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AMERICAN CIVIL WAR Co nfe der ac y

NOV EMB E 201 R 9TH 1 BLO CK - G

By - Malicka Al-Sabti

Go South!

American Civil War - Page 1

Table of Contents
Section 1 - Readying for War Resources............................................................Page3 Preparation.........................................................Page4 Section 2 - Commanders and Conict Leaders................................................................Page5 Engagements.......................................................Page6 Minority Groups.................................................Page7 Section 3 - Americans During the Civil War Camp Life...........................................................Page8 Life on the Home Front......................................Page9 Section 4 - The Aftermath of the Civil War Effects of the War..............................................Page10 Reconstruction...................................................Page11 Section 5 - Sources Bibliography.......................................................Page12

SECTION 1 - READYING THE WAR RESOURCES


Agriculture

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Farms and plantations produced agricultural products such as grain and tobacco, it was shipped to Great Britain.

Cotton was a main product in the south, as it was easy to grow. It led to the expansion of slaves

Inventions Slaves
The cotton gin has helped set the South on a different course of development from the North. As growing short-staple cotton was for a prot. , they forced slaves to cultivate the crops. This plantation system resulted in Mississippi and Alabama into a Cotton Kingdom.

Uniforms

People in the south believed they brought up the slaves. South needed slaves more extensively that the north did, as they farmed for a living. 150,000 to 200,000 were used in industrial work.

Transportation
Railroads was the main transportation in the South. Railroads were fast, able to cross any terrain, and operate if bad weather. Then in reached a point where they used roads and canals which resulted to the National Road and Erie Canal.

! PREPARATION
How was the Confederacy prepared for the war?
The South has a much lower population than the North. The south set up weapon factories, but they didnt produce a large humber of weapons.

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South had a longer coastline than the north, but they barely had any ships. South had railroads in different areas using gauge.

Most capital was invested in slaves land.

South lacked the necessary industrial, and transportation to prepare for a war. South didnt tax heavily, there were only a few southern banks, which resulted in difculty in issuing bonds. The low average of money led to the South printing money, which also led to hyperination, the more money the South printed, the wealth of the money became less and less. Confederacy was not ready for the war whatsoever, as it lacked industry had a unstable currency, and a low amount of manpower.

Maecenas pulvinar sagittis enim.

Rhoncus tempor placerat.

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SECTION 2 - COMMANDERS AND CONFLICT!


Joseph E. Johnston

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LEADERS
Born in Long-wood, Va. Major-general in the Army of Virginia. He was a member of the U.S House of representatives, also a railroad commissioner. He was in Command at the battle of Bull Run. Fought on the Virginia peninsula, until wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks. Johnston led confederates to victory at the First Battle Of Manassas. Jefferson appointed 5 men as full general, he was fourth, and this angered him Interesting fact - Highest ranking U.S. Army ofcer to region his commission at the start of the Civil War. Richard Ewell Born in Georgetown, Washington S.C. When Ewell joined the Confederacy, he served as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Virginia forces. Earned the rank of Major General. Lost his leg at Grove-ton in August of 1862, and was given a wooden leg, and went back on duty. Ewell served in the campaigns from Gettysburg to Spotsylvania Court House. Interesting fact - After graduating from West Point, he spent most of his antebellum career in the southwest.

James Longstreet

Maecenas pulvinar sagittis enim.

Born in Edge eld District, South Carolina. Son of a farmer Fought at Blackburns Ford, and 1st Bull Run. He was the best corps commander on both sides, North and south. Led an independent expedition, he was a tad weak, and joined Robert E. Lee, and succeeded with the rst battle. Later on he got injured at the Wilder ness by confederate troops. Later on he became a Republican, and was Grants minister to Turkey Interesting fact - Later years he married Helen Dortch in 1887. Helen out lived James by 58 years and did not die until

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BATTLES

Chancellorsville - April 30th - May 6th 1863 Robert E. Lee - 60,892 army men. Battle took place in Spotsylvania County. South defeated the North at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Lee forced the Union army to retreat. Confederate guards mistook Stonewall jackson for a Yankee and shot him in the left arm. Later on, Lee decided to press his military advantage and invade the North. Lee crossed the Potomac into Maryland and then pushed on into Pennsylvania. Second Battle of Fort Wagner July 18th September 7th, 1863 Fort Wagner/Morris Island, South Carolina Confederate - General P.G.T Beauregard Confederate victory, 1689 casualties. July 18th - Gillmore set an attack by the 54th Massachusetts Industry, a black regiment. After a ght with heavy causalities, the federals wanted to siege conditions to reduce the fort.

1st Battle of Fort Sumter April 12-13, 1861 Secession of seven Southern states Robert Anderson moved his small command from fort Moultrie, to Fort Sumter. Hames Buchanan reinforced and resupplied Anderson, using the merchant shop Start of the West. South Carolina seized all Federal property, except for Fort Sumter. 75,000 volunteers put an end to the rebellion that resulted in four states joining the confederacy.

MINORITY GROUPS

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African Americans - When the unions +led south, many African Americans escaped. South wanted many slaves for war, they were expected to put an effort into their labour. Most widely known battle that was fought by African Americans was the Battle of Fort Wagner, it led to the assault on confederate positions. Soldiers only received 10 dollars a month, with a clothing allowance of 3.50 dollars, but Black soldiers received less amount, and no clothing allowance, until Congress granted equal pay for all 1/3rd of all African Americans lost their lives during civil war.

