# PHYS 506A Particle Physics I

• Understand the structure of the Standard Model • Calculate physical observables using Feynman diagrams • Symmetries in particle physics • Connection between theory and experiment

Grading: • 50% Assignments • 50% Final exam

Physics 506A

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The Standard Model
• 3 fundamental forces (strong, weak, electromagnetic) in terms of Quantum Field Theory Big Slow Fast Classical Mechanics Relativistic Mechanics
1 3 , , 2 2

Small Quantum Mechanics Quantum Field Theory ... ) quarks and leptons 1 A 1 A

• Matter is made up of fermions (spin 0 @ 0 @ u d 10 A@ 10 A@ c s

• Quarks:

10 A@ 10 A@

t b

• Leptons:

e νe

µ νµ

τ ντ

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Matter I
• The quarks and leptons are ordered in generations. Consequence of our observations and explained by the Standard Model. • Transitions between generations are weak or very rare. For example, we have not observed W − → e− νµ . • The quark sector is more complicated. We observe mass rather than weak eigenstates and they are mixtures of the weak eigenstates. We can see W − → us decays. • Recent observations of neutrino oscillations suggests a similar pattern for leptons. The W − → e− νµ is allowed but the mixing is much less and this decay is predicted to be so small it will likely never be observed.

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Matter II
Interesting things to note • There are only 3 light neutrino species. • Neutrinos have mass but we only know the mass difference between the 3 νe mass limit is measured to be around 5 ev species • All quarks can form mesons (2-quark states) or hadrons (3-quark states). The top decays to quickly before it can bind with another quark • Quarks not observed singly in nature but in 2 and 3 quark states. Hadrons 3 quark systems (q1 q2 q3 ) e.g. neutron, proton Mesons 2 quark systems (qq) e.g. π, K

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Forces
• Forces are mediated by bosons (spin 0,1,2, ...) • The electromagnetic force is mediated by the photon (γ) • The weak force is mediated by the W ± and Z 0 bosons MW = 80.4 GeV and MZ = 91.2 GeV • The strong force is mediated by gluons (g) • Finally, the Higgs boson is responsible for providing the W and Z with mass. MH > 114 GeV

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The Electromagnetic Force
• Photons couple to any particle with electric charge e

γ

e

• Perturbation theory can be used to calculate the interactions rates if the interaction strength is not strong 1 α ≈ 137

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Example: e+ e− scattering (Bhabha)

γ γ

e−

e+

e−

e+

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The Strong Force
• Gluons couple to any particle with color charge • Quarks carry color charge... q

g

• Strong interaction αS ≈

1 7

q

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• ... and so do gluons! g g g

g

g

g

g

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The Weak Force
• The W and Z bosons couple to everything (leptons and quarks) • The Z 0 (a.k.a. neutral current) acts a lot like the photon f

Z

f

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Example: e+ e− scattering (Bhabha)

γ γ

e−

e+

e−

e+

Z Z

e−

e+

e−

e+

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• The W can interact with a charged lepton and its neutrino, as well as with an up-type quark and a down-type quark νℓ qd

W

W

ℓ−

qu

• Note that lepton ﬂavor number is always conserved but the W mixes quarks from different generations (ﬂavour change)

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• There are also interactions between the weak force carriers W+ W− Y

Z0, γ

W−

W+

X

• (X, Y ) can be (γ, γ), (γ, Z 0 ), (Z 0 , Z 0 ), or (W + , W − )

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• Probability of a particle decay is proportional to the strength of the interaction strong electromagnetic weak ∆(1236) → N π π 0 → γγ Λ0 → pπ − 10−23 s 10−18 s 10−10 s

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Conservation Laws
• In most cases, were inferred from experiments • These laws (and, in some cases, their absence) often inspired the theoretical descriptions • Many conservation laws are built into the Standard Model via the structure of the vertices What is Conserved in the Standard Model? • Energy and momentum, but not mass • Angular momentum • Charge and color • Lepton ﬂavor number (and therefore lepton number) • Quark number, a.k.a. (3×) baryon number, (but not quark ﬂavor number) • Charge conjugation (C), parity (P ), and time reversal (T ) are conserved by the strong and electromagnetic interactions, but not by the weak interaction (though CP T is conserved).
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New Physics
• We refer to any physics beyond the Standard Model as New Physics. • The most promising candidate for New Physics is supersymmetry (a.k.a. SUSY). • With supersymmetry, every Standard Model particle acquires a partner sparticle of the same mass but opposite statistics. Standard Model Electron Top Quark Photon Weak Boson Higgs e t γ Wi H Spin 1/2 1/2 1 1 0 SUSY Selectron Stop Photino Wino Higgsino e ˜ ˜ t γ ˜ ˜ Wi ˜ H Spin 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2

• Similar sparticles mix, so that we speak of things like sleptons, squarks, charginos, and neutralinos.

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Why SUSY?
• Supersymmetry provides an excellent dark matter candidate. • The basic idea is that SUSY models often incorporate R-parity, deﬁned in terms of baryon number (B), lepton number (L), and spin (S) by 8 < +1 For SM par ticles 3(B−L)+2S Rp = (−1) = : −1 For SUSY particles • R-parity conservation implies that SUSY particles must be created and destr oyed in pairs. This means that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is stable. • The simplest way to add SUSY to the SM is with the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). • The MSSM leads to 5 Higgs bosons: h0 , H 0 , A0 , H + , and H − . The h0 is much like the SM Higgs

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Composition of the universe
We do not understand our universe.

SUSY may yield the dark matter candidate.

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Natural Units:
• Particle physics uses only

=c=1

• Nothing requires us to make everything dimensionless = c = 1, leaving one unit with dimensions

• We take this lone dimensional unit to be energy and we express it in MeV • Convert energy to length using c ≃ 197 MeV fm • Convert length to time using c = 3 × 1023 fm/s • Note that cross sections are measured in barns: 1b ≡ 10−28 m2 ≡ 100 fm2

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Example
• Muon lifetime in natural units:
4 12(8π)3 MW τµ = 4 gW m5 µ

• Step 1: Multiply masses by c2 to convert them to energies ⇒ 1/c2 • Step 2: With τµ now in MeV−1 , multiply by ( c) to convert to length ⇒ ( c)/c2 (so far) • Step 3: With τµ now in fm, divide by c to convert to time ⇒ /c2 • Data: gW = 0.65, MW = 80.4 GeV, mµ = 106 MeV • Substitute data ⇒ τµ = 3.3 × 1015 MeV−1 • Multiply by ( c) ≃ 197 MeV fm ⇒ τµ = 6.6 × 1017 fm • Divide by c ≃ 3 × 1023 fm/s ⇒ τµ = 2.2 × 10−6 s

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Kinematics
• Lorentz Transformations • Four-Vectors • Energy, Momentum, and Mass • Collisions • Examples

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Lorentz Transformations
• Relate coordinates in: S −→ S ′ • Derived from the postulates of relativity • For motion along the x-axis: x′ y′ z′ t where
′ v

= = = =

γ(x − vt) y z “ v ” γ t− 2x c

1 γ= p 1 − v 2 /c2

• Length Contraction: moving objects are shortened: L = L′ /γ • Time Dilation: moving clocks run slow: T = γT ′

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Application: Cosmic Ray Muons
With τµ = 2.2 µs, a muon produced in the upper atmosphere could travel 660 m before decaying The muon lifetime is enhanced through time dilation by a factor of γ = E/m p (β = 1 − 1/γ 2 ) Supposing γ ∼ 10, this allows a typical muon to travel 6.6 km before decaying. Decay length in laboratory frame is γcτ

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Four-Vectors and Tensors
• Write xµ = (x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (ct, x, y, z) so that 0 γ B B −γβ B with Λ=B (x′ )µ = Λµ xν ν B 0 @ 0 −γβ γ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

C 0 C C C 0 C A 1

• A four-vector is a four-component object which behaves like xµ under Lorentz transformations. • xµ is the contravariant and xµ is the covariant four-vector xµ = gµν xν where gµν = diag(1, −1, −1, −1) • The invariant I = xµ xµ e.g m2 = p · p = pµ pµ = (p0 )2 − (p1 )2 − (p2 )2 − (p3 )2

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Energy, Momentum, and Mass
• Relativistic energy is E = γm • Relativistic momentum is p = γmv • Deﬁne the four-momentum by pµ = (E, p). Then, p2 = m2 is a relativistic invariant. • For massless particles, E = |p| = hν • Classically, we always conserve 3-momentum (p), always conserve mass, sometimes conserve kinetic energy, and always conserve total energy even if we don’t keep track of it all. • Relativistically, we always conserve 3-momentum (p), sometimes conserve mass, sometimes conserve kinetic energy, and always conserve total energy. More succinctly, four-momentum is conserved.

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Conserved vs. Invariant quantities
• A conserved quantity remains the same, in a particular frame, before and after an event. • An invariant quantity is the same in all inertial reference frames. – Energy is conserved, but not invariant. – Mass is invariant, but not conserved.

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Examples
• BaBar experiment : Here, a 9 GeV e− beam collides with a 3.1 GeV e+ beam.

• What are the speeds of the colliding particles? • What are the energies of the particles in the center of momentum (CM) frame?

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Speeds
• Use E = γm and m = 0.511 MeV to determine that γ− = 17600 for the electrons and γ+ = 6070 for the positrons. p • Then, with γ = 1/ 1 − β 2 , we solve for β = v/c s 1 1 ⇒β = 1− 2 ≃1− γ 2γ 2 • Using γ− and γ+ , we have ve− ve+ = = (1 − 10−9 )c (1 − 10−8 )c

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• In the CM frame, pe− = (ECM , pCM ) and pe+ = (ECM , −pCM ) so that the (invariant) square of the total four-momentum is: (pe− + pe+ )2 = = (2ECM , 0)2
2 4ECM

• In the lab frame, pe− = (E− , p− ) and pe+ = (E+ , p+ ) so that (pe− + pe+ )2 = = ≃ ≃ p2− + p2+ + 2pe− · pe+ e e m2 + m2 + 2(E− E+ − p− · p+ ) 2(E− E+ + |p− ||p+ |) 4E− E+

• Equating the CM and lab expressions for the invariant, we have p p ECM = E− E+ = (9 GeV)(3.1 GeV) = 5.3 GeV

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Fixed Targets vs. Colliding Beams
• In BaBar, (9 + 3.1) = 12.1 GeV of beam energy leads to (2 × 5.3) = 10.6 GeV of CM energy that can be used to make new particles (in this case, the Υ(4S)). • How much beam energy would it take to produce this CM energy if the target were ﬁxed? • Use the total four-momentum as an invariant. The individual four-momenta will be (m, 0) and (E, p), and therefore (pe− + pe+ )2 = ≃ m2 + m2 + 2 [(m, 0) · (E, p)] 2Em

2 With 2Em = 4ECM we ﬁnd that E = 105 GeV!

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Fixed Targets vs. Colliding Beams III
• Why is the energy of the electrons and positrons at SLAC different? • What does this mean for design of the BaBar detector?

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Asymmetric beams for B physics
The asymmetric beam energy results in the BB meson system being boosted from the centre of mass. This allows one to measure the difference in time between the decay of each B meson.

