DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP

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Preface
This report is a job undertaken by the students mentioned previously for the project work integrated in the syllabus of bachelor in industrial engineering, 4th year, and 1st part. The use of various machines & devices has been employed since ages to assist human for various purposes. Simple machines have been age-long friends to human with complex ones being continuously derived from them. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another. This is the law of conservation of energy. Bernoulli's theorem states Energy cannot be created or destroyed. The sum of three types of energy (heads) at any point in a system is the same in any other point in the system assuming no frictional losses or the performance of extra work. Taking this as the source of inspiration, new innovative ideas, processes & machineries have been developed. One of such instance is the Reciprocating pump. The core of this report is a simple machine, reciprocating pump. A reciprocating positive displacement pump is one in which a plunger or piston displaces a given volume of fluid for each stroke. Water is the basic need of life. Our existence is in doubt in absence of water. Scarcity of it means life full of hardships & obstacles. It is a pitiful condition faced by many people in rural hilly areas, especially in country like ours. Though we boast of being the richest country in water resources, but ironically water supply is the growing & burning problem in Nepal. Owing to this problem, a need of some simple, effective & affordable solution for water supply in such areas can be reciprocating pump. It is a simple mechanical device built on easily available resources and based on simple technology. Though it is quite inefficient in terms of volume of water pumped owing to various losses & wastes, it still has a good prospect of serving in regards to continuous water supply. Its affordability, ease of construction & operation make it suitable for our focus areas where factors like poverty & lack of resources to support & sustain technology would set back the use of otherwise highly sophisticated modern devices. Another plus point for this simple device is that it runs on the kinetic energy of the water flow and no other source is required. Thus once installed, it can be used to supply water continuously, apart from minimum of maintenance. Overall it seems to be a very important device I context of Nepal & if properly employed in various parts, it can prove itself as a boon for many water starved areas of Nepal.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Objectives The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate a functional reciprocating pump in a village of Tanahun District by the Industrial Engineering students so that students can learn the manufacturing and installation of the technology and rural people can help to disseminate the technology. Specific objectives are: a) To identify the potential site for reciprocating pump installations b) To design reciprocating pump per site and manufacture the same c) To construct a demonstration/testing facility consisting reciprocating pump d) To install the reciprocating pump e) To test the performance of reciprocating pump Other Objectives are: a) To facilitate the local people by providing water for various purposes. b) To socialize the technology. c) To apply the theoretical knowledge into practical application. d) To optimize the resources.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Background Reciprocating pumps utilize the principle of a moving piston, plunger, or diaphragm to draw liquid into a cavity through an inlet valve and push it out through a discharge valve. These pumps have overall efficiency ranges from 50% for the small capacity pumps to 90% for the larger capacity sizes. They can handle a wide range of liquids, including those with extremely high viscosities, high temperatures, and high slurry concentrations due to the pump’s basic operating principle, i.e., the pump adds energy to the liquid by direct application of force, rather than by acceleration. There are numerous classes and categories of pumps due to the wide variation of processes and the distinct requirements of each application. Figure 1 illustrates the classes, categories, and types of pumps utilized in the world today. If the liquid can be handled by any of the three types within the common coverage area, the most economical order of selection would be the following: 1. Centrifugal 2. Rotary 3. Reciprocating However, the liquid may not be suitable for all three major pump types. Other considerations that may negate the selection of certain pumps and limit, choice include the following: - Self priming - Air -handling capabilities - Abrasion resistance - control requirements - Variation in flow - Viscosity - Density - Corrosion

