfully. lime. nitrogen fertilization of the cover crop is generally unnecessary and may promote excessive vegetative growth of the cover crop. they can become concentrated in the surface soil and deficient lower in the root zone. Since these amendments move very slowly into the soil. In-row subsoiling at depths of 10 to 16 inches. less productive soils. 3. This works especially well when beds have been made the preceding fall or in early spring. and other components of the unit that closes the ripper slit in the soil. Planters may be attached to the ripper unit for one-pass planting. This is really a form of strip tillage in that considerable soil preparation in the row zone is provided by the coulter. Strip tillage in the row zone without subsoiling. In general. Once adequate fertility and pH are achieved throughout the root zone. or ripple coulter mounted ahead of the planter. Suggested lime and phosphorus (unless the required P205 can be applied in a starter band application) should be broadcast and worked into the soil during seedbed preparation for the cover crop. Some of these are: 1. Where a strict no-till system is used.or eight-row ripper unit. ripper. decrease the soil sampling depth from 8 to 4 inches on no-till fields. spider gangs. Except for sandy. phosphorus and potassium are not incorporated into the soil. or the strip tillage can be done in a separate pass some time before planting. these row-zone tillage devices also may allow shallow soil mixing. rubber firming wheels. bubble.

fall bedding works best if the cotton stalks are uprooted by rigorous disking or by some form of stalk pulling. then special efforts are needed. planting cotton on raised beds is a strong preference of many conventionaltillage cotton growers. Where cotton follows cotton. especially a conventional ripper/bedder. mainly because the shank enters the soil from the side of the old row. These tools generally run without problems of root clogging. A leading coulter cuts the residue in the path of the shank. These tools feature a deep loosening point that is carried in the soil on an angled shank (“leg”). running directly into the old (non-tilled) cotton row positions in the fall or early winter. Bedding and Ripper/Bedding 170 . The effectiveness of such equipment in shattering pan layers is without question. useful alternatives are the “Paratill” of the Tye Company and Bigham Brothers Inc. Further. especially early in the growing season. we do not recommend using an in-row subsoiling device. following cotton. This could be done by fall bedding or ripper/bedding. peanuts. The shatter zone is somewhat larger than that of conventional rippers.from 3/8 inch to 1½ inches. Again. and a similar tool known as the TerraMax of Worksaver Inc. Bedding provides some protection from both. and cover crop establishment. In general. and where subsoiling is desired because of sandy soils and pan layers. or corn because these crops allow ample time after harvest for some root decomposition. and is determined by the lateral pushing and fracturing of the soil by the coulter flutes (waves) or by the “bubbles” on that coulter type. However. careful driving to maintain tillage and row alignment is important. For this reason. or where growers simply wish to gain benefits from conservation tillage. However. establishment of a cover crop on these beds is generally necessary in order the meet the residue cover required for acceptance as conservation tillage (a minimum of 30 percent of the soil surface under residue cover after planting of the summer crop). with a small-grain cover crop being planted at the same time or shortly after the fall bedding. and there is significant expense involved in replacing the worn points on the legs of the Paratill units. Achieving conservation-tilled cotton with bedding requires either fall bedding or re-using the remnant bed from the previous crop. fall bedding (especially ripper/bedding) is often very difficult when the harvest is completed in late November or even in December. but it is difficult to maintain the alignment to do this well. In a continuous cotton operation. If growers decide to change to conservation tillage and wish also to plant on some degree of a bed. This usually presents frequent problems with roots wrapping and clogging on the rippers. a cotton crop is susceptible to extended periods of both wet and cool soils. In general. Running rippers in mid-row positions would work better. This practice is successful where cotton follows tobacco. fall tillage. this equipment may require greater pulling power per shank than conventional in-row subsoilers. when conservation compliance is required.

and then no-tillplanted cotton without ripping. This will save time and help to get the cover crop seeded earlier. Nevertheless. rows can be offset by about 2 to 6 inches from one year to the next. simply broadcasting small grain seed on fresh bedded or bed-shaped land may give adequate cover-crop establishment. the moisture-conserving benefits of good residue cover under conservation tillage more often than not offset the lack of benefit from bedding. thus possibly avoiding some no-till planting difficulties caused by previous crop stalks located in the exact new row position. Because of these difficulties and the costs of achieving both bedding and good cover-crop establishment. there is some indication that soil porosity and drainage behavior may improve. planting of the cover crop in the fall is easier and quicker. assuming that the peanut “hay” is not being removed for animal feed. Wet weather and other time conflicts make it a challenge to establish the cover crop properly and sufficiently early to achieve the desired residue and cover benefits. growers often have had good cover-crop success by distributing wheat or rye seed just ahead of peanut digging. is also less problematic. Where cotton is flat-planted. On the other hand. We followed the fall ripper/bedding by a wheat cover crop. in-row subsoiling done a few inches beside the old row. some shaping or leveling of the bed is desirable before seeding the cover crop. either in the fall or spring. Without beds. Where the following cotton crop will be flat-planted. strip-killed the cover crop over the intended row zone. this could even reduce the need for bedding to protect from the risks of soil wetness. consider using a no-till drill to plant into standing cotton stalks while the cotton is being picked. including one site in a strong pan-layer prone soil (Conetoe loamy sand). growers ask whether fall ripping is as effective as ripping at planting time. For flat-planted cotton. Where new beds are made in the fall.Establishment of a good cover crop in a continuous cotton system requires an emphasis on achieving timeliness. Fall ripper/bedding was fully as effective for cotton yield as was ripping in the spring. where cotton stalks can cause the chain to run off. We recently completed a three-year study of “carryover” ripper effectiveness. Stalks can then be mown afterward. In that study we also attempted to use the ripped zone for Fall Ripping and Carryover Effects of Subsoiling 171 . in typical growing seasons (when drought stress is more serious than wetness). These aspects of soil management with long-term conservation tillage are now receiving the attention of farmers and researchers. One exception is the case of drills having an exposed drive chain. A home-made chain shield could be added to prevent this. growers are often forced to give up beds in conservation-tilled cotton. or where existing beds are being used for cotton the following year. This is especially true where cotton follows cotton. With several years of conservation tillage. To spread the work load and make efficient use of available tractor power. This approach to seeding cover crops works best on flat-planted cotton residue. Except in soils with naturally high water tables. These drills perform quite well if seeding depth is adjusted to compensate for ground-level differences of the beds and valleys. Where cotton is to follow peanuts.

during wet periods (when the soil may reach saturation and the cavities could act like a tile drain). The reasons for these lower yields from simple coulter-no-till appear to vary according to soil properties and residue conditions. a strip-till operation should: 1. Methods of Deep Tillage 172 . No-Tillage Concepts of Strip Tillage vs. coastal plain fields. coulters. subsoiling generally provided the superior yield. Strip tillage simply means some form of tillage in the row zone. typically 10 to 16 inches deep. sod clumps. shallow strip tillage was superior. 4. or rolling tines). crust-prone. especially if the soil will be allowed to dry and harden before planting. could possibly cause root death. soil properties influence the cotton response to some row-zone tillage. In eroded. In most cases there are somewhat more stand skips where no row-zone tillage is done (such as by a ripper. rolling tines. Not leave subsurface cavities in which there will be little rooting and which. it may involve deeper chisel or ripper shanks (with appropriate soil closure devices). conventional tillage may be favored. “hair pinning” often results in inadequate closure of the seed furrow and poor seed-soil contact. or major surface holes or mounds that the planter would handle poorly. pan-layer-prone soils. shallow strip tillage. These studies were done in a cotton/corn rotation. We lost about half of the ripper benefit in the first carryover year and about 80 percent of the benefit in the second carryover year. if desired. This is especially likely where residue is tough or heavy (rather mature rye or wheat) and the soil is soft. This may be only 1 to a few inches deep or. This is being done with rubber wheels. in the case of in-row subsoiling. Also. Strip Tillage vs. shallow shanks. where satisfactory cotton stand and good weed control are achieved. fluted coulters (1-inch flutes). In wet seasons or wet-natured soils. or shovels (any of these must provide appropriate closure and soil-conditioning devices). and in-row subsoiling. 3. Prior killing of a narrow strip in the row-zone (strip-killing) has shown some benefit for cotton-stand establishment in cases of fairly heavy rye or wheat residue at planting time. aggressive coulters. 2. Leave the row zone in a near-ready planting condition. Provide deep tillage (subsoiling) to an appropriate soil depth. After some 20 replicated studies of cotton comparing conventional tillage. Not leave large clods.a full second and third year of straight no-till planting over the previous ripped row. we have found that in at least three-quarters of the studies there were somewhat lower lint yields from use of the fluted coulter alone. generally 8 to 16 inches wide. Under these conditions. one of these forms of conservation-tilled cotton has generally given similar yields to conventional tillage. In the more sandy. In other cases. In any case. At present there are several brands of effective commercial strip tillage equipment on the market. When operating correctly. poor-tilth.

