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I would like to thank to all those with whom I worked and whose thoughts and insights helped me in increasing my knowledge and understanding of working in the organization. I would like to pay my sincere gratitude to MR. SUNIL SANDHU & all employees, my project guide, who helped me during the course of my training by providing his valuable suggestion, ideas and guidance which proved beneficial for completion of my project. Besides I would also thank to all the supervisors, Foreman and workers who helped me to understand the depth of my project, what they want out of the project. These people made me comfortable to understand the functioning of each machine & about the operation occuring on the machines. They tried their best to make me understand about the fixtures, tools and gauges used on the machine. These peoples never made me feel as a trainee in the department rather provide an atmosphere like a family and feel proud being the part of their through for short while. Without their help this project would never have taken its present form. In fact this project is the result of their vision, optimistic and encouraging attitude. In the end I would like to thank the ESCORTS AGRI MACHINERY GROUP for providing me with this brilliant opportunity to understand the working of an industry and developing my technical aptitude.


Industrial training now a days one & the only one method to make students familiar with the modern techniques, latest equipments & methods used in various industries. During industrial training, students visit to various companies and make themselves familiar with the practical aspect of the production method.

This training has provided and ultimate experience& opportunity to have practical knowledge which has increased my level of thinking and dealing with different kinds of people in all walks of life. It helps us a lot while appearing to the interviews. Industrial training in proves the theoretical and the practical concept of the student about engineering.

The well planned, properly executed & evaluated industrial training helps a lot in inculcating good work culture. It provides linkage between the students & the industries in order to develop and awareness of industrial approach to problem solving based on broad understanding of plant.


ESCORTS symbol holds more than meets the eye graphically. It has been prepared with certain objective in mind & symbolic in

more than one way. The philosophy behind ESCORTS & ESCORTS symbol is an enterprise. The hexagon is a symbol of precision when interpreted as a nut; it symbolizes craftsmanship & unending productivity. The spanner superimposed the hexagon represent the work and the people of ESCORTS. This forms the letter E the letter ESCORTS an ever on the move changing invading the future. E S C O R T S ENSURE INBUILT QUALITY SAVING ENERGY CALTIVATE SAFE HABITS OBSERVE PROCESS NORMS REDUCE WASTAGE TAKE CARE OF MACHINE STRIVE FOR EXCELLENCE

They hopes, aspirations, teamwork and sense of communication help ESCORTS to achieve what it is today, a good reason to work harder or a still better tomorrow.

Escorts came into being with a vision that was nurtured by MR. HARI NANDA and Late MR. YUDI NANDA. The foundation of ESCORTS Limited was laid in the formation of ESCORTS (agents) Ltd. On 17th October 1944 and of ESCORTS (Agriculture and machines) Ltd. in 1948. These two were later merged in 1953 to form ESCORTS Agents Pvt. Ltd. The companys incorporation in its present name ESCORTS Ltd. was effected on 19 th January 1960. Having initially started with a franchise with Westing House domestic appliance, it has come a long way in manufacturing and marketing a range of products. It has pioneered farm mechanization in India through import and distribution of agriculture tractors. The manufacturing operations commenced in 1954 and since then the following range of new products has been produced in the country.

YEAR 1961 1962

PRODUCT Escorts Tractors Railway Couplers &Shock Absorbers Automotive Absorbers Shock




1991 1996

Ford Tractors, Now manufactured under the name FARMTRAC Industrial & Construction Equipment Financial Services

COMPANY DIVISION Escorts Ltd. (Tractor Division) Escorts Railway Equipment Division Automotive Suspension Product (Engg. Division) Escorts Tractors Ltd.

LOCATION Faridabad Faridabad





Escorts Faridabad Construction & Equipment Ltd. Escorts Finance New Delhi Ltd. Disengagement of joint Escorts Farmtrac Faridabad venture With new div. Holland & launch of FARMTRAC Tractor Foundation of Tractor Carraro India Ltd. Pune Transmission Plant(J.V. Carraro Grp, Italy) Foundation of 3rd Escorts Ltd. Pune Tractor Plant

