CH.. AP1~'ER

o .'


wn i·rTl··~


_l!; MD'

CIt)M iF.'1::t".·EID ~~"[






CHl"CAGO \N. DI.ETZ. P'l:~n LI 51-3Ell.


of Pigeons

~iflId Trea f.ml~iIl·~ •

a p,igcoll~ an (1 ; n(1r~ ate that a p~g~CO:Jfl ~'n good c lli:.':<rl h'h :f a ~1I til r~dty condi fiOl'ii d :ii:5 a '~V;[J Y Ol1:IHrj,~,C ti ve ] h1'!!'~11. 3-Yence, whenever ~, p,.~~cor~ is. sick ~'lfo'ln some d~sa rrungclLnc:n t of its, ~ ibrcs [~on d,'II.] to 'IUiLptoo:pe-t' Iocd ~ e o r 'if,~~f':.J g~ or be ca use 0 i .SOl,~] ! oUter ex t'cnl~'ll (:a:tl,s~. in C '~'l wi ~[ becom e du m pi sh or liS~]ess in ~ts action s~ will ~h(}w loss of appet D'tC and h :l],dd. ~,ei L dC. mp ~11 ,a. COT n'G:r ~ It ll'i!~H be our purpose now to t['y and explain the ]'~lt'er[J'fetatlon of diseases that Ul:ay b the rcsnlt o:E

.1n the .~orcgo:~ng chapters ] have tried to show thif..!: cL hi aJr8JC t eris t'§c~ :a'l]od f ill r~ ion S of ct th~ Qt~,aril s and parts

fill; s:tl~l,a'l:] ge]]1 a

in g to the
'H;F,1 ....

th e r exter [l..i]J c<tuses, Th e dis'f!~£1 es 11,f p ~,['I!on aa.lre best clas si fied g.


O~· o

01' gam 01"

sys tern oj ~.r ga ns aM ected, ~nd th'l1 S



vilH consider d ass ifi c:;;I.'~ '"; ion


g~,vt:~ '~t~ 'tl~~ £od[j!"lfV"~l1~

1\, Diseases of the respiratory system, which in('btd~ s c.olds. c atarra h. h ron ~h Ia.,~ trr: ub]e~~ ~nd hi ni{

B. Disc a S{>~ of. t h 6 djgcs t i'V e: fi'y 5.t em, inc h~diilg t h (~ C [Up. stomach r ; JiI.te~i nes, ;:;J,11l1 the livef'. t d

C. ]Jisea:.;es, off' the u ~'ilJ~,ry system, or kidney troubles, ~ ~".-.~ .....,.-.!<. ]<). I"CprOd:t.1C t; 0 U] ~ in !C'I udiu ~ hT)je~~~J . e 4"'",."".' '"" ' e,g sofe s11 led or hard shetled eggs~ and uggc)
~.' ,1.,." ••




E, l~i8('!aSC5 of the ve it' ti go"


~y. tem,



:F" DU~e:.fiSiCS· of con: ~JtiUti(riJi,[JJ~. ,v~~'knet:is~ s1i~h cancer, a.'trd gOl:rtg ]:~,g'ht.


te rna

l)~:scaJse::l if exterual ~ IL~.i.lra i::! ~ t cs,


such as [iec, ,~n;d ex-

As pigeons in fheir wild state

rnl~iI';:1Jt,c more


w'hh air PC!JSS:1tgc ur lUl1g di:ita.Rcs_ C.aJti31,r..[all.-r\ ~,!g,con ':'11'1.]1 take (it cold just as a 'hab aiigh t, \..·h'h the fCgU,U that it \',,l'iH ha ve ]n:fJlal1llnation of tlre lUiJUC'(1I'l.L. Illl :ni~lr.a'rlC· l~n;n~ the nose, the parynA
c ;

as the !SC a ~OJ]] So ell a rD g-e.t going' sou th to f;JJ W a L~nl ~ c di:rn~l'~e in winter, and n;tt:urn~ng north hl summer t~~ rrC'prroducc:: 21ril,d as ~11 y ~ Vii: 3.11 ext n:1Jord ima rr ]U If].g {' ~a C:;J; pacity, lor :111,11 all irn ai nf th e'~'~- i 7. e, as ba b Ccn s shown, ~t: is to be expected t'llafr ~5 LIley H]'u:h.Tg(1 f~()mesticatlon anrl remain hi one place frnnL ouc season tu a:notber.. that they wi~l he t ouble ~ COt~:IJ~i~d'l:']"a[)'ly

'IJ.~J;; nne r

11ostJ.";\s (I!.nd more or ~ng ,rj'llI,e, to d~,e. eb.... frn~lct;an and throat,








fI;ffir.'L.lhv of breath-




'n lled

1,l?; th

D 1!", _ler~a,.-II:-"n" g~i;1(1:~sa'r.r. a ]_ ·]P,liit I .' _:0 hrotl(::h~~.lb-ottbl;[:' wbiell 15 ((.Dl:lIHl1

a :ri'6ing temperature or fever, " 'Eh:',lOliUih itls 6r RQup.-Ih: undO. L S 'I~ .H rt in fl am rnati tion of t'h,' tubes ]ca,~'iing' frorn: ~~le l~~ngs to the exted (H':. This is a more deep seated, trouble ~~~H simpIc, eftt:;u i[:a,h, 'I "h e'fe is il di S~ h r.~e f rum ~~uth tlile nos (' (L'nd, 'th e t h rca ~~ and Ul ere is a, N1I:;lj tle ~~.~ nth e breathing process, caused by U~(':bronchi being Hlled with foreign secretions 'i."{b~ch the hurd 11~s. h~1Jl unable to dl;s!E'hargc. '

SU'[trpic catarrah

·\\·h~,d,l have .111 ~.U err., am c~ ch old.'~l.,[Efth C nostrila

the nostrils,

.;:3' 110~ accompanied


Sl'Ill'L)']![;C t ';::(1,

1~ •.


called diphth .... fic roup. Th~5 U. caused similar to brouchiti . hut rrhej~1.,.': ~re111S '[C 'bot:': ryuesi d h flJ' ,b.:.f,\ rl of ~h e fore ig n disch ar ge it sccrerior •.

to a




t he bi nj :;o:;.h011ld [J (! ~p'l",'lcet~~n a wa rmcr 'WJ~ 11~ OF(' J-~:rO~ec t l' (1 Fi ~O.m . T here ~,B"{,- t \" ,n th in;;;rs to do: . J) 'To ~,pp~_ local [i~ntn!l~nt, oil or ~a~ye to {~'i5illf.C<lGl arrrl clty 1t1)) tht:' passage, au 1 .:q to furnish stimulat~Ill~ and ~asi~y d~g·t~~~:ted :(t,1(ul to built] up the systen so - as to 'W. Lrd off f u U 1re *t tta c 1; s. .1r;l.f ~,c:l th c r...rt a 'T;;!t11. r i", ~ lrno :o:.~ iJU lie tn b c caused by tln ~~ Lack t.f exerc 1:51(" ~I,r the lltil'll,g passage $'I,IH.:h~:1;;:I! F~]g~()1i would gf~'[ ~£ alll~ f",~r'C 1 to. take its r~giIJLl:r morning Hy -every day of t'1~C' year, r~:lld t1l13 ~~5'P~~(l"'i,:("t~ by the fact that ]fa.dn~ i-Hgcnr~~ which arc 111 trumrng ~h", ~ !i: ..:H" round Zt1fC han-r~r ("vei" hQthercd by such troubles, T ~ prevetu 01' treat carnrrah the L~O']"JnHJ'~H]:8tWEliY ,~~ 1[(1 pu t SClnH~ 'Ir(}t~ rvme dy r r penn a n ~ ana t c' 01' po t~l:~;t1 p i~l,hc rlrinkiug water. J u~t enough to 'tILtni1 the war ter ::!i ~~g-ht rO$C lttdl. This is not all :aJ)sohue :p\t~ventative. but "... surely prc v ent thu~ spread of Ui-ue -ill d~$~::ls~ by your ·pugc(J,ns tU::i,r~~g i:~ C.G...TrnmOn drll'"[j.k;~n; fo 1;:1,"] tai u, .rile per rna n,gam ate se rvas ,a8 a giP.'l.-~.n ~cidc '1 ~_~~d be sufneient f r ~~'~mild cases, For ruorcscvcre en es you will have to !lJS!G '[O'~"'L] t rca ~:nL{;'11 n iii ~1 f: or t hi 5 ~, ,go~<!lV]a ~ is ~ pi t'tt ,m: U:IiOJJ t II o or kcro ...;enc ifhJi"'i,'irn ~'L'C'h nO:ilT~J by using a 'nn(~cl.;C'in~ drnpper (!,un 1101d~'Hg-tht": head bM.~k until fllH~ JJj] enrers Hie j'~LJ. c. Th:j'. ~s.;a, p'reUy severe tratrnent. i\ milder f rrn \Y~ ~i!:~~d to 1.:L C 1 -pc'a' cent menthol in ~c
e: h J. ![1g~~




0;1 or in

~111,i1 ~

e a e 'I,l1~L.·,.


~W~>I;;';t '1;'I,'~11

oi I. i\.'F'P~:r this the . arne as bLkll,: several aJ'D'~lic~tion:s te

,to fh i:_;;. t1f 'a tmeut t'll e fJ~~eO'r~ "h('~111c~he r'd ~ nourishi tlg- .i,("ed, Dry 'brei!l{~soaked IU U rlTl"~Ik ~~ tIi] ~ rn ~~;:.I ~~curi sh itru §: I f t here :i s a 105;5" 1)£ III II ~~p'Ct;.1.{! ynu Sl:l.~l~]~~ gh-c s-( I'tll~' 1"1-rm n'6, condition

~.b 8l (1.1.'1, U ion ~

powder, ~~f which there :i;l'n~ rnan;r available, ~['he&. WI1'{:p:arat~'i Ufo can u~'~ud~T he purchased a:s: fo.":he:fii.pl_",



from] snppl y h ouses as .y L.'L em 11 buy the drug ~ trOH'L I: he dru ~g-is t 'to 11] 1 x. v curse lf, ~ n t fOT" th (:; benefit err

1~110s~ \,\I~:!~


'~~kc;t.CI try the hHM:~r whrch shonld b,e beneficial ~




gi~'~ a

.N Carh"na;tt.· '1~ ~n ~II l !;L:~~ Lioi:ut ruut.; .__..
C~yel1"U'IrC pt] ~~ r -.---. II..:;


. _.__ _


'i dr.iil( ~'HU~ .·1 ~Iir.'iol..:.ln:n:!o

~h aclnu

F~l~ ... of sulphur ---.--.-ver
]1}lH of sodium

._ ...


. . _.

~ S~iJicrr~ltc: (If


••. _..__

. I drachm u drachm

.! dri),cl1Jn~5

'The pur~n: It of thi~ cornp H usl is tu mid ('~~gcstiO'L un.l I nihl 1111i.H~ appeti ee. Treatment for BiL"'on(;hi:t:~s.~_\,S 'lh is [hull,I,LI.:' L lower down in. th~ Hy.:'le:'1H i' will rcqui re more car u. The t rcatment s h t ul i IH.: ~'hl[JJ~ 1- t 13 ca t"l ["[ ah a lTi <t ; ~l ad d i~~ t ~:Olll. to th is ITJ_HI_\~ he gi. vc n ~~YCr y eTCH hii.g ~L (;ot~,P'h.:: of uncture ~J·f aconite pills, procurable at a ~~nD.gg~$t. nr nhc'rC' is (;O'B~l~~.~atFon it """0111£1 ~JP beneficial to
'~n.to g].''''T~

should IJc ~til uruug{hly pulvc: ized, fi~ix-t"tL loge t~lI e r ~l:Jld gi YC1.1. in rw IJ ,J'r[t iH l~ Q,:: t:"~ per ill a y. i't c(! r~ he mixed 'vl:~~b ;1 little bUrIJ{_")~ lJl~ mnlasses and mould-



h,aH a "",~ol]).ilJlf[ll~ of castor

a dnse

L.::01~ Sti'~lg' fl

~d Uv e d 'n)PS


Ht'q '1;.:1"1 t ine


o~L Th~~ is H·{,_{)&l.llncnd,~~

hY' Ur. ~ahn()B
h Ii:' neficial


'P{ 11.hfY



be cquallv

fo r ~} i,_g-l'o.ll1.;'\.

If you have no-~:used Bl. gernll icide in the rJri~lik:ing water i'~ is pretty certain that some of the flock 'VI~~ 'I... "1]" 1"~· t'l' , uc taken '\,\.TILu ~,(, rOl1p!flr camccr, '. nn!l l~c:a::;.t marnfests 1tself b.y a b·a,'~ . fiil.e1'~ing~chees.!" forll1.1afion ap]~ali£~]g:in rhe mouth, nostril or eye . of rh . pigro.1i ..
'11 •



by th~

vessel :15 a bird \\"1rh ":';i!tIafrahm~ bron{'~h~ti,.;_ As ~h~Si. ~~ unth:m.htedl"!,~ a d'es"E:,;,1$( of the blood there ;~ ~J.''1t m uch .... hope of saving the bird, or, at '~e.:I.:S~" Ltililgjng :Et. back ~c ~ SQILUlj.(~ 'hreed·in.g condition. Hence. unless the speeim;C!l it ~ verv val uable one. it would be cheaper a11£1 better to dCi~t:rG:P'" it, T:reabnent.-·~'n treat roup you 'tan only t1~r to
,p~,~~,H_M] f[il)IiH

by drinking'

it is


n:~sll.lJ~~· a flf

'l'n c


taken up


1'7i'~ GEON


"cbeesv " formati- m. The h.l:sJ way '~"O lo d~l!3 is ~'O ~!~)tH~en the ~~~11~rll:. cn,d of:' ~ mate h or tooth pick and &u,~~ i~ into some ]Jo\,vd ere 1 sl'~'ll'h::llt'e of copper, 'Touch t]"I,f' l';;L~'1:Saifh;cteci 'i."L-l'nh EllJ~~~ 11d ~ all (HY th E' bircl to rt"~t fOf ~IJ ~ll hour or t wo, The coppel' \\~U~ trLlrn the 811 rface of: the maU,e'f." and after a.

hours ~~otiJ can e]lturc'~y remove :I~ ~r~Ul a toothpick. O~' C(IUfSlL!: - ~J~ such l;l1.:r,J,ttc~1.i' should be ~hro\'I .u '~n th~ 8bl'v ..-~ ~JJIHI, b!JJrnllCd~ f' pccji'tl],Y' if y(fi'~l . have other 10'... or pig'Con~ fH"LU~l1d. 0'[ fh.;y rnay con,,;15 couple

u..act {he. di~.pil5e 'i1LI~o,. A i:'~-,crthe r'f:"11'loY.al of t:11b5 external f cam th(:w~iI i,"!,.te th~.: pellets g as rccommcuded



under the

hearl ()'~t'"i1i1:;:1irr,nlll. 1~1j'~amm,~'t ion

o.f the


]?~geons ah:.Q eHrilh-~~I.il::t 'Jlnfhunrna~~iLruleli Ith.!!.: hUlg,~ cause ~ 'ti)y un u ua 1 ex [05UrE: ['0 col d a ad da:tllp

~vc~thcrJ especially

is this :~iabh~ 'Ito happen

to birds

There U~ not much tbat C.i:~n be done for 'Di:~eon.s "in t ~is condi tion as it ca us (".5 th cir deat h ViC PI''' T"aJ,R~fm;It. ~ and L"xph~il'Js<lvlll.~f you, 50met~~TIe'S 'find []],f..;~:c] hir li;;; iTJ. your lnft O~] cold winter mernlngs. They .(t~ed of ]'~:!lng C 0 ng{·$'~~or.i "\,d:nic h 'they took dur iIII,g t 11e night E:mp!hy~eUH~ .• a disease ~~~'I!llrt:;~llg:[,[,(l'ril1. au 'w[Jjury [0 an ni r ]"CCI!:~ t acle iNh ic \1 are ,Ioes te d. fI'~] '·~i:r1~~ part ~, 0:[ 5 the b[)(~y. more efped:aUy On the sides of the neck, or 0]1 []ju~W~Ii]g~. ,A p"'lffi~g of the skin takes p"]a,ce_ "'rh 1JR ru lg]T~: he cau ..cd :;IJ'~ 50 fir a gUil shot \vO i:~ ud, Tf~.a t'[nen~,-t\ out ~J~ you ea ~1 do i?l tc p r;:ck UII It b .... W['H~:Llg· tissue '\iI.,hh a da~rn;rii~r lJit:cdle wheeh has been rru'p'pc-d in .n carbolieed solution. [:.t'e~'C<l.t ijr: the .$rr!1::]'1~ T'his

confined ~n small qlJ;iJarH~rSi "whicb c Iba ~lHX' to ra kc p r~ p,cr exercise,



;rii~ does not d~$.,appe,;;L'r.