depending on various aspects of soil properties. as described above. Although this may be a useful compromise. the soil may be moister. These cooler. it is likely to leave segments of row that would not benefit from this soil loosening. namely coulters. where no-till cotton sometimes has not performed well. Generally. versus the actions and the potential advantages and disadvantages of deep-tillage tools. Some growers are interested in operating tools such as the DMI with winged points in a diagonal direction to the intended cotton rows. In addition. The exception has been in wet-natured soils. No such cavities were found in the zone of operation of the traditional in-row subsoiler. On all commercial strip tillage equipment available today. Agronomic Considerations 173 . combined with important actions of the accompanying devices. Therefore. can be minimal or even detrimental. although roots commonly pass around the sides. You may wish to consult the publication Subsurface Compaction and Subsoiling in NC—An Overview (AG-353. These DMI-point cavities were still very apparent near the end of the growing season in September after the tillage had been done in late March. although logically one would prefer to loosen a volume of soil in the prime zone of root growth. and the shape and size of the “point” of the deep tillage tool used. moister conditions are more conducive to slower germination and seedling disease development. The soil temperature under a good cover-crop residue generally will be 2° F to 4° F cooler than under bare soil. We have found that the large DMI point commonly leaves cavities in the soil at the depth of operation of the point. operational depth and travel speed. The cavity typically is from 2 to 4 inches wide and about 1. are comparable to those of conventionally planted cotton if adequate stands and weed control are achieved.5 inches high. and especially of strip-tilled cotton. the most familiar of which is the subsoiler in its various configurations.Growers should keep in mind the differences between an effective strip-tillage operation. we have examined under on-farm conditions the effects of a typical subsoiler in contrast with those produced by the “no-till point” currently marketed by the DMI company. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service) for concepts of pan layers and deep tillage. especially in specific fields where pan layers and soil hardness are actually limiting factors for root development. Because of current grower interest. thus providing ideal soil physical conditions for crop root development. Yields of no-till cotton have sometimes exceeded those of conventionally planted cotton in dry years. which certainly would reduce the area of such cavities directly under rows. however. the in-row subsoiler provides a major part of the row-zone soil preparation. Deep-tillage effects. strip till rigs also usually perform deep tillage. Research in North Carolina has shown that yields of no-till. rolling baskets. no roots have grown directly through the cavity. and wheels. especially if pan layers exist in the soil. soil hardness or stickiness in the zone of the deep tillage. Such in-row subsoiling often helps deepen the crop rooting pattern. We do not yet have evidence that this is detrimental to crop performance. depending on the depth of subsoiler operation. Attaining this objective would not include leaving a cavity zone unsuitable for root growth.

but these covers are not commonly used in North Carolina. the chances of obtaining a response to an in-furrow fungicide are greater than under conventional tillage situations (see the discussion on in-furrow fungicides in Chapter 9. Also. because of the cooler and moister conditions under a heavy cover crop residue. “Managing Insects on Cotton”).and no-till cotton. Preliminary research has shown the impact of insects such as cotton aphids. In reduced or no-till cotton production. a waiting period of approximately 2½ to 3 weeks is advised to reduce the possibility of damaging cutworm populations.Plant conventional cotton first. it may be difficult to stride the line between adequately covering the seed and planting too deeply. the insecticide might be tank-mixed with a preemergence herbicide. if scouting reveals a stand reduction of 15 percent or more and an active population of cutworms (mostly “hiding” under soil clumps near cotton seedlings). especially in years when cool weather restricts DD-60s during the seedling development period. In a limited number of experiments with strip-till cotton planted into wheat or rye cover crops. “Planting Decisions”). Alternatively. This should not be a concern unless you are using a low seeding rate (see the discussion of seeding rate in Chapter 4. soybeans. Because cutworms can persist at least 2 weeks following the application of a burndown herbicide. preliminary research suggests that thrips populations may be lower in reduced. Remember to plant ½ to 1 inch deep. “Planting Decisions”). Alternatively. “Fertilization”). Stand reductions in commercial cotton have been locally severe following the previously mentioned cover crops and behind corn. Given the variability and hardness of no-till fields and the shallow depth of double-disk openers. Monitoring or sampling for thrips in reduced-tillage cotton culture is the same as with conventional cotton production (see Chapter 11. young plants may be subject to thrips populations over a somewhat longer period of time. When planting no-till cotton. Insect Management 174 . adjust the planting depth carefully. Cutworms appear to be lower in cotton planted into hairy vetch or clover. Avoid planting when the soil is too wet for the seed furrow to be properly and consistently closed. no-till and strip-till cotton are likely to show an economic response to starter fertilizer (see Chapter 7. putting a greater demand on the persistence of the at-planting insecticide. Because of the potentially cooler soils and resulting slower seedling growth. “Disease Management in Cotton”). or the insecticide alone might be sprayed into and up on the collar of the furrow in a T-band. some stand-reducing cutworm damage has been observed. plant bugs. as in conventional tillage. allowing time for the soil to warm in no-till fields (see the discussion of soil temperatures in Chapter 4. a broadcast or banded insecticide before or after planting may be appropriate. If cotton fields have a history of cutworm damage. Research in North Carolina has shown that stands in no-till cotton average about 10 percent fewer plants than stands in conventionally planted cotton. likely damage from thrips will require the use of an at-planting. For example. Also. and late-season caterpillars in reduced-tillage cotton to be similar to that found in conventional cotton. in-furrow insecticide. and cotton in which winter annual weeds have served as a host for spring cutworms.

Cutworm-labeled pyrethoids or Lorsban 4E should provide adequate control. “Cotton Seed Quality and Planting Decisions. “Weed Management in Cotton. Because conservation tillage often includes more variable seedbed conditions—including seed-soil contact.” for further information on these management concerns. depth of coverage.” Chapter 6. Chapter 10. Disease Management Most of the same weed-control techniques of conventional cotton culture are applicable to cotton produced with conservation tillage. “Planting Decisions.” gives key information on these topics. zones of soil wetness. “Disease Management in Cotton.then a banded or post-directed insecticide treatment is recommended. and cooler soil temperatures—it is important to use high-quality seed.” and Chapter 9. Weed Management 175 . Refer to Chapter 4. with the exception of broadcast preplantincorporated herbicides and most forms of cultivation.

The following procedure is suggested for washing out sprayers that have been used to apply 2. Agitate for 15 minutes and then flush about one-fourth of the water-detergent mixture through the lines.14. Fill the tank with water and add household ammonia at the rate of 1 quart per 25 gallons of water.4-D. It is recommended that any sprayer previously used to apply 2. Start the sprayer to fill the lines. spray drift.4-DB) in a sprayer. spray a few gallons of the mixture through the nozzles. Then spray out the remainder of the ammonia-water mixture. it should be washed thoroughly before spraying cotton. 4. The problem can result from sprayer contamination. Before replacing nozzles and strainers. fill sprayer tank with water and add a strong detergent.4-D.4-D residues out of a sprayer. and let the remainder sit in the tank and lines for several hours. 3. Dispose of rinsates in an approved manner. Using a soft brush. and let the diesel fuel sit in the lines for several hours. AVOIDING 2.4-D INJURY TO COTTON Keith L.4-D continues to be a common and unnecessary problem in North Carolina. Special attention should be given to sprayers used to apply glyphosate or emulsifiable concentrates because these products seem to be particularly effective at pulling 2. especially from the hoses. and in-line strainers. 1. Keep in mind that this procedure may not totally remove 2. Edmisten Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton Cotton injury from 2. preferably overnight. Sprayer Contamination 176 .4-D residues. Be sure to remove any visible deposits. Then spray out the diesel fuel. wash the nozzles and strainers with soapy water. 2. such as 4 pounds of trisodium phosphate per 50 gallons of water or a commercial spray tank cleaner at rates recommended by the manufacturer. Agitate for 15 minutes. nozzle strainers.4-D not be used in cotton. Spray diesel fuel on the inside surfaces of the tank. Remove nozzles. and vapor drift. Cotton injury can occur from minute residues of 2. Replace nozzles and strainers and flush remainder of water-detergent mixture through the nozzles. If such a sprayer must be used.4-D (or 2. Note: This step is suggested only if the sprayer has previously been used to apply an ester formulation of 2. preferably overnight.

