Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions.

Ravi Shanker Harmeet Saini.
March 2001.

NM Sadguru Water & Development Foundation. Dahod.

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Contents:
Acknowledgement Preface Part I Introduction Background of the Organisation Research Objectives Methedology Part II Findings Genesis of village Institutions Self-reliance and Financial Management Operations and Management Efficiency in Performance Leadership and Linkages Change in Quality of Life Future Plans Part III Indepth Analysis of Case Studies Lift Irrigation Cooperatives Process involved in formation Management Practices Leadership Financial sustenence Influence on Change in Life Joint Forest Management Committees Process involved in formation Management Practices Measures in developing resources Leadership Financial sustenence Influence on Change in Life
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Self Help Groups Process involved in formation Management Practices Measures in developing resources Leadership Financial sustenence Influence on Change in Life Income Generation Groups Process involved in formation Management Practices Measures in developing resources Leadership Financial sustenence Influence on Change in Life Part IV Federations Watershed Association Women Horticuture Cooperative Lift Irrigation Cooperative Federation. Part V Case Studies Mahudi Lift Irrigation Cooperative Hadmatkhunta Lift Irrigation Cooperative Mathwa JFM Committee Dharadunger JFM Committee Chasiya Women Saving Group Raniar Inami Saving Group Income Generation Group of Sahada Tandi Milk Diary Cooperative. Part VI References Annextures

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Acknowledgement: We take this opportunity to thank AKF (I), New Delhi for extending financial support and valuable inputs during the project. The support of various Village Institutions, groups and Research Associates was incredible. It is indeed heartning to acknowledge the efforts put by various people in translation, transcription, interviews, de-coding the data, arranging interviews, etc., at various stages of the study. Mr. Ramesh Patel, Mr. Aswin, Ms. Sudha, Mr. Karan, Mr. Lalit Patel, Mr. Kamlesh, Mr. Javaad for all the support, drivers; Mr. Atul and Mr. Rakesh for driving us to field. Mr. Harnath. Jagawat, Director of SWDF provided great impetus to complete the study and his guidance is humbly acknowledged. We would like to thank Ms. Prema Gera for her constant followup, without which this study would not have come up in 2001.

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Preface:

This document reviews various village institutions emerged during the course of more than two decades work of SWDF in the field of natural resource management. Essentially dealing with their genesis, development and diversification, the study reviews various processes at inception, management, performance, leadership, composition, sustainability factors, impact and future plans.

It also attempted to understand the underlying elements that influence the sustanence of village institutions and their linkages with each other. Even though the study has limitations in its comperhensiveness, it focusses on some critical elements in all types of village institutions supported by SWDF. It attempts to look into various institutional aspects of NRM intervention and questioned the traditional theories at times, governing community action and participation.

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Introduction:
Village natural resources being ‘common’properties, village institution formation helps people mobilize their own potential and resources for a common objective. It is asserted that if the village institutions use their knowledge and express unity in purpose, it would benefit them in the long run. What is generally believed is ‘formation of village institutions is to expand the decision-making base, to involve more people in processes leading to formation of policies, norms and institutions that have an impact on their lives’.

In fact a strong, democratic and viable group created and crafted at the community level to serve a specific purpose is extremely important for sustenance of resource. In nutshell, different factors like leadership, commonality of purpose, equitable responsibility, benefit sharing, affordable technology etc are prerequisites for a viable grass-roots institution.

Active participation of rural households and communities is indispensable for any rural development program aiming at more sustainable management of nature resources at village level, be it water, crop-land, pastures or forests (Kuhn, 1998). If we accept, that rural households evolve primarily their own livelihood strategies, then active participation in projects and programs is only meaningful and rewarding in their eyes, if such an engagement for more sustainable resource management is connected with vital livelihood concerns. Such concerns are by no means limited to economic dimensions, but they have roots in social, spiritual and emotional spheres of livelihood as well (Hogger, 1999)

Institutions generally have a framework of rules for achieving certain social and economic goals. Most of the institutions operate on the basis of clearly stated goals and objectives. Generally the centrality of all institutions are governance, membership, resources. These institutions also depend a lot on the kind of power and leadership that exists within them.

In the process of instituionalisaion prevailing norms, socio-cultural patterns and needs of the community are constantly changing. They considerably differ from the point of departure and accordingly the institutional structures and functioning keeps changing. For example, when a forest committee is formed it would essentially form to conserve and protect the forest. Then
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appearance of grass leads to its distribution, later on regeneration of trees necesiate new set of norms and rules to govern and at later point those arriangements further lead to uttilisation of developed resources. It is a long drawn process rather a fixed one time institutional setup.

Similarly, conflicts, differences, contestation is a continuous process in the institutional growth and maturity. These processes should fuel the growth and development of the group and not stagnate the process. Groups, which express the ability to handle these processes, continue to ripe benefits and those, which are weak degenerate. At the same time community management does not necessarily meen sustainability but it depends on various factors influencing at a particular point; how best the resources are used, institions (norms) govern the resources, and inter or intra power relations active in groups.

In a given community situation there are several groups, formed for differet purposes. These groups mutually interact, work and contest around differet interests. An understanding of the institutional character of these dynamic village groups involved in management and development of resources not only helps us understand what makes them perform well. It also focuses on how village groups resolve conflicts, address issues like equity, gender, power and future prospects.

The concept behind formation of various village institutions by the organization is to enhance capacity of local people in managing their resources effectively. The process empowers them to access and govern local resource systems and at the same time assure sustainability of resource. Generally in the development process initiated by external agents, duties are decentralised (like responsibilities of irrigation cooperative in PIM programme or JFM programme) but not the powers to govern the resource. This is because the promoting organisation is not sure about the accountability of community authority over the resource use. But it is proven in many cases that given the complete authority to govern the resource, the groups will ensure total accountablility.

It also needs to be verified whether the instituions function exactly with in a of set (or percieved) rules and regulations that govern the resource system or even go beyond to encompas the social and cultural dynamics to achieve desired results.

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Background of the Organisation

The organisation NM Sadguru Water and Development Foundation (NMSWDF) was established in 1974 in the tribal belt of Dahod in Gujarat. It is a developmental, non-profit organisation working to improve the socio-economic status of tribal people through the regeneration, management and optimum use of the natural resources in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The approach of NMSWDF is to promote livelihoods and development opportunities for the rural and tribal people in the region through formation of various groups and village institutions around the natural resources. The programmes promoted through village institutions and various groups are as follows:

# Development, management and optimum utilisation of the land and water resources through creation of water harvesting structures and irrigation systems,

# Regeneration and management of forest and tree resources through agro-farm forestry and forest conservation,

# Improvement and development of the land and other resources through various micro watershed interventions and renevable energy

# Creation of off and on farm business opportunities by promoting income generation activities, savings and credit, dairy development, horticulture federations etc and

# Networking and policy advocacy activities focussing on access and management to natural resources to poor.

Research Objectives As the orgnanisation has been involved in promotion of village instituions for more than 2 decades, it has been envisaged to study the genesis, development and diversification of these institutions. The study aimed at understanding the following areas as research objectives. •

Various processes involved in the formation of village institutions

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• • • •

How village institutions manage and develop resources Perception of roles of various members Leadership and linkages Role of ‘Village Institutions,’ bringing qualitative change in the lives of people.

Methodology

Various Village Institutions in the entire project area were selected as universe for the study. With in the project area there are 372i village institutions functioning under various activities around natural resources. These village institutions are, Irrigation Cooperatives, Horticulture Cooperatives, Dairy Cooperatives, Forest Cooperatives, Formal and in-formal women saving and credit groups, informal youth groups, formal income generation groups, Watershed Associations, User Groups, Self-Help groups etc.

The range of groups vary from hamlet level body to block level federation. A stratified random sampling method was adopted to select sample village institutions operating at various levels with respective aims and objectives. Totally 12 village institutions selected and out of that two are Federations at block level.

The study relies on primary and secondary data for analysis with in the project area. Review of literature on similar areas of knowledge is also incorporated in to the study to study, analyse and extrapolate the information obtained from the field observations. A questionnaire developed to collect data from these village institutions. Following are primary level ‘sample’ village institutions (formal) ranging from Federations to hamlet level groups under the study.

NAME OF THE INSTITUTION

NAME OF THE VILLAGE

STATUS

JFM CO-OPERATIVE JFM CO-OPERATIVE WOMEN DIARY COOPRATIVE WOMEN SAVINGS & CREDITS GROUPS

MATWA DHARADUNG ER TANDI RANIAR INAMI

Regd. COOPERATIVE Regd. COOPERATIVE Regd. COOPERATI VE INFORMAL

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LIFT IRRIGATION COOPERATIVE LIFT IRRIGATION COOPERATIVE WOMEN INCOME GENERATION GROUP WOMEN HORTICULTURE GROUP WOMEN SELF HELP GROUP WATERSHED ASSOCIATIONS DAHOD HORTICULTURE FEDERATION JHALOD LIFTIRRIGATION FEDERATION

MAHUDI HADMATKHU NTA SAHADA DUNGRI

Regd. COOPERATIVE Regd. COOPERATIVE INFORMAL INFORMAL

CHAYSIA DHDELA DAHOD

INFORMAL Regd. SOCIETY Regd. COOPERATIVE Regd. COOPERATIVE

JHALOD

Findings:

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GENESIS OF VILLAGE INSTITUTIONS

While assessing the formation of different village instituions initiated at village level, it

is observed that about 41% of the respondents said they formed groups to manage and conserve natural resources in the village. The second most importance was listed as employment and income generation as main objective to initate groups. Among others, reduced dependency on migration and raising socio-economic status figured prominently. • Mejority of the village instituions are formed with the combined effort of NGO and

peoples initiatives (65%) towards common interest. Rest was shared between ‘NGO motivated’ and ‘Self motivated’. This reveales that there is considerable outside influence (NGO) in promoting people’s interests in initiation and formation of groups. A trend is also observed in ‘self motivated’ groups based on realised capacities and changing needs of people. Official records suggest that more and more ‘self-initiated’ groups in recent times approached NGO for supportii. • While addressing factors influenceing the formation of village institutions, high scoring

observed around ‘internal differences’ at initial stages. Groups expressed high concern towards ‘internal differences’ that negetively influences formation of VIs. Bureaucratic hurdles and opposition from non-members shared almost equal concern during the process of formation. • All the groups felt that the goals set by them were realistic. While explaining reasons,

they marked the ‘food self-sufficiency’ as prime indecator that reflects the realisation of goals. Some of the groups also confirmed that the continuous and efficient management of VIs Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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reflects the authenticity of the goal set by them. Group members’ percieved a strong relation between the goal set by them and its relation to their livelihoods. • Groups have attibuted higher value to ‘following procedures’ that lead to achievement

of goals set by them. This includes, following proper planning, conflict resolution and distribution of benefits. Followed by ‘people’s contribution’ in the form of enhancing output and maintaing unity in-group and addressing equity concerns. • Majority of the groups has formal sructure as cooperative or society / trust (65%).

Others are informal groups. This coincides with the organisational dtata on village institutionsiii.

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SELF RELIANCE & FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Almost all the groups have positively responded to ‘social and financial’ status in the

community. Attributing high value to ‘capital’ acumulated. Groups figured shares, savings, assets, other schemes, and reduced migration due to economic stability. Addressing the ‘social’ parameter, group oneness and ownership were also considered importaint. External relations and efficient conflict management also scored points in determining the socio-economic status of the VI. • Almost all the groups have appointed ‘secretary’ to look after accounts. Book of

accounts was maintained in all groups. Memebers in general felt that they jointly ensure the book keeping regularly for the benefit of all the members.