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Two-Body Decays
Consider the decay π → µ + ν

• In the CM frame, the ﬁnal-state energies are unique The two particles must emerge back to back (to conserve momentum). • Four-vectors: pπ = (mπ , 0), pµ = (Eµ , p) and pν = (Eν , −p). • Conservation of four-momentum:pπ = pµ + pν leads to p2 µ m2 µ ⇒ Eν = = = (pπ − pν )2 p2 + p2 − 2pπ · pν = m2 − 2mπ Eν π ν π m2 − m2 π µ 2mπ

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• Similarly, pν = pπ − pµ leads to p2 ν 0 0 ⇒ Eµ = = = = (pπ − pµ )2 p2 + p2 − 2pπ · pµ µ π m2 + m2 − 2mπ Eµ µ π m2 + m2 π µ 2mπ

• Notice that m2 − m2 π µ 2mπ m2 + m2 π µ 2mπ

Eν + Eµ

=

+

= mπ

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Three-Body Decays
• Consider decays such as n → p + e + ν e and µ− → e− + ν e + νµ • In the CM frame, the ﬁnal-state energies are not unique. • The observation that there was a range of electron energies in the two decays above played a large role in the postulate of the existence of neutrinos.

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Mandelstam Invariants
• For a scattering process 1 + 2 −→ 3 + 4, deﬁne the Mandelstam invariants by s t u = = = (p1 + p2 )2 (p1 − p3 )2 (p1 − p4 )2

• We deﬁne a scattering angle θ in terms of the direction of 3 with respect to 1.

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Channels
• For A + B −→ A + B scattering, the Mandelstam invariants s, t, and u are related to 3 distinct topological channels:

A

B

A

B

A

B

A s-channel

B

A t-channel

B

A u-channel

B

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Symmetries
• Conservation Laws • Basic Group Theory • Angular Momentum • Flavor Symmetries

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What is a Symmetry?
• Translate the wavefunction ψ(x) by an amount a: ψ(x) −→ ψ(x + a) • Now expand ψ(x + a) as a Taylor series about ψ(x) ˛ ˛ a2 ∂ 2 ψ ˛ ∂ψ ˛ ˛ + ˛ + ... ψ(x + a) = ψ(x) + a ˛ 2˛ ∂x x 2! ∂x x ! ∞ X an ∂ n = ψ(x) = U (a)ψ(x) n! ∂xn n=0 where ∂ U (a) = exp a ∂x » –

• If our physical system is indeed invariant under translations, then ψ(x)|ψ(x) = = = ψ(x + a)|ψ(x + a) U (a)ψ(x)|U (a)ψ(x) D E † ψ(x)|U (a)U (a)ψ(x)

then,U † U = 1, or in other words U † = U −1 (unitary matrix).
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Hermitian Operators
• Recall that in Quantum Mechanics, every physical observable is represented by a Hermitian operator (H † = H). • Every Hermitian operator has the form U = eiH . • Factoring out a couple of constants so that U (a) = exp [iHa/ ] comparing to our previous result of U (a) = exp [a ∂/∂x], we ﬁnd ∂ p= i ∂x is a Hermitian operator which generates spatial translations. • Invariance under spatial transoformations gives momentum conservation • Invariance under rotation transoformations gives angular momentum conservation

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Noether’s Theorem
• Every symmetry is associated with a conservation law. Symmetry Space translation Time translation Rotation Gauge transformation Conservation Law Linear momentum Energy Angular momentum Electric charge

• Sometimes we have conservation laws which do not correspond to a previously known symmetry. (e.g. Lepton ﬂavour conservation) • If there is no known symmetry then it is possible the conservation law will fail in the future with a more detailed experiment. (e.g. observation of neutrino oscillations means that Lepton ﬂavour conservation is not exact)

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Basic Group Theory
• A group G is a set of elements with a binary composition law (i.e., a “multiplication”) such that: 1. Closure: ∀ a, b ∈ G : ab = c ∈ G 2. Identity: ∃ e ∈ G | ∀ a ∈ G : ae = ea = a 3. Inverse: ∀ a ∈ G ∃ a−1 ∈ G | aa−1 = a−1 a = e 4. Associativity: ∀ a, b, c ∈ G : (ab)c = a(bc) • G is an Abelian group if the group multiplication is commutative ab = ba ∀ a, b ∈ G. • In the SM, we use SU (3)C ⊗ SU (2)L ⊗ U (1)Y where S ⇒ Special ⇒ determinant 1 O ⇒ Orthogonal ⇒ M T M = 1 U ⇒ Unitary ⇒ M † M = 1 the three groups correspond to the three forces in the Standard Model.

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Angular Momentum
• In Quantum Mechanics, we cannot know everything about the angular momentum J of a particle at a given time. • The best we can do is the simultaneous knowledge of J 2 and Jz , with eigenvalues: ˜ ˆ 2 2 ψ J ψ = j(j + 1) Jz ψ = (mj ) ψ Jz eigenvalues must be spaced in multiples of . j is either an integer or a half-integer. • This formalism applies to orbital angular momentum (L) as to intrinsic angular momentum or spin (S)

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Spin 1/2 - Spinor Notation
• Many of the particles have spin-1/2 (e.g. leptons, quarks, ...) • States can be described as a 2-component spinor: 1 0 α A χ=@ β

For example, the spinors for a spin up and down electron are 1 0 1 0 1 0 A A χ=@ χ=@ 0 1

• Pauli matrices are 1 0 0 1 A σ1 = @ 1 0

σ2 = @

0

0 i

−i 0

1 A

σ3 = @

0

1 0

0 −1

1 A

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Fermions vs. Bosons
• Particles with integer spin are bosons and obey Bose-Einstein statistics (i.e., symmetric w.r.t. exchange of identical particles). • Particles with half-integer spin are fermions and obey Fermi-Dirac statistics (i.e., antisymmetric w.r.t. exchange of identical particles). • Interchanging two particles is equivalent to a 2π relative rotation The unitary transformation which effects rotations is – » i J·θ U (θ) = exp • particles with integer spin, U (2π) = exp(2nπi) = 1 ⇒ bosons. • particles with half-integer spin, U (2π) = exp[2(n + 1/2)πi] = −1 ⇒ fermions. • For a 2-particle system, ψ(12) = ±ψ(12)

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Two particle systems I
1 1

| j1 m1 >

2

2

| j2 m2 > |j m >
Conservation of angular momentum requires: J = J1 + J2 m = m1 + m2

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Two particle systems II
One must also consider the relative angular momentum in addition to the intrinsic angular momentum. Generally intrinisc anagular momentum (S) is S = J1 + J2 and the total anagular momentum (J) is J=L+S

1

1

| j1 m1 >

2

2

| j2 m2 > |j m >

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• If we know J1 and J2 , then we can only ﬁx the magnitude of |J| = |J1 + J2 | Hence m = m1 + m2 and |j1 − j2 | ≤ j ≤ j1 + j2 • If we know J then we can constrain |J1 | and |J2 | m1 and m2 subject to the constraints m1 + m2 = m, |m1 | ≤ j1 , and |m2 | ≤ j2 J2

J1

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Clebsch-Gordan Coefﬁcients
• The relation between the total angular momentum and the individual momenta can be expressed as
j j1 |JM = Cm m1 j2 m2

|j1 m1 |j2 m2

where the Clebsch-Gordan Coefﬁcients represent the quantum mechanical overlap between the two different descriptions of a coupled system:
j j1 Cm m1 j2 m2

= j m | j1 m1 , j2 m2

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CG Examples I
Two particles with spin 1 and spin 0. Hence J = 1 , 3 with 2 and 4 substates, 2 2 respectively. j j1 |JM = Cm m1 j22 |j1 m1 |j2 m2 m ˛ ﬂ ˛3 3 ˛ ˛ 2 2 = |11 ˛ ﬂ ˛1 1 ˛ ˛2 2

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CG Examples II
˛ ˛ ˛ ﬂ r ﬂ r ﬂ ˛1 ˛1 1 ˛1 1 1 1 2 ˛ |11 ˛ − |10 ˛ + ˛2 ˛2 2 ˛2 2 = 3 2 3

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Angular momemtum of a qq state
˛ 1¸ ˛ ¸ 1 • q = ˛ 1 2 and q = ˛ 1 − 2 2 2 • We can form 2 spin states |10 and |00

• For a uu system, this corresponds to the π 0 meson (J = 0) ρ0 meson (J = 1) • We also need to include the orbial angular momentum L between the quarks There are 2 qq states for each value of L

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Isospin
• neutron M = 938 MeV and proton M = 939 MeV • n-n, n-p and p-p interactions are identical if EM interaction ignored • Consider the (n,p) as components of the Nucleon (N) with I-spin 1/2 ˛ ˛ ﬂ ﬂ ˛1 ˛ 1 1 1 n=˛ p=˛ ˛2 −2 ˛ 2 2 • Deﬁne a nucleon spinor 1 0 α A N =@ where β 0 1 A 0 1 A

p=@

1 0

and

n=@

0 1

• The strong force is invariant under rotations in this isospin space.

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Isospin Assignments
• For any hadrons made up of u and d quarks, construct isospin multiplets: ˛ ˛ ﬂ ﬂ ˛1 ˛ 1 1 1 n=˛ p=˛ ˛2 −2 ˛ 2 2 π+ = | 1 1 π0 = | 1 0 π− = | 1 − 1

∆++ = | 3/2 3/2 ∆0 = | 3/2 − 1/2

∆+ = | 3/2 1/2 ∆− = | 3/2 − 3/2

Λ=|00

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πp Cross Sections
14 40. P lots of cross sections and related quantities

Cross section (mb)

10

2

π p total

+

10

π p elastic Plab GeV/c
10
-1

+

1 1.2 2.2 3 2 4 3 5 4

10 5 7 6 7 8 9 10

10

2

Isospin can help us predict relative cross sections without having to know anything about the absolute cross sections. Cross sections: π + p → π + p and π − p → π − p
40

√s GeV
2

πp πd

20 20 30

30 40

6

8 9 10

50 60

10

Cross section (mb)

π d total ⇓ π p total

±

10

If only I=3/2 component contributes then, σ(π + p) : σ(π − p) = 3 : 1
Plab GeV/c

π p elastic

10

-1

1

10

10

2

∆(1236) is an I =

3 2

resonance

Figure 40.13: Total and elastic cross sections for π ± p and π ± d (total only) collisions as a function of laboratory beam momentum and total center-of-mass energy. Corresponding computerreadable data ﬁles may be found at http://pdg.lbl.gov/xsect/contents.html (Courtesy of the COMPAS Group, IHEP, Protvino, August 2003.)

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Discrete Symmetries
• Parity • Parity Violation • Charge Conjugation • CP Violation • Time Reversal • The CP T Theorem • Lepton number

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Parity
• A parity transformation, P , inverts every spatial coordinate: P (t, x) = (t, −x) P 2 = I, and therefore the eigenvalues of P are ±1. • Ordinary vector v. P (v) = −v . • Scalar from v: s = v · v P (s) = P (v · v) = (−v) · (−v) = v · v = +s • Cross product of two vectors: a = v × w P (a) = P (v × w) = (−v) × (−w) = v × w = +a • Scalar from a and v: p = a · v P (p) = P (a · v) = (+a) · (−v) = −a · v = −p Scalar Pseudoscalar Vector Pseudovector P (s) = +s P (p) = −p P (v) = −v P (a) = +a

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Parity in Physical Systems
• Two-body systems have parity pA pB (−1)ℓ P φ(12) = p1 p2 (−1)ℓ φ(12) • Intrinsically, particles and antiparticles have opposite parity Bound states like positronium e+ e− and mesons qq have parity of (−1)ℓ+1 . • Photons have a parity of (−1), and this underlies the ∆ℓ = ±1 selection rule in atomic transitions. • Note that parity is a multiplicative quantum number. This is true for all discrete symmetries. Continuous symmetries have additive quantum numbers.