and thermal inversions all increase the potential for vapor drift. Ester and ester-acid formulations of 2. Ester formulations of 2. spray drift normally is observed only over short distances.4-D acid also should be avoided in cotton-producing areas. Fill the tank with water and detergent. such as spraying in very windy conditions and using nozzles and pressures that create very fine droplets. A buffer of 200 feet or more between the area being sprayed and the susceptible crop usually is adequate to prevent injury from spray droplet drift unless it is very windy.4-D (or any other product). such as measuring devices for cotton pesticides that have previously been used to measure 2. If there is no wind or if the wind is blowing away from the cotton field. Amine formulations also can be mixed with liquid nitrogen if the 2.4-D. and spray it all through the nozzles.4-D injury to cotton result from vapor drift of an ester-containing formulation of 2. 6. a shorter buffer is acceptable. Except in extreme cases. Spraying during windy conditions and using nozzles and pressures that result in the creation of fine spray droplets increase the risk of spray drift. Spray drift means movement of spray droplets by wind. Weedone 638 and any other formulations containing a mixture of 2.4-D. Spray Drift Most cases of 2.4-D should not be used within a mile of any cotton field during the months that cotton is in the field. Injury from vapor drift can occur at rather long distances from the sprayed area.4-D are popular because they mix well with liquid nitrogen. Vapor drift can be avoided simply by refraining from the use of ester-containing formulations of 2. and their use can lead to cotton injury. Vapor drift results when the herbicide volatilizes and the vapors move to a susceptible crop such as cotton. As opposed to vapor drift (described below). Hot temperatures.5. Fill the tank with fresh water.4-D. Agitate for several minutes and spray it out. moist soils. Add the water/2.” These formulations are still volatile. Vapor drift is not a problem with amine formulations of 2.4-D from other sources.4-D amine mixture to the tank slowly while the agitator is running. Be careful not to introduce 2. Most commercially available ester formulations are considered “low volatile.4-D. Vapor Drift 177 .4-D is premixed with water before adding it to the liquid nitrogen. Maintain constant agitation until the nitrogen/herbicide mixture has been sprayed out.4-D ester and 2. spray drift can occur with any formulation of 2.

including in-line strainers. Adjust pressure to the level desired during the spraying operation. Every sprayer should be thoroughly calibrated before the first use of the season. the sprayer should be recalibrated every time nozzles. and agitator. Remove nozzles and strainers. wash nozzles and strainers in soapy water. Replace nozzles that do not produce the proper pattern. control valves. To check for uniformity of output. and the calibration should be checked periodically during the season. Check components such as the pressure gauge. not the least of which is proper application at the correct rate. Next. Before Calibration 178 . Thoroughly wash out sprayer and flush lines using a strong detergent or commercial tank cleaner. or unnecessary expense. Then check for proper spray pattern. Using a soft brush. Additionally. Select proper size and type of nozzle for the particular pesticide application planned. Edmisten Extension Crop Science Specialist—Cotton The performance of any pesticide depends upon many things. pressure. pressure relief/regulating valve. Do not clean nozzles with any hard object (such as a knife or wire) because this will destroy the nozzle. Consult nozzle manufacturers’ catalogs or pesticide labels for guidance. crop injury. nozzles may need replacing more frequently. or travel speed is changed. Replace nozzles at least once a year. Failure to apply the correct rate uniformly can lead to poor pest control. If the sprayer is used on a large acreage. Replace any nozzle having an output of 10 percent more or less than the average of all nozzles. This needs to be done even if new nozzles are installed. Replace defective parts. Be sure to remove all deposits. Catch and measure output from each nozzle separately for a given length of time.15. Check hoses and connections for leaks or signs of aging or damage. SPRAYER CALIBRATION Keith L. Make sure every nozzle on the sprayer is the same type and size. Remember that brass nozzles wear more quickly than stainless steel or ceramic nozzles. check for uniformity of nozzle output. partially fill sprayer with clean water. Replace defective hoses.

Engage any equipment to be used during the actual spraying operation (such as a disk or planter). Step 2. Measure the output in ounces. Step 4.The procedure outlined below is called the 1/128th-of-an-acre method. but do not add pesticide. Calculate the length of time required to travel the distance determined in step 2. it is best to use the same liquid fertilizer during the calibration procedure. For banded application. choose the gear and throttle setting you plan to use during actual spraying. Partially fill the tank with the desired liquid carrier. based on your average nozzle spacing. and determine the time required to drive the designated distance. They are listed below with specific examples: Step 1. equivalent to gallons per acre. Determine how many acres a specified volume of spray solution (such as a tank full) will cover using the following formula: Gallons of spray solution _________________________________ Gallons per acre = Acres covered 179 . Ounces of spray solution applied to 1/128th of an acre are. average nozzle spacing is the distance between nozzles. Determine average nozzle spacing (in inches). determine a specified distance to drive. Catch the output from each nozzle separately for the same length of time as determined in step 3. When liquid fertilizer is used as the carrier. Step 5. The average number of ounces collected per nozzle is equivalent to sprayer output in gallons per acre. Distance to drive = ________________________________ Calibration Procedure 4. therefore. Six basic steps are needed to calibrate a sprayer using the 1/128th-of-an-acre method. Flow rate through a nozzle will be affected by the viscosity of the spray solution. Measure off this distance in a field with surface conditions similar to fields to be sprayed. You can improve your accuracy by doing this several times and taking the average. For broadcast application. It is based on the fact that there are 128 fluid ounces in a gallon. Determine the average output of all nozzles. Adjust the pressure to the level that will be used during the actual spraying operation. average nozzle spacing is the row width divided by the number of nozzles per band. It is important that this be done under actual use conditions. Using the following formula.084 average nozzle spacing Step 3.

multiply the acres covered by the broadcast rate of the pesticide as specified on the label and by the band width. this is the average distance between nozzles. and the tank holds 240 gallons. or Postemergence Overtop Assume you plan to broadcast 1. Determine length of time required to drive 215 feet. Determine how much pesticide to add to the tank. For broadcast application. Distance = _______________________________ 4. multiply the acres covered by the broadcast rate of the pesticide as specified on the label. This means your sprayer is applying 12 gallons per acre. and divide by the row spacing.084 19 ________ = 215 ft Step 3. If broadcasting. (Note: Row spacing is not a factor when calibrating for a broadcast application. Step 4. Amount to add to tank = (acres covered) (pesticide rate per acre) If banding.5 pints per acre of Treflan. assume it takes 25 seconds.084 average nozzle spacing = 4. Step 2. Preemergence. Determine average nozzle spacing. Determine distance to drive. For this example.) Step 1.Step 6. (acres covered)(broadcast rate/acre)(band width) Amount to add = _______________________________________________________________ (row spacing) Examples Broadcast Application: Preplant Incorporated. For this example. assume the average output per nozzle is 12 ounces in 25 seconds. 180 . Determine average output per nozzle in 25 seconds. In this example. average nozzle spacing is 19 inches. Your sprayer has nozzles mounted 19 inches apart along the boom.

Determine distance to drive. assume the average output per nozzle is 9 ounces in 15 seconds.084 4. Step 1. Your cotton is planted on 40-inch rows.Step 5. Gallons of spray solution _________________________________ Gallons per acre _______________ = acres covered 240 gal 12 gal/acre = 20 acres covered Step 6. This means your sprayer is applying 9 gallons per acre. Average nozzle spacing = Step 2.6 pounds per acre. is 1. row width _____________________ nozzles per band = 40 ___ 1 = 40 in 181 . Amount to add = (acres covered) (rate per acre) Amount to add = (20 acres) (1. For this example. Determine average nozzle spacing. assume it takes 15 seconds.084 Distance = ________________________________ = _______ = 102 ft average nozzle spacing 40 Step 3. on a broadcast basis. Step 4. Determine acres covered per tank. You determine that the appropriate rate of Cotoran for your soil. Determine length of time required to drive 102 feet.5 pt/acre) Amount to add = 30 pt Banded Application Using One Nozzle Per Row: Preemergence or Postemergence Overtop Assume you plan to apply a 16-inch band of Cotoran using a single nozzle mounted behind each planter. Determine how much Treflan to add to the tank. and your sprayer tank holds 270 gallons. For this example. Determine average output per nozzle in 15 seconds. 4.

182 . Your cotton is planted on 40-inch rows. Banded Application Using Two Nozzles Per Row: Postemergence Overtop or Directed Assume you plan to direct Caparol in a 16-inch band under the cotton.Step 5. Average nozzle spacing = Step 2. For this example. Step 1. Determine length of time required to drive 204 feet. you have two nozzles per row on your directed sprayer. which is 1 quart per acre. You determine that the desired broadcast rate for Caparol.2 lb row width nozzles per band = 40 ___ 2 = 20 in 4. Determine average nozzle spacing. assume it takes 30 seconds. Distance = _______________________________ ______________________ (40 in) = 19.084 average nozzle spacing = 4.6 lb/acre)(16 in) _____________________________________ Amount to add = . and your sprayer tank holds 250 gallons. Gallons of spray solution _________________________________ Gallons per acre _____________ = acres covered 270 gal 9 gal/acre = 30 acres covered Step 6. Determine distance to drive. Determine acres covered per tank.084 _______ 20 = 204 ft Step 3. Determine how much Cotoran to add to the tank. Amount to add = (acres covered)(broadcast rate per acre)(band width) ____________________________________________________________________ (row width) (30 acres)(1.