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OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

While addressing ‘how resources are managed’ by VIs, groups said (57% of

respondents) that regular maintainence was the prime factor behind proper resource management. Other members (43%) attributed this to collective responsibility of the group and community. This indecates that the resources are uttilised and maintained in the long process of conservation and at the same time groups have standerdised the practices. Secondly, the collective responsibility expressed by members suggests various processes of benefit distribution, conflict resolution and other aspects that are part of resource management. • Groups scored (78%) collective concern as prime factor responsible for resource

development. Following rules and ensuring quality of work as key elements in the process. Constant uttilisation of assets and generating savings was another major factor influencing resource development and distribution. Role of external agencies such as NGO and State also effected the process. • Responding to decision making process and execution, 43% weightage was given to

Executive Committee decsions (mutual consultation and mejority apporval) and 43% to general assembly. About 14% decision ware of ‘adhoc’ in nature. These figures suggest that considerable amount of trust was invesated by members in ‘committee’ and at the same time the village ‘general assembly’ ensures trasperency in decisions. At times adhoc decisions were made by leaders that have positive and negetive bearings.

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Mejority of the conflicts were resolved in Executive committee meetings45% followed

by 40% in mutual consultation in general body meetings. Open redressel of conflicts generate greater participation of members. Social pressure also acts as mechanism to control group dynamics and guide the process towards largely accepted ends. • Enforcement of rules are highly controled by social pressure 59% followed by

execution of rewards, disqualification of membership in extreem cases. However, adherence to rules ensures proper benefit distribution. It is observed that groups have changed rules as per changes in resource system and ensured general concensus to prevail.

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EFFECIENCY IN PERFORMANCE

About 50% of the members percieved that the roles are prescribed and standerdised

over the years. Other felt that they are voluntary and some times distributed among hamlets for effective management. Groups also expressed that individuals assigned with specific responsibilities generally fulfil them. Factors like regular attendence in meetings, timely conflict resolution, collection of dues, figured in voluntary responsibilities of members. • Groups felt that the roles are executed effectively by members. Pointing to the factors,

group sustainbility, increased capital and no pending dues, consistancy in performance and overall village development as key indecators.

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LEADERSHIP & LINKAGES

Mejority of the groups sellected/ellected leaders through general assembly (71%). In

other cases the existing leadership assigned the responsibility by the group. This trend shows that different groups have not necessarily choosen the already existing leadership. It is also generally believed that in tribal communities traditional leadership dominates community decision making process. However, those assumptions hold no place in this context. • Mejority of the members felt that the choosen leadership was effective. Various factors

considered by members in assessing the effectiveness. Timely performance, information sharing, respect for members, new works, relation ship with others, regular meeting, prompt decision making, influential in getting work done were some of those. • Almost all the groups have linkages with either other groups or with external agencies.

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groups in the village and neighbouring villages. Groups in general were well informed and find it important to keep relations with other groups. • More than 50% of group members felt that their structure and work was similar with

other groups. Other groups (25 %) felt that their work (performance) was better than others. And some 15% also felt that their work was different from others.

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CHANGE IN QUALITY OF LIFE

Responding to the direct benefits that members realised after formation of VIs, highest

scoring attributed to increased productivity of resource system. Increase in crop production, milk, food, fodder, vegetables, timber, improvement in soil, better seed varities. Second highest rating was given to income, in which increased earnings, employment opportunity, access to loans due to the credebility of village institutions. Self respect improved due to socio-economic changes. They were also able to build relationships outside, mobility increased, better clothing, enhaced status of women, empowerment in decision making and frequent outside visitors to the village and habit of saving were some of the indecators they attributed greater importance. • Access to other aminities and skill development among younger generations was a

direct outcome of VIs as percieved by members. Schools, housing, health fecilities, drinking water, agriculture inputs, and better food were major areas of change noted by members. • Direct impact of the VIs realised by different groups ranging from 15 households per

hamlet to 300 households. Activities like income generation or thrift groups covering small nuber of households’ in-groups to formal cooperatives cover more than 300 households per VI.

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FUTURE PLANS

Diversification around agriculture and livestock and expantion of existing groups into

federation was one common agenda found on all groups. Village development and more employment generation also followed closely.

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INDEPTH ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDIES
LIFT IRRIGATION CO-OPERATIVES

Objective Lift irrigation cooperatives are the village institutions, which came into being to manage, maintain and run the lift irrigation systems based on the principles of cooperation. These cooperatives are formed to maximise benefits and earnings from the irrigation systems. These cooperatives are essentially de-centralised entities in water management where water user groups primarily look into the management, distribution and maintenance of the irrigation systems. In order to strengthen and make them sustainable new activities related to agriculture and irrigation , the cooperatives formed their own apex body, as federation.
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Process involved in formation of groups

The irrigation cooperatives interviewed had stated that they have approached the organisation to build lift-irrigation system in their villages. Even though the NGO initiated LI long back in Jhalod block of Dahod district, the experiences largely revealed that people organised themselves first and approached as they saw the benefits of the scheme in neighbouring villages.

In both the villages leadership was identified as strong and responsible factor which influenced development initiatives. It was noted that once the villagers were able to get the irrigation systems in place, they formed cooperative and registered it with government with the support of NGO. While interacting with the groups, it was learnt that this was the first group of its kind in the village, and earlier the villagers used to get together and talk but never took up any work as a group and that too for a development purpose.

Initially the membership was small. But once the benefits were realised by members, other also joined the cooperative. There was no strong opposition faced at any point of time.

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Management Practices adopted

Groups shared that there were some problems at the initial stage of managing cooperatives. But the NGO supported them in managing the group. However, members learnt their way to Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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execute roles; book keeping, maintaining mechinary, distribution of water etc. And financial recovery from members was also carried by both the co-ops regularly. This lead to regular functioning of the scheme. It was observed that members of the group were concious about the importance of running the scheme on regular basis for financial returns.

Rules and regulations of the co-ops were changed on regular basis based on previous experiences. This contant change in operational system enhanced the distribution mechanism and reduced the financial load on members. For example change from ‘acre to hour’ system in water distribution in 1995-96 demonstrated the dynamic nature of institution to cope with changing requirements. These kind of changes ensured member cooperation to cooperate with the set norms for proper functioning of the cooperative.

The Executive committee shared that the encouragement and support provided to farmers by motivating them and providing seeds and other agriculture inputs. In Mahudi village, the committee at initial stage invested its own money in providing improved seeds to poor farmers as a way of encouragement so that the farmers learnt to use better seeds and agriculture products. It was also shared that once the farmers benefited they would return the money to the cooperative.

Employees were hired; the secretary, distributor and operator to have smooth functioning. Water charges collected would meet all the operational costs of the scheme. This ensures fairer distribution as paid employees percieved more objective and accountable for proper functioning.

From the records of the cooperatives and the data it was seen that both the cooperatives were regular in conducting meetings, general assembly etc.. The members considered this as the most important as in this meeting the performance and financial status of the complete year was shared apart from that if the general body wanted to make any changes in the executive committee it was put forward in this meeting. The Executuve committee has not witnessed much changes in its membership as members over the years found that they were managing properly.

Both the cooperatives were prompt in maintainence as they felt that the scheme has to be functional all the time so as to reap maximum benefits out of irrigation. Water distribution is Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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done on basis of sequencing. Water is given on hour basis and the farmers have to make advance payment by filling an application form given by the co-operative and then accordingly sequencing is done for the water distribution.

Before starting of each irrigation season, all the water users and members have to be present in the meeting. A lot of issues are covered starting from operation, functioning, sequencing of water distribution, water charges, and various other rules and regulations.

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Leadership

In Hadmatkhunta young member replaced the earlier leader because of age factor. The transition was smooth with out competetion. Mahudi also witnessed change in leadership due to death of the leader. The son was replaced by and all the members unanimously supported it. When questioned, they said that the new chair was active and dynamic and they all agreed for this change in a general assembly. Members in both the groups said that leaders were not selfish and put members interests on priority.

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Financial Sustenance

Both the cooperatives have managed their financial resources in an organised manner. The cooperatives were regular in paying their dues, which includes the electricity charges, salaries to paid employees and all the maintenance charges incurred by the cooperatives in running the system. In case of Mahudi, the cooperative has been able to earn around Rs.40000. In case of Hadmath kuta, they didn’t build their capital as they prefered to run the system with no profit no loss basis. The cooperative had saved around Rs.15000. Whenever there was a contingency, all the members pool in resources to face the crisis. This however was covered in water charges on regular basis in Mahudi. Local banks however readily lend loans to these cooperatives.

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Influence in change of life

They feel that they are performing well because they themselves are the managers, users and the beneficiaries, so they think like one community and know what they require and what they don’t .

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Initially these cooperatives were formed for the purpose of managing the irrigation system but due to the benefits and change in the living status of the villagers cooperative decided to get involved in other areas like forest management, dairy development etc.

As a result of continuous irrigation and crop production, the living standards of the community members has raised. Agriculture improved, farmers started multi cropping, cash crops, vegetables etc. Migration reduced as the farmers started earning from their fields. Children started going to school as the family did not have to migrate anymore. Some of the children were also going to college and studying outside. Health status has improved, Housing improved/tractor/rickshaw /flour mill/cattle/jewellery started coming up. These were some of the observations made by villagers.

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Joint Forest Management CO-OPERATIVES The objective of formation of the JFM co-operatives is to rehabilitate the degraded forest lands through people’s action and help in establishing clear user rights and responsibilities.

Process involved in formation of institution

During the data collection and the group interactions, it was noted that in both the JFM villages, a gram sabha was held where the need and benefits of protecting the forest by the community with the support of the organisation and the government were discussed. The villagers held the meeting, as they were interested in developing the forests of their area. During the study it was observed that the attendance in the gram sabha was more than 90%. After the meeting the executive committee was chosen and the registeration of the Committee was undertaken. The villagers decided to form the cooperative so as to be able to take the benefits of all the government programmes. In the selection of the committee, members were selected from various hamlets so that there is equal representation from all the hamlets.

Management Practices adopted

The villagers showed clarity regarding the purpose and taking up of the JFM. The core work of the JFM cooperative is to protect and manage the jungle. The members told us that in order to function well the committee meets every month and discusses all issues related to the project. Once a year the gram sabha is held where all the resolutions related to the functioning of the JFM are passed. When the members were asked why they formed the cooperative, it was shared that in order to protect the jungle and products of jungle, so that people for the development of the village can use it.

In case of village Matwa the members shared with the researchers that the fodder and fuel became available only after JFM and in their village for last 70 years only 10 families benefited from the forest produce in the whole village, but after the community took up the JFM program, all were benefiting.

The data showed that the cooperatives were holding gram sabha every year and in which the accounts, benefits and the problems that were faced in the program were discussed. The Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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executive committee meetings were held every month where if any one has a problem it is looked into and also the progress etc. were reviewed by the executive committee.

The cooperatives had formed very clear cut rules for the purpose of development of the resource and management of the program. Some of the rules that were pointed out in the data collected and the group interactions were that firstly no one can cut wood from the forest and no cattle to be allowed inside the protected JFM area for 4 months. This is done till grass is not cut after rains. Equal distribution of resources amongst all members was followed so that no one derives more than his/her share. It was also shared that 2 member from each house can enter jungle to cut dried wood etc and the committee members were responsible to care all the works in the JFM cooperative. The data showed that in both the cooperatives all the members were following the formed rules due to which the project was functioning well.

Measures in developing resources

In order to develop the existing forest resources rules and regulations were formed keeping in mind the forest development and management. The data also showed that along with the forest cooperative villagers also developed other natural resources in their village through activities like watershed, plantations etc. In the group interactions it was shared that due to the increased benefits and earnings in the village, many saving groups of the villagers had also come up and this money was of great help to them in exigency.