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Example: uu mesons
By conventions: u-quarks have spin 1/2 and + parity and u-quarks have spin 1/2 and - parity Parity of a uu meson is P = pu pu (−1)ℓ The intrinsic spin (S) of the uu meson is 0 or 1 but may have any orbital angular momentum (L) value. S 0 1 0 L 0 0 1 JP 0− 1− 1+ particle π0 ρ0 b1 (1235)

See the PDG for a table of the quantum numbers of the low-mass mesons.

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Parity in the Standard Model
In 1956, Yang and Lee realized that parity invariance had never been tested experimentally for weak interactions.

Wu’s experiment: recorded the direction of the emitted electron from a 60 Co β-decay when the nuclear spin was aligned up and down The electron was emitted in the same direction independent of the spin. −→ Parity is not conserved in the weak interations

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Parity Violation in π Decay
• Consider the weak decay π + → µ+ + νµ . Since the π is spin-0 and the µ and ν emerge back-to-back in the CM frame, the spins of the µ and ν must cancel. • Experiments show that every µ+ is left-handed, and therefore every νµ is also left-handed. • Similarly, in π − decay, both the µ− and ν µ always emerge right-handed. • If parity were conserved by the weak interaction, we would expect left-handed pairs and right-handed pairs with equal probability (just as we observe with π 0 → 2γ). • Assuming that neutrinos are massless, ALL neutrinos are left-handed ALL antineutrinos are right-handed

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Charge Conjugation I
• The charge conjugation operator, C, converts a particle to i ts antiparticle. C |p = |p • In particular, C reverses every internal quantum number (e.g. charge, baryon/lepton number, strangeness, etc.). • C 2 = I implies that the only allowed eigenvalues of C are ±1. • Unlike parity, very few particles are C eigenstates. Only particles that are their own antiparticles (π 0 , η, γ) are C eigenstates. For example, ˛ +¸ ˛ −¸ C ˛π = ˛π C |γ = − |γ

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Charge Conjugation II
• The photon has a C = −1 • f f bound states have C = (−1)ℓ+s • Charge conjugation is respected by both the strong and electromagnetic interactions. • Example: the π 0 (ℓ = s = 0 ⇒ C = +1) can decay into 2γ but not 3γ C |nγ = (−1)n |γ ˛ ¸ ˛ ¸ C ˛π 0 = ˛π 0 π 0 → 2γ is allowed (and observed) π 0 → 2γ is not allowed (and not observed < 3.1 × 10−8 )

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G-Parity I
• C-symmetry is of limited use. ⇒ Most particles are not C eigenstates • The C operator converts π + to π − . • These two particles have isospin assignments | 1 1 and | 1 − 1 . • A 180◦ isospin rotation gives | 1 1 = eiπI2 | 1 − 1 . • The charged pions are eigenstates under the G-parity, which combines C with G = CeiπI2 a 180◦ isospin rotation: • G-parity is mainly used to examine decays to pions (which have G = −1). G |nπ = (−1)n |nπ

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G-Parity II
G-Parity of a few mesons Particle ρ(770) ω(783) φ(1020) f (1270) JP 1− 1− 1− 2+ I 1 0 0 0 G +1 -1 -1 +1 Decay 2π 3π 3π 2π

For example, the ρ(770) has G = 1 which means it should only decay to an even number of pions. Experimentally we ﬁnd that ρ −→ ππ πππ 100% < 1.2 × 10−4

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CP Symmetry
The combination of C and P (and time reversal T ) have special signiﬁcance. The violation of CP is the reason we live in a matter universe CP T is required to be conserved in Quantum Field Theory (QFT) Look at a pion decay example: • In the pion decay π + → µ+ (R) + νµ (L), the νµ is always left-handed (LH) • Under C, this becomes π − → µ− (R) + ν µ (L), but the ν µ is still LH ⇒ which does not occur in nature. • With C and P , though, we get a RH antineutrino. π − → µ− (L) + ν µ (R) ⇒ whiich is allowed in nature

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CP Violation in the Kaon Sector I
¯ Consider the neutral kaons K 0 (ds) and K 0 (sd) These particles can mix via a second-order weak interaction:

s W u W d u

d

s u W u W

d

s

d

s

This section will focus on the CP aspects. The details on the time dependence of K 0 K 0 oscillations can be found in most textbooks.

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CP Violation in the Kaon Sector II
¯ • Both K 0 and K 0 are pseudoscalar mesons, therefore P = −1. and the K 0 and ¯ K 0 are a particle-antiparticle pair. As a result, under CP , we have ˛ 0¸ ˛ ¸ ˛ 0¸ ˛ ¸ ˛K = − ˛K 0 ¯ ˛K = − ˛K 0 ¯ CP CP `˛ 0 ¸ ˛ 0 ¸´ √ ¯ ˛K − ˛K / 2 `˛ 0 ¸ ˛ 0 ¸´ √ ¯ ˛K + ˛K / 2 = = + |K1 − |K2

• Deﬁning we have

|K1 |K2

= = CP |K1 CP |K2

• If CP is conserved, then |K1 can only decay to 2π (CP = +1) |K2 can only decay to 3π (CP = −1).
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CP Violation in the Kaon Sector III
• K 0 and the K 0 are mass eigenstates and are each others antiparticles • K1 and the K2 are CP eigenstates ˛ 0¸ ˛ 0¸ 1 ˛K = ˛K = √ (|K1 + |K2 )
2 1 √ 2

(|K1 − |K2 )

0 0 • KS and the KL are the observed states and are nearly identical to the CP 0 0 eigenstates (KS and KL are not antiparticles) ˛ 0¸ ˛ 0¸ ˛K = √ 1 ˛K = √ 1 (|K2 + ǫ |K1 ) (|K2 − ǫ |K1 ) S L 2 2 1+|ǫ| 1+|ǫ|

• Experimentally we observe KS → ππ KL → πππ τ = 0.9 × 10−10 s τ = 0.5 × 10−7 s

0 0 However, we ﬁnd about 1 KL → π + π − in 440 KL decays

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Other Tests of CP Violation
• There are other CP -violating observables that have been measured in the kaon sector. For example, there is an asymmetry between the branching ratios of KL to π + + e− + νe versus π − + e+ + νe ¯ • Within the last few years, the BaBar and Belle experiments have measured CP violation in the B-meson sector. • CP violation should also be observable in the D-meson (charm) sector, though this will be a small effect that will be very difﬁcult to measure. • CP violation observed in the K and B mesons is not enough to explain the domination of matter in the universe • With the observation that neutrino has mass, it is expected that we will observe CP violation in the neutrino sector

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Why study CP violation?
• Sakarov pointed out that it is possible to start from a matter-antimatter symmetric universe and end up in one that is asymmetric This requires that there be some process (or processes) that violates the CP symmetry. • The SM does not predict CP violation (it can accomodate no CPV or CPV). However, the SM provides only one source of CP violation (CKM phase angle) which is only possible if there are more than 3 quark generations. • The currently observed SM CPV (using K and B mesons) is too small to explain the matter-dominated universe. • There is another possible source of CPV within the SM in the neutrino sector analoguous to the CKM matrix. • Beyond the SM: CP violation is ubiquitous in theories of New Physics ⇒ SUSY can provide enough CP violation to be observable at low energies.

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Composition of the universe
The universe is more complicated and it is observed that only a small fraction (4%) of the universe is made of known matter. Observations also show that there is more matter (dark matter) from unknown sources (21%). In addition, there is another component (dark energy) which we know even less about (75%).

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CP Violation in τ decays
´ ` 0 The goal is to search for direct CP violation in the decay τ − → h− KS ≥ 0π 0 ντ There is no charge asymmetry between τ − → π − K 0 ντ and τ + → π + K 0 ν τ
0 0 Experimentally we observe the KS and KL mesons, which are linear combinations of K 0 and K 0 states. 0 0 Earlier experiments have shown that the KS and KL are not exact CP eigenstates. As a result the charge asymmetry is ` ´ ´ ` 0 0 Γ τ + → π + KS ν τ − Γ τ − → π − KS ντ ´ ´ ` AQ = ` + − → π− K 0 ν +K0 ν Γ τ →π S τ S τ +Γ τ

Theory predicts AQ = (3.3 ± 0.1) × 10−3

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Time Reversal Symmetry
• Time reversal symmetry, as you might guess, reverses the time component: T (t, x) = T (−t, x)

• Although we expect the weak interaction to violate T , direct T violation has not been deﬁnitively observed yet. • Experimentally, one tries to measure the rate of a reaction in both directions A + B → C + D but this is not so easy

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The CP T Theorem
• The combination CPT is always conserved in any local quantum ﬁeld theory. CPT violation in essentially synonymous with a violation of Lorentz invariance • CP T symmetry mandates that particles and antiparticles must have certain identical properties, such as the same mass, lifetime, charge, and magnetic moment • See the PDG summary tables: http://pdg.lbl.gov/2011/tables/rpp2011-conservation-laws.pdf Examples (fractional differences): M (K 0 ) − M (K 0 ) < 8 × 10−19 M (e+ ) − M (e− ) < 8 × 10−9 τ (µ+ ) − τ (µ− ) < 2 × 10−5 g(e+ ) − g(e− ) < 10−12

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Lepton Number
• There are 3 lepton numbers: Le , Lµ and Lτ Le = +1 for e− and νe Le = −1 for e+ and ν e • Conserved in the EM and Weak interactions γ → e+ e− and π + → µ+ ν µ are allowed whereas µ+ → e+ γ is forbidden • Neutrino oscillations imply that lepton number is violated (at a very small level) • See the PDG summary tables: http://pdg.lbl.gov/2011/tables/rpp2011-conservation-laws.pdf Examples (fractional differences): Γ(Z 0 → e− µ+ ) < 10−6 Γ(µ− → e− γ) < 10−11

Γ(τ − → e− e− e+ ) < 10−8

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Observables
We want to relate experimental measurements to theoretical predictions • Decay widths and lifetimes Γ = h/τ (units of energy) • Cross Sections σ is the total cross section dσ is the angular distribution dΩ dσ is the energy distribution dE

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Lifetime of an Unstable Particle
• The decay rate, Γ, represents the probability, per unit time, of the particle decaying: dN ⇒ N (t) = = −ΓN dt N (0) e−Γt

• The decay rate determines the (mean) lifetime of the particle: τ = 1 Γ

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Breit-Wigner Resonance
Wavefunction for a particle with rest energy ER and width Γ is Ψ(t) = Ψ(0)e−i(ER −iΓ/2)t Fourier transform Breit-Wigner formula : χ(E) ∝
1 (ER −E)−iΓ/2 1 (ER −E)2 +Γ2 /4

|χ(E)|2 ∝

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Example I

1000 800 600

OPAL
1992 + 1993 data

no. decays / 0.05 cm

400 200

10 3
2

10

10

1

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

decay length (cm)

Tau lepton lifetime 288 fs Decay length = γcτ ≈ 2.5 mm At LEP the tau has p ≈ 50 GeV

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Example II
σ (nbarns) 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 300
2

OLYA DM124 DM218

23

CMD22

e+ e− → π + π − cross section as a function of the e+ e− centre-of-mass energy

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 √Q2

σ (nbarns)

10

ρ(770) resonance Γ = 151 MeV τ = h/Γ = 4 × 10−24 seconds

10

1

10

-1

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200 √Q2

Note the ρ − ω interference in the upper plot and the ρ − ρ′ interence in the lower plot

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Example III
BaBar τ decays:
Events / 0.002 GeV/c2)

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0.48 0.5 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.58 0.6 0.62

τ − → π − π − π + ην (η → γγ) The natural width of the η is narrow (few keV) so the width of the resonance is dominated by detector resolution and is ﬁt with a Gaussian distribution. τ − → π − f1 (1285)ην (f1 → π + π − η)

Mass (GeV/c2)

Events / 0.002 GeV/c2)

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4

Mass (GeV/c2)

The natural width of the f1 (1285) is comparable (few MeV) to the detector resolution. The peak is ﬁt with a BreitWigner (for the f1 lineshape) convoluted by a Gaussian ditribution (for the detector resolution)

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Luminosity
• We relate cross sections to observed detection rates, per unit time, by dN = L dσ

where N is the number of events observed per unit time, L has the dimensions of an inverse cross-section per unit time. For example: Run II at Fermilab: L ≃ 1032 cm−2 s−1 LHC: L ≃ 1034 cm−2 s−1 • This integrated luminosity is usually quoteed in papers and corresponds to the size of the data set (measured in pb−1 .)