In that case. In that case. Hooded sprayers are relatively simple to calibrate if one is using them to apply herbicides only to the row middles or only directed under the cotton row. Determine average output per nozzle in 30 seconds. one would follow the procedures previously outlined for calibrating a banded application. One would follow the previously described procedures for calibrating banded applications in the row middles and repeat the process for the directed spray.Step 4. Many operators block the nozzles mounted into the sides of the “layby” hoods and mount an adjustable post-directed nozzle on each rear corner of the hood. The challenge with calibrating hooded sprayers arises with units not plumbed to independently apply different chemicals in the row middle and under the cotton 183 . Step 5. For this example.5 acres)(1 qt/acre)(16 in) _____________________________________ Amount to add = (40 in) = 15. This allows one to apply different chemicals in the row middle from what is directed into the row. If using adjustable post-directed nozzles. Acres = gallons of spray solution ________________________________ gallons per acre = ________________ 250 gal 6.5 gal/acre = 38. Amount to add = (acres covered)(broadcast rate per acre)(band width) ____________________________________________________________________ (row width) (38. Determine how much Caparol to add to the tank.4 qt Hooded sprayers Hooded sprayers can be a challenge to calibrate. depending upon the particular design and how one intends to use them.5 acres covered Step 6. The newer style “layby” hoods have one nozzle under the hood and one mounted into either side of the hood and directed under the row. This means your sprayer is applying 6. assume the average output per nozzle is 6. Either type of hood can be plumbed so that the nozzle or nozzles under the hood are on a separate system from the nozzles directing into the row. one would need to calibrate for each system independently.5 ounces in 30 seconds. The older style “conventional hoods” typically had three nozzles under the hood and one nozzle on either side of the hood directing spray into the row. Determine acres covered per tank. make sure the patterns produced by the two nozzles overlap sufficiently under the row to provide uniform coverage across the band.5 gallons per acre.

(24)(0. use the following formula to determine the size tip needed for the row middle: (width covered by nozzle under hood)(output of nozzle directing in row) width covered by each nozzle directed under row The one nozzle under the hood is effectively covering 24 inches. The effective coverage of the tip under the hood is therefore about 24 inches. They typically come with one 8003 tip under the hood and either an OC-02 tip or an 8001 tip mounted in either side of the hood or on each rear corner of the hood to spray under the row.2 gallons per minute at 40 psi. if you use the average output of all the nozzles in your calibration procedure. you will determine the output per acre at 5 mph and 30 psi to be 18. because of the width of the area being sprayed by each nozzle. An 8008 tip puts out 0. apply a much higher volume in the band under the cotton than in the row middle. If you use OC-02 tips to direct under the cotton. In reality.8 gallons per minute at 40 psi. Thus. The 12-inch band under the cotton is being covered by two nozzles.8 You need to replace the nozzle under the hood with one that is rated to put out 0. These units typically come from the manufacturer with nozzles that. one must find a combination of nozzles that allows for the spray volume applied under the row to be as close as possible to the volume applied in the row middle. assume you have the newer style “layby” hoods. the OC-02 tip is rated to put out 0. you will be applying roughly two-thirds of the desired herbicide rate in the row middle and roughly twice the desired rate in the row. 184 .3 gallons per acre.2) ____________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 = 0. so each nozzle is effectively covering 6 inches. the side tips are covering approximately 12 inches (8 inches between the hoods and 4 inches under the hoods).8 gallon per minute at 40 psi.row. In the case of OC-02 tips. For example. The solution is to find nozzles to go under the hood that put out more volume and/or to find nozzles to direct under the cotton that put out less volume. And. in 36-inch rows. in reality. This means one cannot apply the same rate of herbicide in the row and in the row middle. If you incorrectly assume you are applying 18. Before these units can be properly calibrated. the unit is applying approximately 13 gallons per acre in the row middle and approximately 34 gallons per acre under the row. This is incorrect.3 gallons per acre. This is unacceptable as it may lead to poor control in the row middle and/ or injury to the cotton. The tips for directing spray into the row typically cover about 2 inches on either side under the hood plus the area between the hoods.

and a desired herbicide rate of 1. Determine distance to drive. Average nozzle spacing = Step 2. use average output of all three tips).15 gallon per minute at 40 psi. assume it takes 46 seconds. The smallest off-center tip available is an OC-02. For this example.1 gallon per minute at 40 psi while an 80015 tip applies 0. Note: This example is an approximation. Using the above formula and assuming an effective coverage of 24 inches by the nozzle under the hood and 6 inches by each 8001 nozzle directing into the row. a 200-gallon tank. It assumes the two directing tips are each covering 2 inches under the hood.4 Once you have tips in place that give close to the same output in the row middle and under the row. This means your sprayer is applying 17 gallons per acre.084 12 ________ = 340 ft Step 3. you would need an 8004 tip under the hood. you can use the following procedure to calibrate the sprayer. In this example. For this example. Determine length of time required to drive 340 feet. and thus require fewer fill-ups. Step 1. assume the average output per nozzle is 17 ounces in 46 seconds (obviously the larger tip under the row will have a greater output than the smaller tips directing into the row. Determine average nozzle spacing. assume 36-inch row cotton. Determine average output per nozzle in 46 seconds. 185 .084 average nozzle spacing = 4. but one can use 8001 or 80015 tips to direct.6 pints per acre. “40 psi” is mentioned only in reference to selecting sizes of nozzles. This may be preferable because this nozzle arrangement would reduce the overall spray volume. (24)(0. Distance = _______________________________ ______________________ row width nozzles per row = 36 ___ 3 = 12 in 4. An 8001 tip applies 0. An alternative is to use a smaller tip to direct.Note: Hooded sprayers are typically operated at 20 to 30 psi.1) ____________ 6 = 0. Step 4.

Determine how much herbicide to add to the tank. Amount to add = (acres covered)(broadcast rate per acre) Amount to add = (11. gallons of spray solution Acres = ________________________________ = gallons per acre ________________ = 11.6 pt/acre) = 18. Determine acres covered per tank.Step 5.8 pt 186 .76 acres)(1.76 acres covered 17 gal/acre 200 gal Step 6.

diseases. and defoliation for proper management of these issues. “Fertilization. environmental issues will be an integral part of Extension educational programs and agricultural policy. including producers. therefore. and proper fertilization are very basic principles that protect the environment. agribusiness. Refer to Chapter 7. Everyone involved in the agricultural industry. and a great deal of this concern is related to agriculture. Factors such as crop rotation. proper site selection. PROTECTING WATER QUALITY AND REDUCING PESTICIDE EXPOSURE Fred H. This is true for insects. and educational organizations. growth regulators. Pesticide use should be only one part of an overall pest management program. These principles also reduce pesticide and fertilizer inputs. must be concerned with the protection of our natural resources. A careful soil-testing program followed by application of only those nutrients recommended is part of a sound cotton fertilization program. disease. Refer to the chapters on insect. Fertilizer use also impacts both pest problems and water quality.16. pesticides must still be used. North Carolina agriculture and cotton production will not be immune to these concerns. In future years. and weed management. Care must be taken to match the pesticide with the pest. Reducing pesticide exposure to humans and wildlife is also important in today’s modern farming operations.” for guidelines to a sound program. Protecting both surface water and groundwater from nutrients and pesticide residues should be a goal for every farmer in North Carolina. and weeds. One of the most important of these resources is our water supply. Select a Pesticide Carefully 187 . they make good economic sense. The following are some measures that cotton producers and professional applicators can take to minimize the threat to water quality and reduce pesticide exposure to humans and wildlife. the use of thresholds where available. Yelverton Crop Science Extension Specialist Protection of our environment is receiving much national attention. promoting a healthy and vigorous crop with good cultural practices. Minimize Pesticide and Fertilizer Use Where Possible While cultural practices are important parts of a sound pest management program.

hedge rows. A rating of “large” means the pesticide has a high tendency to move with sediment. they carry pesticides and nutrients that may eventually find their way into a water source. and woods that are vital habitat for wildlife.” Prevent Soil Movement Pesticides commonly used on cotton differ in their potential to contaminate surface water or groundwater. rate. including the use of cover crops and waterways and avoiding unnecessary disking and cultivations. A rating of “large” means the pesticide has a Potential for Pesticide Contamination of Surface Water and Groundwater 188 . Leaching potential indicates the tendency of a pesticide to move in solution with water and leach below the root zone. and rivers. and application method that is most effective for control. Additionally.This involves proper identification of the pest and then selection of a pesticide. must be practiced to minimize contamination of our water resources. while a rating of “small” means the pesticide has a low tendency to move with sediment. However. Surface loss potential indicates the tendency of the pesticide to move with sediment in runoff. We also can use some general guidelines to help determine which pesticides may present the highest risk for contaminating the environment. Two guidelines for pesticide use are surface loss potential and leaching potential. Extreme care must be taken to make sure the pesticide is applied only to the crop. The ratings of “large. Field borders consist of ditches. As a general rule. lakes. and physical characteristics and in water table depth). surface water contamination can occur on slightly sloping soils found in the coastal plain. Therefore. sound soil conservation practices. “Cotton Production with Conservation Tillage. The selection process should also include consideration of potential effects on water and safety to humans and wildlife. Predicting which pesticides may reach groundwater and on which soils this is most likely to occur is very difficult (because of such factors as differences in soil. Apply Pesticides Carefully As soil particles become dislodged. The Natural Resources Conservation Service can help you determine the leaching and runoff potential of your specific fields. Imprecise application can be detrimental to these areas.” and “small” also describe the potential for leaching. and contaminated water in ditches may move into larger bodies of water such as ponds. whereas the highly leachable soils of the coastal plain may be more susceptible to groundwater contamination. This is especially important in cotton because aerial application is common for many insecticides. This list includes most of the commonly used cotton pesticides. These guidelines are based on knowledge of the chemical characteristics of different pesticides and are summarized in Table 16-1. see Chapter 13. chemical.” “medium. rolling soils in the piedmont have more potential for surface water contamination. Consult your local Natural Resources Conservation Service and Cooperative Extension Service agent for proper conservation practices.