C]-11\ PT El\


,0 iseases of the

D ~g'e:s. ive S:r stem. t

S,o:ux C.rop .--Pigeo]1 ~ a re seld O,f11 i(.1~(lip''h 00 n d 1ike poultry as 'they do not ()[tC'~] g~t ~ gtlocl chance: to eat grass which stops the C:X~'1 of 'the' C'li©.PJ but they of'tem do h tLV'ii::' 50U:[ crop, '1'"'"111£].:i c a i151[:;d by .ea t ~n:g

Tr'eiument,,-Th,c best treatmci rL: is tc- remove U~e cause ; that 1:5, Iee ~ whole, ;:;;OUI,nd~ !1nd p(!il:ugllJ~d ~rahlJ. ~ '0 not ~~J I~\,,· g'[",~ to 1 y .oi'~ the d amp :[loDr f rom one ~~~ a feed'~fllg t;nl, to another, There is r:Jot much else );,-q~'t' ca 111 do ~Ul~ t h]:s t rouh 1e ~ and if rom s:kip o:[l:e nil fl;illila rl(~ then ghrc the hh~~1 only SQ'~HH.l ~r,tlJin -there is BO~ mueh to he Iearcd, If th c fu ~rd h ~Is ba d acce ss [Q broken ~'n,arcoal or a ~~grch" containiug tile same, it "',:'H~r loc tor itseH,. I-:lo\\"i:ve'~-" should JlOU 'l\"~sJ') tQ gh.;;,e _ ~~p~U t:l1] x equ a 1 p~~ of .Pr.~ rts wder ed -eha ire Cia1 a)lcl mustard and make rt pin about the size ~Jf a p'em. B.nd .giwe lui,gh.t ani1 n~OfnJng.

mou ~,d'y ,~T a~ nor

so l'l. r 'food.

1'11c medical name .fO:I~ this tru'Lub:~e ~s' ~~strCl-imte::;;tine catarrah or gastro en tcritis, and :;r~it the stomach ~riid th t,~ tnt .. 't~ille~ ~:r~ both ~,f.fec'ted. 'TIt is. n ~ d(fll1bt. e an se d by s imil a r c h an gcs Ill'" d ima tJ ~ e f.i iltdU ion s t those "'..h ich ca TIlse e ~rh. nm~~t~'r:d ttll! nostri Is. and n1,~,lb~ brough [ em by ~)n.'rft"f:d:i"'lJgin ~b('-f~,U h~~ the har b,~ untnrc 'CRll~'~n:gi~; to take ,.:1]1' ~nO['f! food th[Hii at C~JlI properly .1fiS'~~Hibl.h~ its cudcavor to 'priflCtn'(!:.. f~1re h11 ~:l"c("f,~a'!i'Y heat units to '[';:~("P its body warm. Th t: !:'lJ nl'~~I'~~~ a re ... loss {I,f: Bl,P I~ctiee, rough ness ~il1I of ~~~U 11~;'lg. iii nd ~ d ~ 0511 ~Ot1 t 13 ~lflo V e. There 1~ sp 1:.51 n doubt Umt aU p~g~OHS \"v hich an! f(:_(1 l'JIS hand ,r}nly I ~H.C{, .ru 11,~' lc l· ;"! {b Y Vi:'~ ex h] b it Sf! I"H~ n:f th ('~~'";; rU'I~II ; -y ~

'lO~,1i1~ alter

the walls di sreuded

wi]] be Ireqncnt ~~.. .rpulsjens j. h. or glr[,cli1'~shexcretmcur.

::.'~n\'I"'I,y." "\V·ho.,;n the b~rd 'has true

n~ the crop bll.::cooue more than crdinarily ~~nd they become parti'lHy [p,ar(;!.1y_zed and




b;.:rd!2 cat 1!~,cf1lttlfuU~\" cntcri

of sort whitish,



which l!" ;~Tu'bL't~ug: to lh~; danca. and to the 1:1~]g'hb()F~ng pans" The dropping$ g;ra d u al J.y be eo me ~n0 re 1iq Hid '1!:1JJ1t ~ ~ "S e "'" rc d ia rr he n e ~~~ts'~~l.. Iu t he b,tliJ.:.·_r ~tage~. the cloaca becomes inHam ed an (;~.I: h e i"e~ th.tors ~nr (("II[] flJd l.'~lJg it b ecorue rna t-_, 'Tr~~atment~" -~ij~f' thai the drunkin~ 'vClt~r is T;}~lIrtl', and it would lIt! beneficial to 'p;~tt ;a l1'~'[I~... nneal or a ~khrif, m~Jk in 'it. ~~ixe th~ bird a leaspouBiu.l of olive ~1 as ~ laxative tu C<l.l,TY if any ;rrH;iJt;ng' matters. an~l ,f.oHn\\' \\.+th % gnlin C If h,icad~l.)lli,iIllc:: ,~)( :!oofhl. and 1 grain of suhnitrutc of hixruuth ~Fl a :I ~uh~ water, three times a elav,

te I with



Of cou rs e... '~i the {~ip'~1;\"e trouble ~s ~~u,e t~ ::-;O~I,[!' ~ fnod. it shrruh~ y~ch! to 1I~1.'".tI me t eaimcnt ~~s.rec. i11Tl111{-,,1]dcd Cor ::o.Otlr CJ'"-fjl.l'-

Co nst ipa-ti.Ofi.
be caused Is


t roil b lerl

'~'Y ,d'~~,·! . trh)g',eIH f(lod, nr it Inay ~ In; lrritatir n if the mncous membrane.

1,\.; t II

C st ipft Otl



"to gat"ltrlti&


permit 'tbt: bird tf take more exercise.

ing water, a 'i8l1~~e~pocmJu] tu a g~Hol!l. ur

rhev ''i,~alk with di fficult 'I:. Tre'aJm~n.-P~ a c e some Ii.! ~;sorn 5~1~s t

'I".;'~th the add]Hon~~J

t; Q ~1

ex h'u L~ t


m~ r b


~0 fhe

ri [~fIJ 1{,...atcr, aud

.A .sl,iIH~l feeder will s;~]doal b,c troubled d i,gcs ~iV'L t ro [U b I(.";~, Goirllg Light (Asth~Jli,a,]"

'This 'is .J trouble oft!l.:,tlI found in p;g'\?ons. e~'I)er.:i:.amy ;~i] tdl~ very _l,.-ou~~g and the ,,"(!'rT old specimen .., r~is r~ f'~ONb1' d~t!l." ~.... scuuc !En.jJ. [lt~~bmal wc~k]'il~'.s~ which -



there hl :al"''I,'0:Ys the p'robab~]~~y :t.hiat ~/uch b'ird:s ,:vi'l~ again 't ~b'kC the disease and t.ha:~ t hcv \V~]] trans mi ti t hji dvei'r r roge:l:ly. I11ence it];$, d euhtful rf :ut pays to try 'to d ector su eJl Sp~'CiID.1(,:[~ (ltj ld as t~'!!.e:i exc reta is s, r l~~b 1e to sp read 'the I[~:i$e !l::h,ey sh GlU Id, 'b e d:estr:oyed tr£e ;aod. the place where 'they were thoroughly di~tifi'[If',,1i(:'!idl_

causes the bird lo be veqr 5ttscq]i'~i'~~c to dlg~sHve trouble, ~[1dl th:~~results ill a chronic coadition, Or. (O'I1'U'i'S'C~ when -a appears. iti s 01J1filg. b irds it '~t:I,ay be overcom e by care hod treatrn ent an d f eedin g ; but

SOIn~ recent l''ilvcstigat.ons ,conduct~d hy Dr. A. \V. Th C] mas a nd p:ri lIlJ'ted. at length in Pigeons .& Pi~on Flyh'iJ:!5\ ).lli.'l,)' lllPf, traced this (rU'Se~lse i=Ii. parasite to '!.vlfl,:uclIiattached it~df to the' large intestine, and '~h,a:~ 'i"~ not ern]y robbed the bird of: the IH1:il:r~.1thH~ value of: its rood~ causi ng i't to 105~ "'lIeigb t, altho,'IJ:Lglh well fed.. ~ but ~t further irritated the bird 'hr)" !tal1~d~lI,g ill'f.i,.alr:!lil,rnation l,V ith in the b cn-iif!.l its dI f 'thereb y Zligg~:ieva, ing the t weakened I'; ond itioa, Other authors ,da;UI11 ;t· ;.3 I:=tf~'~Y due to young ~';.:rd,8 ta.khn,g into tli],~ir systems impurities by eating f©.od soiled ,!;"if itb exc ret-a. Thi s i8 possible, a n c1 b,y such .m cans the Iar vae of these interua L para $] 'res as deI


sc [LU bed by 1)[".. Th

t'l'~ :i.'L1J1d~n turn, dev 11::] op and e·al'll se tlfl[fR.]b] 'e. rd i Tlie,a;tm,e:t}t.-F~rst, th e specl men should be ~r.e:'Inoverl to a sanitary place 31]d be allowed '\VateF to ,]'ru'llk. but no food .. until the e;ro:p J,S en~,ptie:d_ :u the bird is ",'cry "'L\·t·~'k. :ut 'ii'i.'im hal e to he f~~d by hand and sue h Iood sh ()1,'U 1d be easily digested. Perhaps til e best 1;3 stale fu re~]d soaked j ~iI- fr.esh. m ~ ~k, 'DofiJ:I't .~~,V~ too in 'U ch,. .f\ Iter ~ as til e hlrrl ~ )UfH'(1 ve ~ soaked :p eas 1 and 1:'; cc C ~.t:i ~ e gL"en. Dr. Tresidder, an .Eng]isb :m.l11lhQrity. recommends :f:L p I~~ c{.. mpcse G"~ ~:o:i f{l~] O'li"l~, he "g'tven th re e '~ir;n(~s~
GJ:~ S ili ,CIf]


to be hatched

0 H'l,a~



\"j!]'th~n the ,jJmt~stina,~':t:ra:l.;,t

be. ~i:ve'~'D~.~l eppor-

I9JY :



Extract of bel ladorma, Ca psic um, g'it ain 1/BO.
• ~_ =-

Resr~i1 of phodyphillm,



gr~Jln ~,

gra,;n }'Sgnl-U n


Strycbni!ll~,.. grain, '1/'""0.

'pO'w~e r~cl [e~,l1 tian .8; nd gJnger ~of eac b 'Jl d raeh ~n ;pCFWd'e red sulpha te 0 f ; ron; 1.') gra ins. ~lix thoro Il:I,gbJy an d :ilmaJ!;;;cirnto 200 riH s an d g~.ve one pi]] twice a day.

~,s me dj.dna L age n.ts ,E0 remove t hi e ca usc by pUl'"ga:hoitl L1Se Cas tor en] ~n, tea spoon ful doses. .t"\ftCf :p'llrgat~all1 use ~ stirJIut];J.ting 'Laure. and the f01l0~Ni'[jJg' ha s b,e:e'H reccm mended by' Dr, Salmon ; Powd ~:I!'ed, [[c.onel, anise, coriand ~If seed ~ cinchona each BO grains.;


exercise ant .;j,uhject 'to liver trouble, 'which is indicated by tlhe 'huddled up. app{:~l.'r:a:rlce erf the bi d, 'trLlrt ~1I.10I'e ticularly by ~, fl['Qthim,gAof the moisture in pa t he droppin g~" I u the ad vanced ;5 ta,~,a~one wi ng w ·11 of te n drop an d Ihe bini a ppe.a.f' to walk ] op-sided, T..t~atm~t.-S~,c t h ~t the !food makes ,;'1 nFcrpil.~dY' b,alalii eed . ra fLm:il. The :foHcn,,·irllg tto n i c pin 1S sa~ d. to be v ~rY' be 11 eficial ill su ch cases ~Tak e 'p'UJ ve rized IC:m.'P.; :s.ici i; J d't~dnTil,; pepsin, ,~' drachm ~ pyre, phos, iron, ] drachm ~ quinine, lj grains j' ex ract of g-eulti.;).n, B'l..rflicient fo]" 6.0 p~nSn Give two every twelve hours,

Pi geons which

ha yeo not b een abl{~ to ~{~t a proper

,P',altty Degeueration

of ehe !IL~'Wi!r..,

Pigeons '~'i[ ben ovc r- (at §ur~ t ro 1I.11)]ed \vll]l dcfr!2lle:r.~t~o(n ['he Iivcr, This can best be deb:~:Irl'il.'i].i.Ji,ecl by of the ~ .ay<7ts: of f.1.!:t fOrlltt(llg' O~::J fh e a r~d O'lill; nal walls ~ which are ::Jl S 1..U-~ iudie atio1JlJ th at Ute I~ V'Cr 'I:; ~] so EtJrr-' roun tll,e'd 'l,;d,UiJ fat. Tn i~is ca \.a,sed byfli:'Ii;;(~ ing :E'ood C on9~st~ng of t,QQ much fat fonllilll~.r material. SU!):J~as C'Oil"~1

maize. The birds ~,r.I, thjs eon lition ".rEB. 'be m,Q,[p or less list] ess =:tnd. inact ~ ve, T('~4lJltm~nt.. D'l'op the GOrLr'J, diet and C;U'n5C' the birds t G! t ake m ore cxerci se, ; f [1lO-~s~le. PtH snme epsom b

:5~~h.8 in

'l~IC dr!Ju'idi~g

.'lC'u~'~ .

t.er 'L::reS5,

or lettuce



G rceu f~Iud. such a.!J, wa\viU he fOUIlId to be bene-

T.!l~:t t 1'!iJI,~] le is undouh te en "it C:-·used '~')y i:r,[{~'LtlaI'ities ill feediug, ~'H·,b as Iceding tno jnneh of improper ff nod. ('I [' r cc ~ in~ Li(I~.I '~;1Jl~{:hat i ,~'1!L 1TIcal a'fLQ ~L1otenough at another, The di'se:.'ls~ usuallv shows itself bv u'&i,C' . c ro.'p f~ lling 'w~ water, wh ~ch ~:5 or a gree'~:[1~'h ~O] or . th ; The bird refuses to eat an-rl it; (O~~S~J1.ilt1¥ddol"~~'~. "rn:,j;'t t1:n(:'~'t .-. G'w 'j.",~ h\':wc~ a ida)" o:f a pill ma li:: off Ii·n:! . .
. _...

.gr,ai~lof o~ ium.

gn,i~lI~of ;r.arhoJli.at(~

nf bismouth.


a qtllarh::[


E'iJ!'iV -~:tJ,

Ui"!i'!l1I"",..iI1 .,!i;;!!'~'. _,.,~'!.J.