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Introduction Reciprocating pumps are those which cause the fluid to move using one or more oscillating pistons, plungers or membranes (diaphragms). To 'Reciprocate' means 'To Move Backwards and Forwards'. A 'RECIPROCATING' pump therefore, is one with a forward and backward operating action. The simplest reciprocating pump is the 'Bicycle Pump', which everyone at some time or other will have used to re-inflate their bike tyres. Reciprocating-type pumps require a system of suction and discharge valves to ensure that the fluid moves in a positive direction. Pumps in this category range from having "simplex" one cylinder, to in some cases "quad" four cylinders or more. Most reciprocating-type pumps are "duplex" (two) or "triplex" (three) cylinder. Furthermore, they can be either "single acting" independent suction and discharge strokes or "double acting" suction and discharge in both directions. The pumps can be powered by air, steam or through a belt drive from an engine or motor. This type of pump was used extensively in the early days of steam propulsion (19th century) as boiler feed water pumps. Reciprocating pumps are now typically used for pumping highly viscous fluids including concrete and heavy oils, and special applications demanding low flow rates against high resistance.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Working Principle Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump, which causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then displacing that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. The fluid enters a pumping chamber via an inlet valve and is pushed out via a outlet valve by the action of the piston or diaphragm. They are either single acting; independent suction and discharge strokes or double acting; suction and discharge in both directions. During the suction stroke the piston moves left thus creating vacuum in the Cylinder. This vacuum causes the suction valve to open and water enters the Cylinder. During the delivery stroke the piston moves towards right. This increasing pressure in the cylinder causes the suction valve to close and delivery to open and water is forced in the delivery pipe. The air vessel is used to get uniform discharge.

Reciprocating pumps are self priming and are suitable for very high heads at low flows. They deliver reliable discharge flows and is often used for meteringduties because of constancy of flow rate. The flow rate is changed only by adjusting the rpm of the driver. These pumps deliver a highly pulsed flow. If a smooth flow is required then the discharge flow system has to include additional features such as accumulators. An automatic relief valve set at a safe pressure is used on the discharge side of all positive displacement pumps. The performance of a pump is characterized by its net head h, which is defined as the change in Bernoulli head between the suction side and the delivery side of the pump. h is expressed in equivalent column height of water.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Reciprocating Pump Performance The following data will outline the main terms involved in determining the performance of a reciprocating pump. MAIN TERMS a) Brake Horsepower (BHP) • Brake horsepower is the actual power required at the pump input shaft in order to achieve the desired pressure and flow. It is defined as the following formula: BHP=(Q ¥ Pd)/(1714 ¥ Em) 102 Pumps Reference Guidewhere: BHP = brake horsepower Q = delivered capacity, (gpm US) Pd = developed pressure, (psi) Em = mechanical efficiency, (% as a decimal) b) Capacity (Q) • The capacity is the total volume of liquid delivered per unit of time. This liquid includes entrained gases and solids at specified conditions. c) Pressure (Pd) • The pressure used to determine brake horsepower is the differential developed pressure. Because the suction pressure is usually small relative to the discharge pressure, discharge pressure is used in lieu of differential pressure. d) Mechanical Efficiency (Em) • The mechanical efficiency of a power pump at full load pressure and speed is 90 to 95% depending on the size, speed, and construction. e) Displacement (D) • Displacement (gpm) is the calculated capacity of the pump with no slip losses. For singleacting plunger or piston pumps, it is defined as the following: Where: D = displacement, (gpm US) A = cross-sectional area of plunger or piston, (in2) M = number of plungers or pistons n = speed of pump, (rpm) s = stroke of pump, (in.) (half the linear distance the plunger or piston moves linearly in one revolution) f) Slip(s) • Slip is the capacity loss as a fraction or percentage of the suction capacity. It consists of stuffing box loss BL plus valve loss VL. However, stuffing box loss is usually considered

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negligible.