The potential for pesticide exposure is always greater when handling concentrated pesticides (not mixed with water) as opposed to a diluted solution (mixed with water in a sprayer). such as the ability to cause cancer. However. The lower the number. An “LD50” is used to measure pesticide toxicity to humans and other mammals and represents the amount of a substance that will cause death in 50 percent of a target population. methyl parathion. such as Temik. (2) ingestion (oral). boots. If pesticide poisoning is suspected. This is especially true with fumigants such as Telone II. “Small” means the pesticide should not leach with percolating water. Di-Syston. and goggles or a face shield should always be worn when mixing pesticides. the more acutely (short-term) toxic the substance is. This is a 24-hour consultant service for the diagnosis and treatment of human illness resulting from toxic substances. Care should be taken to minimize exposure of humans and wildlife to all pesticides. Wear protective clothing when handling pesticides. Pesticide Toxicity 189 . Most pesticide exposure occurs in one of three ways: (1) exposure to skin (dermal). pesticides should never be added to a spray tank by lifting a pesticide container above a person’s head to pour the substance into the tank. Also. These are general guidelines and should be interpreted as such. Nemacur. contact the Carolina Poison Center at 1-800-848-6946. Thimet. extreme caution should be taken with pesticides that have low LD50s. An LD50 can only be used to measure short-term toxicity and is not a measure of chronic (long-term) toxicity. Rubber gloves. Use a respirator when handling pesticides that have a strong odor and are easily detected by smell. and paraquat. or (3) inhalation (breathing vapors). Consult your county Extension Service agent for additional information on how to reduce pesticide exposure from mixing and applying pesticides.high potential for leaching. They must be interpreted in relation to local soil characteristics.

920 10.9* >5.6-15.038 >2.180 291* 2-12* 5.000* 1.000 >5. Meturon fluazifop Fusilade DX continued . DeFend disulfoton Di-Syston diuron Karmex fenamiphos Nemacur fluometuron Cotoran.000* 6* 1.000 Leaching Potential2 Oral LD503 Dermal acephate Orthene aldicarb Temik bifenthrin Capture bromoxynil Buctril captan Captan chlorpyrifos Lorsban clethodim Select clomazone Command cyanazine Bladex cyfluthrin Baythroid 190 cyhalothrin Karate cypermethrin Ammo. Water Contamination Potential and Mammalian Toxicity of Commonly Used Cotton Pesticides Surface Loss Potential 2 Small Small _____ Medium _____ Large _____ Medium Medium _____ _____ Large Medium Large Small Small Small Medium Large Medium Medium Large Large Medium Small Medium Medium Medium Medium Common Name Small Large _____ Small _____ Small _____ Large Medium _____ _____ Small Medium Small Medium 1.030* 2.000 >2.660 _____ 2.250* >2.000 >3.000 >5. Cymbush dichloropropene Telone II dicofol Kelthane dicrotophos Bidrin dimethipin Harvade dimethoate Cygon.000* 3.000 >2.25 375 779 9.000 333 2.840 2.Table 16-1.000* 80* >3.100 224 8.000 >2.000 96-270 2.000 >2.406 334 900* 64 250 224 820-960 17-22 1.820 >2.721 Trade Name(s) 1 1.

000* 2.000 Non-toxic >2.920 2. Mepix metalaxyl Medium Medium Small Medium Large Medium Small Large Large Large Large Large Large Small Large Medium Large Small Small Small Medium Large Small Small Small Small Small Large Medium Small 700 >8.000 Common Name Trade Name(s) 1 Leaching Potential2 Oral LD503 Dermal glyphosate Roundup Ultra linuron Lorox.Table 16-1.700* 3.000* 480 <4.500 >20.000 _____ methidathion Supracide s-metolachlor Dual Magnum methomyl Lannate methyl parathion Penncap-M MSMA Several products norflurazon Zorial 191 oxydemeton-methyl Metasystox-R oxyfluorfen Goal XL paraquat Boa. continued Surface Loss Potential2 Large Large Large Small 464 Medium 1.956 430-4. Ridomil Gold Small Medium 669* >3.000 5. Dimecron profenofos Curacron prometryn Caparol. Mepichlor.880 491 2.000* >5.400 >5.196 Small 5. several others phosphamidon Swat. Gramoxone Max PCNB Terraclor pendimethalin Prowl permethrin Ambush. Cotton-Pro continued propargite Comite .000* 2-4* 17-30 662 3.500 Small 20* Ridomil PC.000 30-75* >5.100* >5.200 >2.000 150* >10. Pounce phorate Thimet.000* 99* 267 192 >2.200 Very Small 20 Medium 17 Medium 2.000* 138 1. others mepiquat chloride Pix.

Folex trifluralin Treflan.000* Medium 780 1.700 _____ 4. others may be available.000 >2. continued Surface Loss Potential 2 _____ _____ Small Medium Medium Medium Medium ______ Large Large Small Small _____ 200* >10.000 >2. The technical material may be more or less toxic than the formulated product. The lower the number. while dermal refers to toxicity by skin contact.2 Flowable thiram Thiram tralomethrin Scout X-tra tribufos Def.000 >2. the more toxic. 3 LD50: The dose (amount) of a substance that will be lethal to 50 percent of the organisms in a specific test situation.000 >5.000 4. 2 Surface loss and leaching potential as rated by the Natural Resources Conservation Service.676 _____ 5.000 Non-toxic 820* >1. .000* Common Name Trade Name(s) 1 Leaching Potential 2 Oral LD503 Dermal pyrithrobac sodium Staple quizalofop Assure II sethoxydim Poast. It is expressed as weight of the chemical (mg) per unit of body weight (kg). * LD50 is for the technical material.Table 16-1.070 Small 145 Medium 4. 6th Edition.000 Small 150* Small 2. Oral refers to toxicity through ingestion. several others 192 1 Most common trade names. Values are from the Farm Chemicals Handbook ‘95 and the Herbicide Handbook.000 _____ >2. Poast Plus sulprofos Bolstar thidiazuron Dropp thiodicarb Larvin 3.

leaf grade. plus instrument measurements for fiber length. micronaire. COTTON CLASSIFICATION Keith Edmisten Crop Science Extension Specialist—Cotton Samples are taken from each North Carolina bale of cotton at the gin and sent to the United States Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Marketing Service (USDA-AMS) Cotton Classing office in Florence. Gin Code Number (Columns 1-5) The gin code number is composed of five digits. These samples give cotton buyers information about the quality of the cotton the growers have produced. On the next page is a list of the quality parameters measured at the classing office and the corresponding column where you will find each quality parameter listed. the Universal Classification Data Format is used as an example for explaining the various quality measurements. The high volume instrument (HVI) classification system consists of the classer’s judgment on color grade. Most of the information below is taken from the USDA publication Cotton Classification Results. Columns 36. and computer punchcards. which are discussed below. Cotton Division. the incoming bale identification tag must meet certain requirements. Memphis. USDA-AMS Cotton Division Universal Classification Data Format 193 . and 62 are left blank intentionally. The local classing office assigns this code number and can provide codes for any gin. computer tapes.17. Tennessee 38133. 58. trash. as many aspects of cotton quality can be influenced by management decisions. Producers should understand the classing system. Most classification data are provided to the industry by telecommunications. and the last three digits identify the gin. and extraneous matter (if any). strength. The first two digits denote the classing office. For ease of explanation. and length uniformity. diskettes. 55. South Carolina. 46. 3275 Appling Road. This applies to all methods of data dissemination offered by the Cotton Division. which is available through the USDA-AMS. In order to provide classification data for individual bales. color.

Table 17-1. or Single Bale Module/Trailer Number Bales in Module/Trailer Producer Account Color Grade Fiber Length (32nd) Mike (Micronaire) Strength Leaf Grade Extraneous Matter Remarks HVI Color Code Color Quadrant HVI Rd HVI + b HVI Trash Percent Surface Fiber Length (100th) Length Uniformity Percent Upland or Pima Record Type CCC Loan Premiums and Discounts 1-5 6-12 13-18 19 20-24 25-26 27-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 37-40 41 42-43 44-45 47-48 49 50-51 52-54 56-57 59-61 63-64 65 66 67-71 194 . USDA-AMS Cotton Division Universal Classification Data Format FIELD NAME COLUMN Gin Code Number Gin Bale Number Date Classed Module. Trailer.