Young hem pigeons which Itavc been .highly fcii on fat ~o~:.m g ia ods chu i51g '~hc l¥'~':rd:,e'r montbs a re olLen in troubled wbeu passing the first egg iu the- ::s:rlrfi:~g:. f:Sp(:'c:LaJI,)- is thi~ true when b;1·' ~ ave kc:'p~ in tonri!irt~d, ~l UaLrte rs, B 1'i'45 ill .s~ ell cond ,~.~,H fl.Y:~l appea f." a 11 nu t .• ~0 l of sorts. It wil ~ gG on the n est b ut ,y ~~ n o ~. rema in 1 fhere !lJ'~1l account of the' pain 'when such cond;t.lnnJ$ appear, the egg ~JJ~ be feb ~n t'~H2 oviduct amd :~1' '~:S nnt 1.[ rc ~ eve ~~,.i n t]iliUll. m,ati, Hll "L'J.lH , ri~c' and trouh It errs ue. i Y Tj["'ffa1 m'e!l.'!l.t--rb e best th in g to do is to hllj eet a drop nr U\i'O 0 f sala d oi I 'i n to '~lLle \:rC'L1 u si ng a med Ie in t: t, riropp e 1'-." A ~1Ii~ gi'lfe t~lI.e fu ird te II. t D tw e til t::r d ~o-ps 12ft linseed r salad oil C";"TCfY two ],OU~'5 until relieved. If. this f;a~"~l.i.'i t 11..,'I.sbeen recommended that a fl-.ri.nl'le~ clot h soaked ~'I] J'~ Witter be appli ed to the ~ em l. T h ~s et laU,L'1 will generally t',(:Ji!::"!;."e all ~a~i!~, A~ "'~'rI';tcr: llJ:p-mii thlS s'Hhjc'~t. TIn a treatise UPOJi t:h@ managemen of. canary birds, says : Shr,)td~~ th~ bird h8({)nl(" ('gg bound, procure some l':uot water ~,~ud then l ~~c the bird and lay it on ~ hac.k on som e ."ioft p]ace k ts a nod. \y' ~[h ~ piece oli ."lDft fI an nel bath c th e abdomen nf the 'bjl~d "dtli1 the warm water, The heat crt' the



'thE , nfla m ma tiou a 11d. 1P.r±] n and 0lJ.]~ ~hou,gh the. ~~;:rdJ may ft'~nter a t first. it wHI shortly quiet down, A·[ter such application, moisten the vent ,,'If] ~h not more t[~~n t \VO d reps of 5 wee t o~ and the fIJ i '~ibe.'[afe the 'bi,nl Such treatment sbould IJe b(;11H.::JlU.t:-U~d for pigeon s. nul care sh ou Id 'be ex ere ised SQ as not
~o tW!i:,ak t rn,'\:: egg

'\l!J·i] I remove

ithi n the bird,

S~,f't Sh~n~d E gg:s,. Sof t sh el le d. egg5 are not a s CQ~nmon am CI1,g' p'ugeo ns" 1 as a itliiOI'.lJg' chickens, fa r ·thl.E:T '.H~Om a pi~eo n does iii O'~ I ~.tI!y ,~s. n}~.ny e:gg'§ i~~ year as a fow], ':), lal!1(. occasion;any a plgeon w'~~1lay a soft shelled egg-. But thls $iE.ldCJ'un happenSl whe~:il they have access ao oll lime 0]" proper grit _ Ir is caused, no don bt ~ by' th e bird beIn g ever-fat. which ,t'h:rO'''I.i\? S the e,gg production CHi"gans out ()~ order, T:re',a:uil:l~j].t.-~~lk~'liv the hi rds to, h a ve access to a gODd cqnr:rDlC:u.oc ii3J I grit an d give th e III rctilClFC freedo m an d


e. i~ caused

by retention of ~\ part of the ~gg: which 1I.1i~ay have remained through a _oi:'~ shelled 'egg beiirlig broken ~n the: ~"ViJilIc'~. Under ~:ud1 conditjons a wh;,tl.~lh. hiny Uq'l,I;t~ud vv[l~ be voided and the bird strai ~1 rn uch '\'V ~'II,e'Hl So expelling iit. SOlTI ctimes egg ~llp t.This

TreaUl]]el1t'.~ The l rea tme n t lUU 5 t be qJu iek Of' ,!lie~:tl1 1¥1:J ~ soon r6! 10'\,11, \~1:il~] a stripped [e~~:thc Gil the 1o '1,'11,"" eIF' r P~Fts of th~ pas age, anrl giv""t: ten drops or p1.il.r~_ Hnse ed ei i every 'l7li1l,;o,Q h ours u nt i~!:';i~ S1U;( h doses 11 'if' e a bee n gi ven ~ t hH:''''1] gi ve f.!n'~Y' eve ry . ix hou[~,

]S ~LsQ voided,



Dlseas es of the N·~]:vot1ls. :Biyst~m.
.\ V h ile- :p:~gc.o~Il1.~ are no _d'l)]fiJ troubled w ~th ma ~ilY' bt, ner vou S di scsses the ire are onl y ,rE fevv w h ich J:]:!I.aniofe.st


10 [U~_

Ap6ple~y. Apoplexy is the result of a rnpeure of the blood v ~~;s}eKsof the b rain and .p rcssure :h-·C1m;n_. the escaped blood; hence- 't11'~S disease as a rule terminates f~:taJlySuch ,rJJ,~c.d·l2lJ1.'tt$ are: a t.bib'll [[I b ~.e to s,'~imriJ..1bu i t~.n.g food,
to over feeding Of' mechanical iujuries , C![ 'aC may be ca used by' the: ,tJo[C[ij t exertlen of ~,aJ" ng the egg '{bc;':IlJ;5. i
,:~H~,e some tl n'H~S found dead on the nest :f.rQI:l'l th ~s ea use ).. Iill se vere cases UiI,e' bjrd :s~.[!tiliPb· ~all down ~~".!, a ,~t and die. In 111;ld cases '~]le ~t is less, severe ;)[iid


th~ bird apparently r.·ClCIOVQ'f'£. ''l:r:eatment.--Pfh e treatment should be D reveative, F ecd :a grea ter va dcty of Ieod and ~,Uow i1lGJre 'eX.C;I"'~ else, If the bird ·u~~H~~n have the :flt. and is la.ying; to spsa wli ng .~ dl k:i eking 0'0 'ftllC gr'OllDdJt(·C]] itif m,EI!Y 'be: n .Effoect'ed by h,old~rli,g a :h'UlJUp of ice ag-a.irust the head
for two 01" th ree minu t~ 5; and '~he!l.le,Qo"p:ung ,the hi n1 iu a da:rk~ <]'liaiet p]ace.. Giv~ ita hal f pin t of drh1Jk~.t1g· "'irate1' 1m,w'hi,c]'!J one-fcurth (J.'un.ce i[Jf cream. ci tartar Of bakin g' soda has been added Gradu aHy reduce 'Ifhe


semi-dark place for a

,of this {1r"i~.ijk and ]~eep the bi'rdq1l.~iet

in. a.

'V',erdgQ (M:egnnu;,').,
as. it: is co n:1ronn'ly f, aU.e:d;p ~~!:'t by no means an u neommon d isease. It ~~5 character~,%e{iby c d~nvu lsive a time ks with l~K~ of lCOn:5C]O'~ls;[j]·e ss Vertigo,
i ["

Cl rn eg.r~mi$",

which occur frO(M time. to dme. The head is heid 1U am unnatural 'pusifuorL ,VheIU dlsturbed it wlll ''lI¥3lk


o us.

SY,ST II: .~..r

ba e lkw.ards. Qf" t1.1lr. round flIlJd ro and _ It see m s to ··~see·things" a.i!].d. os~s 'ilts sense of directien, ] M·£,. Vale ~.:t1L his book om. Pigeon DlSC'i+lSCS says that he ~Hl$ in l1i~ possession a. pork';on oi th e sku I~,of a. pU.~e!D that died n ·o:f 'U';8 ·~'~s,elt£e~which was set up' !by bone pressure, A. [~,eIJ,i] OJ:" some harp p. 0; nted su bsta IlC~ 11 at 30'~Tle ad, t.ir!!:I'epreviously, pemetrtllted Ute skull, causing dl~ growt h ~]f L one to fOf'M on its in r.i·~F ~ltd:a~e. ill t. is sUJp])oscd that :UIl.a.UY cases ~r,e due to tubercular d~.5Iease in ,t h~ L I~H!I,]al bo 11($, T1:'~~unl]e:n't.-Thefe t,s not much yOllJ c,;;!, III de Ior such L;; ases til. nd as t he bird wi 1] ]4 a1l'd 1.1'be. fit 'foil:' hreed io.g purposes agaM.~ i.t ~ni,g'llt as well be dies tf:'oy~d. _ A bout n .a~] :yOI!.:~ can do ls to t !L'INI't illi.~ :~n apoplexy and gi'v:e a
salt. Sr:DTI1,ip': recomrn en d brornid gra in S two times a III @J.y'.

mild aperien t d r;~lIlk

,b;'!! w hk.h fnay

be added



3· 1:0 5

r i'ure

C'OIlJ~titiIJ.tiO:fia1 Diseases . ~~T.FiDg· ight milder. the l head oI digestive diseases, it remains 'to treat only of l~o.U'II er a n rj_ rh if Ulna tic h·OI.:ibles under tfu~ h ead of C0111.c sri l!UJ tuoft,a'[ diseases,
about .JLs, I ~~:;lve expl@i;n,ed

Cane e:[ 'i~ S ern if 'j,\·l[f:~ si 'UiJiru] ~ r ~f) C ~Lnkcr 3:S desc dbed t under roup, btu is often Ionnd ttl. birds when there L. rl) 0 ~]b:trlJ of ro !?l,P :q:,r-01..u1I.d, t ~.1I.e p~,a~" It ls real Iy JL utbercnlar nlccr and jnaJt b e ~: Ci'!l;iJ'lfUd in various l):.],:rtt;6. of 'ft h e be dJ;"" O'f CQ~.H;'.se wh en it c{rtl1,e~,on 'the-bill ~ head, 'w'i fIlg or Iect it~ ~,@j m i[i~ t. easily seen, bmt ,S'Utfu sores wh ile they ['e5e11L~'b] C~HlC~ f'" are Ohf;;'!11 ~!'2: tf~' e sun of: at'C'I~(>~ital brni es caused by fig'ht'ing 0:1:' quar,nr.'li.ug. ·rhe '~,ccQmpar]lyiIlg ~~~,'1ll3tn:rt:;mJ]jshows ,,h'()Vlt a lnnost the ''''!Jll]:Ci.~'cbod'v LT!H:I.'~ 1[1;(';covered "iii]; itb 4\;3 t1 ker '~ sores, Th e eauses fo:i" SII,.!! ch d iscase ~,][~h' -0: 3, '~"i"'~;a't CO~.1I ition of the blood s .m.J]]O, d coma t.,-i 0,11 ,
"" oi'

'l're~:bnent-O'f C.~:U-;H.'8e ~t: ~:5 ·,fo,1 tID try to hre:~d ~'f fr'CI]Hl a b ird ba '!i1:!ng 1Ih~£ disease, and i"[ 'ttlrlght as we I~

be des troyed:

'The treatment should 'be similar ,iillS described for roup, Bu t ~hould the sore be Otii some external 'Da,E't lD,f the b ody ;t '1[\1''01,] Id be wel l to P" in t the spo t fo'r' several days \Vld'l t]nc. t ttn:, oiE iod ine 11 :;~,mgit ~rli strengt h a nd 3-2U

jril,i:~d '("Z{$Hi, howev cr, ij[ p~l1it'i,iiliL cure m Jy be ,srrfec[',:ted ill) d, a :fe\~' rno[le yQlu'ng 0 bbI~ned fu.~a]]1"'jsnc 11 a bl,td,

es pec'u:;:dly- U 'it 'i s

~ t5~ve:f;e


]!IJ. a,

:[J,I.Yin~'\'11 the tb

""'1· ..Il ]'IS

." 1,,,'I"I:Ll

tip of a, it eat h er or camel 'hair btr1;:1,sh.

-~ ur~ugtI:~J~ sore 'to

H1Je '~1nJ;i.t1tc. F

out paint of iodine to d'isi~l'Eeeu th e wound, A, '.r,r;a,nk'~F ]Qtuo~i':J' :reeo~n11lii?1'ld,~d 'b,y M r. Vale is ~ Perchloride 'I,:}:ff iron, one part ; G,j_] @:[

f te f' ~g,ain li"d [,tt the tincture

..:~n ann ura 'W ;DU t .~ ..1' J,e~ U! thi~, forei gn ~LTH~,t.eF' i5 sq]lrlJlf ezed t



turpentine. well before

ne part ; and gtyc.eFine, applyillg, Serofu a,

sx part _ Shake

a milder



form and should )' iel d to the t reatm ent and recomrner ded for- cance

is. a sim ilar

i'j isease

to ca ce



T h'

I [:I. i'Ulan sfi1o~ ~ ~ I'~i!i!l ~ .1; ,fElt _li!!~ w& t ~ ~""IlI~It" w ..~;:;; ~ 't.!;' ~Ct"fbl ~td e I<Lmoal\l'f ~y. Iii!. 11:1 r.aMI no .nlia ~~.sQ by 'thiEl' -,t.f~~::t. flit d"l1TIP:iStieatil§.i1 or .;Jpim >I;s. Cali;t.~it fit ~1'!1Iel;il1.:i oBi IC [Ui mi"st ,(ij j:: P li:!ar:"l n ell! B:G, i'I ~'QWlr ,g rIJwi i1g liIJIltl'l) Or;ln!51~'t~fflgo~ I)I~a tlt'lU~ allli<r;il !}.hol!JJld be fIIl~t 1 ng~ isillasd from F!I b~:eelS:$o~.wtili;:; H nt'lil ~11Iw"'y _ iIllle d !;iVit~ .. pu /~ 1t ~ laIf:t5 01r;! IbI ii'1!Ii!I m~ Fe g,f -'E! t'I than VfHJ,IIl!IJ i1Jn,r;:!~ 'i$ t'lO[ ;3J[compsnh:!1I !by ~~y ot,hcl' 'if'!(I1'1i1'! (j; iJr~ 'Il-:;i"

1El s:aid




(S'~",~alled.) or



he confiued h1 g uar ters hl~ UteliJTst;;l-"tf!2i,. T'i'1ea1:men~-,Th e prev,ei'llti ve 'il:n~,;;lrhH('-tiiIt (:0 resists in Q;X' (h'~di~lEll ffected b;u,['d:s f rom t~] premises ~ hl ~horo~gh ly· g e de'~"I:iI,i tb e ~]Iigeol~hOti15e by wld'tew,ash itlg~ or sprayhil.g ng t'len'~with sol ution conl~ining df}r~e parts carbolic acid and

Thi 5 is a tubereular d i~e~_se (:£ iUlgo~cl) of:i! :m0i5t' 'lti rldJ~ h~Ji1t~ ,a:I1,[I {H1ta.riollls form ~nd is s~nll]ar to cemb disease illID C ~'0W Is, :u is f O~lIDJd 13Jlt1l1oog hi r~l~that a re dose]y ~opfuF!liStll er oV'ereroll),;df:d, and compelled to breatlr the same 'air over and O'V'E.'"Jf ag~lrLn. ]'tt is said that the free u se of iudian cnrn 0[' maize is :!IJ:pt to :~U~the bkrd 6 ln a cond ;,dom 'to be $I[;~s(""lept:ib~,e'l{[) d]~g dis:e~lrse. It. bi.h!lJlVIi$ itself by SJ]];~n nedu1ar s'vi!en.i1l'l,,~~ s.o:LT]J.'epart of die face. usually on tile f1(lr:t wanl It of thle nose Of the eye cere'. By a process 0 f ulceration the 1tis,~ue around the ~'!"ntHi~~g ~£ soon destroyed a'[u1 a ye'l ~,Ci"'J,i\~sh sIQ,iljgbin,g" d~scha rge com es. a. ~var. The ~ disease ra pi d ~Y exten (it a n d the hea d bef:.Dme~ mueh S~'l,tOn"";~l or H1 S.01'1L'!S ea use ~]lit": eye~ 1i:{D be d05:0d ~ shut, e These sores are also fnlll!~ld ; 11 "{at~OU$ pa]"t~ of the body, and resemble the ·'wa rts' f nund 0'[1. the h ~Ji'ld5;(}f 'chHdt'{'u. Th:e.y soon S]lOW a cent ral cle~;rf'e;ss:ion.,GIJ~~ open ~'fIi,g:£'otM5.. nil the surnruit is. rubbed off accldenrallv, O~· 'tiv the bir,d\s beak, a he'f 'W hich tbere is a d i,sd1i\Jrge ware ry ~ Of [ater Or a 1:h kJc. 'V~Uow ~~h mat te'[ \'!jf~1 5011 s the tea tilers alild ich W~i1 ich . if :rabi'Llnd ~'[JJt. ma Y bCt01l1i2 :ff'Qul and d1s~~'1~ee.tiJble,. \Nhel"ll the r1l·~~e'as,eis local rhl3 geller,mJ] health O~~ 'the bird does not see'nJi to s~'~fteraud £!GI[@ve:r.y 1;TIJJ.Y be tr:a:pkt Bu t :8J$ the disease is 0,1ntrlg ~(]'IjJS. the ~f,ec't~d bird is. 51']oti~d
" . ;--