In todays competitive world with fast depleting material resource, and with all its limitations, it has become imperative to develop human resources and its effectiveness. The continued effectiveness and efficiency of an organization to some extent depend on the ability of its employees to produce at high levels of efficiency, and to keep abreast with role, which the job demands. Training should be a long terms investment in human resources which can be achieved by following the equation. Performance = Ability * Efficiency Training can have an impact of both these factors. It is a powerful tool that can have a major impact on the employees productivity and morale. The first and foremost activity concerned with this effort is to identify their training needs. The needs of the employees may very from department to department, from person to person and from organization to organization. The concept aims to meet an employees needs/goals with current or future opportunities with in organization and pertaining to changing environment of the industry. The activity recognizes the employees needs for advancement in his carrier and of better opportunities to use his talent. It appreciates the fact that employees should be trained for new technology. The organization may move into other areas, changing the type of skills necessary to do, Training of employees can be a fruitful means for the organization to increase its productivity, to sustain the existence of the organization in a better way and finally, to prepare them for the future.

Escorts Limited is all set to face the future by drawing on its 50 years of experience, its inherent strengths and a strong presence in the core sector providing complementary product line and a vast marketing network combining them with Indias intrinsic cost advantages to become a global source point for high value engineering products. In order to meet the challenges in the future and to leave an indelible mark on the industrial scenario, Escorts has restructured the group along six business lines, each headed by an independent CEO. The business groups are as follows:-

1. 2. 3. 4.

Agri- Machinery Group Construction-Equipment Automotive Ancillaries Financial Services

The flag ship of the ESCORTS group is ESCORTS LTD. In the work of MR. RAJAN NANDA, Chairman Escorts Ltd. In the last 50 years ESCORTS has been more than merely one of the INDIAS largest engineering companies. It has been a prime mover on the industrial front, at every stage introducing products & technologies that helped to take the country forward in key areas. Today as the nation engages in its most momentous economic transformation ever, we are once again adapting ourselves towards being catalyst for qualitative growth by engineering change with a global prospective.

THIS INFRASTRUCTURE COMPRISES: 23 Main Associates/subsidiary Companies 12 manufacturing Locations A full-fledged R&D facility Nearly 10,000 Employees 24 Regional marketing offices Nearly 500 Sales & Services Outlets 4 Financial Services Companies Asias best training institute of Farm Mechanization with 100 acre demonstration farm Escorts Dealer Development Association (EDDAL) Ltd. providing Management & Financial supports to dealers.


Escorts Agri Machinery group is one of the six strategic business units of Escorts group and the largest contributor to the group turn over. Escorts initiated its venture tractors with an assembly plant in 1961. The first agricultural tractors under the brand name of ESCORTS were produced in 1961. Following the collaboration with ford motor company, Escorts started another brand name to its portfolio the ford series of tractors in 1969. Following the disengagement agreed with FORD NEW HOLLAND, Ford was renamed as FARMTRAC in 1966 & was relaunched in Indian market. Escorts have made dent in exports as well as tapped the U.S. market in a significant way. Escorts is acquiring 49% equity in long manufacturing company based in north Carolina which is currently distributing its tractor, with over 5 lakhs tractor having been sold by company till date, every fourth tractor is a tractor from ESCORTS. Technology up gradation, product improvement, better services, wider distribution network & capacity expansion is the BUZZWORDS in ESCORTS AMG. ESCORTS with its two brands of FARMTRAC & ESCORTS TRACTORS are amongst Indias largest manufacturers of tractors in 25 to 50 HP range. The performance characteristics of ESCORTS AND FARMTRAC are unmatched AMG of ESCORTS limited is responsible for the marketing of both ESCORTS & FARMTRAC brands of tractors. The operational structure of AMG comprises of 4 regional & 19 area offices and functions on countrywide scale. Service and part personnel are responsible for promoting sales, extending services to the customer and ensuring availability of spare parts. Thus AMG continues to play its productive role on the farm front by putting more & more tractors at the service of Indian market.



E325 : 27 HP Diesel Engine, 2 cylinders, 6+2 sliding mesh transmission, shoe brakes, lower link sensing, color-white & auto glow. E335 : 35 HP Diesel Engine, 2 cylinders, 6+2 sliding mesh transmission, shoe brakes, lower sensing, color-white & auto glow. E340 : 40 HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinders, 6+2 or 10+2 sliding mesh transmission, dry disc brakes.