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Luminosity - BaBar/ATLAS
Total Integrated Luminosity [fb-1] 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 28/02 28/03 25/04 23/05 20/06 18/07 15/08 Day in 2011
ATLAS Online Luminosity
LHC Delivered ATLAS Recorded Total Delivered: 2.46 fb-1 Total Recorded: 2.34 fb-1 s = 7 TeV

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Luminosity Example - LEP

At LEP, L = 1031 cm−2 s−1 The e+ e− → qq cross section at the peak of the Z 0 resonance is 30 nb. 1 barn = 10−24 cm2 or 1 nb = 10−33 cm2

Hence L = 10−2 nb−1 s−1 and NZ per second is = σL = 0.3 s−1

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Branching Ratios
• If a particle can decay via multiple routes, we have Γtot = X
i

Γi

τ =

1 Γtot

where τ is the particle lifetime and Γi is the partial decay width for the particle decaying to the i-th ﬁnal state • We deﬁne the branching ratio for a particular decay mode as Bi = For example, τ → eνν µνν ρν πν 17% 17% 24% 12% Γi Γtot

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Cross Section
• A particle encounters a potential and is scattered off at scattering angle θ • The scattering angle is a function of the impact parameter b. • The smaller the impact parameter, the larger the deﬂection but the function form depends on the properties of the potential.

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Hard sphere scattering
• The particle with impact parameter between b and B + dB will emerge with scattering angle between θ and θ + dθ dσ = D(θ)dΩ • D(θ) = dσ/dΩ is often refered to as the angular distribution. The form of D(θ) depends on the properties of the potential • Total cross section is obtained by integrating the angular distibution over all the solid angle dΩ = sinθdθdφ R σ = dσ • One can also give cross section a function of the energy of one of the particles dσ/dE

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Cross section and decay rates
• Grifﬁths has changed the section on cross sections and decay rates in Version 2. • Other approaches can be found in Halzen and Martin (and QM texts) • Focus on the important elements and suggest you work through the derivation in Grifﬁths

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Decay rate 1 → 2 + 3
Two body decays in the CM frame (No point using any other frame) pf = |p2 | = |p3 | Decay width for a two body decay (1 → 2 + 3) Z S δ 4 (p1 − p2 − p3 ) 2 q d3 p2 d3 p2 Γ= |M | q 32π 2 m1 p2 2 + m2 p3 2 + m2 2 3 where S = 1/N ! is a correction factor if there are identical particles in the ﬁnal state; 32π 2 m1 is a normalization factor related to the initial state; |M |2 the matrix element contains the physics; and the remaining parts are the phase space elements. The phase space elements are proportional to the probability of the particle decaying to the two particle particles in a speciﬁc kinematic state.

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Decay rate 1 → 2 + 3
• Decay width dΓ = 1 pf |M |2 dΩ 32π 2 m1

• Integrate over all angles pf Γ= 32π 2 m2 1 Z |M |2 dΩ

• For a scalar particle (with mass m) the matrix element M and hence the decay rate is independent of the solid angle and the integral is a constant. Γ=C pf 32π 2 m2

where C is a constant that may include momentum or energy dependent terms. • The Higgs Boson is an example of a scalar particle with a coupling proportional to the mass of the particles in the ﬁnal state.
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Scattering Cross Section (CM Frame)
The frame in which one evaluates the cross section is important. For example, the angle at which a particle emerges relative to the incident particle will be different in the LAB and CM frames pµ = (E1 , p) 1 pµ = (E2 , −p) 2 pµ = (E3 , p′ ) 3 pµ = (E4 , −p′ ) 4 |p| = |p′ | = p BaBar collides e+ and e− at different energies in order to separate the outgoing B mesons by boosting their momentum.

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Scattering Cross Section (CM Frame)
• The cross section can be written as (similar form as the decay rate) Z 4 S 2 δ (p1 + p2 − p3 − p4 ) q d3 p3 d3 p4 |M | q σ= 2 (E + E ) |p | 64π 1 2 1 p 2 + m2 p 2 + m2
3 3 4 4

S = 1/N ! is a correction factor if there are identical particles in the ﬁnal state; 64π 2 (E1 + E2 ) |p1 | is a normalization factor related to the initial state; |M |2 the matrix element contains the physics; and the remaining parts are the phase space elements. • One can derive the differential cross section in the CM frame to be 1 S dσ = |M |2 dΩ (8π)2 (E1 + E2 )2 |p | ˛ i˛ ˛pf ˛

where |pi | is the magnitude of either incoming momentum and |pf | is the magnitude of either outgoing momentum. |M |2 will likely depend on the direction of one of the outgoing particles

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2-body scattering in the LAB frame

pµ = (E1 , p1 ) 1 pµ = (m2 , 0) 2 pµ = (E3 , p3 ) 3 pµ = (E4 , −p4 ) 4

dσ 1 S |p3 | = |M |2 dΩ 64π 2 m2 |p1 | (E1 + m2 − |p1 | cosθ)

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Examples of cross sections

σ(e+ e− → hadrons)

σ(W − → e− ν)

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ATLAS jet cross section
Inclusive jet cross section

dσ/dp [pb/GeV]

106 ATLAS 10 10
5 |y | < 2.8 Systematic Uncertainties 4 NLO pQCD (CTEQ 6.6) × Non-pert. corr. anti-k t jets, R =0.4

T

103 102 10 1

∫ L dt=17 nb

-1

( s =7 TeV)

Data/Theory

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

100

200

300

400

500

600

p T [GeV]
100 200 300 400 500
T

600

p [GeV]

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ABC Theory
• Feynman Diagrams • Feynman Rules • Calculating Decay Rates • Calculating Cross Sections • Higher-Order Diagrams

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ABC Theory
• 3 spinless particles, A, B, and C (each of which is its own antiparticle) • Only one vertex which must include all three particle types (A,B,C) For example, (A,A,A) is not allowed • If mA > mB + mC then A can decay into B and C. B C B C A

A A

B

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The Feynman Rules
The Feynman rules provide the recipe for constructing an amplitude M from a Feynman diagram. • Step 1: Draw the Feynman diagram with the minimum number of vertices. There may be more than one. • Step 2: Label the four-momentum of each line (with arrows), enforcing four-momentum conservation at every vertex. B, p3 B, p4 p1 , p2 , . . . external momenta C A, p1 A, p2 q1 , q2 , . . . internal momenta arrows indicate positive direction

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• Step 3: Each vertex contributes a factor of (−ig) Each internal line, with mass m and four-momentum q, contributes a i propagator of q2 −m2 • Step 4: Conserve 4-momentum at each vertex (2π)4 δ (4) (k1 + k2 + k3 ) where ki are the momenta coming into the vertex. • Step 5 Form the amplitude M = i (vertex factors)(propagators)(momentum conservation) • Step 6: Integrate over the internal momenta
1 d4 qj (2π)4

• Step 7: Drop the extra δ-function and −iM remains.

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Example: A → B + C
• To lowest order (O(g)), we have just one diagram: B p2 տ C ր p3 ↑ p1 A • There is just one vertex and no propagators, therefore M = i(−ig) = g

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• From Fermi’s Golden Rule, the decay rate is given by Γ= |p| |M|2 8πm2 1

• If m1 = mA and M = g g 2 |p| Γ= 8πm2 A where |p| is the magnitude of the momentum of either B or C, • The lifetime of A is τA 8πm2 = 2 A g |p|

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A+A→B+B
• To lowest order (O(g 2 )), we have two diagrams: B, p3 B, p4 B, p4 B, p3

C A, p1 t-channel q = p1 − p3
2

C A, p2 A, p1 u-channel q = p1 − p4 A, p2

i g2 Mt = i(−ig) = (p1 − p3 )2 − m2 t − m2 C C

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A+A→B+B
• The matrix element for the s and u channel is g2 g2 + M= t − m2 u − m2 C C • Note that M is Lorentz invariant. • To convert M to a cross section, we use Fermi’s Golden Rule In the CM frame, |pf | 1 S |M|2 dσ = dΩ (8π)2 (E1 + E2 )2 |pi | where S = 1/2 because we have two identical particles (B + B) in the ﬁnal state. Also, E1 = E2 = E.

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A+A→B+B
• The cross section can also be written as 1 dσ = dΩ 2(16πE)2 ˛ ˛2 ˛ g2 ˛ 2 |pf | ˛ g ˛ + ˛ ˛ |pi | ˛ t − m2 u − m2 ˛ C C

• Assume that mA = mB = m and mC = 0. Then |pf | = |pi | and t = (p1 − p3 )2 u = (p1 − p4 )2 1 dσ = ⇒ dΩ 2 = = „ −2p2 (1 − cos θ) −2p2 (1 + cos θ) «2

g2 16πEp2 sin2 θ

• Note that σ → ∞, just as for Rutherford scattering.

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Higher-Order Diagrams
• By considering more complicated Feynman diagrams, we can generate additional contributions to the amplitude: MA→B+C MA+A→B+B = = gA1 + g 3 A3 + g 5 A5 + . . . g 2 A2 + g 4 A4 + g 6 A6 + . . .

If g ≪ 1 (or, more precisely, (g/mA ) ≪ 1 in ABC Theory), we can see how each successive term in the perturbation series provides smaller and smaller corrections to the amplitude.

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Corrections to τA
• We have calculated the lifetime of A due to the vertex diagram B C

A then the leading corrections to Γ will be O(g 4 ). • Since M ∼ g, Γ ∼ There will arise from the interference of the O(g) diagram with a O(g 3 ) diagram in the coherent sum: ˛ ˛2 |M|2 = ˛gA1 + g 3 A3 + . . .˛ g2 ,

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Other Decay Modes
• Note that we are only interested in the O(g 3 ) diagrams in which A → B + C. • If A is sufﬁciently heavy, other decay modes such as A → 3B + C and A → B + 3C are possible. B B B C

C

A

A

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Incoherent Sums
• A → 3B + C is a distinct decay mode, hence we calculate Γ separately from that of A → B + C • As a result, even though M ∼ g 3 , Γ ∼ g 6 , and so we need not consider these diagrams for a Γ ∼ g 4 calculation. • The decay of A involves both coherent and incoherent sums. Γ(A → anything) = = ΓA→BC + ΓA→BBBC + ΓA→BCCC + . . . ˛2 ˛X ˛2 ˛X ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ MA→BBBC ˛ MA→BC ˛ + C2 ˛ C1 ˛ ˛X ˛2 ˛ ˛ +C3 ˛ MA→BCCC ˛ + . . .