g) Valve Loss (VL) • Valve loss is the flow of liquid going back through the valve while it is closing and/or seated. This is a 2% to 10% loss depending on the valve design or condition. h) Speed (n) • Design speed of a power pump is usually between 300 to 800 rpm depending on the capacity, size, and horsepower. To maintain good packing life, speed is limited to a plunger velocity of 140 to 150 ft/minute. Pump speed is also limited by valve life and allowable suction conditions. i) Pulsations • The pulsating characteristics of the output of a power pump are extremely important in pump application. The magnitude of the discharge pulsation is mostly affected by the number of plungers or pistons on the crankshaft. j) Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) • The NPSHR is the head of clean clear liquid required at the suction centerline to ensure proper pump suction operating conditions. For any given plunger size, rotating speed, pumping capacity, and pressure, there is a specific value of NPSHR. A change in one or more of these variables changes the NPSHR. • It is a good practice to have the NPSHA (available) 3 to 5 psi greater than the NPSHR. This will prevent release of vapor and entrained gases into the suction system, which will cause cavitations damage in the internal passages. k) Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) • The NPSHA is the static head plus the atmospheric head minus lift loss, frictional loss, vapor pressure, velocity head, and acceleration loss in feet available at the suction center-line.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Installation, Operation, and Troubleshooting of Pumps • The subsequent data will provide useful to personnel involved in the application or maintenance of pumps. The information is categorized into the following headings: I. Alignment of Shafts II. Water Hammer III. Troubleshooting Pump Problems I. ALIGNMENT OF SHAFTS Misalignment of the pump and driver shaft can be angular (shaft axes concentric but not parallel), parallel (shaft axes parallel but not concentric), or a combination of both a. COUPLINGS • Couplings provide a mechanically flexible connection for two shaft ends that are in line. • Couplings also provide limited shaft end float (for mechanical movement or thermal expansion) and within specified limits, angular and parallel misalignment of shafts. Couplings are not intended to compensate for major angularor parallel misalignment. • The allowable misalignment will vary with the type of coupling, and reference should be made to the manufacturer’s specifications enclosed with the coupling. Any improvement in alignment over the coupling-manufacturer’s minimum specification will increase pump, coupling, and prime mover life by reducing bearing loads and wear. • Flexible couplings in common use today are chain, gear,steel grid, and flex member. b. Angular Misalignment • To check angular misalignment - insert a feeler gauge between the coupling halves to check the gap; - check the gap between coupling halves at the same location on the coupling as for the original gap check. • To correct angular misalignment, adjust the amount of shims under the driver and/or adjust driver location in the horizontal plane. c. Parallel Misalignment • To check parallel misalignment, the dial indicator method is used - with the dial indicator attached to the pump or driver shaft, rotate both shafts simultaneously, and record dial indicator readings through one complete revolution; - correct the parallel misalignment by adjusting shims under the driver. • On certain large units, limited end float couplings are used. II. WATER HAMMER Water hammer is an increase in pressure due to rapid changes in the velocity of a liquid flowing through a pipeline. This dynamic pressure change is the result of the transformation of the kinetic energy of the moving mass of liquid into pressure energy. When the velocity is changed by closing a valve or by some other means, the magnitude of the pressure produced is frequently

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much greater than the static pressure on the line, and may cause rupture or damage to the pump, piping, or fittings. This applies both to horizontal and vertical pump installations. The velocity of the pressure wave depends upon the ratio of the wall thickness to the inside pipe diameter, on the modulus of elasticity of the pipe material, and on the modulus of elasticity of the liquid. The head due to water hammer in excess of normal static head is a function of the destroyed velocity, the time of closure, and the velocity of pressure wave along the pipe. Water hammer may be controlled by regulating valve closure time, relief valves, surge chambers, and other means. III. Troubleshooting Pump Problems i. Pump Fails to Deliver Required Capacity - speed incorrect, belts slipping - air leaking into pump - liquid cylinder valves, seats, piston packing, liner, rods or plungers worn - insufficient NPSHA - pump not filling - makeup in suction tank less than displacement of pump - capacity of booster pump less than displacement of power pump - vortex in supply tank - one or more cylinders not pumping - suction lift too great - broken valve springs - stuck foot valve - pump valve stuck open - clogged suction strainer - relief, bypass, pressure valves leaking - internal bypass in liquid cylinder ii. Suction and/or Discharge Piping Vibrates or Pounds - piping too small and/or too long - worn valves or seats - piping inadequately supported iii. Pump Vibrates or Pounds - gas in liquid - pump not filling - one or more cylinders not pumping - excessive pump speed - worn valves or seats - broken valve springs - loose piston or rod - unloader pump not in synchronism - loose or worn bearings - worn crossheads or guides