Leadership

The group interactions indicated that in both the villages the leadership was strong and assertive due to which in a program like JFM, which was so unclear, they managed to get many of their forest rights by standing up against the government when needed.

Inspite of good leadership and commitment of the villagers, in village Matwa the cooperative went through major differences with the forest department due to which they lost on a lot of grass in the drought year to the forest department.

Financial Sustenance Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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In order to be a member of the cooperative, villagers had to pay a share fee. Both the villagers have been able to build their resources. In case of dharadunger the villagers managed to save Rs.75000/.

Influence in change of life

The data collected highlights the fact that though the JFM is a very unclear program but the benefits are many. All the villagers benefited of fodder, wells were deepened after JFM co-op. was formed, and the villagers took up nursery and saving activities. Drinking facilities came up and distress migration has reduced to a great extent.

SELF HELP GROUPS To empower women to make decisions, enhance capabilities and participation in all areas of development, to build confidence of women in collective saving schemes and economic activities and at the same time stimulate the expansion of local economic activities and community action.

Process involved in the formation of the groups

Interactions with the various groups indicated that the women groups were a organic spread from the various other natural resource activities of the villages. The process was initited by NGO (1994) in few villages to organise women around savings and thrift. They used the capital so generated for consumption and productive purposes. In the process they were exposed to various activites that eanbled them to voice their concerns in the village. Later many other groups have emerged on the same lines seeking support of NGO. The group size varied between 20 to 40.

Management practices

The members shared that in order to be able to save on regular basis and sustain the groups, various rules and regulations were made. Apart from this a secretary and chairman were selected to manage the records and finances. Rules were framed for depositing money, meetings and the loans to be given so that they are able to function smoothly. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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Measures in developing the resources

Various interactions highlighted the fact that initially the groups were small and savings were little but with the benefits the membership and the amount to be saved both increased. This increase in savings led the groups to start loans and credit activities. The data indicate that the group savings led to the women getting involved in activities like poultry farming. Goatery, dairy development, vegetable cultivation etc and the economic gains went up three fold.

Leadership

Due to strong leadership which managed the group activities well, the women were able to get involved in many activities apart from just savings. The members of village Raniyar shared with the researchers that due to the strong leadership and a united group, the group managed to have a corrupt government official taken to task who had cheated.

Financial sustainability

The balance sheets and the data collected show that both the groups have sufficient savings and are able to lend upto Rs 10,000/-. The interest charged on the loans was upto 60%. The members shared that due to the good management in the groups and the well managed finance, loans for purchasing buffaloes, goats etc are readily available.

Influence in change of life

The members openly expressed the benefits that they felt when they came together as one. They strongly expressed the sense of freedom that they have gained because of the various activities and the respect that they get in the family and village now. Due to the formation of these groups, women not only have a strong sense of independence but are also able to express themselves in front of any audience. They are more respected in the household and the village due to the economic power that they hold. The women are able to earn sitting at home, the banks and other agencies like shopkeepers easily give loans. Women have started moving out

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and have started taking up activities like poultry dairy etc. They are able to send all their children to school because of the extra flow of money in the house.

The data also indicates that the groups are greatly involved in other activities like watershed, forestry, youth groups etc.

INCOME GENERATION GROUPS

As a means of livelihood opportunities during the lean periods of irrigation, traditional crafts were encouraged as sources of supplementary income to the women, developing skills for diversification towards non-farm activities to increase the supplementary income. Empowering women by providing them options for independent status. Bead ornaments culturally were a part of the lives of the tribal and this was seen as means of skill development and economic empowerment. The groups operate at the village level. Skill and product development is the main focus. Not only do the products created by these groups have a national market but also an international market.

Process involved in the formation

The data collected and the interactions with the members showed that in case of the dairy cooperatives, it was the initiative of the informal women’s savings groups to undertake economic activities around the existing natural resources. Water and fodder availability was the deciding factor for this initiative.

Beadwork was the outcome of the existing tribal skills which were lying untapped and which had the potential to be developed into an economically viable preposition and source of earning for the women sitting at home and at their leisure time. In order to be part of the group the women had to pay a share fee. It was seen as a source of more earnings in the family. The most important point that came out was that it was earning sitting at home.

Management practices adopted

The data collected showed that, the women in both the groups keep individual records.

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Every month monthly meetings are held where the group not only shares the activities of the group but also the members deposit the savings. Loan applications are shared in this meeting The data showed that records are kept by the group, which are managed by the group leader, in case of the dairy cooperative this data is kept by the secretary or chairman of the group. Apart from the economic activities undertaken, savings in the group are a very important compenent.

Measures in developing resources

In case of the dairy cooperative, most of the women in the village had buffaloes but in order to form their own dairy cooperative all women took loans and bought more cattle. Instead of selling milk in the market on individual basis, they sell through the cooperative, to the district dairy. In case of the handicrafts group, the women have developed on their traditional designs to compete with the world markets and in order to build there skills, they continuously undergo trainings and exposure.

Leadership

The data showed that in case of the dairy cooperative, the group and the leadership aspect both are very strong.. Since the year of establishment, the chairman is the same as she is managing the group well ands all are satisfied with her functioning. The handicrafts group is more of an individual activity group, the leadership is their but till now has not been taking any initiatives to develop the group or get involved in other activities. Th group is more individual earning focussed, developing other resources has not been in the priority.

Financial sustainability

The dairy cooperative because of a good management and complete involvement in the activity has been able to manage there accounts well and has been able to get land for office, which is a major achievement and also is able to give loans to the members at 2% interest. The handicrafts group is also involved in savings but has yet not diversified the earnings to other activities.

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Influence in change of life

Both the group members strongly feel that life has changed for them since all these development activities became part of their lives. Children are getting good education due to the extra family earnings, health status of the women and family has improved. People have started savings, and have started investing in jewelry, fertilizers, seeds etc., People have managed to make pucca houses. Awareness levels have gone up. Women no longer need to migrate in search of livelihood, they are able to earn sitting at home.

FEDERATIONS

WATERSHED ASSOCIATIONS

To conserve and manage the land and water resources on area basis to meet the needs of the people in sustainable and just manner through various user and self help groups

CASE STUDY-I WATERSHED ASSOCIATION-DHADELA-GORIYA

The Watershed Association

The watershed association came up in the village Dhadela in the year 1995 under the watershed program. It was a new program of the government under which the villagers were the decisionmakers for all the development works that have to be taken up in the village. Initial village meetings were held where the villagers were given clarity on the 4year-watershed program. Watershed Association was registered under societies act.

Process of formation

Meetings were held falia wise and then a village meeting was held. In the meeting the villagers decided that each falia should have a member on the committee. A 12-member committee was made representing all the falias in the village, in which 3 women members were selected. The

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WSA has 2338 members out of which 424 members were women. The WSA has 5 youth groups, 2 mahila juths and 19 users groups.

Why the Association

The association was formed in order to have a system of functioning and to be able to get all benefits of the various government programs, which are available.

Functioning

The committee holds monthly meeting of all the members where various issues discussed. It’s the responsibility of the committee to motivate the villagers to take up various programmes for village development. Conflicts were resolved in this meeting. The committee was also responsible for managing watershed works which are part of the program.

Various user groups managed soil and water conservation activities in different hamlets of the village. Self –help groups formed aroung savings and income generating activities. All these groups are united under Watershed Association as one single apex body at village level.

Benefits

Due to the watershed program villagers came together and learnt to work as work groups. With inputs and awareness they were able to get other government schemes. Due to this program the villagers were able to mobilise funds for the village and many saving groups started. The village has a fund of Rs.2 00 000 in bank. Apart from that villagers have 10% contribution as savings. The women groups have been able to save Rs.20,000 to Rs.50,000. The groups also managed to get government support for taking up on-farm income generation activities. Rules and Regulations

Monthly meeting held on the fixed date. Every member has to be present for the meeting. The chairman and secretary would sign all transactions and decisions. Those who violate rules were fined. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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Future activities

The watershed association was planning to form more youth groups in the village, start a poultry farm, dairy co-operative and take up vegetable cultivation on a larger scale to enhance the economic status of the members.

Relationship with other organizations

The watershed association has working relationship with the various banks at the district and taluka level, the district dairy cooperative, taluka panchayat.

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CASE STUDY-II

Horticulture Womens Co-operative- Dahod

To promote assured income alternatives from marginal lands and value addition to farm lands through the formation of women horticulture cooperatives focussing on development of women leadership, entrepreneurship and capacity building.

The cooperative

The dahod taluka women horticulture Cooperative was the first women horticulture cooperative to have been formed in this tribal region. Horticulture has been identified as the most profitable activity for this area. It came up in 1998-99. It has women members from 35 villages and the total membership is 390.

Process of formation

In the beginning individual members interested in taking up horticulture had to pay a membership fee to be part of the horticulture program. The program plan considered women as the key role players. Women nursery raisers associated with the NGO felt that farmers who have irrigation facility could take up alternative land use practics, and furit trees are more beneficial for them. They were encouraged to take up horticulture plants in a small part of their land and develop it into horticulture orchards. This process was started in 1998-99. In order to become a member a share fee of Rs.51 was kept in the first year. Later it has increased to Rs.101 as the response was visibly high.

Why the Cooperative

The need to get all the women under the cooperative umbrella was felt as it was important to organize all the women and make them prepared to face the future markets and challenges and to be able to become strong entrepreneurs in the coming years. It was also felt that by organizing as a group the women could take up any activities they wanted and they could work Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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together for future developments. The main goal was to make individual farmers get access to markets and profit from buying and selling of the produce through the cooperative.

Benefits of the cooperative

Due to the cooperative, members were able to get timely and prompt services needed to maintani the orchard. Various inputs such as manure fertiliser, pesticides, plants and irrigation. Cooperative also provid technical services to the members. Cooperative conducted exposure visits to its member to other areas where orchards already developed. Members said that these exposures helped them in understanding how orchards could be managed for better production.

Functioning

Individual horticulture orchard owners became members of cooperative at block level by paying share and entry fee. Executuve committee was ellected from the general body in annual meeting and the committee members were on rotation every year. Secretary was appointed to look into day to day affairs. Apart from this the cooperative hired technicians to assist its members in mainitaining orchards. Apart from this informal groups of 30 members each lead by a group leader meet on regular basis to monitor the growth of orchard. Members were also provided with various inputs to carry out on-farm activities at costs lesser than markets. From the members a chairperson was ellected who acts as e the chief signatory.

The executive committee was responsible for monitoring the orchards and calling meetings etc. The executive committee can only make any resolution. All documents etc. have to be signed by the chairperson. The secretary maintains the accounts and all the contribution deposited in bank. If any problem arises it is immediately looked into and solved by the committee members by adhoc meetings. The members sit together with all people involved and come to a common consensus which beneficial to all.

Future activities

q q

Well irrigation/ Drip irrigation Hotrticulture nursery development
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q q q q

Vegetable cultivation Increase the membership Increase the savings Take up economic activities to increase the earnings of the cooperative.

Relationship with other organisations

The cooperative has established relation with the various government offices like the tribal sub plan, government horticulture department, etc. The cooperative has a constant and fruitful relationship with NGO from where it gets all the inputs, trainings, guidance etc.

CASE-III

L.I.CO-OPERATIVE FEDERATION

Why the Federation

The lift irrigation co-operative federation in Jhalod taluka was formed in the year 1996. During various group interactions in the irrigation cooperatives, farmers expressed the need of a farmers body which could look into various areas of development around water and irrigation. The need was felt as with increasing number of cooperatives, for coordination and management. To liason with the government as a farmers body, to look into the maintenance works of the irrigation cooperatives, to provide services like good quality seeds and fertilisers to the member cooperatives at reasonable rates and on time were some of the other reasons.