(';ll'i:JJlg them to dry t11..H. Some peop le- pl11t a J ~ ttl'@. 5u]·fu f' :i n the fIDGd. or appl y ing au oin tme at of $ulf'llrr ill} ade by st i-rri'~g' a Iteaspoon of: Sii;l~fUJi flou r into a'r! onnce 1]) f va s~'i~]n~. Or' by bat'hililg' the .SO[~:5 [n~t I they bei ·come S:llit with wa FDl water and SO~,p~, and Unen aptp]y:ing'
UH2~l il!Jl

a solution of a {lrahlIll of sulfa,t,t of' copper (blue stone) im. a oIDJIf.h,a&£ 'P~r;l:t of W~ ter . This t reaunent should 'be


the premises,





d i.~inf



to a t:t~ bercular disease ".;vna'.L ~.t a~l:pea["5· (If] the :1 of pil':eons and f s t reated s~m~marly. eel' The JOInts heeome swollen and warty looking ~.11u1a,!p's are formed, Wi flg Di5ea;si~;. The so-called -"'''.~ ti!:Jfusense ~;s 5hrd ~ar to. gOUlt or cancer. ~Jlg It obtains its name frum b~i!l1lg local trouble and i't seta

This is the

:Iil~.une given.

tles usua lly in one or I1l01~ej oinrs 0 f tth~ wring causi D,g fa IILH-UP' and the wiugs to ..roop at th;e side ifJr[ tb.e hird; t But drooping of the- wings Blat also b'lI: due to r]lettmat isrn (wb ~cb. 8~~~) \V t~~l t here are tv bere u~ar sores ~t-should ~,e treated the same as ~'or Pigeon-pox, Dr. Cunningham recomrneuds gi'i.dng O'fUt grain o.f Sa lol, du·ee. rimes a day. TJh.1i:! alol can lee ~fiji xed '~1 t1 ~ S bread and mv]d~d into p Hls. Bif"ds suff("t; [JjJ g- fnl]ilil, 'lIiVlng disea se, o r "lum p 0'11 the ~·;:ng~·2,S ';t is t~-.;;,w~;tl]y called, are liable to (h'OOiP tbc \!!.dmg permanently ~hence it is a goud plan to sl]p~l]]ilt the \Vlng ]f[L a sU:iJ1.!§::'\,\\I',tdl'!1 treetiug 'thi 5 disease, /\, ~l~.ngCal! b~~ made 1''U'U:tl1SOme IiJ,;'Jjrrcw taJp.e: or ::$ort CO:f'{) as in fl'~C~ ted 111 the aceom pan y~,ng 1]lu str a tion, H wi U be nccess ail:')' til) draw it f,i'lJidy bght in order to have h h [Il]cl. ]'01) apply ~rf!t:a friend to ho:~d th e bird and take ~ pi ec e 0' i 'tta pe sul,:ficiently iong and ]~~$S it over. the should er 0 i"[the '~V~l::1:" and 't:i e in ,a douhie ~m~t l'E w mm rest !l]tll U. e secondaries ~ S![!I as shown. 1]1en l'a isc the ,/ung' ~tl:t'O ~ts n(,r'I'rI!,a] posit! 01:"1 i=IlllJd t ie the tw 0 loose end s into a nether dnu~]leknot,

IJigeulll:$ is u ~.11]Jal ~.y~lfH:bcatl!d. by im~}pjl~~r to walk" :although this must 1fl.O!t be con fu und~.~'ij i~h '~~~ \'11 werlJclf;lJess gf some yOil.r!ll.g' hen ]li;g'e~lils w hen tryi1fJg let la v
r. first


cannot \v~]k place ;.t orr a :p; le b if dF,jf hay Dr. C~,'~ Iie com [crrtah]y" r f you. C,i1l.'f]1 lcca tc th e pa.rl by

[Jf~v~ernent· in the bir-crs. actions

parts, Put' one of these dD\'vn t1~:~ pa,ge'OtiI.'sthroat, 'eve ry - til fee 0, ' £Ot~Ji h oura, and. you ~h.Qu:~~ n~t ~ an, if 01

'egg. gLn vl[]1,e'I;1I birds are tnJ)~~'O]ec other ti i1[lJeS' ~at ,tb~T.iI, 'the._'Iaib'[~' '~e'!.dCJJ with leg ,,~e~.k~e5sor ~fI, ~bl'lhy jt~ . wi1Ii.lk o~' to tiry~ ~.~]S a p:lfe1!:ty safe sign that ~, ~:lJas rhenmat'i,!"im.. l'h is disease l~iliEly come on gfadu.;]'uy or 3udJf~~rdy and is most ~ ~.ke'l..v to appear durin go da Ill1~ 01n d C~1]aX'Ilfa ble wca lh er, 1 rt'~hH-'l!~t~-Pl1.t the hird. in a dl:ry ]lkll('~ ~IU.d.f e~dI, ~lii easily d ~gested, food §UI~h ~ rice ~ a'U1ld dr '! b![~ad. Gel some .5 gr::t in 't.. b~ of S~ldate of Soda ;.rrlld break- into ets thei



If the hlJ1:-,d str ..,w ~J), il. 1


'~~,at it is hot ~uld ~e'l,{el-;8h ;rlJlU can



I.ry rubbing


ttl~t"place with O'~J, ur \ViL"lJrergI"teeil. OT' two rm the spot ~t"l~i rub in. Cb.olew,a..


TJ~ 'LE.~s a eo ntagu(l'!).t~ (J] sea se C 8J,l]J$c:d 1.j ~r;,. !l)~,ct;(·'r~:aa nd easily transml able, II i:s mentioned in ib~nn.'e of the oldest wotk~ of diseases of animals. It attacks all kinds o~ domesticated 1ll!OiU~tty afIJd, ~.ffed:s snmo species of wild birds. The in.i ec lion generaJly s-tart-s by 1~.L€l bi rod d rl:ril.~i.itlg' water contarninated wi th the excre tea of 5~ck birds : a:~though it ~ 'po.s$:i ble If ~F bi rds t be In f t>ltedl through sores s of rlust ~u.:"pe~,1I~ed iu till': air. ~ The ·tl rst sign o'~ the ~~'~se~'lse 1S the yellowish aJ,p:rol("a,F~ auce n'f ,the uratcs or that part flit the excreta voided fn.H1il the kid ne)~ = thi:::: 'la~1~r ill the hel'lJh"hy pigeon is PUf'C ,~rhhc, alth rugh it rna.. bt' tinted \ ~V'l.~n }'Vl{ fn_-;,.rri:! other causes lllJan cholera. \"\"11le t.hi~ coleraticn is not i fl n infa ~~a b ~e sitr~l:. :O;'LlcJ~ b'~ sh n'l"U Id be ren1.O''I,-ii;d from rds it"he rest of the fl,u:k Jild watched carefullv, The next '~~ldicl arion (if ehole "~ will ]-IC diarrhea f~1 ,,"h~,ch 'khtt C:il':'"("t;:t ~Oil~lSl or a frothy mueas, 'In later stages the 'tEJ.a tes chanze '~ngreen and the bird becomes very 'i'!,~~~OII.l~

thei ~-'...i[,·LlilJ or by l'n,'fHtiatiLl'rL l


(lit' germs

jn the forn!],

as in '~go~ng~~g·ht.'· ~ts crop will often he cUSitended wiLh Icod and apparenrly paralyzed, Trtatmii!llt. £\ccording to Dr, S~1]11Ij)n there is nor ~~lt:!chhope of s(!(vitt~ a bird which ~:JIa£become affected '~""1 +h hOi i [1' cholera, )1' ~ v d the re:~llred ies said '[0 be '1.1 se-

img the ',!;,'!,'ll{ 11rlU e with 'i';J';'i.S,~l containing k -1;10 carb~ JI~:c and '\V h u te. v,~ 11 the Rnar as .... ~~ vell j],,,," [b ~ C(;!~] I n g a n,d walls, The ground of 'lhe Oy should also he 8pFaye('~ white 1;.W $pdn.1I.k~,;;ed ''i.·{~~h lime ~tnd spaded '!!l:1Prhoroegh1y. Hence the best remedy :lj.[ains.t cholera ls to thorciug'1h ~y • .:li,s]'nfe.ct by \"I!h1te'l.v;mz:h[ng ~][" paimU1Jg at [east
h"fice. a vcar.

f'nl h~!~~ nl2:'!:er been t.dod n LlfUt" cholera, 1 The 'best method In ~~l r::.uc is. ~",,~iH': {lis~m -01 fe~t~ifl',~ by 'i,1J,!'h;[C'"'1iR~h ..



~..-o.~,mg 1igb t.

'hb r d"

. I~h 't rea e


is nOI ~lI'l1c'h VOUJ can do to treat
hn(,'L'I,'[ ,,\' ould

be t ~~ sa me e





\V h ~'~e there fit',t: over HI'ty -kinds (r£ lice V· h ~~Ibl ;unf~c E p[JU~t ry there' are (1[1~Y a r,el,'!! c@lumlou'ly foend on [pilig~ons ~nd these ]1'lJi,}~ b~ d~,vl.ded 'irllto three groups, A. Those "!Nhieh live upon the body and hi te or glttaw ~befiesh, B. T hose w'hruch Ii\l e u:pon the fe.a. the s ~'['~ldOJ some o~ \!Illtida ,~,f\f! ~~eEll u'Ill,gI,Y unh,a:F'lnftIJ~,~ and C. 'Fll!ose wh i:c'h Hve in the connect ~V;f2; t~5Su,e~ or intestinal can al.

ClaEHS' &'8


T~,iJS-t: ]n eluss }-\, ,aJre caU~J-\ spizoa ;tiJJlid It;jsuaU:1 th~y suck h~(]{){~ h~,te the ~les'h." The~('~nn not remain eonor

birds bu~ leave, them at cer tain periods ~'nd under certain condirions to hide about ~h£ nest ii!i:!l"d
'IJrpon the


d]e s11::] ~,fidl suek ~~te lJ;k;(\Q] f @![ ehe.1T iri n[li~rishnu:::rn According tt-o'D'[,. S alm !UlO ·~'[bte • c,oleoillete-:Oi!..;1~ 1 arva gt1ia ll tne sklrt and even ~~hesuperficial museles lrr' ~f the neck and abdomen of yo1ltng' P]getU'i;S~ prOdUC]lll( $~r~ ~tlL-5 wo,l11rnd,s liLicltoften eatrse death. ·~1'~ bi:rlLl 1fI.~'l '! 5 C!i)mIl110n~'Y filjlj'n~ att:aekiIDl,g p;,g~(jJitM e and the d'IDV~ C.Q.t~ b~~~ "!1I.;hi h :["e5~1it~b~'M trail!! {lJE'diRat'Y ~e blt:r~ and by s.O:~]l:e -;-~~1:C1~httte be ideiUHL~~ ,,,,¥~tb it. a.~au Is hlt!i'ltflDtS p:~geo:nJ$. Tbe dick also lives ~ll p;\ge!c]'f:JJ ff"(1Iti~$16S ,~nd h~,des dil.U:'~g' the day in cracks and h eles, cUmi ng 01!lt n at ~ligh~ to ar~t~ck the: birds .;ut{t showi ng pte:fe:lreuce :For y1oung' p:u,ge'O'I]S; '~vbich o:ftel:] d ie of exF~@;ustlOil!1 d,me 'to loss ;0£ blood 'i'n,i'rom 10 to '1 S BOlI.jfii_ The olde.F bi,r,d8 tOr.,rnent~ ed by d1iese veemin are dri:ve'!;1I from tbe~r ~ggs and thus pige!l)n :rahiirllg hecemes 'I,o"£tJ dlliffic.,d~.'.Il ~'I~le 'red 'rId tie, or d~f!'{tn~IJ:}1.~~~ galli:J~e{u&, I:; the mn~i.H
''!ill{ <

;,[tl 'the cracks oi' ~11~, 5 0 f the bu iId 1tig, ':VhUe (lin t1~i2 \\f;a;]1
bi"rd they punetnre

rol1UI"HJI~ ,amiII t110.:s i

of all the 1Pjilr,~,s~'~es "'\\':~ ,a:tt~ele bi rds .. Lt, is 'f:rOl~1· -35 to lim40 ~nch ~]],l'e~1,gth~ ~ch 1



~ ~



ru~ ;o;<.~ ~.

§i =-5



... ~


Z ~

~ ~ ~


iXi l':I


J: to:0

dI d 'o:Ii:

~J e.~~~


iiii:"""" t.'~&<:I~';

ie·.... .



• I :