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- loose crosshead pin or crank pin; loose pull or side rods or connecting rod cap bolts - pump running backwards - water in power end crankcase - worn or noisy gear iv. Consistent Knock - worn or loose main bearing, crank pin bearing, wrist pin bushing, plunger, valve seat, low oil level - Note: High speed power pumps are not quiet. Checkonly when the sound is erratic. v. Packing Failure (Excessive) - improper installation - improper or inadequate lubrication - packing too tight - improper packing selection - scored plungers or rods - plunger or rod misalignment vi. Wear of Liquid End Parts - abrasive or corrosive action of the liquid - incorrect material vii. Liquid End Cylinder Failure - air entering suction system - incorrect material - flaws in casting or forging viii. Wear of Power End Parts (Excessive) - poor lubrication - overloading - liquid in power end ix. Excessive Heat in Power End (Above 180˚C) - pump operating backwards - insufficient oil in power end - excessive oil in power end - incorrect oil viscosity - overloading - tight main bearings - driver misaligned - belts too tight - discharge valve of a cylinder(s) stuck open - insufficient cooling - pump speed too low

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Methodology 1. Site visit and Selection: The site for the installation of safe drinking water system was selected in the village Daraingaun of Tanahun district. 2. Site Survey: The survey of site was done by measuring the head and flow rate and by interviewing the local people. 3. Literature collection from various institutions and internet sites.

4. Design: The system design will be done by using various research paper and manuals 5. Correction and suggestions from experts and supervisor.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Design and Cost Calculation

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Design of components: SN 1 Components Turbine blades Suction pipe 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Delivery tube Connecting rod Crank Bearings Cylinder Piston(washer) Check valve) Check valve) Stand Garden pipe GI pipe GI pipe Cast iron Cast iron Rubber 0.5inch 1inch of 6m length 0.5 inch of 6m length 1 inch 3.5 inch (diameter) 20 inch (length) 3.68inch(diameter) 1 inch 0.5 inch 2.5inch (16 sq.feet) Type Cast iron Garden pipe Specification 12inch*6inch 1inch

valve(Suction Brass valve(Delivery Brass Cast iron

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND FABRICATION OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
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Calculation We assume, flow rate of water, Q = 27 lt/sec dimension of channel length = 0.76 m width = 0.304 m Calculation of velocity of river, v = Q/A = 0.027/(0.76x0.304) = 0.117 m/s Calculation of angular velocity of turbine blade, ω = v/r = 0.117/0.6096=0.192rad/sec 0.192*180/П=11degree/sec Now For the rotation of 360degree we have 32sec Volume of the pump V=Пr2h =П*0.048252*0.2921 =0.0021353m3 =2.135lt in 32sec Therefore V=2.135/32=0.06675lt/sec =4 lt/minute =240lt/hour =5767.2lt/day

Cost Details Total cost: SN Components 1 Turbine blades Frame 2 Base support 3 4 6 7 Delivery pipe Shaft(pipe) Bearings Bearing holder

Type Cast iron sheets Cast iron(Squared pipe)

Specificat ion 4ft*8ft 32sq.feet ½ inch

Quantity 4 4

Cost (Rs.) 4000 2500

Cast iron Garden pipe Cast iron

2 inch* 10 3 ft 0.5inch of 1 5m ½ inch 1 6205RS 4 4

1200 180 800 480 2500

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10

Check valve(Delivery valve) Pipe pipe Gun rivet Nut and bolt Carbide Stud Rod Putty M seal Paint Brush Elbow Nipple Clamp Cello Tape Nozzle Bush Pipe Cylinder Cover Miscellaneous Cost Total Cost