Process of formation

Earlier SWDF, the implementing organisation used to look into the requirements of the cooperatives. But with increasing numbers the need to be self sufficient in handling various issues affecting the cooperatives came up and it was felt very strongly by the cooperatives that they should have their own farmers body looking into their requirements.

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Initially meetings were held at the individual cooperative level to discuss the prospects of the federation. Each village cooperative selected 4 members from the cooperative as their representatives for the federation. From the 4 , one was selected as the representative in the cluster which was formed of 6-7 villages falling close by. From these cluster committees the executive committee was selected and elections were held for chairman and vice chairman. A secretary was kept as paid employee of the federation. A share fee of 10001 was kept for the cooperatives who wanted to become members in the federation. The executive committee consisted of 15 members.

Problems in formation

As far as the process was concerned all the cooperatives were very supportive, only the very old cooperatives who were used to being supported without putting much efforts initially resisted to some rules and regulations for functioning. Since this was the new initiative, the formation of the bye-laws took a lot of time and then the registeration was very taxing as the cooperative and registration department raised a lot of queries and cancelled a lot of programmes which the federation wanted to take up

FUNCTIONING

It provided regular and subsidized maintenance services to the member cooperatives. It has decided to ensure quality material to the cooperatives along with supplying seeds and fertilisers to the cooperatives who demand. The federation has monthly meetings of the executive members and the cluster committee members share informations, take up activities which were suggested by the cooperatives, make plans on works, trainings and exposure visits etc. During the irrigation season and in periods like the drought the federation members meet more frequently, so to be able to give timely and prompt services to the cooperatives. Due to the federation during the year of the drought fodder was purchased in bulk to distributed among cooperatives based on their demands. Repair and maintenance works of non-functional hand pumps was taken up and wells were deepened in the drought period to provide relief to many villages.

Structure of the federation Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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In the beginning 28 co-operatives had become members by depositing Rs 1000/ as share fee. Now 45 co-operatives have become members and all new irrigation cooperatives will be becoming members. The federation consists of the General Body , 4 member from each co-operative then there is a cluster committee which consists of 1 member from each cooperative. From the cluster committee 15 members were chosen who formed the executive committee. From the executive, the chairman and vice-chairman were elected.

Financial management

The federation has as capital the share fees taken from the cooperatives, amounting to Rs.10001 and Rs.400 as annual fee is given by the individual cooperatives. Apart from this the federation got financial support from the parent organisation for the first 3 years.

The federation trying to raise funds from other organisations and funding bodies and at the same time it was trying to take up programs like wastelands development, seeds and fertilisers purchase and sale etc. from which the federation could earn and at the same time support the individual cooperatives. The federation has generated savings of Rs 1 17 50 000.

Linkages The federation has linkages with the parent organisation. Apart from this the federation has linkages with the urban bank, mercantile bank, panchmahal bank and the various government departments at the taluka level.

Management The day to day management responsibility of the federation vested on staff, chairman and the executive committee. The chairman in consultation with the federation manager makes decisions. During the irrigation season the cooperatives have to enter their complains in the federation office by paying a complaint charge of Rs.51. Maintenance work done on the given time and

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date. The material has to be purchased by the individual cooperatives on their own from the federation office. The executive committee meets every month and decisions are taken there. The meetings have issues related to that particular time and season. Generally the areas discussed in the meetings focuss on the performance of the cooperatives, accounts , new activities, liasoning with the government etc.

New initaitves

Wastelands development through horticulture plantations on commercial basis Trading seeds and fertilisers to individual farmers on fair priase policy Encouraging vegetable and other profitable crop cultivation

Benefits

Immediate maintainence and easily available services to the cooperatives as and when required at low cost Main aim - Farmers should benefit should get services easily and then only federation will think of earning. If federation doesn’t earn it will fail. The federation members felt that this was their first step but they were sure that they will progress and become a strong body, an independent farmers organisation.

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Case Studies:
CASE STUDY-I

Mahudi Irrigation Co-operative (Irrigation on Dam)

Why they formed the irrigation co-operative?

The cooperative members said that earlier they were dependent on rain-fed agriculture that compelled them to migrate for long durations whenever monsoon failed. Hence they decided to tap the potential water in Machan river with the support of NGO (in 1994)which already working with other villages. As a result they formed a group and approached the NGO for support. Members say that they are now yielding three seasons in a year at the place of hardly one season. This resulted in progressive irrigation cooperative in Mahudi along with a water harvesting structure to tap the optimum potential of water.

The process of the formation of the co-operative

In the beginning the villagers got together and talked of forming a lift irrigation for the purpose of irrigation, they had learnt about the irrigation system and the co-operatives from the near by villages where these systems were already functioning. So they got together and formed a group of 60 people and got together to form this group. They apporached the implementing organisation to ask them for the benefit of irrigation through the construction of LI system. After the initial phase of technical feasibility and surveys in consultation with the villagers the system was constructed. Villagers took up responsibility for the complete construction works. During this process itself the villagers in consultation with the organisation started the process of forming their own village co-operative.

With the support of the organisation a cooperative was formed. As the whole process requires a lot of interactions with the government departments NGO supported the cooperative members in dealings. This was the first group of its kind in the village, earlier the villagers used to get together and talk but never took up any work as a team and that too for a development purpose

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Involvement in other areas of development

Initially this cooperative was formed for the purpose of managing the irrigation system but due to the benefits and change in the living status of the villagers irrigation this cooperative decided to get involved in other areas like JFM, Dairy development etc.

Functioning of the co-operative members

The cooperative considers itself successful as it feels that the committee members are performing their duties well and are able to manage water and finances due to which no one in their hamlet was ever dissatisfied. They felt that if the organization had not given them guidance and inputs through various exposures and trainings, they would have been like any othe village where state programmes were going on without any success. They also felt that the community members have been dedicated, faithful, strong and just to all in their management and distribution of the water resource. They felt that because they were working as one they were successful from the first day itself. Cooperation among members generally observed and regular meetings, rules, regulations followed per say. The committee members felt that they were not only managing the cooperative but were also motivating farmers to go in for improved crops and agriculture techniques. If the farmer was very poor at times they also lend money and farmer would return to the cooperative after he gains benefit. The members said they were able to perform well because every one was equal for them, no partiality shown even when their own reletives ask for any favours.

Even though it was a market day (Haat), all the committee members were present for the meeting. This showed the sense of responsibility and commitment of the members. Said by one memmber in the meeting.

Structure of the co-operative and functioning

The structure of the cooperative generally consists of a chairman, followed by the committee members. The paid employees mainly the secretary, distributor and operator and the water users constituted general body of the cooperative. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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In every general body meeting which is held every year before 30th september of the year, change in Executive committe members is put as part of the agenda but if the general body is happy with the functioning of the committee members, they request the committee members to continue. AS the cooperative is ‘functioning well’ not many committee members have been changed.

Involvement in other areas of village development

Since the irrigation cooperative could be formed in only one hamlet due to technical reasons, the cooperative is supporting the other hamlets in taking up activities like forestry (1991), horticulture (1999) and watershed (1998).

The other groups that have come up due to the success of this cooperative are the Mahila Mandals(1997), the Forest Protection Committee which has 270 members covering all the hamlets.

Resources of the co-operative and maintenance

The cooperative has been able to earn around 40,000 till date since the cooperative worked as a service oriented and the profit margin kept negligible. Members felt that the cooperative was self sufficient and able to manage its financial requirements from within.

They feel that they are performing well because they themselves are the managers, users and the beneficiaries, so they think like one community and know what they require and what they don’t

Since it is an irrigation co-operative, it has a complete unit which has a pump house, motor, panel board, pipe lines, valve systems,outlets, books and records of the farmers and accounts etc. The members are responsible for looking after the whole system and the member nearest the system has to take more responsibility.Watchman looks after the pump house which is near the river.

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Maintenance works need to be done on motor ,valve, pipes, footvalves etc from time to time, if the system is well maintained the maintenance is less. The expenses are borne by the cooperative for all maintenance and this is part of the water charge taken from all the water users. The repair is done immediately.Maintenance on the pipes and other small repairs are done by the villagers themselves motor work is done by the federation on cash payment. If motor gets burnts etc it is major problem as it is expensive compared to other maintenance works, in such cases C.M. meet and discuss the reasons, the steps to be taken etc.

Water distribution and management

The water distribution in L.I. is done on basis of sequencing. Each and every farmer should get water. Water is given on hour basis and the farmers have to make advance payment by filling an application form given by the co-operative and then accordingly sequencing is done for the water distribution.

Water management is good and generally there have been no serious complains by any members and no dissatisfaction expressed, it is only if the electricity does not come on time or comes for less hours that the sequencing that is fixed gets disturbed and some complains come but most of the members understand and co-operate and time and water are important for all during the season, but the sequencing pattern is followed as decided.

Decision making in the co-operative

Meeting is kept before starting of each irrigation season, all the water users and members have to be present for this meeting. In this meeting a lot of issues were covered starting from

q

When motor is to be started

q

What would be the sequencing of the water, every time sequencing is changed so that

no one feels bad

q

what would be the water charges, time for depositing the money

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q

The various expences of the co-operative are shared like the maintenance required etc.

q

Every month the committee meets to discuss any problem, collect advance money.

q

In the first meeting only the issue of light is discussed, the C.M. don’t want any

problems during the operation of the system, so in advance itself the light irregularity, fluctutions etc. are shared .

q

What crops to be grown in cases of scarcity is discussed, and all have to follow.

q

In the drought year the meeting was held and members were explained the situation.

Decisions were made by the committee members after discussing in the general body and if all the members approve and consider them okay. The committee members felt that they were performing well as all were ‘bhagats’ so no one consumes alchohol and every one cooperates with each other.

Rules Followed

q

Each farmers has land on each outlet, so all get water in atleast one farm, so all the

farmers in the command area were covered.

q

Money taken in advance. No flexibility on paying money, only in case of emergency

(health) one month is given.

q

Rules and Regulations change every year based on previous years experience.

q

The registers kept by secretary. Regular entires were made in every season. He has to

reprot to the Committee.

q

Audit of accounts carried out every year by external (government) auditor.

q

One person from the house has to be there to take water from the outlet to the field,

People have to come, if they don’t come water is not supplied to their fields. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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q

The Committee members are responsible for solving the problems in the co-operative.

q

Maintenance material has to be brought, changed by the secretary and operator and the

Committee is responsible for all the dealings.

Linkages with other organisations

As reported, the relations with banks were good. As the cooperative was performing in a regular manner, the banks were open to giving loans. Lamps (Local Area Multi-Purpose Societies) were not functioning well so the farmers and the cooperatives stopped taking even seed/fertiliser from them when they required. These societies with large defaulters and malfunctioning, not in a position to extend services as desired by farmers. Group members said that they instead depend on the LI cooperatives or banks.

Mahila Mandal emerged at later stage in the village, serve the small lending needs of members. At times members take productive loans from these mandals for purchase of seeds or fertilisers.

Benefits of L.I and the co-operative.

q q q

Agriculture quality improved farmers started multi cropping, cash crops, vegetables etc. Migration reduced as the farmers started earning from their fields and gained. Children started going to school as the family did not have to migrate. Some of the

children were also going to college and studying outside also.
q q

Health status has improved, less children fall sick and die of mal nutrition etc. Housing improved/tractor/rickshaw /flour mill/cattle/jewellery started coming in.

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Hurdles in further progress

Members said that, even though they earn much but some traditional events like marriage ceremony consumes all money they saved. They however came out of the clutches of alchohol but they were compelled to follow other, when they interact with neighbouring communities. Each emeber of the group have had spent Rs. 20-40 thousand on brid-prise.

Future Plans

q

Extension of L.I .so that more area could be covered

q

Horticulture plantations would be taken up by the farmers

q

Better Houses will be built

q

Dairy Co-op will be formed by the members, for which new cattle will be purchased.

q

Land levelling will be done in the villages so that more area could be taken under

irrigation.