Woman Annie Etheridge was a courageous nurse as she helped give medical care to the wounded after the Civil war. White women in the south joined to be a soldier, they did most of their work on their own. as they cooked and sewed for the men. They made uniforms, jumpers, sandbags, etc.wrote letters to soldiers, cared for wounded soldiers Many southern women relied on slaves, and never did any work. They had duties and responsibilities.

Immigrants - European immigrants opposed slavery. Leaders such as Carl Schurz was involved, as he wanted the abolition of slavery. Confederate army had support from irish immigrants,they opposed slavery, because they had a feeling they would move north, and jobs would decrease.

Spies - Nations used spies to obtain information on countrys preparations and their plans for war. Rose ONeal Green-how - she gained information to pass to the confederacy, as she got caught and wrote her memoirs in England. Nancy Hart - gathered information on federal movements that led rebels to their positions.

SECTION 3 - AMERICANS DURING THE CIVIL WAR!

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CAMP LIFE
-Produced 1 million 30,000 casualties, and many people died. -More than 9 million people in the South died in the Civil War. -18 percent of men died in the war due to tactics. -Many people suffered of mental disorders, as they called this time the Irritable hearts. -Federal government and the Southern state government provided penitence and help the widows. -They rewarded survivals. -Southern soldiers were also bored from time to time, doing chores, writing letters, singing to jazz music, playing cards, etc. -At night - they only slept with loose piece of clothing even thought it was cold or hot. Sometimes when it was too cold they would die of hypothermia. -Soldiers had to make their own shelter from leaves, and logs. While other soldiers had tents.

Life on the Home Front - Page 9


What was life like for
the people left behind? How did women have to step up during men's absence? How did this war turn families against each other? How did scarcity and inflation

Woman stayed home and raised their children while their husbands were away, but other woman decided to be co m e n u r se s fo r the injured, or dress like men to experience their reality.

influence the people of your nation? What was life like for people who lived

Scarcity and ination inuenced the confederacy as they didnt have much materials whatsoever at the beginning of the war, and the scarcity of food in the armies was basically because of the shortage of slaves. ination led in a decrease of value in the market. This resulted in many people making their own clothing

This war turned families against near the battle field? each other, as the nation divided different families against each other they were certain brothers and sister on different sides of the war, confederacy and union, as many people fought war on two different sides. Life for people living near the battle eld was a disaster, as people lost t h e i r h o m e s, t h e i r s a v i n g a n d everything. Some people also lost their lives. But certain people went to go have picnics along the outer layer of the battle.

SECTION 4 - THE AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR!


Transportation becomes more advance - railroads.

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National Banking Act of 1864 - Path to a national

13th Amendment of 1865 S l av e ry wa s f i n a l ly

14th Amendment - Civil Rights Amendment

BIGGEST PROBLEM

- LABOR! 40 Acres and a mule Its a promise that free slaves would get forty acres p e r fa m i ly and they could use army mules.

Effects of the war

Enforcement Act of 180 P ro t e c t e d t h e vo t i n g rights of African Americans. Cotton was no longer king - as many other countries started to increase their demand in cotton, and cotton became a wideknown product.

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RECONSTRUCTION
Southern opposition to radical reconstruction ended reconstruction. The battles influenced the landscape as major damage was caused, it resulted in a disappearance of buildings, schools, hospitals and basically everything. Millions of people died, and many crops were destroyed as well. They gained factories, organizations, colleges, and the also free people as slaves were free at last.
FAILURE? SUCCESS?

Failed to secure the rights to slaves.

African Americans participated in all levels of government.

Republican parties couldnt maintain black-white violations

Funded public schools to all citizens.

Radical governments were unable to satisfy the slaves by giving them land

African Americans went to schools, churches, and they had families.

Bias was national Slaves saw themselves as outsiders

Redistribution of Land. Full civil rights due to the 14th and 15th Amendment.

Bibliography
1) Prabhakar Pillai, Slavery During the Civil War, Buzzle.com http://www.buzzle.com/articles/slavery-during-the-civil-war.html 2) African American Odyssey, The Civil War http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart4.html 3) Spies in the Civil War, last updated on 1/20/2006 http://www1.bellevuepublicschools.org/curriculum/k6web/Mifthgrade/civwarQuest/cwspies.htm 4) Kunt Oyangen, American Agricultural History, The Cotton Economy of the Old South http://www.history.iastate.edu/agprimer/Page28.html 5) John L. Bell, Encyclopedia Virginia, Joseph E. Johnston http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnston_Joseph_E_1807-1891 6) Reference Library, Transportation during the Civil War, Kidport http://www.kidport.com/reMlib/usahistory/civilwar/Transportation.htm 7) Arturo Rivera, American Civil War, Why the Confederacy wasnt ready for the War? http://americancivilwar.com/authors/arrturo_rivera.html 8) BattleFieldPortraits.com, Richard S. Ewell http://www.battleMieldportraits.com/Commanders/Confederate/Richard_Ewell.htm 9) Military History, American Civil War: Battle of Chancellors http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/civilwarintheeast/p/chancellorsvill.htm 10)Martin Kelly, American History, Battle of Fort Wagner/Morris Island http://americanhistory.about.com/od/civilwarbattles/p/cwbattle_fortw.htm 11)Woman Were There, Civil War http://userpages.aug.com/captbarb/femvets2.html