Brass

0.5 inch

1

375

GI GI

1'', 2 ft ½'', 2 ft 4",5"

1 400,400gm 5kg

180 90 1000 225 700 50 200 150 150 500 270 300 750 50 60 50 400 1000 37500 55660

GI Cast iron

2 inch 1 inch

1 1 3 2

Enamel GI GI GI

½ litre ½ inch ½ inch

2 3 2 2 2 2 1

Cast iron pipe Cast iron sheet

¾ inch 8 sq. ft.

1 1

Miscellaneous Cost S.N. Components Fooding Transportation Cost Documentation Cost First- Aid

Type

Specification

Quantity

Cost (Rs.) 29500 4000 2000 2000

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Fabrication Details Flowchart:

Cutting of sheets metal

Rolling of sheets

Giving required finishing to turbine blades

Bending of blades to get curve

Welding of cut sheet metal for cylinder

Process Details 1) Frame: Cutting of square pipe in 2x2.5 ft size. No. Of square pipe 10x2= 20 Cutting of pipefor reinforcing the frame . No. Of reinforce pipe = 10 Length of reinforce pipe = 17 cm Angle of reinforce = 720 Welding of these parts as per the design. 2) Sheet metals: Cutting of sheet metalsin the size of 32x12 inch. Rolling of sheet metals in semicircular shape to give the form of blade. Attaching these blades to the frame by means of riveting.

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Rivets used with 4mm head. 3) Welding all the frames at an angle of 720 to form the runner as per the design. Welding the reinforcing bars to the runner. 4) Bush: Number of bush = 6 Making a bush of pipe as per requirements. 5) Stand: Cutting of square pipe, angle and thick sheet for base. Welding as per design.

6) Shaft: cutting of cylindrical cast iron pipe. Fitting of shaft to the runner with the support of bush. Length of shaft = 25 mm 7) Crank: Fabrication of crank as per design.

8) Bearing: fitting of three bearings in stand connecting the shaft and one bearing in crank, supported by bearings holders separately. 9) Connecting Rods: Cutting of square rod with length ........ Fitting of connecting rod with crank and piston rod. 10) 11) Piston Rod and cylinder: Piston rod of length ...... Cylinder length 25’’ diameter 3’’. One way Valve: Fitting of one way valve in cylinder for outlet of water.

Techniques and equipments used 1. Electric arc welding: Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or nonconsumable electrodes. The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of inert or semi-inert gas, known as a shielding gas, and/or an evaporating filler material. The process of arc welding is widely used because of its low capital and running costs. Getting the arc started is called striking the arc. An arc may be struck by either lightly tapping the electrode against the metal or scratching the electrode against the metal at high speed.

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2. Drill: A drill or drill motor is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for drilling holes in various materials or fastening various materials together with the use of fasteners. The attachment is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill and rotated while pressed against the target material. The tip, and sometimes edges, of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the target material. This may be slicing off thin shavings (twist drills or auger bits), grinding off small particles (oil drilling), crushing and removing pieces of the work piece (SDS masonry drill),countersinking, counter boring, or other operations. Types of Drill used i. Hand drill: ii. Pillar type drill 3. Squeeze riveter This gun is different from other rivet guns in that the air pressure is used to provide a squeezing action that compresses the rivet from both sides rather than distinct blows. The squeeze riveter can only be used close to the edge because of the limited depth of the anvil. Once properly adjusted, the squeeze riveter will produce very uniform rivet bucks. The stationary (fixed) jaw is placed against the head and the buck is compressed by the action of the gun. 4. Grinder A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is a machine tool used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip from the work piece via shear deformation. Types of grinder used i. Bench grinder, which usually has two wheels of different grain sizes for roughing and finishing operations and is secured to a workbench or floor stand. Its uses include shaping tool bits or various tools that need to be made or repaired. Bench grinders are manually operated. ii. Hand grinder: 5. Nibbling machine: 6. Folder 7. Hand shearing machine (sheet): A hand shearing also known as a lever shear is a bench mounted shear with a compound mechanism to increase the mechanical advantage. It is usually used for cutting rough shapes out of medium sized pieces of sheet metal, but cannot do delicate work. Usually this type of shear can handle steel sheet metal up to 3 mm (0.12 in) thick.