(C1 , C2 , and C3 arise from Fermi’s Golden Rule.)

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Third-Order A → B + C Diagrams
• There is one legal third-order diagram to consider: B A C

C

B

A

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Illegal Loop Diagrams
• There are several other O(g 3 ) diagrams that can be drawn for A → B + C, however these are not to be calculated using the Feynman Rules. B C A B C B B A C C

A Disconnected

A Reducible

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Corrections to A + A → B + B
• The interference of the one-loop diagrams (O(g 4 )) with the tree-level diagram (O(g 2 )) provides O(g 6 ) corrections to the cross section. B B B

C A A

C

A

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Quantum Mechanics
This section gives the Quantum Mechanics background required to calculate Feynmann diagrams. The introduction to Dirac Equation may be new and will eventually covered in the graduate QM course. • Schrodinger equation ¨ • Klein-Gordon Equation • Dirac Equation

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Schrodinger equation ¨
In classical Quantum Mechanics, recall that when we substitute p → −i∇ E→i ∂ ∂t

into the classical expression for energy conservation, p2 +V =E 2m we obtain the Schrodinger equation ¨ − ∂Ψ 1 ∇2 Ψ + V Ψ = i 2m ∂t

Works well for non-relativistic, spin-0 problems.

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Klein-Gordon equation
The Schrodinger equation does not work for relativistic particles, we use the same ¨ approach as done for classical QM • Use the relativistic energy-momentum relation: • In 4-vector notation pµ = (E, p) • With the covariant substitution pµ → i∂µ , −∂ µ ∂µ φ − m2 φ ∂2φ − 2 + ∇2 φ ∂t ( − m2 )φ = = = 0 m2 φ 0 E 2 − p2 = m2 pµ pµ − m2 = 0

This is the Klein-Gordon equation • is the d’Alembertian operator ∂2 = 2 + ∇2 ∂t

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Solutions to the Klein-Gordon Equation
• Consider a plane-wave solution to the Klein-Gordon equation: φ(x, t) = e−iEt+ip·x = e−ip·x ( + m2 )φ = 0

• Substituting the plane-wave solution into the KG equation returns the energy-momenum conservation equation (consistency check) −E 2 + p2 + m2 = 0 • For a given p, there are two possible solutions for E: p E = ± p2 + m2 Notice that there is a negative energy solution

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Problems with the KG equation
• The second-order time derivative in the of the KG equation is responsible for both the negative-energy plane wave solutions and a misbehaving probability density. • Dirac tried to ﬁx this problem by looking for a relativistic equation that, like the Schrodinger equation HΨ = i ∂Ψ/∂t, only contained ﬁrst-order time ¨ derivatives. • The KG equation is good for spin 0 particles whereas the Dirac equation works for spin 1/2 particles

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Dirac’s Approach I
• Suppose a particle is at rest (i.e., p = 0). Then the energy-momentum relation E 2 − p2 = m2 can be factored into a pair of (linear) equations: (p0 )2 − m2 = = or 0 0 (p0 + m) = 0

(p0 − m)(p0 + m)

⇒ (p0 − m) = 0

• Either linear equation leads to a conﬁguration-space equation which is ﬁrst-order in time and satisﬁes the relativistic energy-momentum relation.

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Dirac’s Approach II
• To extend this factorization for moving particles, we can write (pµ pµ − m2 ) = (β κ pκ + m)(γ λ pλ − m) we need to determine the coefﬁcients β κ and γ λ . • Expanding out the right-hand side, we have (pµ pµ − m2 ) = β κ γ λ pκ pλ + m(γ κ − β κ )pκ − m2 • To eliminate the linear p term, we require β κ = γ κ . The quadratic term leads to p2 = γ κ γ λ pκ pλ

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Dirac’s Approach II
• We can then write p2 = = = ⇒ (γ κ γ λ + γ λ γ κ ) = γ κ γ λ pκ pλ γ κ γ λ (pκ pλ + pλ pκ )/2 (γ κ γ λ + γ λ γ κ )pκ pλ /2 2g κλ

• We typically write this last relationship as an anticommutator: {γ µ , γ ν } = 2g µν where (γ 0 )2 = 1 and (γ i )2 = −1 • If γ 0 = 1 and γ i = i, but then {γ 0 , γ i } = 0 which means that the anticommutator equation cannot be solved by any set of complex numbers. ⇒ The γ are matricies.

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The γ Matrices
• Dirac’s idea was to let γ represent a matrix. Speciﬁcally, the 4 × 4 matrices 1 0 0 1 0 0 A γ0 = @ γi = @ 0 −1 −σ i satisfy the anticommutation relation {γ µ , γ ν } = 2g µν . • This set of γ matrices is known as the Bjorken and Drell representation and it is commonly used at low energies. • Other choices exist, however, the physics is independent of the speciﬁc choice of γ matrices.

σi 0

1 A

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The Dirac Equation
• Having factored the relativistic energy-momentum relation, (pµ pµ − m2 ) = (γ κ pκ + m)(γ λ pλ − m) = 0 we can set either factor to zero. • In momentum space, the Dirac equation is γ µ pµ − m = 0 • With pµ → i∂µ , we get the conﬁguration-space Dirac equation: (iγ µ ∂µ − m)ψ = 0 • When we contract γ µ with a four-vector qµ , we can abbreviate this using the q Feynman slash notation γ µ qµ = / • With the slash notation, the Dirac equation becomes p /− m (i/ − m)ψ ∂ = = 0 0

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Spinors
• Rewriting the Dirac equation (i/ − m)ψ = 0 ∂

• Since the γ matrices are 4 × 4, then the ψ must be a 4-component column matrix. • We call this a bi-spinor, Dirac spinor, or just plain spinor. 1 0 ψ1 C B B ψ C B 2 C ψ=B C B ψ3 C A @ ψ4 It is not a 4-vector - it does not transform like a 4-vector.

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Solutions of the Dirac Equation I
• Look for solutions that are independent of position: ∂ψ ∂ψ ∂ψ = = =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z

• This simpliﬁes the Dirac equation to iγ 0 ∂ψ − mψ = 0 ∂t

• Split the spinor into a pair of 2-component pieces: 0 1 1 0 1 0 ψA ψ1 ψ3 A A A ψ=@ ψA = @ ψB = @ ψB ψ2 ψ4

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Solutions of the Dirac Equation II
• This leads to the pair of equations ∂ψA = −imψA ∂t whose solutions are ψA (t) = ψA (0)e−imt ψB (t) = ψB (0)e+imt ∂ψB = +imψB ∂t

• Evidently, ψA is a solution with energy E = +m, as we should expect, but ψB seems to have a negative energy E = −m. • Dirac had hoped that a ﬁrst-order (in ∂/∂t) equation would avoid these negative energy solutions. • Eventually, Dirac predicted the existence of the positron.

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Electrons and Positrons
• Dirac equation has 4 independent solutions for a particle at rest: 1 0 1 0 0 1 C B C B B 1 C B 0 C C B C B ψ (2) = e−imt B (e− ↑) ψ (1) = e−imt B C C B 0 C B 0 C A @ A @ 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 C B C B B 0 C B 0 C C B C B ψ (4) = e+imt B (e+ ↑) ψ (3) = e+imt B C C B 0 C B 1 C A @ A @ 1 0 for an electron and positron in spin up and down states.

(e− ↓)

(e+ ↓)

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Plane-Wave Solutions I
• Next we will look for solutions to the Dirac equation of the form ψ(x) = ae−ip·x u(p) where u(p) is a momentum-space solution of the Dirac equation, satisfying (/ − m)u = 0 p p / = = γ 0 p0 − γ · p 0 1 0 1 0 0 A−p·@ E@ 0 −1 −σ 1 0 E −p · σ A @ p·σ −E

• Using

σ 0

1 A

=

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Plane-Wave Solutions II
0 @ 0 @ E−m p·σ −p · σ 10 A@ uA uB 1 A 1 A

(/ − m)u p

=

−E − m

=

(p · σ)uA − (E + m)uB

(E − m)uA − (p · σ)uB

• The Dirac equation (/ − m)u = 0 then gives us a pair of coupled equations for p uA and uB : (p · σ) (p · σ) uB uB = uA uA = E−m E+m • These equations can easily be solved by substituting one into the other and noting that (p · σ)2 = p2 · 1

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Plane-Wave Solutions III
• Rewriting the two coupled equations uA = (p · σ) uB E−m uB = (p · σ) uA E+m

• Substituting the second equation into the ﬁrst, we have uA p2 uA = 2 E − m2

which requires E 2 − m2 = p2 , just as we should expect. • Again we have two solutions for E: p E = ± p2 + m2 • By picking speciﬁc forms for uA or uB (one is constrained by the other), we can construct a set of four solutions to the Dirac equation for a moving particle.

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Plane-Wave Solutions IV
• With the normalization u† u = 2|E|, we have two particle solutions 0 1 1 0 1 0 B C C B B C C B 0 1 B C C B (1) (2) u =NB u = N B px −ipy C C pz B C C B @ E+m A @ E+m A
px +ipy E+m −pz E+m

and two antiparticle solutions 0 v (1) B B B =NB B @ √ 0 1

px −ipy E+m −pz E+m

1 C C C C C A v (2)

B B B = −N B B @

0

pz E+m px +ipy E+m

1 C C C C C A

1 0

• In all cases, N =

E + m and E is positive.

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Spins of the Plane-Wave Solutions
• We can generalize the Pauli spin matrices to the 4 × 4 matrices required for Dirac spinors: 0 1 σ 0 A S= Σ Σ≡@ 2 0 σ • If the particles are traveling along the z-axis, then the plane-wave solutions u and v will be eigenstates of Sz . • u(1) and v (1) are spin up, while u(2) and v (2) are spin down.

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Particles and Antiparticles
• In a typical experiment, we are dealing with particles of speciﬁc energies and momenta, therefore it is the u and v plane-wave solutions which are of interest to us. • The particle states are solutions to the original momentum-space Dirac equation (/ − m)u = 0 p • The antiparticle states, by virtue of reinterpreting the negative energy particle states as positive energy antiparticles, satisfy (/ + m)v = 0 p

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Big and Small Components
• Using the Bjorken and Drell representation of the γ matrices, we have shown that the plane-wave solution for a spin-up electron is 1 0 1 C B C B 0 C B (1) u =NB C pz C B @ E+m A
px +ipy E+m

• Note that at low energies, the upper components are much larger than the lower components.

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Summary
• The relativistic energy-momentum relation leads to the Klein-Gordon equation, but a naive examination of this equation leads to problems. • Dirac tried to get around these problems with a ﬁrst-order equation. The KG problems remained and their solution was to postulate the existence of antiparticles. • We now realize that the Klein-Gordon equation describes spin-0 particles and the Dirac equation describes spin- 1 2 particles. • The particle and antiparticle plane-wave solutions of the Dirac equation will be used frequently in our formulation of QED.