CASE STUDY-II

HANDMATH KUTA Lift Irrigation Co-operative (TANK irrigation)

Handmath kuta was one of the oldest lift irrigation co-operatives in the Jhalod taluka. It was formed in the year1984.

Why they formed the irrigation co-operative?

Farmers had seen the irrigation system in nearby village Shankerpura & felt that if they had a co-operative in their village, they would also get benefit of irrigation. Village farmers would be Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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able to earn in their own village and would not need to migrate for food and employment. So they decided to form this co-operative. Agriculture productivity was the main reason for forming the co-operative.

Process of formation of the irrigation the co-operative

Group said that at village level itself the irrigation system could be managed without involving anyone from outside. Villagers had a village meeting where the benefits of the irrigation system and forming a unregistered co-operative to manage the system were discussed. The villagers contacted the organisation to construct the irrigation system in their village, once the technical formalities were done the system was constructed in which all the villagers contributed in construction work. As it was a new program in the area, initial first year members were very less. Various aprehensions were also prevailed among people over irrigation systems and management. Lots of doubt about benefits, land alination, high expences of motors, difficulties in getting diesel invoked less involvement. But from the succeeding year when farmers saw the benefits from irrigation and also the kind of crops that they could grow like wheat and other cerels, they were motivated to join the cooperative

Problems

q

When the system installed in the village, there was drought for two consecutive years.

The system could not function initially and people were aprehensive.
q

First 2 years of operation was done with diesel engines and its management was

difficult. Later they received electricity connection.
q

Even when the system was not operating then also had to pay flat rates in past (i.e., till

1993). The co-operative had to bear the extra-cost and due to which the cooperative could not save much.
q

Earlier we had some problems because of lack of knowledge but, once everyone

benefitting people started co-operating.

Structure of the co-operative and functioning Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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The co-operative has a committee of 13 members out of which 3 are women members. Before the season starts the farmers call for a general meeting in which all decisions of operation and management were taken. ‘Distribution of water from various outlets decided and the main criteria kept in mind is that no ones crop should dry. People cooperate in the water distribution and till date no one has done wrong during the operation of the sytem. If anyone objects, the members get together and decide. The Chairman/Secretary were approached in case of any dispute and immediate decision were taken. All the farmers have to listen but if any one remains problamatic water share immediately stopped’iv.

In 1994 a new chairman was selected this was done in the general body meeting.The total membership in the cooperative increased to85. Earlier it was 55. When the people saw the benefits and earnings from the irrigation cooperative they joined it.

Earlier few records were kept in the group. Initially the villagers had not registered themselves under the cooperative act and were managing as an informal group with experience and learnings they went in for registration. The benefits that they saw due to the formation of cooperatives were better record keeping, sense of responsibility for the activity.

Rules and Regulations

q

Farmers keep imformed to others and operator about the water usage and requirements

during the operation of system. The operator keeps register in which record of each farmer is kept.

q

Deposit/charges are to be given in advance for the season and before watering.

q

Water rates were fixted considering total costs incured during the season.

q

If someone has more land to irrigate, the turn would be considered after all other

farmers draw water in equal proportion. This too subjected to availability of water.

q

Meetings held every month during operation and also as and when required.
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q

Falia wise members responsible for water outlets and the part of system that stretches.

q

Recovery of dues is the responsibility secretary, operator and distributor and supported

by committee members in respective hamlets.

q

Selection of a member for Chairman depends on commitment to work, cooperation with

others and regularity in meetings.

q

Defaulters in the cooperative are punished eg. If any farmer opens the outlet before turn

or without the permission of the committee he has to pay a fine.

q

Water distribution made on hour basis. Earlier it was on acre basis.

Involvement in other areas of development

200 acres (1 falia) gets the irrigation in the village. The other falias could not be taken in the command as the water for irrigation is lifted from a tank, which is small. The tank was constucted for irrigation but due to less water all the faliyas could not get water for irrigation. The villagers had put a proposal for getting water from the river, but as it was very expensive so the irrigation system could not be constructed for the whole village. Local administration promissed to construct another tank. The cooperative committee members pursuing the matter with the government and trying to have the work started so that the complete village could benefit from the irrigation system.

In the faliyas where the irrigation system is not their, other development works like watershed, savings and credit, nursery raising, tree plantations had been done on a large scale. Mahila Mandal functioning since the 1999. 31 women were members. Youth groups for savings were being encouraged, to inculcating a habit of saving. Through these groups the youth are encouraged to stop alchohol consumption, smoking etc, and save that money.

Profits and financial planning for the future

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When this issue was discussed with the members they said that they never thought of it as expenses of routine were covered in the water charges. So profit not made by the cooperative and also they percieve this cooperative as more of a service oriented than a profit making cooperative.

Maintenance and Management

Small maintenance works are done by the operator, distributor on their own but major repair has to be done then the federation is informed and on paying the complaint charges and material charges, maintenance staff from the federation does the necessary works. During the season maintenance works are done immediately but in the off-season maintenance complains attended at convenience. Since the cooperative is member of the federation, it gets timely maintenance services, seeds and fertilizers inputs, training’s and exposure visits.

Relationship with other organizations

The cooperative has maintained relation with ban.ks but dis-associated with LAMPS, as the experiences were bad. Members have expressed strong openion about malfunctioning of LAMPS and expressed complete dissatisfation. Relation with electiricity board found to be good.. They support the farmers and try to give timely and proper supply of electricity during irrigation season. Sometimes the cooperatives get delayed in filling their electricity bills. They get benefit of grace period due to the relation they maintained.

Benefits and changes

q

Before the irrigation system, the whole village used to migrate and even could not

efford to wear proper clothing.
q

Now they get water to their door steps otherwise irrigation was only rainfed in past and

to get drinking water they had to walk for kilometers together.
q

Children go to school and several members joined outside services. Some were working

in State departments and private sector. Earlier non were qualifyed to secure such high posts.
q

Wheat, grains and food available easily and even in drought year people have food

grains in their homes. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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q

They have a primary school till 4th standard in their village and for higher studies the

children go to the nearby village till class 10th.
q

Girls were sent to school as they study more. Some members said that it is better to

educate them because if they are educated they contribute more to the house. If the girl gets educated, she can lead a peaceful life for herself.
q q q q q

Earlier they had small homes but now big houses were built. Cycles, scooter, tractor, jeep etc were being purchased in the village. Money earned was spent on meeting daily needs, weddings, education etc. The earnings depend on what they produce in the fields. Due to the cooperative lot of greenery, trees and forest has developed in the village due

to which the quality of life has improved for all including cattle.
q

Leadership in other areas has come up, from the co-operative farmers ellected to

Panchayat, the chairman of the cooperative is a panchayat member and another member was ellected as deputy Sarpanch.
q q

Due to the efforts of cooperative the whole village got electricity since 3 years. More people stopped consuming alchohol so less troubles in co-operative.

CASE STUDY-III

MATWA JFM

Village Matwa is located in the Dahod taluka . The village has 435 hectares of forest land having the largest output of grass in the area. This village got involved in JFM in the year 1997.

A meeting was conducted with the 9 member Executive committee of the village managing the project, out of the 9 three were women members.

Why the villagers took up JFM

Protecting jungle and products of jungle to be used by farmers and village was the focus of villagers in undertaking JFM. Earlier fodder grass benefits and fuel went to 10 families. This had been going on for almost 70 years. Responsible leadership came up in the village which was able to motivate the whole village to get involved.

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Process of formation of the JFM co-operative

A village meeting was held in which 300 people came for the meeting (Gram Sabha) in 1997. In this meeting the JFM program was discussed with the villagers and the benefits of the same. The villagers agreed that they need to protectthe jungle for the future needs and decided to form a cooperative to manage and protect the jungle. After the general consensus of all the villagers, the villagers selected their committee members. The committee was formed in such a manner that all falias in the village got representation. After the formation of the committee, the chairman and secretary were selected. In order to become member in JFM a share fee of Rs.51 was decided and all farmers who wanted to become members had to pay the share fee. The total members in JFM are 324. Committee members were selected from all the falias in the village.

Rules and Regulations

q

2 General Assemblies every year held in which the accounts, benefits and problems

encountered were discussed.
q q q q q q q q q

Executive committee meetings held every month. Total share fees deposited in the bank. Rs 94,000 are in the bank No one can cut wood from the forest 8 watchman kept. Rs. 800/- per watchman is given No cattle allowed inside the protected JFM area for 4 months till grass harvested. Equal distribution of resources amongst all members. 2 member from each house can enter jungle to cut dried wood etc. Committee responsible to overlook all the works Everyone obeys the Committee and has to follow the rules and regulations.

Benefits :

q

For 2 years villagers got good grass but since 2 years of drought problem in procurring

grass witnessed.due to forest department interventions.

q

32 wells were deepened after JFM co-op. was formed
45

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q

Village women took up nurseries.

q

Grass from forest started coming up on a very large scale.

q

Check Dam was constructed.

q

Fuel wood (cut back) made available to all the members.

q

Leaves (from which leaf plates are made) for ceremonies easily available, there is

enough to be sold also if taken up as a group activity. All 324 members got 1000 bundles of grass each in 1st year. 2nd year grass was

q

distributed on kilogram basis. Each member had got 800kg.

Financial Management

Regular income would be 10% from grass output if the forest department has clarity about JFM and lets the villagers get the deserved benefits. The villagers would manage 10% from other development works. But due to the unclarity in the whole project of JFM, the villagers were unable to gauge the actual benefits that they will get in the long run.

Future of JFM and Other Initiatives

q

Inspite of the problems and the non-clarity the villagers are motivated to continue the

project due to the benefits they were getting.

q

.Planning to do land bunding & well deepening program in the whole village.

q

Planning to get grants for development work from government for tank /pond

formation, which helps in increased water levels in wells. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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q

Thinking of Leaf-plates project as lots of leaves available due to the regenerated forests.

Problems

q

Meeting with other departments of Govt. Lots of running around for all information. Problems in convincing people and various officials in the forest department.

q

25% migration of people has taken place because of drought and non-availability of

fodder grass.
q

JFM still not clear in rules & regulations. Govt. doesn’t co-operate. So people are

getting disappointed.
q

Very unclear rules from Govt. Even though Committee spent on protection, Forest

Department took away all the benefits.
q

The groups were strong but the Department was not supportive and creating differences

among members.
q

Even Registration is a major problem- the government department keeps changing its

rules and regulations.

During the interaction with the committee members, it came out very strongly that due to the unclarity in the rules and regulations of the government and the role of the forest department villagers were unable to perform well. And slowely loosing faith in the JFM because of the government attitude and dealings.

CASE STUDY-IV

Dharadunger JFM

Dharadunger is a village located in the Jhalod taluka of the Dahod district. It has major forestlands falling in its village boundary, which was depleted and completely exploited by many forces. In the year 1997 the villagers got together with the support of the organisation and decided to protect their forest.

Process of formation

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The villagers held a gram sabha where they discussed the need and benefits of protecting the forest by the community with the support of the government and the organisation. The forest department also shared their views in this meeting. After the meeting the villagers decided on their executive committee and decided to register themselves as treee growers cooperative.

Why the JFM Cooperative

By forming the cooperative, village works could be done with the support of State.The villagers would all come together and function as one group under the cooperative umberella.

Benefits of the JFM cooperative

Due to the formation of the cooperative villagers have taken up other activities like deepening of wells nursery raising etc.