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8. Hand shearing machine (angle): It is similar to above shearing machine but it is used it used to cut the angle. It has strong cutting blade that is able to cut cast iron angle.

SWOT analysis Strength i. Simple construction, easy installation, reliable operation & maintenance. ii. Easy to procure components & assemble to build the reciprocating pump. iii. Runs on the kinetic energy of water flow & no other energy is required for operation. iv. Suitable for remote areas where there is lack of materials, technology & power sources. v. Can be easily built vi. Can work continuously for 24 hrs a day. vii. Low cost due to simple parts & no requirements of external energy. Weakness i. Suitable where there is water flow, hence unsuitable to pump water from ponds,lakes etc ii. Highly inefficient in terms of water supplied. iii. Moving parts such as valves, bearings etc may be subjected to damage & need regular inspection. Opportunities Can be used efficiently to pump water where there ae rivers flowing & large amount of water is available. ii. Can be used to enhance irrigation by providing continous water supply. iii. Water can be pumped for drinking, washing & other basic householf\d purposes. iv. Can be employd to improve health through access to clean water, enabling better hygiene & sanitation. i. Threats i. The topography maynot be suitable to support the civil construction of reciprocating pup.

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ii. iii. iv.

If water reduces by chance, it may adersely affect the water supply system. Natural calamities like floods, landslides etc may damage the system. Parts maynot be readily available in areas accessible to intended people.

Conclusion This project focused on the construction & operation of the reciprocating pump. Our achievement is something we term a moderate success. While many factors have limited the reciprocal pump to a level than what it could actually have been, still we have been successful to demonstrate the worth of a reciprocating pump. Our achievement is something we term a moderate success. While many factor have limited reciprocating pump to a level then what it could actually have been, still we have successful to demonstrate the worth of a reciprocating pump. Our reciprocating pump was a simple homemade type, built on easily available materials and technology. This device serves its purpose to some extent, but with proper course of actions, it can perform still better. From what we have derived from this project all the way from concept building, inception to final operation, we believe that he usefulness and effectiveness of a reciprocating pump against its simplicity and economics makes it a very powerful and practical machine, If carried out in proper ways in a large scale, reciprocating pump can be a handy tool of great importance in the hilly regions of Nepal. Thus we would like to put forth some recommendations regarding its use. i. ii. iii. iv. Reciprocating pump can be a very useful tool to provide water easily at higher elevations. Thus, their construction and use must be executed with great priority. The pump is itself an economic device, however it must be made further affordable by procuring and producing in large quantities Since the pump does not require any other form of energy and runs only on energy of water flow, this use must be encouraged in the remote areas of the country. The people of targeted areas should be made aware of the uses of reciprocating pump.

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v. vi.

Similarly, some local people must be trained to operate and maintain a reciprocating pump, since the pump is quite simple, this task can be easily accomplished. The government must take initiative to rapidly build and install the reciprocating pump in various parts of the country.

References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) www.google.com www.scribd.com ENGINEERING_DESIGN_GUIDELINE__Pump_Rev3.pdf Energy Conservation in Pumps.ppt PUMPS - TYPES & OPERATION Fluid mechanics & machinery Laboratory Positive Displacement Pumps (Part One) Reciprocating Pumps Pumps_files 8) Reciprocating pumps

Reciprocating

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