Trailer.Mixture of Upland and Pima 97 . The codes that identify American Upland color grades are as follows: Special Condition Codes for Upland Cotton 96 . preprinted with the gin code number and gin bale number.Fire Damaged 98 . Producers can influence color by having good defoliation and by getting the crop harvested before wet weather damages fiber color.Water Damaged 195 . or Single Bale (Column 19) This one-digit code indicates whether the sample was outturned as a single bale or came from a bale that was module/trailer averaged. Color Grade (Columns 30-31) The color grade that appears on the classification record is determined by the classer. Date Classed (Columns 13-18) This is the date the bale was classed in the classing office. The classing office scans the bar codes to enter the bale identification into its computer before classing the sample. Module = 1. Bales in Module/Trailer (Columns 25-26) A two-digit number identifies the number of bales in the module/trailer that were averaged to determine the value of all the bales in the module/trailer. based on the official color grade standards. is placed between the two halves of the sample for identification purposes. A bar-coded bale identification tag. Single bale = 0.Gin Bale Number (Columns 6-12) The seven-digit bale numbers are assigned by the gin. Module. Trailer = 2 Module/Trailer Number (Columns 20-24) A five-digit number identifies the module/trailer number assigned at the gin. Codes that identify extraneous matter and special condition cotton are shown in the “Extraneous Matter” and “Remarks” sections. Color refers to the gradations of whiteness and yellowness in the cotton. Producer Account (Columns 27-29) The producer account number space is reserved for USDA use.

Table 17-2. Strength (Columns 37-40. The measurements. l00ths (Columns 59-61) The HVI system measures length in hundredths of an inch. Therefore. Micronaire and maturity are highly correlated within a variety. with a 1/8-inch spacing between the clamp jaws. Decimal in Column 39) Fiber strength is influenced most by variety selection. High mike is often a problem in North Carolina in drought-stressed years. especially where defoliation is delayed past optimum timing. Growers should avoid varieties with low staple length.000 meters of fiber. full-season varieties have higher strength than short-season varieties. Cotton with low staple length and high micronaire is very hard to sell. Low staple length has become more of a problem in the Southeast.32nds (Columns 32-33). Micronaire (Columns 34-35) An airflow instrument is used in the HVI system to measure fiber fineness. In general. 196 . All others are descriptive. commonly referred to as micronaire or “mike” readings. Length (staple) is reported on the classification record in both 32nds and 100ths of an inch. are the same as those that have been provided for many years in cotton classification. the strength reported is the force in grams required to break a bundle of fibers one tex unit in size. Fiber Length . Growers should try to avoid planting high micronaire varieties in fields that often have significant drought stress. The fiber strength measurement is made by clamping and breaking a bundle of fibers. A tex unit is equal to the weight in grams of 1. The following table shows some general descriptions of HVI 1/8-inch gauge-strength measurements in grams per tex. Growers should totally avoid varieties with both low staple length and high micronaire. Color Grades of Upland Cotton White Good Middling Strict Middling Middling Strict Low Middling Low Middling Strict Good Ordinary Good Ordinary Below Ordinary 11* 21* 31* 41* 51* 61* 71* 81 Light Spotted 12 22 32 42 52 62 — 82 Spotted 13 23* 33* 43* 53* 63* — 83 Tinged — 24 34* 44* 54* — — 84 Yellow Stained — 25 35 — — — — 85 * Physical standards. Results are reported in terms of “grams per tex” to the nearest 10th.

The descriptive terms in Table 17-5 may be helpful in understanding the measurement results. The resulting three-digit number is derived by locating the intersection of the Rd and +b readings on the diagram. HVI Trash Percent Surface (Columns 56-57) The two-digit trash code reported on the classification record is the percentage of the sample surface covered by trash particles as determined by a video scanner. Fiber Strength Table Descriptive Designation Weak Intermediate Average Strong Very Strong HVI 1/8” Gauge Strength (grams per tex) 23 and below 24–25 26–28 29–30 31 and above HVI Rd (Columns 50-51) HVI +b (Columns 52-54) The HVI color measurements cover grayness and yellowness.4 percent of the sample surface. etc. a reading of 04 indicates that trash particles cover 0. and Yellowness (HVI Color +b) indicates how much yellow color is in the sample. Length Uniformity Percent (Columns 63-64) Length uniformity is a two-digit number that is a measure of the degree of uniformity of fibers in a sample. Each color grade is subdivided into quadrants to denote color differences within a color grade for more precise measurements. This information is reported as a two-digit Color Grade Code and a single digit grade quadrant. 197 . Grade quadrants are not used for American Pima. the first digit being zero (0). bark. Trash particles include extraneous matter such as grass. Table 17-4 illustrates the relationship of leaf grade to the percentage of the surface area measured by the HVI trashmeter for the 1993 crop. The Nickerson-Hunter cotton colorimeter color diagram on page 11 of Cotton Classification Results is based on current official standards for American Upland cotton and shows how these measurements are coded and how they relate to the color of the grade standards. Color grades shown in the chart are the one-digit color grades of American Pima. For example. Grayness (HVI Color Rd) indicates how light or dark the sample is.Table 17-3. the classer will continue to identify samples containing extraneous matter. The Nickerson-Hunter cotton colorimeter color diagram on page 12 of Cotton Classification Results is based on the official standards for American Pima cotton. Two digits are shown on the classification record. However.

(-) if Discount Columns 67-71 will be left blank if the quality is not eligible for loan. 3 = Duplicate. 1 = Review. Length Uniformity Percent Descriptive Designation Very Low Low Average High Very High HVI Length Uniformity Below 77 77–79 80 83–85 Above 85 Upland or Pima (Column 65) The one-digit code indicates whether the sample is Upland or American Pima. 2 = Rework. 1 = Upland 2 = Pima Record Type (Column 66) The one-digit code gives the type of record. 4 = Correction CCC Loan Premiums and Discounts (Columns 67-71) The five-digit code gives the CCC loan premium and discount points for Upland cotton.Table 17-5. according to the following: 0 = Original. Upland—Column 67 (+) if Premium. 198 .

5 x 2. The sampling of bloom-tagged bolls should be carried out in proportion to their percentage of the total boll population.. Inexperienced scouts sometimes tend to oversample young bolls having a bloom tag. beat cloth—A square (typically 3 feet by 3 feet. that is targeted toward the adult stage. used to assess insect populations by catching them when plants are beaten or shaken over the device. adults are migratory and do not overwinter in the Carolinas. usually an insecticide. often associated with webbing and frass.e. Also called a shake cloth or ground cloth. blooming out the top—A cotton growth state characterized by the presence of first-position blooms almost entirely in the upper canopy of the cotton plant. sometimes provides a refuge under which young bollworms or tobacco budworms develop protected from beneficial insects and insecticides. 199 . More recently. eggs are deposited in masses.18. Often called bumblebee cotton when this condition occurs abnormally early on short. stressed cotton. aphicide—An insecticide that is active against aphids. This occurrence may indicate premature cutout of the crop. which is normally unrolled and placed on the ground between rows. bloom tag—The dried brown cotton bloom that sticks to the tip (or. drop cloths made of black material are being sold due to the dark background offering more contrast in recognizing immature plant bugs (nymphs). COTTON TERMINOLOGY Jack Bacheler Entomology Extension Specialist adulticide—A chemical. or 2. beet armyworm—(Spodoptera exigua) An armyworm species whose damage to cotton is characterized by leaf skeletonizing by early instars feeding in groups.5 feet) or rectangular piece of usually light-colored cloth or synthetic sheeting (i. off to one side) of the young boll. at times. more frequent in dry weather. Tyvek material) with dowels at opposite ends. beneficial arthropods—A general group of insects and their cousins (predatory mites and spiders) that either consume (predator) or live within (parasite) the host insect. Later instar larvae may feed on squares and bolls and are difficult to control with insecticides.

causes small. May undergo three to four generations per year in the Carolinas. peanuts. Typically North Carolina’s most significant cotton pest. primarily infesting fruit (squares. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins) that are effective against a wide spectrum of caterpillar pests and offer enhanced activity against bollworms. causing fruit abortion via feeding punctures or egg punctures. blooms. such as tobacco budworms. Feeding by adults and large nymphs with needle-like stylets. Bracts typically surround developing squares. and bolls). boll weevil—(Anthonomous grandis) A small brownish to grayish weevil that survives the winter as an adult and invades cotton in the spring to infest one-third grown or larger cotton squares. often during boll formation. becoming pinkish on the second and brown on subsequent days. corn and other grass species. completes life cycle within fallen squares in 2 ½ to 3 weeks. Undergoes three to four generations annually in the Carolinas. affording some protection to bollworms and other pests from beneficial insects and insecticides. showy. which has successfully eliminated this pest. and European corn borers. depending upon host. developing boll on days three to five. resulting in unharvestable bolls and low-quality lint. with the first two generations developing primarily in field corn (initial generation primarily on whorl stage corn and the second generation primarily on early ear stage corn) and the third on cotton. and other crops. Blooms in the tops of cotton plants (blooming out the top or bumblebee cotton) often indicate very dry weather or that the crop is cutting out. dark spots on the exterior carpel wall. A major pest of cotton in North Carolina before the beginning of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in 1978. soybeans. western flower and other thrips. compared to Bollgard. bract—The three modified leaves at the base of the cotton fruit. feeding can transmit hardlock organism. Also called soybean podworm and tomato fruitworm. Brown stink bugs are more 200 .on bolls of all sizes. bollworm—(Helicoverpa zea) The larval or caterpillar stage of the corn earworm moth. brown stink bug— (Euschistus servus) A brownish. Also called Bt cotton. must be opened to reveal developing square when monitoring fruit for damage. rounded. Bollgard cotton—A cotton variety that has been genetically altered to express an endotoxin (Bacillus thuringiensis) that is active against some caterpillar pests.blooms—Large. such as wheat. bollworms. off-white flowers that arise from buds (squares) and typically last only one day. Cotton blooms are at times attractive sites for bollworm egg deposition. before moving into cotton. Bollgard II cotton—A cotton variety that has two “stacked” (or “pyramided”) genes that each encode for the expression of separate endotoxins (Bacillus thuringiensis. medium-sized member of the stink bug family (Pentatomidae) that usually undergoes a generation on hosts. they usually fall from the new. and fall armyworms.

