Anil Chejara Roll No. 9003022 Group No.

4

PITOT STATIC TUBE
BACKGROUND: The Pitot tube measures a fluid velocity by converting the kinetic energy of the flow into potential energy. The conversion takes place at the stagnation point, located at the Pitot tube entrance. A pressure higher than the free-stream (i.e. dynamic) pressure results from the kinematic to potential conversion. This static pressure is measured by comparing it to the flow's dynamic pressure with a manometer.

AIM: To determine velocity of fluid at various points across the cross section of pipe. APPRATUS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pitot tube made of copper. Centrifugal pump, valves, Fixed below pointer gauge. Transparent test section. A CCl4 pressure measuring unit. Stop watch

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FORMULE USED: Relationship between the velocity and pressure along a streamline can be give by Bernoulli’s equation.

Evaluated at two different points along a streamline, the Bernoulli equation yields,

If z1 = z2 and point 2 is a stagnation point, i.e., v2 = 0, the above equation reduces to,

The velocity of the flow can hence be obtained,

Reynolds No=Re=ρvD/μ Where, D=0.028 m μ =.00098 at 210C Vmax=2 x Average velocity average theoretical velocity = ʃvdA/Atotal Coefficient of pitot can be calculated as average vactual/average vtheoritical

PROCEDURE:         Make sure that the apparatus are free from Dust. Now close the drain valve. Open Flow Control Valve given on the discharge line and Control valve given on suction line. Check the level of CCl4 in all the manometer tube. It should be up to half. Set power output of the motor. Regulate Flow of water through pipe with the help of given Flow Control Valve. Make sure that there is no water bubbles in the tube for measuring pressure heads. Measure Flow Rate using Measuring Tank and Stop Watch.

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 

Take readings at sufficient number of points to plot the velocity profile across the cross section Repeat the experiment with different flow rates

OBSERVATION TABLE:  FOR FLOW RATE 1: Time = 15 sec Height = 10cm Q = 0.00066667 m3/sec Distance from centre r (mm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 Δh (mm) 100 138 155 135 103 Height Time V (m/s) (Theoretical) 1.766 2.075 2.199 2.052 1.793 V calculated (m/s) 1.061 1.889 2.166 1.889 1.061 Coeff of pitot tube 0.6005 0.9106 0.9848 0.9207 0.5917

Sr No

1 2 3 4 5

10 10 10 10 10

15 15 15 15 15

FOR FLOW RATE 2: Time = 37 sec Height = 10 cm Q = 0.0002703 m3/sec Distance from centre r (mm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 V (m/s) (Theoretical) 0.684 0.809 0.918 0.847 0.706

Sr No

Δh (mm) 15 21 27 23 16

Height

Time

V calculated (m/s) 0.430 0.766 0.878 0.766 0.430

Coeff of pitot tube 0.6286 0.9463 0.9566 0.9042 0.6086

1 2 3 4 5

10 10 10 10 10

37 37 37 37 37

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FOR FLOW RATES:
15 10 5 Velocity 0 0.000 -5 -10 -15 Calculated 0.500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 Theoratical

Velocity

CONCLUSION  The average coefficient of Pitot tube was found to be 0.8076.

SOURCES OF ERROR AND PRECAUTIONS:     Human error possible while taking reading Make sure there is no bubble present in manometer. Make sure that there is not high flow of fluid. Make sure that CCl4 is present in sufficient quantity.

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