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com Paradigm shift: A paradigm is our perception of reality, our view of the world. It is our interpretation of events based on previous teaching we have received. If our paradigm is based only on our input from the media of conventional newspapers, magazines, radio, television, Hollywood films, public education etc., may God help us, for we will only see things the waythey, the elite and wealthy rulers of this world who control these sources of information, want us to see things! This is often the opposite of the Truth. A paradigm shift means to have a sudden change in perception, a sudden change in point of view, of how you see things. Hopefully this change will be in the right direction. (Based on Stephen R. Covey's definition in "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People")

WHAT IS A PARADIGM SHIFT?

In 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolution, and fathered, defined and popularized the concept of "paradigm shift" (p.10). Kuhn argues that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a "series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions", and in those revolutions "one conceptual world view is replaced by another". Think of a Paradigm Shift as a change from one way of thinking to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis. It just does not happen, but rather it is driven by agents of change. For example, agriculture changed early primitive society. The primitive Indians existed for centuries roaming the earth constantly hunting and gathering for seasonal foods and water. However, by 2000 B.C., Middle America was a landscape of very small villages, each surrounded by patchy fields of corn and other vegetables. Agents of change helped create a paradigm-shift moving scientific theory from the Ptolemaic system (the earth at the center of the universe) to the Copernican system (the sun at the center of the universe), and moving from Newtonian physics to Relativity and Quantum Physics. Both movements eventually changed the world view. These transformations were gradual as old beliefs were replaced by the new paradigms creating "a new gestalt" (p. 112). Likewise, the printing press, the making of books and the use of vernacular language inevitable changed the culture of a people and had a direct affect on the scientific revolution. Johann Gutenberg's invention in the 1440's of movable type was an agent of change. Books became readily available, smaller and easier to handle and cheap to purchase. Masses of people acquired direct access to the scriputures. Attitudes began to change as people were relieved from church domination.

Enlarged.com/topic/paradigm-shift#ixzz1YVZHOZ8G .Similarly. accessing applications and data from the Web instead of from local servers is a paradigm shift. However. Change is inevitable. and is a catalyst for a Paradigm Shift. and web feeds. Read more: http://www. which ultimately changes the way projects are implemented. The University of Chicago Press. information centered society. Internet forums. Kuhn states that "awareness is prerequisite to all acceptable changes of theory" (p. for millions of years we have been evolving and will continue to do so. Change is difficult. Human Beings resist change. For example. In conclusion.com/topic/paradigm-shift#ixzz1YVYynrIH Change in a model or pattern that has been nearly universally accepted. we are not restricted by this for we can change.. a change in consumer buying habits from buying airline tickets through travel agents to buying them over the Internet would be a paradigm shift. We are moving at an accelerated rate of speed and our state of consciousness is transforming and transcending. blogging. Newspaper publishing has been reshaped into Web sites. S. and increases in technology will continue to impact globally. The Internet has enabled or accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through instant messaging. the introduction of the personal computer and the internet have impacted both personal and business environments. See paradigm and buzzword. Thomas. conscious or unconscious.answers. whether normal or metanormal. It often refers to a major change in thinking and planning. "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". service based. What we perceive. 67). industrial society to an organic. We are shifting from a mechanistic. For example. are subject to the limitations and distortions produced by our inherited and socially conditional nature. Many are awakening as our conscious awareness expands. It all begins in the mind of the person. Reference: Kuhn.answers. the process has been set in motion long ago and we will continue to co-create our own experience. Chicago. Second Edition. For example. The signs are all around us. and social networking sites. manufacturing. 1970(1962) WE ARE NOT HUMAN BEINGS HAVING A SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE WE ARE SPIRITUAL BEINGS HAVING A HUMAN EXPERIENCE A dramatic change in methodology or practice. however. agents of change are driving a new paradigm shift today. Read more: http://www. It's the only true constant.

answers." (The Essential Tension. inventions. "a student in the humanities has constantly before him a number of competing and incommensurable solutions to these problems. "A paradigm is what members of a scientific community. or paradigms. In contrast. Since the 1960s. 19th-century-style literary criticism). even though Kuhn himself restricted the use of the term to the hard sciences. the assembly line created a substantial paradigm shift not only in the auto industry. for example. Investopedia Says: Paradigm shifts can require that entire departments be eliminated or created in some cases. Deconstruction. 1977). a critic in the Humanities can choose to adopt an array of stances (e. or realworld experiences.A major change in how some process is accomplished. a scientist cannot.com/topic/paradigm-shift#ixzz1YVZXfhZW . which may be more or less fashionable during any given period but which are all regarded as legitimate.g. Kuhn held. For example. Marxist criticism. Read more: http://www. and millions or even billions of dollars of new equipment purchased while the old equipment is sold or recycled.. Read more: http://www. Unlike a normal scientist. It is in contrast to his idea of normal science. Once a paradigm shift is complete. According to Kuhn. A paradigm shift can happen when new technology is introduced that radically alters the production process of a good. share. the term has also been used in numerous non-scientific contexts to describe a profound change in a fundamental model or perception of events.answers. reject the germ theory of disease to posit the possibility that miasma causes disease or reject modern physics and optics to posit that ether carries light." (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions).answers. but in all other areas of manufacturing as well. Freudian criticism. within the ruling theory of science. a change in the basic assumptions.com/topic/paradigm-shift#ixzz1YVZMyGNP An adjustment in thinking that comes about as the result of new discoveries. as the industrial revolution has transformed many social and industrial processes. Compare as a structured form of Zeitgeist. Read more: http://www. solutions that he must ultimately examine for himself.com/topic/paradigm-shift#ixzz1YVZTM6Tk A Paradigm shift (or revolutionary science) is. This process is likely to become even more commonplace in the future as our rate of technological advancement increases. and they alone. according to Thomas Kuhn in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962). Paradigm shifts have become much more frequent in the past hundred years.