. 8

~~~ ~1!-Ei$:





'=' ~ ~


.. ... t ~~ ' -=:
"::;!.:;l~ ~:,,"

J ~• ~il 'r. 'It: :::


:1: F'


,..".t """,!It-u ,~~ E f.. ~It _


A~''''''' c; ~..J ':;;"-'i;6,,,",,
....... '1=, iJ.' .....




, ,

P1GEON DISEASES yel lowish, wh h·!f:.. or da rk red 1ft r@ lor, accord ~ as ~ rs ngL f 11sting or ~s more or less filled wi l!l blood. Th1s parasite ]~ides by day in the ere vices ,and corners of the bu ildings, nes ts ~ percl ~,~S, fleors ~etc., .. here "'~~'" v l'na) be Ionnd in

c ~uSt(;,;(s:t I)nd t~l night [he ~ \J id'~a] 5 ~om,p[\lSing~ nd:~ the se (;lu stIC'L, scatter thernsel ves over lhe- hl]"d s, and 'by pdc king ,t,h-tl dld f:I flm themselycs with Mood, PIb ey a rc inj nrious not 0[01), (lin ~!C !CCI'I.i'![lt of ,t:h~ blood '!;vl]e}iI is a bI 5'~Jrii!l.c;:t.ed! lnrt bt..:;II:;oiUliie 01 d1e iJ'~ch~ ~ pa ir!J and loss (I~ rest ~lg which is ~~,lIlec:,er;.s~Jtf'yonsequence 0 f thei [' a rt i\I ity, c ··Y rmng p;ge([J!IlI s, thic'ke'['t!i~ ~!:D~, '[age tdlFd S (I n~ the greatest $uJfer(!"'U"5 ; 1:h;fJ~:f sk:~'n beeornes pale and bloodless, th~ ~(h:';1i!: their Uti ll]ilI.~ ~tigor and alertn ess ~bee O~ emancia ted, ,~L11,Jfi'IllJHUy d'~e f rom exha ustion. The red mi te .,15 !l]t~'1i usuafl y f'l.HLUlId u~ on th It f owls \",rh ~!Dl th ey a:lfe e,~~

on people aXJ(~ ~a,iJ con siderse ,ab~:~itchirug' a nl[~some ~rill [ ..\t iOIJJ 0 f d Me skit 1 and it ~l~af > 'io\~ su, attack horse ~nd uthc-:r animals stabled near the
]ll' .

con ffi ne' '1'u~ fOF:rtgi;~lg t(l, '~h~:~~ghll' w l~,en it i5, a n(}~\n~d. but to mu H: up]y U1:] ~ il ve ry a blUJnctan~, the hi:r,ds a re in Eesled both ~ ay a nd ni gbt; ;;}ud, h he:C;D~.iI1e~, ~~'p'rn~I,r.'e~l:tlyI~~~t, ;L't a per tTIia nent parasite. A ceur di1:I1g to Z [~nl:~ tJlIlftse mi!te~ sometimes enter the 11::JJ.s:a~ cavit ires 0 f y~ou ng '(1~geofIJ]}5 f'!l d, a ebickens, and set nil' ~ catarrhal ~nfhHn~ii,o[i~ th.e:y ;;-uu1 ha ve also been f ouud iu the e xternal openings 0 ~ the ear.
The: red ~n][e 'ma,y gel
'~:u:ri!.15,'(!,. ]

a,rnl~ned d,u'[i1:lIg the ~ay"

film in::;. natural





horses to ruh and b~re themg({~'~'~s. tb~, '~,~,[' ()"\f,er 'the affected p~ aJ('CS is lost ~and there ~::!l ~ n e]"lllp,'~~ similar to th~ t which (lC(.UU' un ~n th ~ (;:i(Jr!:1t1flon
n" 1t;;:lf!ltSie~



B ~ Epizoa.

~. The S(1.'YC~ pies J (tevis produces ~,h t r iIJ~ scabi es" il] f pl'lge eons, The ski n ; s "'ut ITIJULdy tf'c::cled but d~e feathers a

Irillre]y ~'~out the hen d."

The E tid ~'jfm(J ,f'tiM C:;UJ.:.:.re ;JJ, if @],"I111 of scabi es charaete ~'-~~1ed lily 1'he [:l'IrilJl~:h]ct~In 0:£ {~.FY" g:raytsh~ yc],lo\\i' crnsts CJf scales. 11~e disease is seen nil any part IlJif the body, hu: on:~r

The epiZ[II3,


ou r




'11]1 tes,


break and. are shed .-~on'] the :r.rffel'ted, sur i aces,

Til is dis-


ea: e

1 th scabies ., the legs \. i~~ - t eatce wl h all n ~c' a ry detail at ~hc end @ f the genera] article nr U1Je


In connection 'lI rith the oth er m ites Ilue C ).~t.(JdUe:t tM,t,d n,.~ Iivea in the air eacs anti connective tissue of ~owls ' nd beat an ts, Tl1e~ ~lie fOiIL t· d in t be trachea, bronchi. ']'l!.1.n~ and the va d nus air sacs in cllLulm.rlg" thos c 0 f the. bone • Th,ey have abo Fieen 'rep .rter as f oumJ ~n .'he ''110 raeic and perito eal cavi ties. SOJ e a uthors state that 'hey h~l!"!l'~ (Db erved the 11L'1I. 1J]l yen~w~ m';~;;;ny tubercles 0.£ t,~.il.e hn dy cav i . cs, Ung5i; 1i ver, and kt,dll1cy'. ail:!)"e II. urn bers of UtE Cytodltes may eXI:H in the air s. C~ \ ·ithou t· their

th iFd c las s ~ "!l';fh:~ll l~ve •n th (()l1U~C:L-~e d.ssue e v and ai r ~ur fac~s s n~'gl t ',- rhap5; .•b more pro e rd placed ~ among the entozoa. They are ~m ntite . ~.I1J~ ome of them pass a portion of thei [ e.x5 renee nprnu th e 5"l]rface 0 f the b dy II is [r~Ct·t a~,ret1iien1, t e'f'eE.(lr€ to consider them ~




~rr] ta t ion of the

e, catarr h ~:Ir1d. COllg,h. ing. ')\ egnin states that tllY m,nay (au e dMkh by con~e' tion of he bronchial ,:ube" ,~]j"lal h and Zundel believe the C}'~I1J!Jites U'liiilJ cause enterit ~5 FI, nd peri tonH· :5. ILl S111aW] umbers these mites are nt very inj llJJi··OU·.bu n w hen birds a ee oo.[.ny iIJ1. Iested th C)~ beC01:-:ne anacrni e lose '~esh stop ].ay:h'rl.g egg sl~ .w cat arrha! :syn.l[ 'tOr III" ,. .iFoop,
lnuC'C1'1;.1.8, mcmbran

prese lee being su spectcd d ur ng the Iif e : :f the bi f' • "', hen they are ver numerous in "he bronchi, tbey C~· e


~n'F die,

If very numerous. there is in4·p.~j-i'~dnutrition, loss of flesh, ~u d iF quently a fatal en ~i,ng_ . "T ie .'F a~'nLgcr fYMtrah~;f of the pig-eon. '\yllJ1d] -S l~~aU) one the feather l"Hll ·S. ~ ;a'hYc .0 ]L1trorhn:. itself into 1Ibc eon ne.t:'It~ve ~~,sue bcnea th the skin wl:d.('h ~L enters. by W'3V erE the f eat her f lJiUide· and tnerc ,., nds a\ perp t~O,1lJJ f j s lae. Robert oill, CX3Jn1r~ed a considerable JUl1'i[!J.

pigeons and par rows, ,;\ he ~'lJ present in smal nnrnbers oril) , j is near' y harmle 5. ,an'1l,d", at most, causes Ugh." Iocal irrltation ,fi]] d dish1.tOa11ce ~1(lI the growth 0:[

;dd 11

"The HrJr"ift'·~~'Y1u:l1.1~~' n~(bdaJJs liv-es



f the


he r of: both lA{:U kl ,a,lid tame 'p,igeiJ)li;!:;' and :ria!relw f eund "the c('j.'nil.l~;t:iive tissue Iree from this p~as:~ e. H,e fouud it ch i'e.ny :~IlJ the :8i.!i,bClil,ta!l1€OU 5 connective tiss ue ar@tlJ:bd 'Uie; Ia vg~' -vei:t'il,S o.:r:the :nect~ al"J .II, on the surf ace 0 f the per i~, cardenr. No disturbance of the lbeaJtJh 'has been observed to result 'frQ~'iI1' presence of ~hiEi p8i'ras'~te.. the Th e lice o f: 'birds vary gJ"le~tlr ,In s'~2e, the largest. V arlet les being (!rI'e-si:xt~rof :aJ~ il'!tC'h ]crng:, and l'h@. smallest not more than ane-th irtieth of all liUclJ[ttl leirogili. Lice ;;RFe to he :tF ound evervwhere beca use the bird S o,f.the ~]li' (".[!rr y thetu 'f rom p~ r to p~,ace and \V 11 you nlay b~ ile f ree h:'(J~1them 'today ~ b[}~l1lfj"Dr:ro'1\r a h~rd nJi~y drt]p SOUle, in your coop and you'r troubles wi 1~ begin all il]v~r ,ag,alrJJ. But there are preparations W~UU 'wh]dJJ 'the p:~g!60~keeper (an '~UiLL~-5S f ru.lly :W1tgbt these pests. T,[i@;a.t.IlH!mt.-Pe rhaps tbe :fJ1l0S i b enefi,dal. til in g to be]]! pig'el!Ooo :r:id dU~]IT1.;~h"l2:s. of l i,(: e [5 the c1e-ittl ,1\O"a ba th, !3J nd. t hi S,' of:i tsel t should r~d the h led ter IOf' ~ny Uta t. .l1J! ~,glllt ha ""'e remained 01'1 t be be dy. B t:1 t :i t, ''li~ ne t J~sh'oy thos e \\"hieh ha v e 1eit ll t iii it body d urin g the day t G hide a nd may i"~s, C;ggs in some crack ~l1 d crevic e IOf the fJ'1l,'!l:ildj illg. T !Die destroy these, you must ,u:;C;ia~iO~].i'.Ilel!ly ,%rhitewa5-1~ the buil ~:H n~;;, ·T~h.'~s ~bot'L~,dbe a!l]til eat 1ea,~t twice :aJ, l'ear And, there s11Jogd be ,3 !CQl'l~rta,nt use Il] f S(.Ul11.'e go~d mseet powder, Dalmation insect powder, o'btta;~IlI,~h]e at. aU d~~g stores ~s goo'd but it l S tloo ~'x.pens~iV'e for gen eral use, There are some good! 'I7rep~ Fations on tfue' market for 'th]$ purpose but S~Lne 0:[ thern contai til such ~a]ar,ge percentage 0'£ r.ilap'~ll.a]eiil:l;;;HtIJ~('; t1hal thief' cannot 'be u sed successf:ttU l' around the pige[Ml nest, ]'n f act, i'£ you \r"f in f'leam '~he PF.][~,lM direetions iUlrt soeie fjJ them fit _says '~11o OO~' use "!.~'1~,rt:Jh~til, ful,f,S of bil,tcld]1J~ time," SQ if lice ,~~ 5 rotnjd. ]lj], a rtest a t ~'hi~period you are ]]elpless~ The:I:e' is one ]Xl"~VdeF~ ,at ~.'e~~,t''i,~'h~.'irh can be used. t'tn,:y ti£lle and [Jig, it 1,'5, ad:"1'ertlsed in th e PigeDll p,a]per£ '""liB need iilOf. ment'~([l1i. 'i'~ 11l ere. It t~n he d~.s~ed OVC~[ @[t>0~da'y-lDhl sqw bs



'''s~ay off ehe nest or besltate aboet fe_ed:iBp; them, And
J "

wl tb!D ut


a nd 'wit hout

'!E~('IUJ_"l'i n,g'

- tb~

o]d :b~,r,d,sto

fARAsrrES the warm weather []~ ]t..iJly aru:l AUgl~st~ we get ,j1 mew' CI"DP of lic,e e V"e'l'y Ie," d ~'Y$ £.rom th e ,egg$ 'L\r111ell are '1 d, ;t is necessary to u se some s ~ch POfll,v(te:[I" Ire eai Jy in the nest every seventh day. _~.'lluJ;!tl~.Gt:,r treat enent r ccomm ended by '~..I:1C' Reverend J"] . ~ L - .IL "gl'!Q~ll r." an_ L'I,1I.C~.S'I n. ms wo r1f on cmlifJ:~"'TIIcasures o [ .a 1O~ .l"" cier .,'~p-ub]i:r.;hed about .30 years tig'o. '., an ointment c[)nl~ 'po~r~ded of one- f cmJ:ll"dl[Jou1fld of b'~iJ.te unction ~ ;I:f:ij,d 1lJi~],e 070" I) f '10. d _ Place the h-1!,1 0 uII,g:red i,(l'n'~g a smnl ~ [Jot 11@al!' r in a :Ii re \.:I.llt;] they melt and tllJ~n le t s frarud. '[until eoel. [t is 'L." ~,_ ~r.r d_ tI 'lien ~:",ea·y f or use- ~~T " a y·GaJ_ ~.~ 'J,¥ rce r. .sa.ys "[u11.".l a utnor • as

M App:ly the ointm ent 8'p~ri1r:igJy" Flo]dh~ me bird i'fIl tbe i,en hand, place a [l1eC'e about the size 0' a iPe~,on the: tip 10'£ the rO;I!'@F1l'n1ger of' tbe 'f,ight hand : Pt~t. jit on the bird OIl file ai!Cctet~, part, the heat of tlle bi rd's body \V~ mel t n 'il r:!lIDd spre.ad as much as passi ble, A place \,vhe:lif:. nsecta i love 'to ((](r.u,g_rreg:ate -1-5 'under. the :10 w er beak. Here they lay their e'ggs m;u,d dwell if'tt O1l5e~f 0[' the: bird cannot 'molesr them, "J 'he 'eggs are attaehed to' the root Q~ the f eatiler, s, They are ~lil.llalL, .rolriJ.nd amd, \\fh~t~5h~onle:~;'roe [h!i!Il1 a doze11 W in adhere to one fea ther, Gr,aclh;!laUy tililey f mtt._dti_p]y and spread around the .head ,8jJildl ~n a day ur two the nits V,f1II he sh rivelled to nOfibimg.,"t Af.lJil)'~herhas f Quad th at ~ is W1 se b;!i f"J,lI.b some of ~l1JJdh t ohume:nt" in a circle around th e vent of d'!i,e bi rd o.n the5l.lJiPPl]}sid@~ '!±harR tIll€: I'ke. win ~o to the ve~]'fr to g_et m1IQ-j~~ t ure, ,¥ e l1J a e; never tried, this OD. [Jigeons. but it. works well 011 poul try. This produ ct ~s,a poi SOII!1 an d. tOil) mi.JJd1

fins pect every hL'rd on th e preL!lfij ~es and I U1~1i'l~Ta.r1roh a . new pu rcha se, ~'nto; 'the loh \\flJ'tho:ut i~~fu~st unde rgoing 'e~;l!nninmrtw:n ~ ''11i~ J s gener,a::Uy nee(~.f'!fUL.f' eh

,sh euld '~IDt'be used a.t "one :!tilDe.

M i~(:~Ua.n'eo'DJ&!,

Eg'g EiiHill:g. '\TVe have 11(': er h eard 0 f pigOO'os eatJng ,tb.,l':~ ~~~ ~'[t r if act, they d.~ not seem to to uch ttJ len]: ''!Aibe~ij .f f.lJl;toa, OLi the floor broken. ssu Ca;,t 1\5 seme of 1I1}i' :r~eadc,lF$ l'[i,O doubt, \\f iU ha ve .l'Dr ea rd or be tokl if) ghre lhe s.:uc'k 'pi,~ons ·~Salt-C~~:tj:~will give a J :f.'Or.11'Ii uJ ~ fr.;FIF this c.'OD1pO'Ij,'~nd as ,g~ven hy 1\,1r,' \~1 oodhouse, one of EID,g'~([j;nd'smost famous breeders of' Shurt Faced 'T t1J1:ril blers, but :wh~ is now hiJllg since .t1Je.fIJa. His f ermula
I' peck 0 £ .51 ned. loam and 1l.:Jay.l' 1;4 pounds ,of' l1Ul1JF I iogeth,H ",~'i~ 1 h~ndf til of each 0 f the fo,mow'i l1g ~ eumth. . min, aniseed, :frt'OiIl.ll(~ cloves, carra W JJy t f ennel ~di~l, f emugreek, po,"-dJ~['i[_'-Ll assa ['@C'~] da. c.ol11.ITICI!J) sah ~ b~.y ~]t, lins,tCJd.~,ean :l ry ~ 'h,~'~n groil,Hl d ,~U S]~:uces, ~4 LX we ll 'topy g.g. ther d ry ~ tl~ add w arer an d iL'iI1 ix :$,tUil y. lVl ake Into en tth reo Imffip§ a nd bak~ m a slew 0 '{~nr i,ci'l[ o.L10 'r, QU]" '" Note ~-['n 'this cemponnd A ~'lfoI!11d recommend to
W.8JS ~

A'~]] erican

:pligeolflJ men

of ,;r~o.ar.H1l.u

th iii.t th'!2Y

use firr.ud sand

i~ 5t;0~d,

:Shi~,er.in:g. 1:h'i:$ ,i;; a 'I)OC ill] iar cond.i'tl.l[!I],i1, sometim es 'i!(1![Htd] in ]J.!~g'e_cm!'i-. ~I,'he;~_ ~riH stand aU 'h,tu:lcl~ed,up ,~.nd ~hh~'er~n~~11 the trme, This, however, J'l~,iJl8t ~'iJot be cOIll'fused ~ntl~the trembling "shaker" faJlItaiis. Shiverh1;g i.l'[J,d'ucates tbilt - there is S(!I1L1:eU~~.ng W'!FOi~g:r.!J1!] '~t would be well to treat. [be same &S f'(I r liver irUiuhl.e;J IQ,[' 5inllp.ly give ,a ton ic and see j f: tblt bi rd does llCH imptcve,