bollworms. 201 .. the leaf-like green segment also called sepals. flies (maggots). carpel wall—The thick outer walls of the boll. cutout—Final stage of cotton plant growth before boll opening. Sevin. usually insecticides. cumulative threshold—The point at which consecutive scouting assessments of subthreshold levels of the same species justify treatment. the initial growth stage characterized by the presence of “seed leaves. typically subject to heavy mortality via predation and parasitism. said to be closed when plant growth of adjacent rows closes over and shades row middles. According to more recent terminology. cotton aphid—(Aphis gossypii) The aphid species most commonly associated with outbreaks on cotton in the Southeast. Temik.” These leaves were initially contained in the seed and provide food for seed germination. direct sunlight penetration between rows constitutes an opened canopy. that inhibits cholinesterase. canopy—The foliage of a cotton crop. Larvin). consultant—An individual licensed by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. general absence of squares and blooms. green stink bugs) penetrate them. Larva is the general term for immature stages of moths (caterpillars).. translating into lost yield or lower lint quality.g. and cessation of new terminal growth. has many generations per year and is often resistant to various classes of insecticides. If insects (e. beetles (grubs). carbamates—A class of chemicals. defoliant—A harvest-aid material applied to the cotton plant to accelerate leaf drop in preparation for harvest (see defoliation). Cotton blooming out the top is considered cutout. This species’ life cycle (egg to adult) typically takes 40 days.g. caterpillar—The immature damaging stage of a butterfly or moth. also called the melon aphid. cotton is approaching cutout at five nodes above white bloom and is generally considered to be cutout at three nodes above white bloom. and others. cotyledon—In dicotyledonous plant species. they may cause damage to locks (see definition) or may cause boll rot. resulting in unregulated nerve-ending activation and paralysis in insects (e. calyx—Outer protective covering of the flower bud (square). characterized by the predominance of more mature fruit. who is trained to interpret information and make recommendations.difficult to control with pyrethroids than green stink bugs.

wheat. may be damaging and happen prematurely (i. fruiting branch—Lateral branch of a cotton plant. small larvae typically etch the bracts of medium and large bolls before penetrating the carpel walls. often on the underside of leaves but also in the terminal area. the shape of which is sometimes used in family. reproductive parts of the plant. larvae hatch from egg masses often deposited in the upper third of the cotton plant. fish scale-like egg masses deep within the plant canopy and on the underside of cotton leaves. such as elderberry 202 . or fruiting branch location on which fruit is either present or aborted. also called fecal pellets or droppings. fruit—Refers to cotton squares (or flower buds). soybean loopers consuming cotton plant leaves before cutout or leaf loss caused by a potassium deficiency) or naturally (the predictable loss of leaves of all deciduous plants). bollworm) or in a mass (e.defoliation—The loss of leaves from the cotton plant. Fall armyworm larvae are also often associated with blooms.. this boring caterpillar passes its initial two generations on corn. fungicide—A material used to control or kill fungi. and bolls. such as nitrogen-containing fertilizer. (2) the feeding of nutrients. primarily because the pest bores into medium to large bolls and to a lesser extent into stems. usually by caterpillars. European corn borer—(Ostrinia nubilalis) A pest of cotton in the Southeast where corn is planted.. to the cotton plant via a liquid applied to the foliage. typically arising from the fourth through eighth node and higher on the plant.or species-level identification. the first stage of an insect or mite. often at the base of the boll. sympodium or reproductive branch. female moths deposit small. egg—A single cell or ovum from an ovary. Medium to large established larvae are difficult to kill with insecticides. Cotton fruit is susceptible to a wide range of insect pests. European corn borer). the third and a partial fourth generation can be damaging to cotton. frass—A term applied to insect feces. fruiting position—Any main stem.g. potatoes. Egg masses are difficult to find. has fruiting position at each node.e.g. and various weed species in North Carolina. vegetative branch.. may be deposited singly (e. foliar feeding—On cotton: (1) leaf consumption. green stink bug—(Acrosternum hilare) A large green member of the stink bug family (Pentatomidae) that usually undergoes a generation on wild hosts. blooms. fall armyworm—(Spodoptera frugiperda) A migratory species that does not overwinter in the Carolinas.

g. pupa. and “post” (after plant emergence). light trap—A device consisting of at least an ultraviolet light (which is attractive to a number of night-flying insects) and a collection container. rounded. resulting in deformed pupae and adults or premature death). Feeding by adults and large nymphs with needle-like stylets.. label—A legally binding document affixed to every pesticide container outlining the product’s constituents. cabbage looper: egg. Used to monitor the timing and relative abundance of selected insect species (e. in cotton it is often used as an indicator of growth.g. i. larvicide—A compound that kills the larval stage of insects. before moving into cotton. This species’ life cycle (egg to adult) typically takes 30 to 35 days. or by (2) application type: “broadcast” (applied evenly over an area). “banded” (applied over a portion of the total area). and tobacco horworm moths).g. often on bolls of all sizes.and wild cherry. and Worker Protection Standard (WPS) information. lay-by—A final. instar—Stage of nymph (e. green stink bug. stink bug) or larva (e. either natural or synthetic. bollworm. feeding can transmit hardlock organism. dark spots on the exterior carpel wall. 203 . IGR. larva—The immature stage of an insect with four distinct metamorphic stages (e. Liberty Link cotton—A cotton variety that has been genetically altered to tolerate the herbicide Ignite (glufosinate). herbicide—A material used to kill weeds. Often referred to by its acronym.. larva [caterpillar].g. often during boll formation. bollworm) between molts. and adult). primary uses. In cotton the material usually is characterized by (1) timing: “PPI” (prior to planting and incorporated). such as Pix. insecticide—A material that kills insects. internode—The portion of the main stem between nodes. that influences insect growth and development (e. resulting in unharvestable bolls and low-quality lint. a greater internode length indicates faster growth and the possible need of a growth regulator capable of slowing growth. precautions. typically post-directed herbicide application designed to eliminate or suppress weeds through harvest time..e. insect growth regulator—A compound.g. Dimilin affects boll weevil grub integument formation during shed. amount of active ingredients. usually toward the base of the cotton plant. causes small... “pre” (prior to plant emergence from soil).. or “directed” (targeted at a specific area).

internal section of a cotton boll in which seed and lint development take place.. long-range. non-insect arthropods. active. some insecticides in this class with a high phosphorus content (e. abbreviated OP. mites—A group of small.g.. and damages cotton plants by rasping mostly lower leaf cells. miticide—A material that kills mites.g. populations are often reduced by naturally occurring fungi.. organophosphates—A class of organic. at which lateral vegetative and fruiting branches arise. nodes above white bloom—Term applied to the number of mainstem nodes from the last developed first-position white bloom to the plant terminal.lock—The major. the migration of thrips from alternative hosts to cotton).. causing excess nerve activation. and eventual death. used as a measure of plant growth (e. match-head square—Early stage of growth when the flower bud (excluding the outer bracts) reaches approximately the size of a large kitchen match head. fall armyworms do not overwinter in the Carolinas but rely instead on annual. sometimes hundreds of miles (e. usually along the main stem. The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) is the predominant mite on cotton in the Southeast. particularly under humid conditions. to assist in growth regulator assessments or as an index of degree of “cutout”). dry conditions. migratory—A term applied to an insect species that undergoes long-range movement. typically more of a problem under hot.g. 204 . methyl parathion) may delay cotton crop maturity if applied at an early stage. individual.g. which is active against Lepidoptera and selected members of other insect families and some mite species. most species are plant feeding. naturalites—A new class of fermentation products called spinosads derived from an ascomycetous fungus. more localized flights or transport (e. It can also refer to shorter. northward movement by consecutive generations “hopscotching” from the southern United States). four or sometimes five locks per boll are typical. nodes above cracked boll—Term applied to the number of mainstem nodes from the highest first position cracked boll to the plant terminal (often used as a method of assisting with measurements of cotton readiness for defoliation).. All plants will not have a first-position white bloom. paralysis. some of which are predators of other mites and small insects (e. node—A point. thrips). phosphorus-containing insecticides that inhibit cholinesterase.g. multipest threshold—The point at which the combined effects of subthreshold levels of two or more pests justify treatment.