Functioning of JFM The core work of the cooperative was the protection and management of the jungle. In order to function well the executive committee meets every month to discuss the functioning of the cooperative and the staff employed to protect and manage the forest. The cooperative members meet 3-4 times with the forest department to resolve and share experiences. Once a year a gram sabha held where all the members gather and resolutions related to functioning are passed. Rules and regulations are framed. The group leader found to be strong and takes a lot of interest in the cooperative and also encourages the group to take up other development works in the village. The forest cooperative has 160 members till date and has a saving of more than Rs.75000.

Future activities The cooperative plans to protect and rehablitate the forest to its original form. Planning to provide drinking water facilities to the complete village. Take up activities to reduce distress migration

Relationship with other organisations The cooperative has good relations with the forest department and other government departments. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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It has been able to perform well due to the constant support from NGO.

The JFM Experience

In the year of 1997 the villagers had held a gram sabha to discuss the JFM project. The sarpanch opposed the program from the beginning. But the villagers wanted the program so they went ahead and registered the JFM society. The sarpanch and 30 supportes logged a complain in the court against the cooperative but the villagers won the case. A village meeting was held by the forest department in the village. The government department gave the permission letter to the society as it demonstrated its strength in the meeting.

The sarpanch opposed the program as he himself was earning a lot along with some contractors by selling the grass and by formation of the cooperative, he would unable to take benefits anymore. With the support of the organisation and the forest department planatation work was taken up in the fortest land and other development works were also taken up. Pruning of the trees was also done in the forest in 2000 by the forest department. The sarpanch and 50 other villagers were against the whole programm but against them 190 members were supporting the JFM and were successfully managing against all difficulties and working together for the betterment of the village.

CASE STUDY-V

Village Chaysia Women Savings Group

Why they formed the group?

Under the watershed program women savings and credit groups were encouraged so as to inculcate a habit of saving, which can be used in emergency situations. The group is 4 years old and has 16 members. The membership has remained the same, with no additions at all. Initially the village had the watershed program and then the leader of the group encouraged women to save, so the process of savings started in the village. There was no opposition from anyone. Who so ever wanted to be part of the group could join. All the family members supported the women in this initiative. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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Functioning

The group started 4 years ago with 17 members but 1 member left as she could not deposit the money on regular basis. The groups was doing regular savings and were rotating the money at 5% interest as compared to 10% outside. In the first 2 years the group members saved Rs.10 each. Since the last 2 years the members have been saving Rs. 25 each. Loans have been given to members once in the past. But since the last 2 years no one has asked for loans. None of the members in the group were leterate so the watershed association secretary kept the accounts. In past, 6 women had taken loans, 1 has not yet returned and left the group. She owes the group Rs 600.

Rules

q q q q q q

All members have to deposit money every month on the fixed date. Late entries attract Rs. 2/- as fine. Loan will be given of Rs. 10,000/-. They got together in meeting and decided. Every month meeting should be held. Interest levied after 1 month from the disbursement date. When a member find difficult to pay the loan repayment in any month, then interest to

be filed.
q

Two witnesses needed if any member wants to take loan

Loans

This group has taken loan for 6 buffaloe (6 members). They took loans for this purpose as they felt that the milk could be used to meet the requirements of the house as well as could be sold in the market. But they were unable to sell the milk as they were not yet organised as milk cooperative. The women feel that they ‘should not have got into this activity as it is a very risky venture as out of 6, only 4 buffaloes give milk’. But there have been benefits like children consumeing milk and by-productes being used by the entire family. Initially they had planned to supply to milk dairy but due to less milk available, they could not sell.

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NEW ACTIVITIES

The group thinking of Poultry for selling in the market as the birds fetch very high rates in the local markets itself. Few want to do but few don’t. They are planning to get the chicks from outside. Due to drought year they have not been able to plan much regarding what they want to do.

Planning for future

They are planning for Poultry development 2 wells deepened in this drought year Watershed works in their hamlet.

CASE STUDY-VI

RANIYAR ENAMI WOMEN SAVINGS AND CREDIT GROUP

Women savings and credit group was initiated in the village. Initially it started as an informal group of women where the women used to get together and discuss various issues like health, social problems, etc. The women group then felt that by just meeting and talking they were not achieving much but if they took up some activity they would gain in the long run, so they started savings and for the last 4 years they have been saving money. Initially they were saving Rs 10 but since the last 2 years they were saving Rs20. They felt that it was good as otherwise they might have spent all the money and now whenever they need money they are able to get easily.

Functioning

The group has savings of Rs.33,000/- and a membership of 55 people.Due to the last 2 drought years deposits have gone down. Some women see no benefit, so discourage others and now it is drought year, so more difficult to save. When they had started the group they found it very useful. Dairy was also encouraging. 24 cows and 14 buffaloe were purchased, and they formed a Dairy co-operative.

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Chairperson & Vice Chairperson manage all the accounts. Members were given ‘Pass Books’. The savings of the members were put in the bank. Loans were given at 2% interest. 30 women have took loan in year 2000. All women who applied had recieved loans. Maximum loans that were given were of Rs. 5000/-. Loans have to be repayed within 4-5 months. Women get together and decide whom to give loans and whom not to. All members have repayed loans

Future Plannings

Plan to get a tractor. Will give tractor on rent to the villagers and earn in the group. Women could also use it in their fields as outside tractors cost more and also cheat the villagers.

Rules & Regulations.

Meeting dates were fixed and all member attend the meeting.

Rs. 2/- fine for late filing of loan money

Loan record is in individual pass book.

Other Programmes The village has a Lift Irrigation co-operative., a Dairy cooperative and SHG.

Benefits

q q q q q

The women are sitting at home and earning money Creditworthyness icreased because of enchanced economics status Good food/fodder Started going out to markets and towns Because of Mandal – dairy cooperative was formed where even other villagers fill the

milk.
q

Each & every one sends their children to school.

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CASE STUDY-VII

INCOME GENERATION GROUP VILLAGE SAHADA

The researchers conducted an interview with the income generation group at village Sahada, Holi Faliya. There are many income generation groups in the village, the one the researchers met was known as Shri Sahuna Mata Mahila Mandal.

Process of group formation

The village due to the irrigation facility was able to fulfill its basic food and fodder requirements. And were also able to earn by selling the excess produce. The villagers stoped migrating to other places. The women had a lot of time and wanted to get involved in an activity in which they could earn sitting at home and in their leisure time. ‘Beadwork’ was the traditional art of this area and women were making bead work items for themselves and their family members. Then this idea of selling such articles was mooted in a group. The group has been involved in this activity since 1988. Women formed a group and kept Rs.10 as member fee. The group leader at that time was 16 years of age. Very young indeed.

Problems

q

Women said, that they initially spent lot of time sitting idle and chatting. With this

activity, after household work they sit together and carryout beadwork.
q

When the group had started, the members used to do cloth stitching. But work load

increased in bead segment in last few years due to which a lot of the earlier members left the group.
q

The members felt they were getting fewer wages in beadwork. Earlier they used to earn

Rs 5 for one iteme but now they are being payed Rs 15, they feel they are getting less as the designs now are very intricate and more time goes into designing them.
q

Earlier payment was made in cash but now it is on cheque and payment is after3-4

months in some cases. Women said that cash payments were more convenient.
q

The discontentment was high as they felt that earlier they were also involved in other

activities like bee keeping, leaf making etc. but now it was exclusively ‘beadwork’.

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q

Some other group members felt that the new groups have taken lot of business for fewer

wages but the older groups expected more payment.

They felt that labour work was more paying but they were not willing to leave beadwork as it was something they could do any time along with their housework. Apart from this due to the increase in trees in their village in the summer they are doing work of making leaf plates from which they earn 300-400 Rs. They get Rs 30 per 100 leaf plates.

Functioning

Beadwork done on the basis of orders. The leader gets the work from the Sahaj office (involved in marketing the products) and then distributes in the group. Individual member keeps account of her work and the leader also keeps an account of the group. There have been no conflicts in the group since the beginning.

CASE STUDY-VIII

TANDI MILK DAIRY CO-OPERATIVE Dairy Cooperative: As an alternative income source the dairy cooperatives were promoted. Due to the development of the water resources, fodder and water became perennially available. These milk cooperatives were initiated by the informal mahila mandals which had got together to share and disseminate information on social and health issues and also encouraged savings. The women took the initiative for the formation of the milk cooperatives. The focus was economic empowerment through the formation of the women’s cooperatives.

The Tandi dairy co-operative was the first milk dairy co-operative, which was initiated by the women savings group as an economic initiative. The cooperative functioning for the last 4 years.

Process of formation.

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This group was formed in 1995 and it started as an informal mahila mandal where the women used to get together to discuss on various issues affecting there lives. The informal meetings gave rise to concept of savings as they felt the needed to get into something more apart from just meeting and discussing. From savings, with the increase in the amount, women decided to get involved in giving loans to members for various requirements like seeds, fertilisers, education, health and other execigencies. The group was performing well and their savings kept expanding. In one of their meetings they thought of dairy co-operative. Women felt that now they have easy availability of grass and fodder due to the lift irrigation and because of the savings, women could invest in. They felt that it was a good source of income.The milk could also be used for home purposes and from the earnings of the milk they would be able to provide better education to the children. They had thought of poultry also but it required more space and care so they gave up the idea.

In the beginning the dairy cooperative had 56 members and out of which 32 were filling milk. But now it has increased to 64. Apart from the members, a lot of other people also fill milk in the cooperative. They fill milk as they get better money. The payments were based on the fat content in milk filled. The more the fat the more they get in return. Money is given to the members every 10 days. This milk cooperative became member of district cooperative and the marketing made easy. Initially they bought 10 buffaloes as most of the members had 1-2 cows.

Why the dairy co-operative? Earlier also a few people had cow and they used to sell milk outside in the market but by forming the dairy cooperative they were getting many other benefits. The price they got was better than the market price. They got fodder, special diet of the cattle, veternary facilities and loan for purchase of buffaloes. The loan that they get for the buffaloes was repayed through the milk they supply to the cooperative. The dairy was registered as a cooperative since the last 3 years. The members have to deposit Rs.51 as share fee to become members.

Benefits

Each member has 3-4 cattle and minimum 2. From one buffalo earlier now each has 3. If they sell in the market it will fetch them Rs.1015000/-. Genesis, Development & Diversification in NRM based Village Institutions. March 2001.
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Due to the co-operative 50% subsidy on purchase of buffalo could be availed by members. Due to the profits the cooperative was able to buy land by paying Rs 5000/- from the government. The local administration also promissed them to support in construction of office building. Earlier they had to go to moneylenders to get loans now they are able to take loans from their own group at less interest rate. Children were getting good education as no one was migrating Health status of the people has also improved. People have started savings and earnings increased. In years of drought the villagers have food and money to cope with. In good years the villagers were able to buy jewellery, good quality fertilisers, seeds etc. People were able to make pucca houses. 25 houses of members were approved for reconstruction with the support of the panchayat.

Functioning

Each member keeps individual records Meeting held every month Records of the dairy cooperative and the savings group were kept separately So far no major conflicts occurred as decisions were made in the meeting. All the applications for any loans etc are passed in the meetings only. 2% interest is charged on the loans and an individual can take a loan 2 times the saving. For milk filling women have to stick to the timming fixed No farmers should add water to the milk. Audit of the cooperative done every 3 months The cooperative has a committee of 12 members. The group in their general assembly meeting selects the chairperson and they have not changed the chairperson as she was doing good work The secretary is responsible for the accounts and record keeping. The group was saving since four and half years, it started with savings and then the dairy came up.

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Relations They have relations with other village dairy cooperatives and groups like Chanasar, Limdi, Raniyar etc. At the taluka (administrative block) level they have relations with the government officials, district cooperative officers, district dairy cooperative, banks, collectrate etc.

Future planning The cooperative members were planning to start a pulse mill, the project would be supported by the government. Due to irrigation they produce pulses in the village which will be processed in the pulse mill.