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Spinors
Eventually we will see that the interactions can be expressed in terms of currents of the form ¯ jµ ≈ ψXµ ψ

To aid with our understanding it will help to learn about the transformation properties of spinors

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Lorentz Transformations of Spinors
• Spinors are not four-vectors, therefore they do not transform via the Lorentz transfromation matrix Λ (deﬁned in an earlier lecture) • Spinors transform in the following manner: ψ → Sψ

• For motion along the x-axis, S=@ where a± = ± and γ = (1 − v 2 )−1/2 p (γ ± 1)/2 0 a+ a− σ1 a− σ1 a+ 1 A

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Making a Scalar With a Spinor
• Under a Lorentz transformation, ψ† ψ −→ (Sψ)† (Sψ) = ψ † (S † S)ψ

Since S † S = 1 ⇒ ψ † ψ is not a Lorentz scalar. ¯ • Deﬁne the adjoint spinor: ψ ≡ ψ † γ 0 • Under a Lorentz transformation ¯ ψψ = ψ † γ 0 ψ where S † γ 0 S = γ 0 ¯ −→ ψ † S † γ 0 Sψ = ψ † γ 0 ψ = ψψ

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γ 5 matrix
• Deﬁne an additional γ-matrix by γ 5 ≡ iγ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 • In the Bjorken and Drell representation, 0 γ5 = @

0 1

1 0

1 A

• Note: (γ 5 )2 = 1 and γ 5 anticommutes with every γ matrix: {γ µ , γ 5 } = 0 ⇒ γ µ γ 5 = −γ 5 γ µ

¯ • Since S † γ 0 γ 5 S = γ 0 γ 5 ψγ 5 ψ is also a Lorentz scalar. ¯ ¯ • This gives us 2 Lorentz scalars: ψψ and ψγ 5 ψ.

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Parity
• Under a parity transformation ψ → γ0ψ

• Since ¯ ψψ → → → → (P ψ)† γ 0 (P ψ) ψ † (γ 0 )† γ 0 γ 0 ψ ψ † (γ 0 )† ψ ¯ ψψ ¯ ψγ 5 ψ → → → → (P ψ)† γ 0 γ 5 (P ψ) ψ † (γ 0 )† γ 0 γ 5 γ 0 ψ −ψ † (γ 0 )† γ 5 ψ ¯ −ψγ 5 ψ

¯ ¯ ψψ is a true scalar and ψγ 5 ψ is a pseudoscalar.

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Bilinear Covariants
∗ • There are 16 possible products of the form ψi ψj . These 16 products can be grouped together into bilinear covariants:

¯ ψψ ¯ ψγ 5 ψ ¯ ψγ µ ψ ¯ ψγ µ γ 5 ψ ¯ ψσ µν ψ where

Scalar Pseudoscalar Vector Pseudovector Antisymmetric tensor σ µν ≡ i µ ν [γ , γ ] 2

1 component 1 component 4 components 4 components 6 components

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Signiﬁcance of blinear covariants?
• We have a simple basis set {1, γ 5 , γ µ , γ µ γ 5 , σ µν } for any 4 × 4 matrix • The tensorial and parity character of each bilinear is evident. This makes it easy to see why the QED interaction Lagrangian ¯ −eAµ ψγ µ ψ leads to a parity-conserving electromagnetic force mediated by a vector (i.e., spin-1) boson. • To describe the parity-violating weak interaction, we could (and do) mix ¯ ¯ vector (ψγ µ ψ) and axial (ψγ µ γ 5 ψ) interactions.

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EM and photons
• Maxwell’s equation Aµ − ∂ ν (∂µ Aν ) = 4πJ µ where = ∂ ν ∂µ , Aν = (φ, A) and J ν = (ρ, J) • (φ, A) are not uniquely determined and so we are allowed to make a gauge transformation Aµ → Aµ + ∂ µ λ • We can demand the Lorentz condition ∂µ Aµ = 0 which simpliﬁes the Maxwell equations to Aµ = 4πJ µ • We can make further gauge transformations of the form Aµ → Aµ + ∂ µ λ without disturbing Aµ = 4πJ µ so long as λ = 0. =⇒ We choose to set A0 = 0 and work in the Coulomb gauge: ∇ · A = 0

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Free Photons
• For a photon in free space (J µ = 0), the potential is given by • The plane-wave solution is Aµ (x) = ae−ip·x ǫµ (p) where ǫµ is the polarization vector and pµ pµ = 0 • Although ǫµ has 4 components, not all are independent. The Lorentz condition requires that pµ ǫµ = 0 Furthermore, the Coulomb gauge implies that ǫ0 = 0 and ǫ · p = 0 • Since ǫ is perpendicular to p, the photon is transversely polarized and there are only 2 independent polarization states. Aµ = 0.

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Feynman Rules for QED
• The Feynman Rules for QED • Setting up Amplitudes • Casimir’s Trick • Trace Theorems

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Electrons and positrons
• spinors u(s) and v (s) (s = spin) satisfy the Dirac equation (γ µ pµ − m)u = 0 • adjoints u = u† γ 0 and v = v † γ 0 satisfy u(γ µ pµ − m) = 0 • orthogonality u(1) u(2) = 0 and v (1) v (2) = 0 • normalization uu = 2m and vv = −2m • completeness P (s) (s) P u u = γ µ pµ + m and s v (s) v (s) = γ µ pµ − m s

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Photons
Aµ (x) = ae−ip·x ǫµ (p) • Lorentz condition ǫµ pµ = 0 • orthogonality ǫµ ǫµ(2) = 0 (1) • normalization ǫµ∗ ǫµ = 1 • Coulomb gauge ǫ0 = 0 and ǫ · p = 0 • Completeness P ∗ s (ǫ(s) )i (ǫ(s) )j = δij − pi pj

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The Feynman Rules for QED I
The Feynman rules provide the recipe for constructing an amplitude M from a Feynman diagram. • Step 1: For a particular process of interest, draw a Feynman diagram with the minimum number of vertices. There may be more than one. e− , p 3 e+ , p 4

γ e− , p 1 e+ , p 2

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The Feynman Rules for QED II
• Step 2: For each Feynman diagram, label the four-momentum of each line, enforcing four-momentum conservation at every vertex. e− , p 3 e+ , p 4

γ e− , p 1 e+ , p 2 Note that arrows are only present on fermion lines and they represent particle ﬂow, not momentum. • Step 3: The amplitude depends on 1. Vertex factors 2. Propagators for internal lines 3. Wavefunctions for external lines
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Vertex Factors
e • Every QED vertex, γ

contributes a factor of ige γ µ .

e

• ge is a dimensionless coupling constant and is related to the ﬁne-structure constant by 2 ge α= 4π

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Propagators
• Each internal photon connects two vertices of the form ige γ µ and ige γ ν , so we should expect the propagator to contract the indices µ and ν. • Photon propogator −igµν q2 • Fermion propogator is a bit more complicated i(/ + m) q q 2 − m2 The sign of q matters here — we take it to be in the same direction as the fermion arrow.

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External Lines
• Since both the vertex factor and the fermion propagators involve 4 × 4 matrices, but the amplitude must be a scalar, the external line factors must sit on the outside. • Work backwards along every fermion line using:

e− in u

e− out u ¯

e+ in v ¯

e+ out v

γ in ǫµ

γ out ǫ∗ µ

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Matrix elements I
follow fermion lines backward to give e u(2)igγ µ u(1)

γ

e j µ = uγ µ u is associated with the electron current

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Matrix elements II
The matrix element is proportional to the two currents in the diagram below. « „ −igµν [¯2 (ige γ ν )v4 ] v [¯3 (ige γ µ )u1 ] u (p1 − p3 )2

e− , p 3

e+ , p 4

γ e− , p 1 e+ , p 2

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And Finally...
• Step 4: The overall amplitude is the coherent sum of the individual amplitudes for each diagram: M ⇒ |M2 | = = M1 + M2 + . . . |M1 + M2 + . . .|2

• Step 4a: Antisymmetrization Include a minus sign between diagrams that differ only in the exchange of two identical fermions.

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Examples
• There are only a handful of ways to make tree-level diagrams in QED. • Construct amplitudes for Bhabha scattering(e+ e− → e+ e− ) Compton scattering(e γ → e γ). • Later, we will undertake thorough calculations for Mott scattering (e ℓ → e ℓ) pair annihilation (e+ e− → γ γ) ¯ fermion pair-production (e+ e− → f f ).

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Example: Bhabha Scattering
e− , p 3 e+ , p 4 e− , p 3 e+ , p 4

γ γ e− , p 1 e+ , p 2 e− , p 1 e+ , p 2

• Antisymmetrization ⇒ M = Mt − Ms „ « −igµν Mt = i [¯3 (ige γ µ )u1 ] u [¯2 (ige γ ν )v4 ] v (p1 − p3 )2 „ « −igµν Ms = i [¯3 (ige γ µ )v4 ] u [¯2 (ige γ ν )u1 ] v (p1 + p2 )2

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Example: Compton Scattering
γ, p3 e− , p 4 γ, p3 e− , p 4

e− , p 1

γ, p2

e− , p 1

γ, p2

• No antisymmetrization ⇒ M = M1 + M2 » „ « – i(/1 − /3 + m) p p M1 = i u4 (ige γ µ ) ¯ (ige γ ν )u1 ǫ∗ ǫ2µ 3ν (p1 − p3 )2 − m2 » „ – « i(/1 + /2 + m) p p M2 = i u4 (ige γ µ ) ¯ (ige γ ν )u1 ǫ∗ ǫ2ν 3µ (p1 + p2 )2 − m2

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Polarized Particles
• A typical QED amplitude might look something like M ∼ [¯1 Γµ v2 ] ǫ3µ u The Feynman rules won’t take us any further, but to get a number for M we will need to substitute explicit forms for the wavefunctions of the external particles: u1 , v2 , and ǫ3µ . ¯ • If all external particles have a known polarization, this might be a reasonable way to calculate things. • More often we are interested in unpolarized particles as few accelerators produce polarized particles In the 1990s the SLC at SLAC produced polarized electron at 50 GeV

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Spin-Averaged Amplitudes
• If we do not care about the polarizations of the particles then we need to 1. Average over the polarizations of the initial-state particles 2. Sum over the polarizations of the ﬁnal-state particles in the squared amplitude |M|2 . • We call this the spin-averaged amplitude and we denote it by |M| D
2

E

• Note that the averaging over initial state polarizations involves summing over all polarizations and then dividing by the number of independent E D polarizations, so |M|2 involves a sum over the polarizations of all external particles.