a synthetic insect sex attractant pheromone. late in the season. with most insect species. Modified mapping systems are available that focus on particular vertical zones of cotton. better control if cotton has grown significantly taller than weeds (e. high levels of plant bugs can also damage larger squares. point sampling—A scouting method that relies on randomly selecting a prescribed number of sites or points within a cotton field for intensive scouting of a predetermined number of plants or feet of row (best suited to uniform fields).g. blooms. plant map—A precise. At high population levels. Lygus lineolaris. more typically. or only minimally effect. abbreviated PGR. and small bolls.. Bladex). and others).A herbicide application which is made over the top of the cotton canopy. In the Southeast. glyphosate on Roundup Ready cotton. postemergence-directed—Herbicide placement after seedling emergence directed to the base of cotton plants. Pinhead squares are just visible to the naked eye.g.overtop herbicide application. The mouthparts make tiny needle-like holes in small squares. terminal feeding may result in unusual upper growth (crazy cotton) and loss of apical dominance. active.. ovicide—A material that kills the egg stage of an organism. and fruit retention and to compartmentalize and compare fruit retention on selected horizontal or vertical zones of the cotton plant. plant growth regulator—A substance applied to cotton plants that affects growth or aging (e. prescribed manner of recording. the growth of the cotton plant (e. the primarly pest species is the tarnished plant bug. this misnomer most often applies to match-head squares. cotton plant growth that shows the location and stage of fruit by its position on each node of all vegetative and fruiting branches. parasite—An organism that lives wholly off and often feeds within another organism (called a host). dark brown bugs with piercing-sucking mouthparts. or mapping..g. pinhead square—In practice. These herbicides do not negatively impact. postemergence over the top—Herbicides applied directly over the canopy of both cotton and weeds. pheromone trap—A trap that uses either a natural or. such as first position only. causing darkening and abortion. insect parasites usually kill their hosts and are referred to as parasitoids. Pix and Prep). sometimes represents a salvage treatment following inadequate PPI or 205 . these traps are usually species specific. nodes above cracked boll. the ALS inhibitor Staple. plant bugs—Small. Plant maps are often used to determine nodes above white bloom.

.g. Cotoran). which formerly provided control of the particular pest species.preemergence weed control. or herbicide. thus producing susceptible offspring. weed or disease biotypes that are tolerant to an insecticide. refugia—In cotton insect management..g. biotypes of Palmer amaranth have developed that survive high rates of glyphosate. resistance – The inherited development of insect. vegetative cotton growth. often a result of late planting. preemergence—A term most often referring to broadleaf herbicides applied at or after planting but before seedling emergence. rank—A term signifying tall. respectively. “pre” herbicides (e. pupa—The compact. an area used to maintain the production of susceptible insect populations. or excessive moisture. For example. resting stage of an insect preceding the adult stage (bollworms overwinter in the pupal stage under the soil surface).g. better suited for regions with variable soils within fields. Treflan). 206 . a certain acreage of non-Bt cotton must be set aside to produce enough Bt-susceptible adult bollworms and tobacco budworms to mate with a high enough proportion of the Bt-produced resistant individuals to maintain a population of budworms and bollworms susceptible to Bt cotton. pyramided genes—See stacked genes. pyrethroids—A class of insecticides characterized by very low mammalian toxicity and high insect control at low usage rates. PPI herbicides (e. a number of small predator insects can provide significant natural control of several pests. susceptible adults. random sampling—A scouting method that relies on continuous inspections throughout most of a cotton field. fungicide. predator—An organism that kills and consumes another (its prey).. to preserve the effectiveness of Bt cotton. A refugia is a crop or host area that is left untreated with an insecticide or type of technology so that adults that are resistant to the chemical or chemical class in question will have a high probability of mating with the higher number of refugia-produced. some compounds may cause maturity delays and yield reductions (e. more susceptible to boll rot. Rank growth often renders cotton plants more attractive and susceptible to late-season insects. preplant incorporated—Refers mostly to grass and small-seeded broadleaf herbicides (but also some other weed species such as nutsedge) applied and incorporated before planting. often protected. excessive nitrogen fertilizer. fertile soils. and more difficult to defoliate. Zorial). For example.

boll weevils. starter fertilizer—Fertilizer placed close to the seed.. usually at planting. squares are often a preferred site of insect feeding. plant bugs. usually expressed as a percentage. bollworms. or two genes that express different activities in the same variety.. scout—An individual trained to collect information about cotton insect and plant populations. Roundup Ready—Trademark term applied to varieties that have been genetically altered to be tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate. skeletonizing—A type of insect damage characterized by insect feeding on leaf areas between veins. retained by the cotton plant (often employed early in the growth of a cotton plant as an index of plant development).g. stacked—Using two or more genes in a cotton variety for expression of similar characteristics (Bollgard II will use two Bt genes to express different endotoxins for caterpillar control) or dissimilar characteristics (Bollgard gene plus Roundup Ready gene for herbicide tolerance to Roundup herbicide). it can result in a lacy appearance to the leaf. 207 . scouts are not responsible for interpreting data or providing recommendations. stacked genes (or pyramided genes)—Two or more genes inserted into the plant’s DNA that express similar (though enhanced) activity (e. such as Bollgard caterpillar resistance plus Roundup Ready glyphosate tolerance). migratory adults overwinter in the southern United States or Caribbean basin and typically arrive in the Carolinas in late summer or fall. scouting—The procedures followed by a scout. soybean looper—(Pseudoplusia includens) A light-green. sample—The portion of a population collected in a prescribed manner upon which a judgment is made about the entire population. square—The flower bud of a cotton plant with a central corolla containing the pollen anthers and sepals and surrounded by three (or sometimes four) bracts.g. sweep net—A sturdy net composed of a 15-inch (standard size) rigid wire support and a heavy-duty cloth bag used to “sweep” across the upper canopy of cotton plants to assess insect populations. e. such as in Bollgard II or Widestrike. square retention—The proportion of squares. two genes that encode for separate Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin expression in the same variety. also called “popup” fertilizer. defoliating caterpillar.restricted entry interval—The mandatory period of time a person must wait between application of a chemical and entry to the treated area.

or it might be Roundup herbicide absorbed into the vascular system of weeds and translocated to the root zone in high enough concentrations to kill the weed). which move in high numbers primarily into seedling cotton. especially under low plant populations. a close relative of the corn earworm. often in concentrations high enough to cause a biological change (e. transgenic cotton—Cotton that has been genetically altered by recombinant DNA techniques to express tolerance to either herbicides (e. typified by lack of fruit. resulting in a twogene product that expresses higher activity against bollworms and European corn borers. often tall and rank.g. VIP cotton—A cotton variety that has been genetically altered to express an endotoxin that is produced during the vegetative stage of bacterial growth (Vip3A protein) and is effective against a wide spectrum of caterpillar pests.systemic—A pesticide that is taken up through the roots or leaf tissues into the cells of the cotton plant (as opposed to remaining on the surface)..) thrips—Tiny.g.g. Bollgard. often because their alternative hosts are drying up. 208 . It can also be an economic threshold. fruiting branches. active insects of the order Thysanoptera. an action is taken when a level or number of eggs or caterpillars is reached. which takes the commodity value and treatment cost into consideration. BXN) or insect pests (e. can develop from vegetative branches. if they are all retained. also called “apex. (Most thresholds are action thresholds. Vegetative branches have a terminal and often develop fruiting branches. vegetative branch—Lateral branch on a cotton plant that does not have a fruit at each node. the number of squares typically is identical to the number of leaves. often applied to insects. These varieties offer enhanced bollworm control. compared to Bollgard. terminal—The dominant. but low activity against the European corn borer. Roundup Ready. Bollgard II against tobacco budworms).” threshold—The point at which an action is taken. a systemic might be an at-planting soil insecticide taken up by cotton seedling roots and transported through the plant’s vascular system to suppress or kill leaf-feeding thrips. vegetative growth—General term for undesirable cotton plant growth. however.. Stacked VIP varieties include an additional gene insertion (Cry 1Ac).. tobacco budworm—(Heliothis virescens) A caterpillar pest of primarily squares and bolls. It undergoes three to four generations annually and often is the predominant species of the bollworm/budworm complex in June in the Carolinas. upper mainstem part of a cotton plant containing three to four expanding leaves and developing squares. Mid South populations of tobacco budworms have developed resistance to all major classes of insecticides.

damages cotton both directly via its sap-feeding and indirectly via voiding honeydew. Warts are usually counted as damage in scouting assessments. typically developed in the fall. resulting in “sticky cotton. economically important weeds. of a field or field portion showing the location of predominant. white-winged insect with piercing-sucking mouthparts. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) that are effective against a wide spectrum of caterpillar pests and offer enhanced activity against bollworms when compared to Bollgard. whitefly—A small. windowpaning—See skeletonizing. typically round. area of callous growth on the inside of the boll wall associated with stink bug or plant bug feeding. Widestrike cotton—A cotton variety that has two “stacked” (or “pyramided”) genes that each encode for the expression of separate endotoxins (Bacillus thuringiensis. used in planning weed management programs.wart— A small.” a ginning and milling problem. weed map—A simple diagram. 209 .

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