\'lie 0 f:t"C~] see a bird Hrrlo:p-ing:·~ in a !C(}!tU~r all b!JJJd,dl£du:p. This is called 'me]~U]1_g. I f' it is not due to ]:~l1;:c. it ~<5 dne to Wli11C d]i~ti:1s.e

ur s_iU'i:lf1(g

'liIi \' ~Si;'i Hj]g pi;e(}rt Iofts

.~rlSCELJ ..«» .EOUS me1.1t'~OiHC::ld ; n th is book, ,3nd search ::.ho'l,lM he made for a caUEC. 0 f course • all ~,ig,tUIllF, will :rJj]1pareL'Iit'ly mope" !:;j{H'11 ~lftc'r a :f u ~J fe ed and 311 s 00 do ing :;t re S I·rn ply a king eo


"nap" l;kc. 1ill::lIJIY pelfllplc~~o alter a he~:n)! n-eal, ~'[l[Iping is quite ~'Lkely to he: ,"a1J:f:ed by over feedilJg· o[ ';rreg-' ular ·iee(l1~'ilg. The old time fander used to cure such eases hy puU,j·Ir'lg. out all tbe t~~11'~e;:i;'tthers of such birds, ~r ey would h@ld rh e hi rd fi rm l) ,dlh 011-e haud, ~~rlJ v..-~tth h

The bird would seem to lJ~d~up, :J(J wonder, this would be a shock ·~\·:~~kh would require a lot (iff additional food 10 bulld up snother iOl of tail leathers, TEl~ M'(i'udt and M1t'Sl 'M anagement, \,:u~h one jerk-


grab ::.11 the tail




all o·f them

about the [flcmhing 0.1 pigeo [~:_..;.a bmlk on diseases, bl]~ in I am C0.11 vin ced that f a:r gn:-~ter ~uccess \'1,1 ould be achieved by all wlIL) raise p:ugoolils if ther would only eon- . side r 'l!ihi~,ph enorne non as, a pedod of ~]ckJ](_~s and gh-e their hh·fl~special care anrl HUe:nteOI1 i=JLS;f. they W{"T~ real-


ii:tiia}i"seem a ]j t de; out of


to tabi.:

spa ec

to ~eJ]

lv slck,

and ~s one of the ell ie f e v id e~]a~ 0 f th e com men ancestrv of bi.["ds and reptiles QE they hat.h J u&card. th ei r ex bL':r·mi'l f.: (}ve1fing-s at sta ted periods.
The earliest indicatien l[iif the

~ The at t of shedd] ng


f f ea the rs by hm'irt.l s i.s, peculi


the. fiu-st- primary fllgh~, ami this is likely 'to occur as 500n as the birds raise their first pair of you~lJf!!ler~ i. and, as
S<OQin as

115, the ~biJ(~.cl~ng of

!i1 des il"i ej ected. _\ ft er 'il¥e or si x of ha 'Int been .n~gr{}";vn, he smaller Feathers of the '''Jl1r! will L gi]~ t to shed an d a lit He ~ ater the hc.H::I y if ea the rs "'N HI drop out. [!fII, dile tai I, the first f eathers 10 moult at!!.:: the t\ ... or. t-o
,S ~ de fJlrrreS,t

tlils -tCID.thc:r is f'i!.iUy


the next

om [ht: fl~gbt s


the .~ ast, o:~ f3C. f:'r.]U moult, and the weak enes wiU'~moult badly : hence to
'J.,1 at


c om!l:;

the:n ext two and th ~ een aer one,,:: ::Ij're ·a he~i~ p i.gean "vi ~lhave a :i10T mal thy

dl the ~1Il0 lllIt ~S a pretty good way to de tern 1itlf· the ·~H~'a-lt]'1 and vigor of ).'.ol1r flock, If eOnd~Ei(ljii1£ are 1,111f avorable and tile wea ~her J s (h.a'il~ll2ahle veur birds rna y ~,'t a set hack: wh ~ch w ~II affe c t tt!JO,L"fiJ 'Eo"!:' the rem ~; nder o~~tl1d]" 'Iives, TJ-II€To!f1 1:':: III 0 q u,esl1 (tirJ 1 ill~ I ha 1 nil e moult



is a severe strain 'on Ulf system and should ]iLai!~ [he best [ti f care at 811 en dine. To g~lie g,Ij)Qdcare mean s ,ge'n·er:~t..1$!e~d ing of all essentials a nd yOlJl must it'iLO~ b~ "tHSltOUrZiJgedJ if there is ,i;t let up in the breeding operations, In fact it ~sbeta USe (j,f, lhl i~ extra strai n that 'many' ftlJl1.d:e,!:n;; S!l::p,a.Fatt~ t11eir ~lh:d.s in J '[JJ]Y ''li.dii en the mcult is in f ul] -.sWil1g. and d1.fy k-eeiP' t~,ij ern se:p2l!r.1;'lted 'Ill n'li] next 'bre:aolin,g seaSnru. If .the 111]OI!l'il~ t does mot progress i;JJS it sihotdd, it \"1,1001 dj, be a g.ood idea to ~ive ~ tonic ;~:~d. keep some 11l'~til, ~n tll e. d,!' ~.u'k~ \'f ate r'. 11f1 ~i1;g' The nnctare (I f tr'O~ ts best, ~.1£teen or t ~~er~tydrops to the· ga HOl"1 0 r: wa ter is a k)u'~ dgtut. :P:,eatnerr R(tIt. \\n'!iile I have neve]' had experience with Feather Rot in pigeens, but have beard of it and find ~~is most :f'[]Uy treated ~'Iil the work OD P'~geoll Diseases, by ~~·S lls, qu~ hen ce it is copied herewith, :FEe :i~y£ ~ ~c After lJ]1.. J)S[. care h.1J~ consid I2r,a.l:~on~ [ am i incl ined to thi~ the diL'e~~B EuS 'we .kiiJ.OW in -jn Engla'r~,dlt ~]'jJ.ll~1I: he d:assed unde ,til ree ~l~f:en~nt ht~~lings: (:[) JDl sense 0 f f ilie lI3:lood; (];) Sk~]]J Di~ease. Parsite ~ ( J) A ~IHe~=
i ['

pheric ),

;r'Tne ,a:nd .f all


'Fl[(!lk~'\'Vs;Hi looseness

~yn~:ptij)nlJ:8are U1,a,i 'UM! 'feat}"! ers beeeme rctren [lI~t. Fi ret the chest is attacked with ba re patches,

:I I'M 'ttil e shoulders


-flakes and,

cove rts, In cade~ ] and:2 r fne ~y[[i:r,)i1:011l.l.5 are i,e;neraUy as described, but ~n the case !lli£ S the fI.~gbt5 :iUlij taU ap,pa'U'~~l ~~. l'f beceme ibFi ttle and ]"lJ]Itten!, the w'ebbing b.reil!Jlk:ing Qff j 11
eaten, 'by !:ianTle f ea the r cievQlllFlng' mi te, The disease gemer,ally rnakes itsel f known ir[l,the Ibleeding season, r.·Ca,use 1. d isease ~:).'£ '~be b100([, is dm e to the IddlliByg Jl'l.O,t dIU ing th e:~r'\'~ ork prope'rly. Earthliness of ~li1esys'tem.l £Ii ti!e:3 all d tlrere i,:oi ~ 0 proper _ secJ.'e'it:io1t:l to t:h e





11.a;viu:_gt~u:: appea:r,a: ~'Ce as f~]Gugh

fe,~,H1I:,er ,gruii:r1dJ~. Hr~] 't][,e d,e'!j,!''f']op,ment of the :('C8J ther n]_'~Fe liS fiF5i it ,3. smal I bil;q'~Ib~f. mth~cb'f;j,iJJbseq1l1e!i1tly bursts lits C(liv!Ering and. by "


sta.. e:s g

the new .f:e:ather becomes

hlUy devcdQpecl .




J ..Jet

'wiU~be netieable that the feather' 1£ ,n:1al'ke-d W~,dl a srain from side to side. Eve~] the smallest featlli.!t'l:rs (;a'l.1I, fret 'be



a check

take p~i1L~e w h~st a ~ ight f eather ~ in htJct ~ is ~'~] -state o f part ia I, ,t~eV'~~,Clprneiri!,t~, a and H'

pc cial Ly wh ere sa] '~cd g;d ts ate obt ainable i abu n l!1lauC'e. "If rhe, G:izz:~!.'lfd and I<~dl~Jey are ,g1'1ft.11 teo much 'wor~:{ to 'pe r fO]f!1,1 t he bj,o~d ; lill med iately becomes d];5o:rde:re;d., I ~nprope'r gr~t. salt cats tl~ induce birds to eat more ,gr; ~~ a;l tha n :U~good f 0,[ them induces 'the dise~se more .~:l!j.ii~~dy
[I 1

marked in this manner. Again~ who has 'DDt §jean y,o'lll'rtg~ sters i~1i. the Ilest with Lang; p,u PY :lIe~rth·er.$)< which, for some (:~~:se r ~e ~0 burst ~r. the ?'~ b~ d rds, ~ro\\'i[jg bleed ijl~~'~ I s~ ich, ~ daiL~~ag)3t]: this state, \'if ~ H burs t and a f m disease :5 h rivell ed tc.a th,c rs be 't,ll'e outcome r ~f,] £' 1: am ldgb t '~Im, a ssu rning tlrta:u ;Orne 'fon:n ow ~he d isease is due to ki liu,ey u·otioh~~or blood dio:::C)['de).-~ wl'lJ@J:1 is the' best l·el~Ti;edy? 1 have '~'iI,olic{;~dh~.~ the disease iflj U~ s t i ,r erm is 111!QSi' preval ent j II ·~O{'·~IJt Jb~ ..arer the sea, es .. ties

I,~~:~ ,,'11 or


beans r Dot "too old.

any ~hUil'L,gI know, "In ease a valuable bird that l~ af[;~ct.edj~' cure l'D:iU~.y be affeete d by the. :f:oHo'l.'.ritilg treatment A £tel'" t1~e moulting se--aSOII. sepa rabe tb e subj ect and do nolo ~~lQ1iV' i~to, b~eed in the .~p:d!l1g. Food. (,'11"] good, pea~, tares and



A:V!l)~,d 'heM:r.) :seed~, C,al11;8; seed or ry small :h eatl:rlg gF.ain;;:;. Do not use ;a.l:'ti ncially .l'iaHe~J §;:r:1d:ns nntil pa t ient is we U. (2) "Skin disease-e-Areus, At .one time I cons~~d-

cause ~ hut care £' ~~Iexam iIlli'l!.tuotii of t]ne sub j eet has een"lin ced me this ls .!l1l at the ease. \Vh,C!u, it is ca:Ulsed hy lldd~ ney disorder [he 1brurd looses its POW\f2'![ of fl~ght,.. 'but ,~h.,e[g caused by a paras ite tlle bird .flY'S as '\ve:~o] as otbe:!r ~:i.f!lJ~I.nbe:rs, 0 f t1be loft, A, renae ely I hi(: d. in a serl ous case was W re move the feathers ,@J'f,(!'M nd the a:ffocted P~ft, and 'r.bOfOt1(ghl:y ,gt{'la~ fh~ sk ~ of the hi rd wi th all ointmen t 'made of n l.!a~-elh]~and sulphur ;@/L'lIdJ giv'e a;]l ap\lere:tr.IJt ~11Id tonic piUs. (.3) '''}\ tmospheri c. This EOFm of the' disease consists Cf£ 'th,e br.cakhlg oj' the ends ,00: tlulltl night:s~ brittleness, rotting oJ t]!te ·'I."iI'e1b f the 'larger 'iefi'~(lif s such as the 'baj I 0

ered the ~,ea:lb,er rot in


'fo':nns due to one and tbe same


~l~g1h In .lIly opinion, this fC]:LJn o:E tlle. disease !s ts lue to the- lloft be-in uns itable, llllw tempe rarere f duCj I bird 51 ~ and a :ill mon ia. perrnea ~ing 'dIe: a tmospl ere, 1~1111)s~ over sta hles, where horses are 'kept u nderne iili i 1 C:Jj'~~'cd, l1L:n1 id lo:ft ~wher L dUJ] i 110,"tea [4]. accumulate U or the floor and, ammonia ari ses, or in 'lofts situated ~ u marshy district: where th.- hirds are always liv~:Iil,gin a state of 'I rumiditv. " "The Il'enr~if.cl:y]ie~ jn such inunediate alterations of the 10f s 0 'i "SUT-e'a ,O,~tlt,~dryness. Plen y of sunl ig1bt !)hou~.d be admi tted into the loft and tne 'b1lfd s f'ed on .ound, dry we]l"lhat'vi3Sbed grain." , T~~' author ha ~ evidently g~,en some tho,ug:ht to tb" s sub j eel and In the main his di agnosis is correct. I do believe however i tb.a!t 1 a d ~ ~iyPll}t(nil).s <I" ~'-qjuiUs' p de cribes a Fe si mPbr two stages iO f the same t rouful~. 0]" , pe rhap 1 had better say 2 wa , contracted by COJ;1l' ,oagioliL f or 0 i]) if ',D. 1. In ffIny o:pi'l1]un the I,euh e ltS'a rnrm Q ' scurvy 11d1 as sailors who have 'belen,011 a salt meat d~et 'for a [ ng tune co' tract. For tbis then, I "1\ ould reoornmend Il:U] al nd gr i~ and g raj n ; and if !t!i0111egreen, 5tlll,fl[ i 5 ud as lettuce 'Or ',[der-(:1"e:. s could be ob'l:aimed .• :it 1\l"ff'w d be eneficial, J u t l1lake.t~ mall pocket nn the ,$1 0 de th e coop lof one inch me sh of' woven "vire, ,aJ['iH[t pu~ the gree ~ 'bell] 1 it am ~ yolO will s 0 S e. It ]i'-;3.ppear.,,, Pi peons mu t ha ve :Crr~ to ~reduce f ath Jf5 an( when t i'~ :i . exce ~:I"/-e~ :sa'ily lt '\lI-; ll (I] arra nge the system, y J; or the No. 2 f on"1, I '\' Ol1.~."t ::-1 g6,"'e::- a .imilar method [11 £ f(!ed'i Ii1g~. but in addi tion I \\"'O'll~d wash the parts twice a. (lay wi h a, sa tura ted ..~~i' ution of I' " pophosph ate: Qf' Soda, ,\YO or dJJ:ree applications \ ;n cause th@ pa a:St "e to lisa ppear, The No . .3 form i,-. pcrnaps, t e '1.Tf:Tioi.1'St d~Ifi(l1h to randle and ~t e'J.,'ifh~ntt~.yoccurs most frequently ;0 o~.d. irds 3:pd b ik Is undolUl1htedly Inc to lm JlJijJf.n air 1einE' tak JJ1j in 0 'the ') stern, [f ~t is due to anuuonia gases ,a-s ' eseribe '~ a ttl. np of S'U I pha te ~ f J rOI] in thedrinki ng ,""'~,der.· should be a corrcctit e : an the l11ge{)flS should be given a hJ] ic of 'OJll€' kind.
31J d




Y'OilllJl.g Dying in, the :E;;heJ].

In the sp r~ng. '0 f' the year, GSpC dall)r '!,~ith the first round of tgg~t :ve. hear of, many ~-Q(jJli);g pi:;nt:UH;l dy~IJg in the shell . 1 hu ~ J s due to. two pro u.ab]~ lCa1l1S~$: ~ ~.) Ow I ng to the ~hens bel f1J,£: unduly lra rd or the yOllJllg' be Lng U1::i ch,ly we ~k ~ (~) owing to tt he 01 db] rds ~eavi n g 'he eggs t oo long to obtain food ferr themselves (In a ('Old dav, As bosh of lhe:!i~ troubles a~re ]1..1[: to '\'ha~,r'[[lightt 1)(' called 'Inatu ral causes, ,,~Of ca uses wlii 1ch ;ltl'1e itt tIT!.:!tla .... t111t'1;:: 0 I the parent hird~ thElY are d ~ ffj, t~ t ~o ilJi verco me, 1 Ahcout the [[In~y ti".iillg you cnu~d do provided the parent b]nl~ are t::JLL'l1.~ aIu1 will Iet yOLt put ,your hf~'L1d 111 the l1~SLJ wOllJl~ be to y~sil the .I!1~;:;;.t. lv'i.th a cup nf 'hot water uight ~nil I'nol"Hing .~f:l:er the 14tl~ dl~.yan d di p t] 1e eggs in to Illliis "raLter Ior a moment or 'l:1'?'O 9[' 8S loUiS (1,3 you cae h.oJd yo ur hand f~ it. Th e wate r she L1 J d not be ove r -i Q4. degrees F., th i3 \fij! i~ open the pores u f the outer 51l!~] any I ~ the warm th '\1'1111] put more vigor into tbe youngster.
D iseese (il,f +he Ven1t~