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Spin Sums I
• Let’s simplify things even further and suppose that we have M ∼ [¯1 Γu2 ] u Then |M|2 ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ [¯1 Γu2 ] [¯1 Γu2 ]∗ u u i† h † 0 [¯1 Γu2 ] u1 γ Γu2 u h i † † 0† [¯1 Γu2 ] u2 Γ γ u1 u h i † 0 0 † 0 [¯1 Γu2 ] u2 γ γ Γ γ u1 u ˜ ˆ ¯ 1 [¯1 Γu2 ] u2 Γu u ¯

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Spin Sums II
• Rewriting the squared matrix element |M|2 ∼ ˆ ˜ [¯1 Γu2 ] u2 Γu1 u ¯ ¯

• We can use the completeness relation for u2 u2 ¯ X s s ui i ui i = (/i + mi ) ¯ p
si =1,2

• Summing over the spins of particle 2 gives X ˜ ˆ ¯ |M|2 ∼ u1 Γ(/2 + m2 )Γu1 ¯ p
s2

[¯1 Qu1 ] u

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Spin Sums III
• The right-hand side is just a number, but if we represent the matrix multiplication with summations over indices, we can rewrite it as [¯1 Qu1 ] u = = = = (¯1 )i Qij (u1 )j u Qij (u1 u1 )ji ¯ [Q (u1 u1 )]ii ¯ Tr [Q(u1 u1 )] ¯

• Apply the completeness relation once again, so that we get X |M|2 ∼ Tr [Q(/1 + m1 )] p
s1

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Spin Sums IV
• Starting from M ∼ [¯1 Γu2 ] u

Averaging over initial spins and summing over ﬁnal spins gives D E ˆ ˜ 1 2 ¯ p1 + m1 ) Tr Γ(/2 + m2 )Γ(/ p ⇒ |M| ∼ 2 • Particles 1 and 2 may or may not be in the initial state • The factor of 1 is from the averaging over initial spins, assuming exactly one 2 of u1 and u2 corresponds to an initial-state particle. • If they are both in the initial state (e.g., pair annihilation), the factor is If neither is in the initial state (e.g., pair production), the factor is 1.
1 . 4

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Casimir’s Trick
• This procedure of calculating spin-averaged amplitudes in terms of traces is known as Casimir’s Trick X ˆ ˜ ¯ p [¯a Γ1 ub ] [¯a Γ2 ub ]∗ = Tr Γ1 (/b + mb )Γ2 (/a + ma ) u u p
all spins

• If antiparticle spinors (v) are present in the spin sum, we use the corresponding completeness relation X s s vi i vi i = (/i − mi ) ¯ p
si =1,2

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Traces
• Because of Casimir’s Trick, we’re going to ﬁnd ourselves calculating a lot of traces involving γ-matrices. • General identities about traces: Tr(A + B) Tr(αA) Tr(AB) Tr(ABC) = = = = Tr(A) + Tr(B) αTr(A) Tr(BA) Tr(CAB) = Tr(BCA)

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Gamma matricies and traces
• The two major identities that we will need in order to build more complicated trace identities are gµν g µν {γ µ , γ ν } = = 4 2g µν

• Since γµ γ µ = 4 and γµ γ ν γ λ γ µ = 4g νλ . We ﬁnd that γµ γ ν γ µ = = = = γµ (2g µν − γ µ γ ν ) 2γ ν − γµ γ µ γ ν 2γ ν − 4γ ν −2γ ν

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Simple Trace Identities
• The simplest trace identity is: Tr(1) = 4 • The trace of a single γ matrix is zero The trace of any odd number of γ-matrices. • For 2 γ-matrices, Tr(γ µ γ ν ) = = = = Tr (γ µ γ ν + γ ν γ µ ) /2 Tr(2g µν )/2 g µν Tr(1) 4g µν

• For 4 γ traces Tr(γ γ γ γ ) = 4 g
µ ν λ σ

µν λσ

g

−g

µλ νσ

g

+g

µσ νλ

g

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Traces With γ 5
• The vertex factor for weak interactions involves γ 5 . • By inspection, Tr(γ 5 ) = 0. • Since γ 5 = iγ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 (an even number of γ-matrices), Tr(γ 5 γ µ ) Tr(γ 5 γ µ γ ν γ λ ) = = 0 0

• Also, Tr(γ 5 γ µ γ ν ) = 0

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The γ 5 Trace
• Only with 4 (or more) other γ-matrices can we obtain a nonzero trace involving γ 5 : Tr(γ 5 γ µ γ ν γ λ γ σ ) = 4iǫµνλσ where we recall that the antisymmetric tensor is deﬁned as 8 > −1 for even permutations of 0123 > < ǫµνλσ ≡ +1 for odd permutations of 0123 > > : 0 if any 2 indices are the same

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Contractions of the ǫ Tensor
• Since ǫµνλσ is completely antisymmetric, we will get zero when we contract this with any tensor that is symmetric in 2 indices, such as g µν or (pµ pν + pµ pν ). 2 1 1 2 • Only contractions with another antisymmetric tensor survive: ǫµνλσ ǫµνλσ ǫµνλσ ǫµνλτ ǫµνλσ ǫµνθτ = = = . . . −24
σ −6 δτ ” “ λ σ λ σ −2 δθ δτ − δτ δθ

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Example 1
• One of the traces involved in Bhabha scattering is T = Tr [γ µ (/1 + m)γ ν (/3 + m)] p p

• We can expand this out to create 4 terms, but 2 of these terms (the ones linear in m) will involve 3 γ-matrices, and are therefore zero. • Thus, T = = Tr(γ µ /1 γ ν /3 ) + m2 Tr(γ µ γ ν ) p p ´ ` 4 pµ pν + pµ pν − (p1 · p3 )g µν + 4m2 g µν 3 1 1 3

• This result will be contracted with another trace that is covariant (i.e., µν as opposed to contravariant µν ) in µ and ν.

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Example 2
• Consider A = Tr(γ µ /1 γ ν /2 ) Tr(γµ /1 γν /2 ) p p p p

• Evaluating the traces, ˜ ˆ A = 4 pµ pν + pν pµ − (p1 · p2 )g µν 1 2 1 2 = =

×4 [p1µ p2ν + p1ν p2µ − (p1 · p2 )gµν ] ˜ ˆ 2 2 2 2 2 16 2p1 p2 + 2(p1 · p2 ) + 4(p1 · p2 ) − 4(p1 · p2 ) ˜ ˆ 32 m2 m2 + (p1 · p2 )2 1 2

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Electron Scattering
• Electron-Muon Scattering (Mott Scattering) • Electron-positron scattering • Comparisons with experimental data

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Example: Electron-Muon Scattering I
e− , p 3 µ− , p4

γ e− , p 1 Only one diagram µ− , p2

M

= =

i [¯3 (ige γ µ )u1 ] u

2 ge − [¯3 γ µ u1 ] [¯4 γµ u2 ] u u (p1 − p3 )2

−igµν (p1 − p3 )2

«

[¯4 (ige γ ν )u2 ] u

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e µ Scattering II
2 ge [¯3 γ µ u1 ] [¯4 γµ u2 ] u u M=− 2 (p1 − p3 )

Average |M|2 over initial state spins and sum over ﬁnal state spins, E D 2 |M| =
4 ge Tr [γ µ (/1 + m)γ ν (/3 + m)] p p 4 4(p1 − p3 )

× Tr [γµ (/2 + M )γν (/4 + M )] p p =
4 ´˜ ˆ ` µ ν ge 4 p1 p3 + pµ pν + (m2 − p1 · p3 )g µν 3 1 4(p1 − p3 )4 ´˜ ˆ ` × 4 p2µ p4ν + p4µ p2ν + (M 2 − p2 · p4 )gµν 4 4ge {2(p1 · p2 )(p3 · p4 ) + 2(p1 · p4 )(p2 · p3 ) (p1 − p3 )4

=

+ 2m2 (p2 · p4 ) + 2M 2 (p1 · p3 ) − 4(p1 · p3 )(p2 · p4 ) + 4(m2 − p1 · p3 )(M 2 − p2 · p4 ) ¯

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e µ Scattering III
Simplify and combine mass terms E D 2 |M| =
4 8ge {(p1 · p2 )(p3 · p4 ) + (p1 · p4 )(p2 · p3 ) (p1 − p3 )4

− m2 (p2 · p4 ) − M 2 (p1 · p3 ) + 2m2 M 2

This is a very general result that can be applied to electron scattering off of any charged particle, except for another electron or positron

¯

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Mandelstem variables
For the reaction 1 + 2 → 3 + 4, we deﬁne s = (p1 + p2 )2 = (p3 + p4 )2 t = (p1 − p3 )2 = (p2 − p4 )2 u = (p1 − p4 )2 = (p2 − p3 )2 s + t + u = m2 + m2 + m2 + m2 4 3 2 1 In the CM frame and neglecting the masses of the particles, we get s = 2p1 · p2 = 2p3 · p4 = 4p2 t = −2p1 · p3 = 2p2 · p4 = −2p2 (1 − cosθ) u = −2p1 · p4 = 2p2 · p3 = −2p2 (1 + cosθ) s+t+u=0

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eµ Scattering in CM Frame
Ignoring the masses of the particles, the matrix element is |M |
2

= =

8g 2 ((p1 · p2 )(p3 · p4 ) + (p1 · p4 )(p2 · p3 )) (p1 − p3 )2 8g 2 1 2 (s + u2 ) t2 4 dσ dΩ pf 1 |M |2 64π 2 pi s α2 u 2 + s 2 2s t2 „ « α2 (1 + cosθ)2 + 4 2s (1 − cosθ)2

Hence the differential cross section is = = =

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eµ Scattering in LAB Frame
eµ scattering is important when we discuss e-proton scattering and the evidence for quarks. The four-momenta are p1 = (E, p1 ) p2 = (M, 0) p3 ≃ (E, p3 ) p4 ≃ (M, 0)

The momentum transfer is q = (p1 − p3 )2

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eµ Scattering Amplitude
The spin-averaged amplitude for eµ scattering is D |M|
2 4 8ge {(p1 · p2 )(p3 · p4 ) + (p1 · p4 )(p2 · p3 ) (p1 − p3 )4

E

=

− m (p2 · p4 ) − M (p1 · p3 ) + 2m M

2

2

2

2

¯

We can drop the terms in red as m is assumed to be zero After some manipulation » – E D 4 16ge M 2 E1 E3 θ q2 θ |M|2 = cos2 − sin2 q4 2 2M 2 2

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eµ Scattering Cross Section
Recall the form for the differential cross section in the lab frame dσ dΩ = 1 p3 “ |M |2 64π 2 m2 p1 E1 + m2 −
2 E3 |M |2 2 64π 2 M 2 E1 p1 E3 cosθ p3

=

Inserting the scattering amplitude into the above formula » – α2 q2 θ θ dσ E3 = sin2 cos2 − 2 2 sin4 θ E dΩ 2 2M 2 4E1 1 2 If protons were point-like objects then the e-proton scattering cross section would be identical to this scattering

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Bhabha Scattering I
An important cross section measured by many experiments

e− , p 3

e+ , p 4

e− , p 3

e+ , p 4

γ γ e− , p 1 e+ , p 2 e− , p 1 e+ , p 2

The matrix element is −g 2 −g 2 µ [u3 γ u1 ] [v 4 γµ v2 ] − [u3 γ µ v4 ] [v 2 γµ u1 ] M = (p1 − p3 )2 (p1 + p2 )2

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Bhabha Scattering II
The form of the total matrix element is
2 2 2 M 2 = M1 + 2Mint + M2

where
2 M1

8g 4 = [(p1 · p2 )(p3 · p4 ) + (p1 · p4 )(p2 · p3 )] p 1 − p 3 )4
2 M1

In the CM frame = 2g
4s

2

+ u2 t2 + t2 s2
2

Similarly,
2 M1

= 2g

4u

2

and
2 2Mint

= 2g

4 2u

st

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Bhabha Scattering III
The differential cross section in the CM frame is » – α2 s 2 + u 2 u 2 + t2 2u2 dσ = + + dΩ 2s t2 s2 st The ﬁrst term is the exchange term or t-channel process. The second term is the annihilation term or s-channel process

In full form dσ = dΩ 2s α2

"

1

+ cos4 θ 2 θ sin4 2

+

1+

cos2 θ 2 2

2cos4 θ 2 θ sin2 2

#

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e+ e− Accelerators
CESR (Cornell) TRISTAN (KEK) SLC (SLAC) LEP (CERN) PEPII (BaBar) Belle SuperB ILC 8+8 30+30 50+50 (polarized) 50+50 (phase I) 100+100 (phase II) 8+3 8+3 8+3 ?? b-quark and τ physics QED tests Z 0 physics Z 0 physics W W physics b-quark and τ physics b-quark and τ physics b-quark and τ physics Study of Higgs boson and SUSY

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SLAC

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SLAC

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e+ e− detectors

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Experimental results I

Angular distribution from old experiments

Note that cross section is independent on s only. s dσ = F (θ) dΩ

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Experimental results II

Total cross section σ∝ 1 s

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Experimental results III

Total cross section

At higher centre-ofmass energies, the weak interaction becomes important.