The women were very supportive to each other in drought year. Women who have land near the dam were letting others who have no land to grow fodder for the cattle so that cattle can get fodder and are able to contribute in the dairy cooperative.

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References: BoNAR (1998): Guideline for development and uttilitation of hill sides. Tigray Bureau of Agriculture and Natural Resources Development, Regional government of Tigrey. Mekelle. BoNAR (1999) Tigray Regional Conservation Strategy, Bureau of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tigray. CDEF(1999): Annual Progress Report for the year 1999; Conservation and Development for Environment Fourm, Environment and Forestry Department SWDF. Council of National State of Tigray(1997): The National State of Tigray Rural Land Proclamation No. 23/1997. 6th year. Negarit Gazetta (Translation/not official)Mekelle. CPR Team(1999): Progress Report 1998: A comparative study of common pool resources management with respect to forest and natural regeneration in Ethiopia and India.(un published) IRMA, MU, NORAGIRC,REST & SWDF. Dahod, Mekelle. CPR Team(2000): Progress Report 1999: A comparative study of common pool resources management with respect to forest and natural regeneration in Ethiopia and India.(un published) IRMA, MU, NORAGIRC,REST & SWDF. Dahod, Mekelle. CPR Team(2001): Progress Report 2000: A comparative study of common pool resources management with respect to forest and natural regeneration in Ethiopia and India.(un published) IRMA, MU, NORAGIRC,REST & SWDF. Dahod, Mekelle. EFPA (1994): Ethiopian Forestry Action Programme, EFPA Secretariat. Addis Ababa. FDRE(1994): The Constitution of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, December 8, 1994. FDRE(1997) Environmental policy, by The Federal Democratic Government of Ethiopia, Environmental Protection Authority in Collaboration with the Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation. Addis Ababa April -1997. Government of Gujarat(1994): Government Resolution no. FCA-1090-125-V3 (Scheme for involving community and voluntary organisations in conservation development and administration of forestlands) Forest & Environment department Gandhinagar 27 June 1994. Government of India (1991): Letter from Ministry of Environment and Forests on Involvement of village communities and voluntary agencies for regeneration of degraded forest lands. 1 June 1991. New Delhi. Hoon, Paekh, SinghNaresh, Wanmali, Samir S (1997) Sustainable Livelihoods: Concepts, Principles and Approaches to Indicator Development (draft paaper) UNDP NewYork.1997. Leach Melissa, Mearns Robin, Scooners Ian (1997) Environmental Entitlements: A framework for understanding institutional dymamics in enviromental change: IDS359 Susex.

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MehtaLyla, Leach Melissa, Newell Peter, Scoones Ian, Sivaramakrishnan K Way Sally-Anne(1999) Exploring understanding of institutions and uncertainty: New directions in natural resource management IDS 372, Susex. Shanker Ravi (2000): JFM Experiences for Kheda village: A process Documentation. SWDF.Dahod. Tim Forsyth, Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones (1998): Poverty and environment: Priorities for research and policy. IDS Susex.

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Check list: Based on the checklist, a questionnaire in local language was administered to VIs Leaders, Committee members and groups. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. C. 14. 15. 16. D. 17. 18. 19. 20. E. 21 22 23. 24. Process and formation: Why/ purpose of the VI How the VI was formed Factors influenced in formation of the VI Whether goals set by the VI is realistic How the goals achieved Structure of VI Socio economic composition of VI Management of resources: How resources are managed How resources are developed and distributed How decisions are made and executed How Conflicts addressed / resolved Practices in enforcing rules and regulations Accounts and audit Member roles & responsibilities Clarity on roles of members Different roles executed by members Whether the roles are executed effectively & timely Leadership and VI linkages: How leader is elected or selected Whether Leadership is effectiveness and how Linkages of VI with other groups and organisations Similarities with other VIs Changes in quality of life Direct benefits realised from VIs activities No. of families benefited Other impacts on village development Future directions of VIs

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Tabulation of different Village Institutions in SWDF1.

A. Self-help Groups formed under Watershed Sr Name of the Group Village Taluka No 1 Laxmi Mahila Mandal Kasarwadi Kushalgad h 2 Jagruti Mahila Mandal Bhimkhora Kushalgadh 3 Guru Mahila Manda Tandi Badi Kushalgadh 4 Aketa Mahila Mandal Rupgadh Kushalgadh 5 Pranami Mahila Mandal Tandi Kushalgadh 6 Gayatri Mahila Mandal Sallon Kushalgadh 7 Jyoti Mahila Mandal Mahudi Kushalgadh 8 Krushan Pranami M. Sarmariya Jhalod Mandal 9 Jogmaya Shakti M. Mandal Sarmariya Jhalod 10 Jagruti Mahila Mandal Sharda Jhalod 11 Laxmimata Mahila Mandal Sharda Jhalod 12 Kalikamata Mahila Mandal Sharda Jhalod 13 Ambaji Mahila Mandal Sharda Jhalod 14 Laxmimata Mahila Mandal Tadagola Jhaold 15 Ambajimata Mahila Mandal Chosala Dahod 16 Bhaktjan Mahila Mandal Chosala Dahod 17 Laxmi Mahila Mandal Gultora Jhalod 18 Mahashakti Mahila Mandal Gultora Jhalod 19 Laxmimata Mahila Mandal Kharoda Dahod 20 Saraswati Mahila Mandal Kharoda Dahod 21 Laxmi Mahila Mandal Kalapipal Jhalod 22 Adivasi Mahila Mandal Kalapipal Jhalod 23 Saraswati Mahila Mandal Chhayan Jhalod 24 Hovanmata Mahila Mandal Bharasada Dahod 25 Navyug Mahila Mandal DholaJhalod khakhra 26 Krushan Prandmi M. Bavaka Dahod Mandal 27 Radhakrushan M. Mandal Bavaka Dahod 28 Saraswati Mahila Mandal Matva Dahod 29 Gopi Mahila Mandal HadmatJhalod khunt 30 Madhus Mahila Mandal Mahudi Jhalod 31 Jagruti Mahila Mandal Kotadakhur Dahod d 32 Laxmi Mahila Mandal Chataka Jhalod 33 Laxmi Mahila Mandal Thuthi Jhalod
1

Members 29 25 20 22 25 25 21 12 26 20 20 20 27 25 12 11 25 27 12 26 30 20 31 20 20 21 20 20 31 20 20 30 20

Est. 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 97 97 98 98 96 99 96 97 97 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 97 97 97 99 99 99 99 97 97 96

Collected and compiled from various departments of SWDF. As on June 2000. Informal groups are not incorporated in this list.

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34 35

Ambaji Mahila Mandal Mahakali Mahila Mandal

Chhasiya Chhasiya

Jhalod Jhalod

13 17

96 96

Self-help groups under Watershed cont. S. Name of the Group Village No 36 Shakti Mahila Mandal Dhadhela 37 Chamundamata M. Mandal Goriya 38 Laxmimata Mahila Mandal Matava 39 Laxmimata Mahila Mandal Bazar 40 Ashish Mahila Mandal Dunliya-kiSher 41 Vikas Mahila Mandal Sallopat 42 Chetana Mahila Mandal Tarakiya 43 Gita Mahila Mandal Tarakiya 44 Laxmi Mahila Mandal Handi 45 Kamla Mahila Mandal Polapan 46 Pasvati Mahila Mandal Khuntagaliya 47 Sharda Mahila Mandal Manadunga r 48 Sharda Mahila Mandal Maska Kala Total

Taluka Limkheda Limkheda Dahod Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Kushalgad h

Members 20 13 25 20 20 23 14 20 25 15 24 21 28 1031

Est. 97 97 99 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 99 98 98

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B. Groups formed under the ILO programme S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Name of the Group Laxmi Mahila Mandal Mahakali Mahila Mandal Mahakali Mahila Mandal Kachumber Dev M. Mandal Baba Kachumber Dev. Mahila Mandal Khodiyar Mahila Mandal Sita Mahila Mandal Gita Mahila Mandal Mahakali Mahila Mandal Gayatri Mahila Mandal Huwan Mata M. Mandal Jagriti Mahila Mandal Hajod Mata Mahila Mandal Limda Mahila Mandal Jhalai Mata Mahila Mandal Mahakali Mahila Mandal Jeet Mahila Mandal Huwan Mata M. Mandal Sawan Mata Mahila Mandal Guru Govindji M. Mandal Ambe Mata Mahila Mandal Parvati Mahila Mandal Sawan Mata Mahila Mandal Sawan Mata Mahila Mandal Women’s Bank Total Village Tandi Tandi Kachumber Kachumber Kachumber Lilwathakur Bambela Bambela Bambela Bambela Sampoi Sampoi Sampoi Ghensva Ghensva Ghensva Mahudi Maghanisar Raniyar Enami Raniyar Enami Chanasar Chanasar Chanasar Chanasar Limdi Taluka Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Members 32 12 15 22 32 40 19 21 31 17 17 17 17 08 13 23 20 40 55 18 54 22 54 36 Federation 635 Est. 96 98 97 97 97 97 96 96 96 98 97 96 96 95 96 95 97 97 97 97 96 96 96 96 98

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C.Women income generation groups/ Handicrafts S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Name of the Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Women IGP Group Total Village Kharoda Kharoda Bavka Bavka Panchwada Panchwada Sahada Sahada Gungardi Gungardi Bhamatalai Bhamatalai Bhamatalai Ranapur Ranapur Chosala Chosala Pandadi Pandadi Bhutardi Bhutardi Gultora Moti Handi Kharedi Vagelao Chilakota Chandwana Taluka Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Zalod Zalod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Members 12 12 12 12 10 10 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 10 10 06 06 8 10 14 9 10 9 278 Est. 98 98 95 95 96 96 87 87 91 91 89 89 89 98 98 99 99 97 97 99 99 95 96 98 99 98 99

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D. Mahila Swashakti groups (exclusively savings and credit) Sr. Particular No 1 Jeet Mata mahila mandal 2 Khodiar Mata mahila mandal 3 Gayatri Mata mahila mandal 4 Parwati Mahila Mandal 5 Sita Mahila Mandal 6 Geeta Mahila Mandal 7 Chandila Mahila Mandal 8 Ambe ma Mahila Mandal 9 Mahakali mata Mahila Mandal 10 Durga ma mahila mandal 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Bhatiji Mahila Mandal Saraswati Mahila Mandal Santoshimata Mahila Mandal Wankalai mata Mahila mandal Jhalai Mata mahila mandal Varai mata mahila mandal Radhakrishna Mahila mandal Maha kali Mahila mandal Ambe ma Mahila mandal Sawan mata Mahila Mandal Grand Total Village Mahudi Mahudi Mahudi Sankarpura Sankarpura Sankarpura Dhavadiya Dhavadiya Dhavadiya Thuthikankasiya Kaligam Sarda Sarda Wankol Wankol Wankol Kheda Kheda Kheda Rajudiya Taluka Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Members 20 20 14 13 12 12 10 13 10 10 11 16 16 17 16 28 16 16 15 12 297 Est. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

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E. Forestry & Horticulture Cooperatives and Federations. Sr. Particular No. Horticulture Federations: 1 The Jhalod Taluka Mahila Bagayat Sahkari Mandali 2 The Dahod-Garbada Taluka Mahila Bagayat Sahakari Mandali 3 The Limkheda Taluka Mahila Bagayat Sahakari Mandali 4 Mahila Fal – Subji Utpadak Sahakari Samiti – Shivpura 5 Fatepura Taluka Mahila Bagayat Sahakari Mandali 6. Dhanpur Taluka Mahila Bagayat Sahakari Mandli. Total Village Taluka Members Est.