ti me s fema ~e pi geon s, liV' hen layi n g '!.v·~ d~ ace I~ ~p~

arnati on \\TaL ~t: t l' n ,. This also flJ:lY; he ('al[~.sll:d 1 y ~l tumor in the dO~~L. ~rre(1tnun~1 f ~,~lI~' par t () f t. he. in ~~,~-tJa1 rgaU!11l COB1~ ~-I o ou~ r.h'ey shonld be greased and put back, The vent t:hOil]ld then be washed ,,,ith a ~t:lf(ilrllg solution ot: alum '!iv.JL several [Lines a d;fJ,)" ror~he h~ shoul d be k!f.ii't qu itt lcr rd f:.\y ; il::.se 'ff and f cd 61~~.1·.'IlKly, Do fLQ1- a~ lo\:\, sue hL it b~ n:l to ~ mate nut-in ~hQi[Ol~~h 11' w'eU. the vent
to] ~fill

a U~r.tdHc]


rren Hens ..

Dr. Cha s, L. Lang, some t j me agn offere~ I '~:L1PigeOl1 N ews, the foLh r!li\'-]-lig r{;~ri c{t]y Eo.]"ba rren hens : 0 L112'quarter gil' ain each o f li'j.riU ow ch arcoal- PO\\ riCfcd C:~,llIS icum, 12%t ract

pe:pf:b~. ~n~]e ~rrltf. a tnbl ..'t and . d rnpped down the 'bird' ~ tb roo fl t nit{~'L He aJd s ~ "'Vb ~:~e tb,e' nH~~VCl r':nica 'i s '~oi S(JU!I3IlJis, J have te sted i~ by' {ikopping l\ Q snch tablets dJl"Nl~.a :iqjlJ.l€a,kelJ-'s throat, f)[dy a week ;o]J. w ithout a ~y serlous sym ptQ~n.s.·~


'I 'I.:! x-vnmiea.


S.lu~.glery. The s'lJ.:J.rgic~ C1ipeF.atuO(JJ1~ whi & I
\"it ~ t];ll

his :hands

very few ~ and scene of tb~~H~~ cr[)t'[at:io~]~ s'h([!1ij.~,clJ be not attempted t!J~ til J~\(Ioi!;l h:a ve seen 'th em 'p~rf ormed by SOIH;(eQl!JJE 'wi~h experrence, '~lith this precautioe, ] Vi.,·n] try to ~~piaiD1 how to handle some ~)fib~ :s:u~nph!r' ones, Before _trylng' to perform an opetation on a pigeoo~ especia m~yif it ~ ~ kely to bleed, the op-erator Sl1(Nl1d wash s~ The kn~ yes or. in~mtm!E:'tlits ill] he 'ull.se1!l honl d. have ,aJl] s been T:lilHner:S!f.:d ina S;,[D~lar ival!l2it ,a,(nd tt~i~rrn]~t .be dJolnf: before passi H,g- f rom Q ne bi ['d til) ,rJ;lf1oth~J[~, \v.hf:D mere ·iliaD one bi rd 1:5to be opera ted upon, ~1:r. \1ale ~,aY'S he lq;af'l removed {;1i'.ikireW~[ilgs, and legs f[,"(Jl'lJl the 'b~dy- o:f live p,it:.-~(~n nd ·~h£1have SCIon recovered, a

8,8J,liety e_~pelE]~Uy '~y the ~n(nr~oe: 'I])r

:ut i5 pU\.'!IS~bl,~

1UniLr:iJ~ ir;l!."ted are ~

to per f errn

clean l¥a t er 1]1tQ ,'" hi ch SOliJjle carbolic acid has been ad,ded: Ol1.'il:: part add to 200 parts warter,.

TritnmilThg the Beak.

- S:bilJJu~d thls he aJ:~[[!,,'I,r~dID gr{j'~r too ]ong ~~ 1!i\l'iU pre vent t the 'bird ir Oti1 pk'k~n.g' U[l! g,r_ai~l_ and :u'~wi'l ~ star ~.rl W dea~_.: Thi s h ard fuon1JY tl po of t~ e be~lk.c.~n be In m med nff wit h a, sh~rp :peu :knU c. It ~.5 more easily done when YCiiL1 sharp kni f,e SOOIl1 11 al Ith'!2: execs 5Jrv,e gro,;vth trimm ed ~s. trili[JJ, by 110lrJjng the bird '~p. ·tto the mght and you will see .the t ipo '\l!l~l~,ch el ear, - As th ~ 'b-~at{ i~ H k,e tb,e m:n;~~.r a il is g n of aJ perscn, ;t docs not h1Jl:rt to cild it_ a'i,;'jf·:lY.'b~t as yott g'1l?l.'1 down cJos.e :~ wil ~ h urt all d ~ you get too [ i c lose ; t 'Ii~.. I bleed.
[00 ITItJ!(;lL

board ~o(!ir or on soft earth, oft-an grow a long upper b~nand th:u$ 'i~e.sp ec lal~y tra e on :3OJne of U](~ shorter mincg:d varrk:ties.
PigeiIJil1i.8 kept ccm,@;'t.atLtty on a


YOIl.'Il m u,~.t be

C,3J reful JI



td~ how m~lC~1Lyou


~ a.nd


cut away



ex peri ment some fa [ijej ers learned tha n the t rjmm ing' made fine biUs 0 f the sl1,®~I:t faced hi rds look better and thev of ten pract U(C it be fore sbow ti r:uJe ; hut hould ~,judge be SJb]@ Dr.A detect 11::11,;5 pefa~<i01!] he would o Le justi ned in ,th ro '!.~~ '~]gut such a specimen, ~o AJ ~ beaks whi ch have b~n 't:r; rnmed W1 ~~ g,IrY",,· 0\1 t ag~~ln; Jlel,lc,e ,I 1NOijJ_I~, ad vi se !tQ ref ra L,n f rom trirnm i~lg [U]J'ess 1'1 1'5 a hsol ub2~y necessary. _[ the, bi rd S eiJit'C 'l'er.:IJ f upon a f~;at stone Ln- :t'(;l'ile'lilt SU f ]:,ac.~" ; t \V m~ keep t heir beaks short enough, Tb rough
5U ell


T,@~ :NLai]:!!!.

\Vhat ha s been said about biEa~ S ill. p:IP'1e~ full y 'to ,[j1 e i rh[e~~] toe-nail s. I n '~rirIf1rtIJing the toe-nail, howe vet. ~ s you should try to CtlJt it SO as to leave ~ in a normal and nat ura f ~nape. Do Jlot t'lflJt J t off Sf!!uare ,\,i{] thl a pair Oil
tiJs '1 sa "'i ,a :f r.:Uow do nnce. U. t 1'.5 better '.:0 use a kni 'f e and t'he tip :dii,OII;ld. be Ie f.'t somewhat poi [nedLrO~lg tce-nai 1£ is a. SJ 6111 ,iJ)~ d age and a hi'Fe] "dt.~ alrll old b~:L1d and 5h ort nails ;rudicates lh (l [ 'the toe-nails ha ve nippers


been .cut.

this use some LllJ1'n card b~.t'lid. cut ~ntn narrnw S t:lli ps and H HeF the bones are put 'irl proper place the stri [JS shonld 00 ltJJ.l~,around the. broken part and bound :!l,,[u:L1,gly ,viltl'E ni3!Iro\i'lf tap, e" 0 ne a 1A t:11Qr f,e-C.Oir.t!L1III ends di.p~:1 g' t]h:e 'I~mil. n ]nt 0 a fresh S(lh1l6on Q,ff ~t~u.ITh, 1,,\, hich a litt le POI\'I; to dered ,ahuTI h as bee tlJ aJcl,deci. ~ f u'~ :ms lh e foot. ~'f has a Iso been recemmended th at" a small ,~6Llcbe bound to the iUfi't in such a. "ray 'l~at i~ u'U extend one... VI! e]gl~fh ol an inch hc-' ,!,ow the foot. in the- outer fo,lds 'of. dlf: 'bandage. Of COtH'S~' I' igeu:[Ls with broken OO,1l:l should be kept in 3 -sem~ -dark es pen by tleI11Sei \.'·12;5and sholl,1l'~dbe'a llowed ,aJb01Jc1t J, 4- deys F0[" thE :f:r ,acUlrc to h eal be fore c utt U]l.~ aw'ay the han1:ag€~"

]e~ or foot w~u]l be b r-ok en. This will soon hea'~ and dh,lf llird wi ll recover ~ if Y?~ Sie:t the bl]}ne ,proped y" To (l~

S ometime ... an ace idcnr will ha pp:Ci~:1and "'i

y![Jl.l~~' 1~"g~O~[I,· ] s





ecn_C.8Jrder..!! Barbs and

~:re secretions f all and Iate r the~' bear t.~re eye-ce Fe .(.!I!)]:t:w·a;r.iJ:I s mak tn.if a ~nlla~~ spout. -A s soon as Ob5~F'I""ed these S]~Ut3 shonld he 11j fJP~d nfL Y ou .i.11 be caref u1 and [Dt~.iI~ not take too 11U1t:'l1 or 'uher '!/Virl bleed and :Lf you do not take cnotJlg~l it .-nnrLI again, Hence the ftiist operadon should be per f Oi"I.:'""l1 ed 'l:Ji1one 'fI,f~th exper icnce and the novice can watchclosely and study ho"'.. . · In an Engl;sh work O[iL Carriers, I fin.d. Ute foUowin,g:: ., 'h is the 'heavy. fles:lt)· eye t11a~ is the Ob0111i1IJai~(linJ iLnd that g;. es 1~1I1j grea:lc'St trou blc in t h·i So di rection, [Cit if Sue t1 n 5 th C':1{," ar ~ t:iegle(t ed other tronbl es to the eye ''I,v~l1 ~et in A cluster of th ese FIlo~itl ''i,~.jII Corm ]n51 de the les 1 ash I n the v; e tnity 0 f the .:.'IPDl]'l~ ,!;Y~litlh L11i1j,~t .gl"~atly iu~ rita te ·the eye·hal [, SCI ru U ch so t1~::JJt llJhJe ,~·:hole eye he,C'.ome.~ ::t ~1J outlet fer a constatll' d i~char~e 0 f fb1e mest 0 ff ensive hu nl ors, the hi rd 'be i n_g- 'f 01J! nd eve ry morni ~~gr 'lJV hoth ith eyes ghltd up, which YOil have to open 1t~~d~'oi~ecan see it to fc.c~~ and tf a bir J mn such a state is allowed to [11i~ ·!."!:t'Lhothers uhfY a rc ~ibk to gel In fee te d ill '[he same a 'rL' .lit'!,- • Sue ~l Llrds f!H2' J. ~crrible n uisauc e. and should be ilv~i d~d if pw~sihle. .and they g~ more trouble ]t[ ,"'1/ iTh ter 'I".E! tha:l.l.' in summer t im e" Son:,u:; htr~t"ien,";ad vi ~'!! these gil' apes as they are called, to be !jltl"l ~ 1 cd. and skjnne ~ clean out-; but the operation destroys tilt! mucous membrane J3;'L1d

fl.itknll which is sometimes [~ und ~iIJI D ['"~;onn S (:I Il'" fu Lrds \cv 1:?Il"g~ cy~-Ce.fe~- ~rh."ey tIls:u.~~~.y ilth f orm ~!2:~ ow l'h(" eye, IJrrS1: ~5 a small pocket i.~tin vi.~hid.1l tthe I

~~ the uarne gi: le1'ii to a spout-shaped


spou t. iettlllg

the msel ... an .~s 11d vel up, Thi s ,~ner,:;t Hy e LTta:i.Ls ·il gre.a t res ]03$ ~f blood, but a little .F'I!'~~ Ba'I!'l:am \,?;n Iill~U\ally ~l()'P r's [he bl eedl ~1g. The re :.S 'HtzI,rU r a ~way a 1a [-g'e :spOon L. ttJl br:. cu ~ awav at t~~e same frilne. flili]d t nfteli'i! th iru;k uriless t~'Ke b; rd is o~(S OJUC g rear value as a ~[(id\~ bi t"lc] it rs far 'p,reler.a. ble ,,0 pu L 1,t Oil]t !J) f its misery. I n CUl't'~lIlg an ord; n~try ~Pt)ut~ I VCf) seldom do".!'tllythjng more rhan remove d~e
~t hcul under H~

C~]lke:r :u:;; ~hrUl~'~!!'i[lrfe '~C) fet. :~j1., and then it LS "best to s]ay ,'1 T hie best pl a n tn relieve the eye is jus t to n'~p 0 ff tJlIe head ~ o f th ese no dul es when ·~Jl.'ey \V~.~ (~~ I ~j~b~rge




~n!, !Uirl;;1 191.5: J "The w ~Jl to tr eat a hvi sled flighr ta~~ ff2!i1 the r i.:' to prepare ;8, kettle of boH'tiog water. Then bring the bird to the kettle \'f'tddl ~luJ'L1~d e kept over the tire so ';~wHl be b hot Stra ighten out the i ea ther and hold) lig it in it 5 pI"~P.~1f place. hold the bird !l1i\p.:;"r (he steam Ior ~lminute or '1",/0. rhein place the bird can~hdly back in the ~O£L, This operation mav have to he repe.@.ted more thB14 once, fO'·J ii" neglected, the tlIgtn w~il eventually be broken. "T'o ~LL1~rui brolcen :f]~.ghl-. or tail feather, g.Jreat 'l.'c!,:re a \V,III I ~avo to be t8.i.-eTII, The broke ~fl ;gh t. ~r ~j ~o!: {J -E tht: T1J:'lV ones, or a ft'tght that is not hkdy 10 be dropped until

ga. "FC the Tol"fo\\" J ng method {J 'r mend ~ :2L ng rrea l~ng a. t wisted tai ~ r Cia tht, r. in Pi gt:tJns & PLge(~m J.~~~ I



B,r.oken Flights. Long, who, by the '!AraJ -u.salso

p~t}"~ac:iaJ1. broken ~ight or

thor: 'n-~e i?~,; ~\riJ 'h ave to be m e1l1mc d to ,~; ve th i! ~ 'b]]·~~d racing chance. a Proceed ,38; follows : Fir::-:.t. ~e-

ca re a ~1I11.an b nttl e [).f: fish glue or g~<"~.S~ C C]'U!f::rH. a small eleau table, a pair of scissors, a dropped ~lg~H uf same color, H pnssible, ~tOl'T] .orne other hird, but '~'h,cco1tJ,r du~~ not nULtter, Ilave :8;11 ~:S sistant hold the b~ rd \\_~h wing CiU rstretc h eft then curt t thlfif.!u_gh th c ca tatJJ1il S.. or sha fit a 5 straigh ~ ~.s p:lit:.sible, h~a'i,<L,[I,g .J.. bevelled edge to the .slii,ai'rr. ..\lso then _C'L1'l the d rQPVt~d f cath cr so , l w ~]Iexac cly cerrcs runJ and ma ~ h (" the e~.n oi the Feather Of] the hird. ~ ext t@lt-~tC·a piece of a bn~k!'2n needle and hola~ngit in a 'pair oi pliers, H1;JJ:oLe a hole ~rl]he en(] uf the feather about hal] the ~erlgttl oi' t the n eed It, Next 1111'Lk e ~ corresj ron di11 g hof'l:: it I l11 eo 1) ieee of feather to 1[112 jointd and g,',end,: fit the t'l;':u ttJg(:tl~cr. "~then 'this ~5i done the j(l~nt should match perfectly, Next separate the p~.rt~~aG.·.ai~1i smear d~e tL€edle and 1l~.J( way 1;;\1']lh cement and place i[ ~.'r.n i.nfl? end of the '!Arlng f ea rher, Care sh Ot~ h~ ta ken ;::.0 t bat n o I ~00 Id 'm.I]Cll cement is used of h ",v~1] ~t onto the "'ebblngg

of the fea ther, a rl d c ause lr'OUb \'":In en the ©C 11''1. en l r is: (J(Y, ·,vl:i!ic'h- will be in a feu minutes, place a 1i u~~· ..

l.c. "\



ce n}e,n,t 0011 ·the re m ij,;~~i g pa rt Dr the u eedlc au,d agaln n j (lin to it t 11 'pief;e' of fliglrlt al ready p,'r'ep~,re~,t '1U a e ·fe\c\l :m:unutc's the eern en t wil I ~'II~:v,e 11 ened and t hen ard lea ve' t _ alon e, DOin'~t try to see 11 ow strong U is or YOtl '\V~1] !C.3. U;SIC trou ble, 11), Ci1J..~ ha ve d O~],IE the j o'l!, well, am will ID ,tigh:t ,and the ~in], ·"r-i~] be able to Wi~l, a J! ... ~~ race,


O~ T'Ui'!iarilf~ IiL.LU~TIFI:A'f'~NG, [)!,IIF.'F~J;:i:E;NCE: BE'l"WE.IE.N' MJ;;"b,iE: Ai," D FEMA,i!,..E.



, ,



Special ]nro~m atioft Dete rmirri fl,g the, :S,ex"