FT30 : 30HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 6+2 constant mesh transmission, Dry disc brakes, color-blue

FT35 : 35 HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, Dry disc brakes, color-blue FT45 : 42HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, Dry disc brakes, color-blue FT50 : 42HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, shoe brakes, color-blue FT55 : 47HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, Dry disc brakes, color-blue FT60 : 50HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, Dry disc brakes, color-blue FT70 : 60HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 12+12 partially synchroshuttle transmission, oil immersed brakes, color-blue


The various departments of the Tractor Machine Shop Plant-1 are as follows: 1. Gears and Shafts: The major components manufactured by Gears and Shafts division are: Engine Gears Transmission Gears and Shafts Differential Gears and Shafts Lever

2. Tool Room: The Tool Room caters to jig, fixtures, dies manufacturing etc. 3. Power house: The Power House has generators and compressors of varying capacities. 4. Heavy Castings: The components manufactured by Heavy Castings Division are 2 Cylinder Engine Block 3 Cylinder Engine Block Gear Box Housing Differential Housing

Escorts Plant-3 is engaged in assembly of various models of Escorts Tractors. It has the following shops: Engine Assembly Line Engine Testing Paint Shop Transmission Assembly Main Assembly Rear Line Front Line

Our project is concerning about manufacturing HYDRAULIC LIFT ARM (Serration Shaft). The various processes involved are:1) Facing & Centering 2) Rough Turning 3) Finish Turning 4) Drilling 5) Rolling 6) Hobbing 7) Welding 8) Green grinding 9) Induction hardening 10) Tempering 11) Straightening 12) Hard grinding 13) Hand work 14) Inspection


Facing & Centering

Facing is part of the turning process. It involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of rotation of the rotating work piece. This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide, if one is fitted, as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the work piece, and often the last- hence the phrase "ending up". This process is used for reducing length and smoothening the face. Tooling element :STD Self Centering Vice TGR-F-3951 PADS Swiveling Stopper STD Centre Drill DIA 5/16 inch STD Face Mill Cutter Centre Drill -1000rpm Face Mill Cutter -139rpm 1.5 min Centre Drill 500 components Face Mill Cutter 100 components STD Height gauge (0-500) TGR-G-9120 Centre Depth Checking Gauge 5.20/5.0

Cutting Tool Details Speed Cutting Time Tool Life Gauge Details


Rough Turning
When a great deal of stock is to be removed, you should take heavy cuts to complete the job in the least possible time. This is called rough turning. Select the proper tool for taking a heavy chip. The speed of the work and the amount of feed of the tool should be as great as the tool will stand. When you take a roughing cut on steel, cast iron, or any other metal that has a scale on its surface,be sure to set the tool deep enough to get under the scale in the first cut. Unless you do, the scaleon the metal will dull or break the point of the tool. Rough machine the work to almost the finished size; then take careful measurements.

Tooling element

:- clamping jaws MAS-317/24 Indexing plate MAS-317/9 Tool holder L-170-5-3225

Tool change frequency Feed Spindle speed Gauge details

:- 200 pcs per edge :- 0.28 mm/rev :- 800 rpm :- STD SNAP gauge 51.000.15 DIAL indicator L.C 0.01

Finish Turning
When you have rough turned the work to within about 1/32 inch of the finished size, take a finishing cut. A fine feed, the proper lubricant, and, above all, a keen-edged tool is necessary to produce a smooth finish. Measure carefully to be sure you are machining the work to the proper dimension. Stop the lathe when you take measurements if you must finish the work to close tolerances, be sure the work is not hot when you take the finish cut. If you turn the workpiece to exact size when it is hot, it will be undersize when it has cooled. Perhaps the most difficult operation in machine work is to make accurate measurements. So much depends on the accuracy of the work that you should make every effort to become proficient in the use of measuring instruments. Tooling element Cutting Tool Details Speed Feed Cutting Time Tool Life Gauge Details :::::::Soft Jaws TGR-F-9114 STD T-Max Tool Holder PDJNL-2525 750rpm 0.2mm/min 3.2 min 500 components STD SNAP gauge DIA 59.69/59.45

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the workpiece, which forms chips at the cutting edge.