Again. An epistemological paradigm shift was called a scientific revolution by epistemologist and historian of science Thomas Kuhn in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn's model of scientific change differs here. according to Kuhn. There are anomalies for all paradigms. Some found Eddington's photographs of light bending around the sun to be compelling. rather than abstracting science into a purely logical or philosophical venture. the transition between the Maxwellian electromagnetic worldview and the Einsteinian Relativistic worldview was neither instantaneous nor calm. Rather." both with empirical data as well as rhetorical or philosophical arguments. During this crisis. with the Einsteinian theory winning out in the long-run. A scientific revolution occurs. Kuhn said. some questioned their accuracy and meaning. by both sides. To put it in the context of early 20th century physics. and in many places. some scientists found the problems with calculating Mercury's perihelion more troubling than the Michelson-Morley experiment results.uhnian paradigm shifts Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way. perhaps ones previously discarded. which gains its own new followers. the scientific discipline is thrown into a state of crisis. when scientists encounter anomalies which cannot be explained by the universally accepted paradigm within which scientific progress has thereto been made. anomalies have various levels of significance to the practitioners of science at the time. for early 20th century physics. according to Kuhn. Eventually a new paradigm is formed. that are brushed away as acceptable levels of error. using a quote from Max Planck: "a new scientific truth does . in Kuhn's view. When enough significant anomalies have accrued against a current paradigm. but the entire worldview in which it exists. and all of the implications which come with it. The paradigm. or simply ignored and not dealt with (a principal argument Kuhn uses to reject Karl Popper's model of falsifiability as the key force involved in scientific change). It is based on features of landscape of knowledge that scientists can identify around them. according to Kuhn. and some the other way around. from that of the logical positivists in that it puts an enhanced emphasis on the individual humans involved as scientists. Again. and an intellectual "battle" takes place between the followers of the new paradigm and the hold-outs of the old paradigm. new ideas. while some found them more complicated than the notion of Maxwell's aether which they banished. Sometimes the convincing force is just time itself and the human toll it takes. are tried. Kuhn maintained. the weighing of evidence and importance of new data was fit through the human sieve: some scientists found the simplicity of Einstein's equations to be most compelling. and instead involved a protracted set of "attacks. is not simply the current theory.

1993. the result of the long process. Cambridge University Press. Positivism.Sociology and Organisation Theory. These claims of relativism are. not just different. Kuhn wrote. albeit through a complex social process. All that remains is more and more precise measurement." arguing that the notion that any languages or theories could be incommensurable with one another was itself incoherent. in Kuhn's terminology. "Successive transition from one paradigm to another via revolution is the usual developmental pattern of mature science. At that time. Furthermore. It is often this final conclusion. "There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. Kuhn's claims must be taken in a weaker sense than they often are. a scientific revolution or a paradigm shift. Thus. this is called. Being in the social sciences.) Paradigm shifts tend to be most dramatic in sciences that appear to be stable and mature. 12) Kuhn's idea was itself revolutionary in its time. However. Paradigm and Postmodernity. that is meant when the term paradigm shift is used colloquially: simply the (often radical) change of worldview. tied to another claim that Kuhn does at least somewhat endorse: that the language and theories of different paradigms cannot be translated into one another or rationally evaluated against one another — that they are incommensurable. as in physics at the end of the 19th century. however. people can still use earlier ideas to discuss the history of science. the new one is always better."[1] After a given discipline has changed from one paradigm to another. without reference to the specificities of Kuhn's historical argument. which challenged the very simple set of rules laid down by Newtonian mechanics. However. Kuhn vehemently denies this interpretation and states that when a scientific paradigm is replaced by a new one. If this is correct. as it caused a major change in the way that academics talk about science. "On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme. In 1900. Lord Kelvin famously stated. the philosopher Donald Davidson published a highly regarded essay in 1974. physics seemed to be a discipline filling in the last few details of a largely worked-out system. In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn would not recognise such a paradigm shift. the hold of the Kuhnian analysis on social science has long been tenuous with the wide application of multi-paradigmatic approaches in order to understand complex human behaviour (see for example John Hassard." Five years later." (p. Science and paradigm shift A common misinterpretation of paradigms is the belief that the discovery of paradigm shifts and the dynamic nature of science (with its many opportunities for subjective judgments by scientists) is a case for relativism:[2] the view that all kinds of belief systems are equal. which had been used to describe force and motion for over two hundred years.not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light. This gave rise to much talk of different peoples and cultures having radically different worldviews or conceptual schemes — so different that whether or not one was better. . Albert Einstein published his paper on special relativity. they could not be understood by one another. it could be argued that it caused or was itself part of a "paradigm shift" in the history and sociology of science. but rather because its opponents eventually die.