'K ,us' di ffi eu I t '[(.1 explai n te th,e nov; ere 'how to det te r rn ifJJ e '~he Sex erf :p; goo [[I] s ,a.n d Oil: cas]ona'~ I"I it ~ very s oH ffi.c:rllt E!Df' t11 e old -ti moe r to! pic:~ t h e ma ~'>Il fro'l1:J the femaJe_j e8pecia~~y clJu,[l.ng 'the winter 'mC11hs" But, ( ge11.eraliy speaking, 'pis-eO'I,18 s re ~l~ght~.y· diffcf,Cl1. ~n size, U"L It l('-liI.ii a les ~lwa ys !!J,e-hugsma HI1::'m: T Q do. tll ~s correc ~Iy it is ue ce~~~,ry to p erm it ~ em h t:o :I]y a bout ". ~th DU'ter- bi'ud s the sex ii!ii hich 1';' known. fr it is a f,e-unaJe, othe r tUJ11e.s wi] L fly ,tilJ it a,iil (II or~(CIll:/' around it. If it is a male the other' males ';~i"1:H ~y at ~ ,J IJ.d ,~lriIi e ~.t a way, t ' I t is also said. tha t a ~eJllale in ~~ooinz" \,'1 j 11 n CV~ r c l ~,!!, n or hV:B-:S t: its bod iriI, l't eire l~ ,. '!;w hi le a male nLwa·r s does Uri s. . , -.




O,tll,~~·' ethods are SO~1 times used by £~u.lcie1:·3~uch .. m s ~s holding fm.~ bird ~)e'["\"CC]J th,c palms of rth~' ha.m,ds, and S'W ~ng :i lI: ~n the ~~ r, Il' ~'lI: hold s 'Its rai1 d.~w'Li 'I t ]$ .. said to be a cock. and if it raises ~t. lt is s,aJid te be a hera. But ~liis is not au ]n(:tLll~b~e test. \Vatd!itrii~, the p]jgeo)l~ peF[or~1!~ in a HY~IlIg pen is the safest and


W·a.~b~ng·P~geon~ ..


coal is used, \~i]1 be compelled 'to wash their hiJ~ds, before they will he in !th~ hest eondition for ,:ih-O''iiV1:rIJg. TJhi"!S is .mOl CO[lS; le'red ~'offaki~j,[( b)" pigeon _j'Ul.d,g'12:3 a il IS sitnply d,obng _wJJ~'iI: the bird would do itself :if it bad .a chance and .t.he \,re.a.th'e:r \'V:R..~
To many the \,.. sh;llJg of a prgeon ~n@"y" a seem a diffi .. cldt task, brut it i~ compare tive lye al sy and shou Irj rake


Hv"C 'i n co rrnYlnl.lnr]] ities


h e ee ~(JIh or




onl y a

rn hlJ'll tes

a UC'f. yeu 'have'

eve rytlhimg read y.

'\Vha t is .needed·~ Fi rat you 1'teed a place no wa 1mil ~ or d:lty fh,~ birds after washing and this 1f'l!lH have to be fixed bet ore you b egi n to ""Ia slr, j\, gOCH~~, ,etbod m ['or city f3Jnti~ir~ would he: to place .::1 el~a.n 'box On a cha ir 4"'1. ~o:n gsid ~ ,iD.. steam I'M tlirriJof tl1at 'V4l!S goad an d hot, OrJ i~'there is hot air hear, a Lox phucecU ~Q. the ho t air \l!;,rouJd ~trike tt he in ted.f) r 11ilOtIJ 111] '~c an excellent pla u, For p eo.p le in the coo 1"1 t ry ¥tFh 0 have stove heat, ill ho.x p ~ aced 3l longsi de a. guod hot fire "fvi:~]an 5 we r th e purpose.

hot yOLt cal), j U1.;:s.~ pif~ yo U.- hand :;rIJ .i t. Y (1u, w ilI a lso cJ],6cd some <~lJiod ~;.cJiaPJ such as Castile, [V'OK! ,O~· \Voo"]~ .UH'~ il n~~:i~ llu·'I;:!:s\1 and to'!FCI. In the second and ' ~'~(d vessels plLirt h:uke warm water ~u.ffic:ie~lt to c([J'I<T~r the- '~r~(d, The second water IS to rinse otT the $()~DYwater, and the t~.iii:rd, water is so compl .[,€:: the rinsing. Fur "\v]\tte h1'lIds" it is 50~~e:rimes 'he.l]j~~ i~t~ to add .::L j ~ [' bl uci n ~ to tlh e v.b:ird fie ttl wa t er, 1-) lielt do not put ;'1,1 too mu eh, or ,ylDll W i~1ha ve blue birds instead of white ones, p i g~Qn S ~hQuld b c: "'Ii'!." ~i~b d ~'i;.: veral days 'be£otliJ ShQ''IF'il''H1g'~ and the \ovay to ~,J['Q~if'~d as fbnil.1'~··~: Dissolve is, '..(}rne borax iu the water to soften it, t'he::LIl with Y!l)llF.

cover the 'bird.

rt It: of hea tt . N ext, yo u w ill need three bas! ~18 lV ith wa t er flU ffi . cicnt to 'huU.r immerse the- 'bi-rd. [have fiiJ'ljJjfLdJ a dishpan 1!:nb e l.l...;;ef't~ for th lS p·ll.;r!lllos·(!. You wil I also 'r~'Q~'d ~ rw 1.'1n3iDlg- Vi'J ter~. run] for then~ ]' ge:'L1!l::r,dJ.ny USe n c ornmu n .p~l'i ·'I.''i,·:uth 'Lnough water in it to CD~t. t el Y I pjc
. C'U

partly de; t: d, T'hcu ] t woul d be ~.ell H y ou had ~ ~JliJl$H1fl; or ... . shee ti~lg (~I!.]r ta ~ t h;:ri'~ wa $ ~ x ed ~~o as to 11 g OYer n an ~h.e front 11£ the box, or bet ween Ha: bird and the

. T his box need not he ·t (lQ ~~ rg-y~ not fl'utte r [11uch a fUJ can 110 t fl.y


'l1it t i~~t gets

t'P-l e

wet Djrd. ",;; H

T h c fit'JH \\. ater should

L~:;tnds and . {}.~~p make water :Roa·PY., N,e:zet ]m'neI'se the pigCQ'~1 until L~ .[~ gtJod and wet ~J.Lever, f If: course, kee] Us mouth and If!105e out t the water. Iter the .feathl:l'_ arc l~·t:'t.l! you can scrub them pr{::Uv l1t!r' with the uail brush without doiin~ 'rllen1



SPEClA 1.. I lr'-if [10 RJ.,j" l'ION A


Iiann. F or this purpose yo u ca 11 1L ft th e b~rei out 01 'th.e ~\'"aer and sc ru b th e \\'ings and rea the rs tn ~ t h I,;;; Y t Tl] ·o!re· clean. YOIl1 'v·~JI SOOn see. them e-eUing whi ~er. A. Hel!" y'tllll, ~'!Iiii. ve the H:ights, tal I an d body fe athe ['5 dean! yQU should wash the 'head fe~the~·s. F{):r this 'iD'Uf.pO:S a :s:p~n ge is very gnod a n d try to proven t th e e soapy wate I: froin get ti irLg ~'[t the p. igc 00 's eye. \Vh ("n YOll are sure [hat t.he 'bl['d ;.~ clean, yon can next put it in the SCCOndVl!IJ.ter tID rinse off 'the SO~P", AJte'L'" the ~uaJ~~t~(l _are pretty well e ff ~ you c an th en [J u t the s ibkd ~n the 'third water for ~ final 'flI1S1tlg", Then i~ should be dried ~.fr \1,1 j 't h a, clea 1 to '!.¥t:l bv !tt1'b bing tb e ~'c,fJJJhe[":ialon g the "yay 0 f t'b~ 1j" .. eb and put ln thedrY;l1g box. '~lheJ!: the feat~ije'r:s be~in to ,d'ry ~'hc btu-d 'win preen ; ts;e'~fand 8t[~.igb.'~el1 fhem nut, Ey washing several days before the show J you can te.l~ ;~: you. h ~y~edone a. ,good job. a nd ~ not YOt1 can l ry .~ ove ri f t 19~i'n. ,Of course, afte.r. '\'vashiog the bird, yOlJi must be care f~.'~:a nd keep ;t ~ ~ cIean 'coop or it will ge t lJ! d-ir-ty- ag ..ain, [f you. geI too muc ~~b luei wg in the 1... -~:t.eT 'iDiltt o( an wash t he bltd ,~~g,Bdn and it w HI look a 11 th r:.


~ett@r for. it. Marry falJ]c~crs do not wash their colored they \\'OIU Id certain [y look b erter tOl' it;

hirds, bat

'M'atlng Pigeons, P'igeo-ns al ways breed ~n pa:'~Ja and, 'lHll~83 some 3 celden t OOC'tlFSJj a p,;:rir of 'P]g-e.ons- allowed to remai n togetn>!}r will remain true [0 each Dfher itlJ a loft "i'lith lIlii OJlI Y ethers, Shou ld you h ave two pig,ea:ns '!ill ale an d '~e ~1e. t~ a t rn vou desire tID mate, the "" ay to proc eed ],s as fo11 CIVIl'S: Y'QU should II~ve a coop abo ut 18 ~ nchcs ~)~ :2{~ inch ~~ and 18 ~nches high. wail ;DI, \n,ri re elFvisien ,pe:h"..<e,en. T~ (his [COOP ;s placed a·'!,-1l,~~.yfrom ofhe[' birds, all the beter, Int o o-ne 51 de 01' til;,5 (,00 p~-plate the male ~r!l d 'i n to th e oth er plaee th e [e'I male. Th ey 111ay at p~y meeh atteJ:],ttiorn to each other, especially :SO~ if they hi ave recently h ad oth er ma te '. B 'L.:! t JJn spri ~1gGiI" ear] y summer, til ey '''''~~] 1. us'~tanY' 1I10H'C C each ot h er in a $b ott
f ''1]


iIll:§;" off. in f rent o~ Hie f,e:m~de. ,A lter a day' Or So she al so ~v'i l parade in ]:r[)nt oJ th e male, an d ehe n YOm! l ('.~~1. 're;ln@Ve dl]le: wire parti ti 01'iI. W hen this is' dome ~ ~he male ma.y attsck the fetuale ,~inl b;]l :and sh,e its may strive to ,get away :[ro],'[J'!I him at first, but later, they 'wi Il "n~ke 'up and p,~tt the] V h ~US 1:Qg~ther [ike II... "~'-. rs Ita,,~e(~, ·'1. 1~ '~ '1])1 Jwnen a. 'p~geon e d • yourng. reeos tts iI:~,1S • ~~' ..ll i ~'I! h· II b" "d • [!I,g;' :l1DU i.~IIl,~n they oo t 15 norman y, t.~J ey are S~J to b'e' mated :and can be removed '~!W' the j]eSi~itJ1g place lin, the loft, where you expect then~ to breed, Th ey shou ld h'e c.'()'m6 n e~ ~ sueh s place 0'., tll file 111 i,(tItTI ale lays its two eggs,. 'll;vl'j,ic'h ,~i.l1 b e- ~biDtt1]'t, nin e clays .3:£ ter thfo:: ,[~b~ll in eta te, ,,~ftef:' t h ~r ha ve Ia i,,[I ~

whir~. ~uld"lh~:s is shown by the male

cooh1rg. aad show-





(Df the bl:r.ds. , Pi,geO[J] f'~~ ciers u s.iJJ~dly remo ve the Htst e g,g' ~aid and in; ts philC!2' pt~,t a dummy., For r]:nnnny egg~" ~j)11l],~ use art ifId2IJl ones ; ofh ers use old or stray egg? they ms•. have h:alndy.l' 'iivhHe s'friU others nSI@ eggs f ma de f [tim plast er of Paris by blowing out the eonte~'ltso( a worthless ,egg and fini n~' ]'[ 'Ii\!' ieh the p l~ ste r' of' Paris, The second iLgg' is usually laid UH~ second day, and, then, of course, the ill':st ~,gg is replaced. By ttfuJ:5 r.L1tt~1Iod, both YUiti'[l,g shQu:~d, ha tch w'i th in an hour !Q r so :fiQ each. other and H~J::y I, U]r ive more eq uaJlly.. "Pig"@O!l1 ttggE hate h ~ ,:n~ ~lays, SQ.~ne'times they ,go n 19 days, b~t if they are ii1(r~,h·~,b;;fu.edJ ;,11 that time, they

Utey' can be lifu,er~.t~ d, and allow ed to '~]~with the re~t




. I ,!j mot ~muc good, 1

th is wU] come at tllte ~ight hatchi ng" <lat~. If,'~ by d1Jarn gi n g lhe ,e-gg'S~. the h:a:t:C~lng date is de&ay~~, th h~.

Piigeofl ,eggs are sometimes :fe moved [mn.l a certain pili r and 'Placed II nder ano thor .p ~]r. (:a10B' OO)u,st b e ta.kem:~;n dohrg th i5,~ to be sure the :new' pair ~~i:cl the same d;m.y or not more than two d3y~ of.t The reason . .£00[' e::a;~fe ; ~;ri t ll;i S respect is tfuatJ' wh en the )"rbJ!Li!l:lg plreLrt1,~ corn e, they rrrust be fed tfi,rs.t lirpon. ~nilk 'Which is set reted by tl:i1.~ paren t 'blrd s, and ~11 natlrre



~~:P igeon m ~ lk" \V ~u come' tOD soon .a nd cause troub le 11 \'~l~b t'~'i1 old birds, e The ~Jd pigeons wi I~ £ott:·d ~:h,ei.iF 'yoUlng j n the nest fOF abou t four "lwN eeks, ,~~ ther~ th e YlDUl1 g will. Vi.r~:ot ad ·ta get out and >ITl.ft'l3[" 'ti:h:@,"t date will be i"on:nl-d out (If the 11es t and upon t~~ floor. \V hen ~hey get O'Ul"t of the e T.J est ·they wil ~8~n begin '~Oca it: gra~.n5 fran'} the ~,Gor~ by t still the~ wl 11 beg f~oc~.{torn the old birds un illI 't}l~Y are nearly S]~ weeks o'id. and -evenlongcr, if 'fr1h.e 0] d 'poab do not go to nest ~g~J11. U sually the old pair wi ll start t~ make a 11Je'V ]lCS~ a bOfut twn l;vee].:s :an::elf h~td1~ng date.
th e 'l.'iggs. The f,e3:[1ale will ~"'em~.dn011 th e m est all ni.ght tm 6] a bou t ~O\JCI ck each 1JtlOl:LT11rng an d the male wi ll then t a ke hi S ~tUn un tU ab l[I:ut 3 in t:he afternoen ~ The. male and 'fe111~h: both take turns in in!Cubalt:ing

'~h~ fen1Lue w;,U Fclt:il],rn to the nest lor' ~llie night, B t1 th b inlsa18Q 'fe'ed the you ~lg, fu1£l"f the female wi ~] not cont inue t]]is very long, if they st art to 1Il1ake s



Pigeons a ~ ways ];tiJ,Y 'l,!;M:G eggs. If .mOr~ ;;U'Ie. fLiI~;r~iJlj there :~ something S '~~ro!t1g., T" 0 hen s have bee 11 'k 1l0Vi!:t1 tc] ~Jl~te an iii 1a y :F(Ii~r cggs~ \vh lch.. of course, we re ~n'[erUle and did net lun eh, PLg.e (HItS that :a.:IT'~ d. it w.ot1,11d.lflf. P{}~~~ ~,eto give S'U ch a. pair four ~gg~ b to h a teh " E rut this would be ra th er tr)·ijjl~ on, the old birds, to raise f01J.tli young;, an (1 i~ is :[Lot to be re C,@~"iI.~

good. b reeders,

''I,i\?- ~

11 take care



tlh all two


mende t

was to' have two pen ~ and ptllt th e rnale wlth on-ie hen until ,t h e. eggs were ~aid and then remove the e;ggs to aJi'J,(liil:h~r p:Jj:~'rJl aL:JJi.d 'PH. t 'IThi12i mal e vlrifh tb~ o'~heF hen ut'-l.tfl S}l e ~aid, "'J,i\I'henthe p!"QC~s;S ~\;r,as rep COl ted. ,\Vhile t his might work all .ri,ght ]{)r a acouple of ;5 ets of @gg5~ I catm ot recommen d 'i eas ~, good rule Ior contifl iUJcin~

Some squab breeden hVQ fel't:I,aJes~, '!illrith iair

trj :res11I.]t5.


ed lils:ung a :male on The '~i8;y they di d


V\'he~1L libe tty ~ pigeons at

wil] buil d. thek'



.. .. .
.. ::!i'




the odor, \Vh.en 'th~);' ate dry, 'tt~1ey \V;,]] absorb (;0'11~id !l;table rna isture, F:i.'l.nci(~[' g enera l[y USe earth ena "ij;ctn· nest DoO'II'I.'13 and PUL: ,~QFilie ~n"'ili.fdt'ls'[ lOt saud itt tbr: t. at tom oJ i'~.for 'the' birds tf'J build the ;,E nest :~ n,

you rn 'US l bes t lh:ing is t obaceo 5tem S r a ~ fh B od 0 E" 'h.';iJ-rll s to keep aH·a~·pigcul1 lice and the pigeons do not 5nli:il'1'l to min I,

by ca r1I"yil1g

sticks a 0 d lea ves, 1[1 a.\"]~ rles .. lu I;'lll ish some t ~11Itg far thi s P u rposc ,~ud the i


~ tta.y~

(The E,nd..)

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