Machine name Tooling element Cutting tool

Cutting speed

Feed Gauge Details

:- Radial drill machine :- quick change chuck and sleeve :- HSS drill dia 11.5 mm Counter drill dia 13 mm Tap 20 UNF-2B Reamer H11 :- HSS drill 580 rpm Counter drill 300 rpm Tap 180 rpm Reamer 180 rpm :- HSS drill 0.2mm/rev Counter drill 0.2mm/rev :- STD Threading gauge GO , NO GO for 20 UNF-2B thread Center distance gauge FTHL-G-9008

Hobbing uses a hobbing machine with two non-parallel spindles, one mounted with a blank workpiece and the other with the hob. The angle between the hob's spindle and the workpiece's spindle varies, depending on the type of product being produced. For example, if a spur gear is being produced, then the hob is angled equal to the helix angle of the hob; if a helical gear is being produced then the angle must be increase by the same amount as the helix angle of the helical gear. The two shafts are rotated at a proportional ratio, which determines the number of teeth on the blank; for example, if the gear ratio is 40:1 the hob rotates 40 times to each turn of the blank, which produces 40 teeth in the blank. Note that the previous example only holds true for a single threaded hob; if the hob has multiple threads then the speed ratio must be multiplied by the number of threads on the hob. The hob is then fed up into workpiece until the correct tooth depth is obtained. Finally the hob is fed into the workpiece parallel to the blank's axis of rotation. Up to five teeth can be cut into the workpiece at the same time. Oftentimes multiple gears are cut at the same time. For larger gears the blank is usually gashed to the rough shape to make hobbing easier

. Tooling Element Cutting Tool Details Gauge Details :::Job Carrier HOB Cutter OUTSIDE MICROMETER 50-75 mm L.C- 0.01 DIAL indicator L.C 0.01 CONCENTICIT BENCH

Tooling Element :STD Collet for clamping ALT. for Hobbing STD Grob Rool HOB Cutter 2 min Outside Micrometer 50-75mm Least count - 0.01mm FTHL-G-9030 Serration Ring Gauge Go

Cutting Tool Details


Cutting Time Gauge Details


The arc welding makes arcs between a material and a welding rod. And it is a well used welding method. In the arc welding, we use a torch with a welding rod as shown in Figure 1. And both of the material and the welding rod are meant in the arc. The arc welding is very high speed, and if the welding is very well, the strength is very high. But the arc is very light, then we cannot see the welding processes. All weldings, including the arc welding, need higher technique than cutting processings, because we do not have the same conditions. Welding is done on one spline corner on both sides 46 splines 53 splines

Grinding practice is a large and diverse area of toolmaking. It can produce very fine finishes and very accurate dimensions; yet in mass production contexts it can also rough out large volumes of metal quite rapidly. It is usually better suited to the machining of very hard materials than is "regular" machining (that is, cutting larger chips with cuttin tools such as tool bits or milling cutters), and until recent decades it was the only practical way to machine such materials as hardened steels. Compared to "regular" machining, it is usually better suited to taking very shallow cuts, such as reducing a shaft's diameter by half a thousand of an inch (thou).(1 thou == 25 um) Technically, grinding is a subset of cutting, as grinding is a true metal cutting process. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a tiny chip that is analogous to what would conventionally be called a "cut" chip (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, etc.). However, among people who work in the machining fields, the term cutting is often understood to refer to the macroscopic cutting operations, and grinding is often mentally categorized as a "separate" process. This is why the terms are usually used in contradistinction in shop-floor practice, even though technically grinding is a subset of cutting.

Tooling element Speed Cutting tool

:- Grinding abrasive wheel :- 39 and 220 rpm :- Pneumatic grinder

Hardening & Tempering

Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals, alloys and glass. tempering is done to "toughen" the metal by transforming brittle martensite or bainite into a combination of ferrite and cementite. Precipitation hardening alloys, like many grades of aluminum and superalloys, are tempered to precipitate intermetallic particles which strengthen the metal. Tempering is accomplished by a controlled reheating of the work piece to a temperature below its lower critical temperature. The brittle martensite becomes tough and ductile after it is tempered. Carbon atoms were trapped in the austenite when it was rapidly cooled, typically by oil or water quenching, forming the martensite. The martensite becomes strong after being tempered because when reheated, the microstructure can rearrange and the carbon atoms can diffuse out of the distorted body-centred-tetragonal (BCT) structure. After the carbon diffuses, the result is nearly pure ferrite with body-centred structure. In metallurgy, there is always a trade-off between strength and ductility. Precise control of time and temperature during the tempering process are critical to achieve a metal with well balanced mechanical properties. Power Pre-Heating Time Feed Rate Quench dwell time Speed :::::220-244 V 1.4 sec 9mm/sec (53 spline gauge) 32 sec 80 rpm


Gauge details