Later. Keynes cited one of his predecessors. A. The acceptance of the theory of biogenesis. The transition in optics from geometrical optics to physical optics. J. the existence of a single reigning paradigm is characteristic of the sciences. which synthesizes his original view with the gradualist model that preceded it. whose work De Humani Corporis Fabrica corrected the numerous errors in the previously-held system created by Galen. which redefined Classical mechanics. The development of absolute dating The acceptance of Lavoisier's theory of chemical reactions and combustion in place of phlogiston theory. and the shift to Keynesianism was difficult. and debates over fundamentals. Hobson.[5] In his magnum opus. The development of Quantum mechanics. The acceptance of the work of Andreas Vesalius. that it was solely a monetary phenomenon. Keynesians later adopted much of the . counterclaims. Kuhn's original model is now generally seen as too limited. the movement for Monetarism over Keynesianism marked a second divisive shift. that all life comes from life. The acceptance of Plate tectonics as the explanation for large-scale geologic changes. Examples of paradigm shifts in the natural sciences Some of the "classical cases" of Kuhnian paradigm shifts in science are: • • • • • • • • • • • • The transition in cosmology from a Ptolemaic cosmology to a Copernican one. known as the Chemical Revolution. ultimately accepted a modified version of Kuhn's model. known as the Cognitive revolution. which inferred that underemployment and underinvestment (coupled with oversaving) were virtually impossible. Economists who contradicted the law. The Keynesian Revolution is typically viewed as a major shift in macroeconomics."[3] Others have applied Kuhn's concept of paradigm shift to the social sciences. including Kuhn himself. which began in the 17th century and was not complete until the 19th century with Pasteur. The acceptance of Mendelian inheritance. [4] According to John Kenneth Galbraith. Say's Law dominated economic thought prior to Keynes for over a century. The transition in mechanics from Aristotelian mechanics to classical mechanics. The transition between the Maxwellian Electromagnetic worldview and the Einsteinian Relativistic worldview. in contrast to the Keynesian view of the time was that both fiscal and monetary policy were important. as opposed to the theory of spontaneous generation. The transition between the worldview of Newtonian physics and the Einsteinian Relativistic worldview. as opposed to pangenesis in the early 20th century Examples of paradigm shifts in the social sciences In Kuhn's view. while philosophy and much of social science were characterized by a "tradition of claims. • • • The movement. risked losing their careers. Monetarists held that fiscal policy was not effective for stabilizing inflation.[6] who was repeatedly denied positions at universities for his heretical theory.Philosophers and historians of science. away from Behaviourist approaches to psychological study and the acceptance of cognition as central to studying human behaviour.

[citation needed] In the arena of political science. the concept has been applied to the ethos of war.E. Relatedly. Mind The Gaffe. earlier work only on technological paradigms by Giovanni Dosi). Other uses The term "paradigm shift" has found uses in other contexts.[citation needed] The concept has been developed for technology and economics in the identification of new techno-economic paradigms as changes in technological systems that have a major influence on the behaviour of the entire economy (Carlota Perez. It is referred to in several articles and books[9][10] as abused and overused to the point of becoming meaningless. including the institution of education. Like Kuhn. he addresses how that shift affects social institutions. Evolutionary biologist Judith Hand. are thought to have helped to usher in the environmentalist movement which gained great prominence in the years immediately following distribution of those images. theories they initially rejected..[11] Two photographs of the Earth from space. L. popularized as marketing speak and appearing more frequently in print and publication." argued that a paradigm shift is possible from a global ethos that operates on the assumption that war is an inevitable aspect of human nature to a global ethos that rejects war under any circumstances.I. he identifies the basic component of any social paradigm. the process popularly known as "paradigm shift. This concept is linked to Schumpeter's idea ofcreative destruction. representing the notion of a major change in a certain thought-pattern — a radical change in personal beliefs. [12][13] Read more: http://www.answers. author Larry Trask advises readers to refrain from using it. complex systems or organizations. he focuses on the social circumstances which precipitate such a shift. 'paradigm shift' emerged as a buzzword.[7] As marketing speak In the later part of the 1990s.[8] In his book. and to use caution when reading anything that contains the phrase. he addresses the issue of changing paradigms. Canada. M. a professor of sociology in education at O.Monetarists view of the quantity theory of money and shifting Philips curve." In this respect. Examples include the move to mass production. in a paper entitled "To Abolish War. replacing the former way of thinking or organizing with a radically different way of thinking or organizing: • • • • Handa. and the introduction of microelectronics. developed the concept of a paradigm within the context of social sciences. He defines what he means by "paradigm" and introduces the idea of a "social paradigm".S.com/topic/paradigm-shift#ixzz1YVZg1KU0 . University of Toronto. "Earthrise" (1968) and "The Blue Marble" (1972). In addition.

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