Federation Federation

Jhalod DahodGarbada Limkheda

138 124

98 98

Federation

392

98

Federation Federation Federation

Rajasthan Fatepura Dhanpur

72 35 150 911

98 00 00

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JFM cooperatives and VFIs Sr. Particular No. 1 The Sharda Van Ucherak Sahakari Mandali 2 The Matwa Vraksha Ucherak Sahakari Mandali Lim. 3 Navjivan Van Vikash Sahakari Mandali Lim. 4 The Kheda Sahakari Van Samiti 5 Mahudi Jangal Nirman – Gram vikash Sahakari Mandli 6 The Dharadungar Vraksha Ucherak Sahakari Mandali 7 Chhasiya Sahakari Van Samiti 8 Thuthi Kankasiya sahakari Van Samiti 9 Padatiya Sahakari Van Samiti 10 Balendiya sahakari Van Samiti 11 Chanasar Sahakari Van Samiti 12 Kotadakhurd Sahakari Van Samiti 13 Bawka Sahakari Van Samiti 14 Salapada Sahakari Van Samiti 15 Zari khurd Sahakari Van Samiti 16 Khunta Dalji Sahbhagi Van Suraksha Samiti 17 Badi zer Sahbhagi Van Suraksha Samiti 18 Nani zer Sahbhagi Van Suraksha Samiti 19 Chitathala Sahbhagi Van Suraksha Samiti 20 Shivpura Sahbhagi Van Suraksha Samiti 21 Panchmahuda Sahabhagi Van Suraksha Samiti

Village Sharada Matwa

Taluka Jhalod Dahod

Members 132 235

Est. 97 97

Dhadhela Kheda Mahudi

Limkheda Jhalod Jhalod

158 136 368

96 93 97

Dharadunga r Chhasiya Thuthikanka siya Padatiya Balendiya Chanasar

Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod

160 140 140 165 613 491 196 710 88 171 51 110 60 75 62 65

97 97 97 97 97 97 99 99 00 00 96 96 96 96 96 00

Kotda khurd Dahod Bawka Salapada Zari khurd Khunta dalji Badi zer Nani zer Chitathala Shivpura Panchmahu da Dahod Dahod Dahod Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan

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22 23 24 25 26

Sallopat Sahabhagi Van Suraksha Samiti Dungiyakiser Sahabhagi Van Suraksha Samiti Khunta galiya Sahbhagi Van Suraksha Samiti Bordabara Sahbhagi Van Suraksha Samiti Kharodi Sahabhagi Van Suraksha Samiti Total

Sallopat Dungiyakise r Khunta galiya Bordabara Kharodi

Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan

138 70 308 81 20 5323

00 00 00 98 00

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Women Horticulture groups Sr. Particular no 1 Women Horticulture Group 2 Women Horticulture Group 3 Women Horticulture Group 4 Women Horticulture Group 5 Women Horticulture Group 6 Women Horticulture Group 7 Women Horticulture Group 8 Women Horticulture Group 9 Women Horticulture Group 10 Women Horticulture Group 11 Women Horticulture Group 12 Women Horticulture Group 13 Women Horticulture Group 14 Women Horticulture Group 15 Women Horticulture Group 16 Women Horticulture Group 17 Women Horticulture Group 18 Women Horticulture Group 19 Women Horticulture Group 20 Women Horticulture Group 21 Women Horticulture Group 22 Women Horticulture Group 23 Women Horticulture Group 24 Women Horticulture Group 25 Women Horticulture Group 26 Women Horticulture Group 27 Women Horticulture Group Total

Village Jethpur Kadwal Sarmaria Dungri Jafarpura Shankarpura Lakhanpura Gangardi Pandadi Rojam Panchvada Nandva Mathwa Kalina Bharasada Amban Hamirpur Kharodi Shivpura Kharia Polapahan Randhikpur Kheria Chilakota Kesarpur Agara Motivav

Taluka Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat

Members 68 65 16 88 22 64 125 40 30 90 40 40 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 40 40 55 45 40 60 45 40 1323

Est. 99 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 99 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 99 99 99 00 00 00

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F. Lift Irrigation Cooperatives
Sr. L. I. Scheme 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. Shankerpura Kathla Vadbara-I Anas River Biyamali Chhayan Falia Rampura Shahada Ranapur Buzarg Navanagar Gamdi Gamla Khangela Matwa Hadmat Khunta Dantiya Raliyati Gujjar Gultora Chandwana Kadwal Bhitodi Vadbara-II Bambela Bhamatalai Gungardi Zari Buzarg Vanbhori-I Vanbhori-II Timbi Falia Moti Kharaj Bhima Godhra Limkheda Rawalikheda Dholakhakhra Taluka Jhalod Dahod Dahod Jhalod Jhalod Dahod Jhalod Dahod Dahod Limkheda Jhalod Dahod Dahod Dahod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Dahod Limkheda Dahod Dahod Jhalod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Jhalod Dahod Godhra Santrampur Limkheda Dahod Jhalod State Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat members 207 150 102 340 85 85 59 150 125 85 136 100 130 100 183 77 55 91 95 50 100 110 170 100 100 225 100 100 70 150 125 100 150 150 57 Year 77 77 77 80 82 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 86
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Sr. L. I. Scheme 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. Gundikheda Kheng Kalakhunt Masuriya Junapani Tanda Sabli Rajudia Kawali Semalpada Khedikhas Tanachhiya-I Tanachhiya-II Kheda Ambazaran Dadgarh Chosala Moti Ranapur Kakadkhila Gultora-II Dungapur & Mandavav Sabrala Chhotipitol Mandali Nathu Matasula Rakhadia Rachharda Dhamarda Mahudi Navapada Padatiya Falia Thunthu Kankasia Itawa Guwali Dab Talai Juna Gaon Kaliya Viran More Dungra

Taluka Dahod Jhalod Jhabua Jhabua Dahod Dahod Jhalod Jhalod Shahera Jhabua Jhabua Dahod Dahod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Dahod Limkheda Jhalod Dahod Dahod Jhabua Jhabua Jhabua Jhabua Dahod Dahod Jhalod Jhabua Jhalod Jhalod Dahod Jhabua Jhabua Jhabua Jhabua Jhabua

State Gujarat Gujarat M.P. M.P. Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat M.P. M.P. Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat M.P. M.P. M.P. M.P. Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat M.P. Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat M.P. M.P. M.P. M.P. M.P.

members 125 65 65 110 90 85 81 150 160 75 80 110 95 211 150 89 72 150 120 45 117 45 70 90 127 95 160 160 63 68 65 115 90 159 112 80 75 40

Year 88 88 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92
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Sr. L. I. Scheme 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. Zerjitgarh Balundia Falia Umradara Juna Chakalia Tarakiya Sallopat Sankli Anta (Reno.) Bhool Tandi Chanasar-I Chanasar-II Raniyar Kanbi Karanta Degawada Randhikpur Gamla-II Bharsada Undar (Reno.) Navagam Bambela-II Ghensva Sampoi Jetpur Bhandara-I Bhandara-II Gadhedia Kharedi (Reno.) Ekkalgarh Kachumber Falia Sharda-I Sharda-II Boriyala Kaliya Gota Kotadakhurd Raniyar Enami Dhabudi Vankol

Taluka Limkheda Jhalod Jhabua Jhalod Bagidora Bagidora Godhra Santrampur Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Lunawada Limkheda Limkheda Dahod Dahod Dahod Dahod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Limkheda Bagidora Bagidora Bagidora Dahod Sitamau Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Dahod Devgarh Baria Dahod Jhalod Limkheda Jhalod

State Gujarat Gujarat M.P. Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat M.P. Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat

members 117 75 45 48 69 52 45 106 108 241 89 105 200 90 45 80 45 169 88 119 105 80 25 25 35 90 135 75 54 32 170 72 50 100 73 73

Year 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95

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Sr. L. I. Scheme 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. Mota Dharola Polapan Jalimpura Dhalar Naganwat Nani Zari Nani Bandibar Chhaparwad Kharda Unchvaniya Nani Sanjeli Kharoda Lilwa Thakore-II Dudhiyadhara Lilwa Thakore-I Kaligam Waghnala Kesarpur Humadpur Chhayan Kalapipal Mundaheda Moti Zer Nani Zer Khundanirupa Munna Dungari Chitta Thala Orwad (Reno.) Tadagola Chanasar-III Shankerpura-II Chhasiya-I Chhasiya-II Kharoda-II Agawada Kheng-II Jetpur-II Chatka

Taluka Santrampur Bagidora Kushalgarh Bagidora Jhabua Devgarh Baria Limkheda Limkheda Limkheda Dahod Limkheda Dahod Jhalod Limkheda Jhalod Jhalod Limkheda Limkheda Limkheda Jhalod Jhalod Bagidora Bagidora Kushalgarh Bagidora Bagidora Godhra Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Dahod Dahod Jhalod Limkheda Jhalod

State Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan M.P. Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat

members 145 56 76 36 70 90 90 192 45 75 50 90 70 70 105 52 110 35 55 40 71 70 55 45 47 45 70 89 50 100 55 60 45 76 75 112 65

Year 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97

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Lift Irrigation Cooperatives cont.
Sr. L. I. Scheme 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. Rupakheda Rohaniya Tandi Badi-I Tandi Badi-II Sak Ghorwad Viraniya Rama Raniyar Enami-II Dhawadiya Nansalai (Reno.) Pipali Limodara Kheng-III Bocherda-I Bocherda-II Salon Sasawadla Khunta Kala Batanpura-I Batanpura-II Lilwa pokar Dhavadia-Bambela Dhavadia-II Dholakhakhra-II Amaliyat Nishnawat-I Nishnawat-II Maska mahudi Balasindoor-I Balasindoor-II Rawala falia (Chosala) Vanjharia Gamtal(Chosala) Amali Menpur Varod Simalia Mota padla Taluka Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Lunawada Devgarh Baria Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Limkheda Limkheda Dahod Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgadh Limkheda Limkheda Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod S'Rampur Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Kushalgarh Dahod Santrampur Dahod Santampur Jhalod Jhalod State Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajashtan Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat members 45 45 52 48 30 90 80 80 34 64 56 102 90 35 35 47 60 35 32 16 70 37 70 41 142 53 71 54 25 33 34 55 21 25 38 37 Year 97 97 97 97 97 97 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 00 00 00 00 00

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Lift Irrigation Cooperatives cont.
Sr. L. I. Scheme 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. Mota Sarnaiya Garadu Javeshi-I Javeshi-II Machelai-I Machelai-II Moti Dhadheli Chitrodia Therka-I Therka-II Total Taluka Santrampur Jhalod Santrampur Santrampur Limkeda Limkeda Santrampur Jhalod Jhalod Jhalod State Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat members 35 35 57 31 98 90 41 30 98 90 16,370 Year 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

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G. Watershed Associations:
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Particular Dhadhela Goriya Kotada Khurd Thuthi Chhasiya Dholakhakhara - Chatka Sharda - Gultora Tadagola Sarmariya - I Kokasa - Sarmariya - II Bavka Bharasda Kharoda Chhayan - Kalapipal Matva Hadmatkhunta Maghanisar Mahudi Harmatiya - I Harmatiya - II Tarakiya - I Tarakiya - II Tarakiya - III Tarakiya - IV Maskakhurd - I Maskakhurd - II Maskakhurd – III Maskakhurd – IV Maskakhurd – V Total Taluka State Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Members 283 320 357 288 172 290 260 255 210 310 182 286 412 313 287 512 276 398 280 350 97 308 260 448 668 389 8210 Est. 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 97 97 99 99 99 99 99 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98

i

The total number of village institutions were as per March 2000. The successive growth in number is not reflected in this document.
ii

Sadguru’s annual reports from 1995 to 2000 illustrates such examples where villagers have got together and formed their own groups around identified needs and approached the organisation for support.
iii iv

Refer to anexer on Village Institutions. As shared by ex-chairperson of Hadmatkhunta village.

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