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Luminosity measurements
Many experiments measure the luminosity using the e+ e− → e+ e− reaction at very small angles. Recall that dσ = dΩ 2s α2 " 1 + cos4 θ 2 sin4 θ 2
θ 2

+

1+

cos2 θ 2 2
θ 2

2cos4 θ 2 sin2 θ 2

#

θ At θ 0.1 radians (7 degrees), sin 2 ≈

≈ 0, so " # 2 2 α dσ 2 = +1− θ dΩ 2s ( θ )4 ( 2 )2 2 and cos

the ﬁrst term dominates the cross section at small angles.

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Evidence for the weak interaction
We will look at the e+ e− → f f reaction in the next lecture (f is a fermion). In the CM frame and ignoring the fermion masses, the cross section is dσ α2 u 2 + t 2 α2 = (1 + cos2 θ) = 2 dΩ 2s s 2s

One deﬁnes the forward-backward asymmetry as R 1 dσ R 0 dσ dΩ − −1 dΩ dΩ 0 dΩ AF B = R 1 dσ −1 dΩ dΩ

For the EM interaction, AF B = 0 using the above cross sections, however this is not true for the weak interaction.

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Forward-Backward Asymmetry I

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Higher-Order Diagrams in QED
• The most famous higher-order process in QED is the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron (or muon), arising from the diagram e− γ e−

γ (B) In 1948, Schwinger showed that this modiﬁes the electron g-factor from 2 to (2 + α/π). It is currently known to α4 , corresponding to an uncertainty in ge of about 10−12 .

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BaBar detector

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e+ e− Cross section near the Υ resonances

The lower Υ resonances are below the threshold for producing B-mesons. BaBar and Belle experiments take data at CM energies of the Υ(4S)

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BaBar Events

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Electron-proton scattering
• Production of hadrons from e+ e− • Elastic e p scattering • Inelastic e p scattering

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¯ e+ e− → f f
f, p3 ¯ f , p4

γ

e− , p 1 • Only one diagram, M = = ˜ ˆ µ i u3 (−iQf ge γ )v4 ¯ „

e+ , p 2

−igµν (p1 + p2 )2

«

[¯2 (ige γ ν )u1 ] v

2 Qf ge [¯3 γ µ v4 ] [¯2 γµ u1 ] u v 2 (p1 + p2 )

• f f γ vertex factor is

−iQf ge γ µ

¯ • M (e+ e− → f f ) = Qf M (e+ e− → µ+ µ− )

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The Spin-Averaged Amplitude
M =
2 Qf ge [¯3 γ µ v4 ] [¯2 γµ u1 ] u v (p1 + p2 )2

• Calculating the spin-averaged amplitude D |M|
2

E

=

4 Q2 ge Tr [γ µ (/4 − M )γ ν (/3 + M )] p p 4 4(p1 + p2 )

× Tr [γµ (/1 + m)γν (/2 − m)] p p =
4 ˜ ´ ` 4Q2 ge ˆ µ ν p3 p4 + pµ pν − p3 · p4 + M 2 g µν 4 3 (p1 + p2 )4 ˜ ´ ˆ ` × p1µ p2ν + p2µ p1ν − p1 · p2 + m2 g µν 4 4Q2 ge [2(p1 · p3 )(p2 · p4 ) + 2(p1 · p4 )(p2 · p3 ) (p1 + p2 )4

=

+ 2m2 (p3 · p4 ) + 2M 2 (p1 · p2 ) + 4m2 M 2

˜

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¯ e+ e− → f f
¯ The cross sections for e+ e− → f f is

Cross Section
4πα2 2 σ= Qf 3s

Q2 α2 dσ f = (1 + cos2 θ) dΩ 4s

For e+ e− → q q where q is a speciﬁc quark ﬂavour ¯ 4πα2 2 Qq σ= 3s However if we do not distinguish between quark ﬂavours, then σ(e
+

e

4πα2 X 2 3 Qi → q q) = ¯ 3s i

where we take into account the 3 colours of each quark ﬂavour. And the ratio X σ(e+ e− → q q ) ¯ =3 Q2 R= i σ(e+ e− → µ+ µ− ) i

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Ratio of e+ e− Cross Sections
R(E) = ` ´ σ e+ e− → hadrons σ (e+ e− → µ+ µ− ) =3 X
f

Q2 f

Flavor u d s c b t

Mass (MeV) 1.5-4 4-8 80-130 1150-1350 4100-4400 178000

Q
2 +3 1 −3 1 −3 2 +3 1 −3 2 +3

R
4 3 5 3

2
10 3 11 3

5

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Experimental Measurement of R
10
3

R
φ ω

J/ψ

ψ(2S)

Z

10

2

10

ρ ρ
-1

1

S GeV
1 10 10
2

10

Expect:

2

10 3

11 3

5

Many experiments and accelerators have contributed to the data in this plot. e+ e− machines have limited energy range
Physics 506A 11 ep scattering Page 6

High energy e+ e− scattering

OPAL was one of 4 experiments at LEP (CERN)

e+ e− → e e, ¯
Run : even t 4093 : 1150 Da t e 930527 T ime 20751 C t r k (N= 2 Sump= 92 . 4 ) Eca l (N= 9 SumE= 90 . 5 ) Hca l (N= 0 SumE= Ebeam 45 . 658 Ev i s 94 . 4 Emi s s - 3 . 1 V t x ( - 0 . 05 , 0 . 08 , 0 . 36 ) Muon (N= 0 ) Sec V t x (N= 0 ) Fde t (N= 1 SumE= Bz=4 . 350 Th r us t =0 . 9979 Ap l an=0 . 0000 Ob l a t =0 . 0039 Sphe r =0 . 0001 0.0) 0.0)

e+ e− → τ τ ¯
Run : even t 4302 : 75672 Da t e 930717 T ime 225034 C t r k (N= 4 Sump= 72 . 1 ) Eca l (N= 14 SumE= 23 . 7 ) Hca l (N= 9 SumE= 46 . 4 ) Ebeam 45 . 610 Ev i s 121 . 9 Emi s s - 30 . 7 V t x ( - 0 . 04 , 0 . 04 , 0 . 29 ) Muon (N= 1 ) Sec V t x (N= 0 ) Fde t (N= 0 SumE= 0 . 0 ) Bz=4 . 350 Th r us t =0 . 9993 Ap l an=0 . 0001 Ob l a t =0 . 0061 Sphe r =0 . 0006

e+ e − → q q ¯
Run : even t 4093 : 1000 Da t e 930527 T ime 20716 C t r k (N= 39 Sump= 73 . 3 ) Eca l (N= 25 SumE= 32 . 6 ) Hca l (N=22 SumE= 22 . 6 ) Ebeam 45 . 658 Ev i s 99 . 9 Emi s s - 8 . 6 V t x ( - 0 . 07 , 0 . 06 , - 0 . 80 ) Muon (N= 0 ) Sec V t x (N= 3 ) Fde t (N= 0 SumE= 0 . 0 ) Bz=4 . 350 Th r us t =0 . 9873 Ap l an=0 . 0017 Ob l a t =0 . 0248 Sphe r =0 . 0073

Y

Y

Y

Z

X

Z
200 . cm. 5 10 20 50 GeV Cen t r e o f s c r een i s (

X

Z
200 . cm. 5 10 20 50 GeV
Cen t r e o f s c r een i s (

X

200 . cm. 0 . 0000 , 0 . 0000 , 0 . 0000 )

5 10

20

50 GeV

Cen t r e o f s c r een i s (

0 . 0000 ,

0 . 0000 ,

0 . 0000 )

0 . 0000 ,

0 . 0000 ,

0 . 0000 )

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R-Measurement using ISR I
Novel approach to expand the range of the R-Measurement at a single accelerator Normally one has to ﬁx the centre-of mass (CM) e+ e− energy of the accelerator and measure the cross section. Changing the beam energy is not always easy.

ISR is Initial State Radiation The electron or positron has radiated an energetic photon Use the energy of the photon to recalculate the CM energy.

BaBar and Belle are using events with initial state radiation (ISR) to measure the e+ e− → q q cross section ¯

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R-Measurement using ISR II

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Electron-proton Scattering I
A beam of electrons with energy E are scattered from a stationary nucleus with mass MN

Virtual photon q 2 = ν 2 − q = 0 Elastic scattering: outgoing nucleus remains intact Inelastic scattering: outgoing nucleus is in an excited state (different mass) or is broken apart

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Electron-proton Scattering II

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Some deﬁnitions

Initial state: Final state:

pN = (MN , 0) p′ = (MN + ν, q) N where −Q2 = q 2

ν = E − E = Q2 /2MN

ν is the energy lost by the electron Q2 is the square of the 4-momentum transfered between the electron and nucleus by the photon

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Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
• Elastic scattering means the proton remains intact • If the proton were structureless, we could user electron-muon scattering:
E D 2 |M| =
4 ´˜ ˆ ` µ ν ge 4 p1 p3 + pµ pν + (m2 − p1 · p3 )g µν 3 1 4(p1 − p3 )4 ´˜ ˆ ` × 4 p2µ p4ν + p4µ p2ν + (M 2 − p2 · p4 )gµν muon

=

4 ge µν Lµν L q 4 electron

with q = p1 − p3 and

Lµν electron

´ ` 2 − p · p )g = 2 p2µ p4ν + p4µ p2ν + (m 2 4 µν

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But the Proton Isn’t Structureless...
• If the proton were a true point particle, then
E D 2 |M| =
4 ge µν Lµν L q 4 electron proton

• Deﬁne Kµν which will represent the proton structure
D E 4 ge µν 2 |M| = 4 Lelectron Kµν q
proton

e− , p3

p, p4

γ e− , p1
Physics 506A 11 ep scattering

p, p2
Page 14

How Do We Calculate

µν Kproton ?

µν • We know that Kproton is a second-rank tensor.

• We can construct tensors from the four-vectors g µν , p2 , p4 , and q. • Since q = p4 − p2 , only 2 of these four-vectors are independent, from which we choose q and p2 = p. Thus, our choices are
g µν pµ pν qµ qν (pµ q ν + pν q µ ) (pµ q ν − pν q µ )

• For electromagnetic interactions, Lµν electron is symmetric in µ and ν, therefore we need not include (pµ q ν − pν q µ ).
(⇒ this term is required for the weak interaction)

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Form Factors
• Using the four symmetric second-rank tensors, we write
µν Kproton = −K1 g µν +

K2 µ ν K4 µ ν K5 µ ν p p + q q + (p q + pν q µ ) M2 M2 M2

where K1 , K2 , K4 , and K5 are unknown functions which we refer to as form factors. • The form factors can depend on q 2 , the only scalar variable available to us, since p2 = M 2 and p · q = −q 2 /2.
µν • Using the Ward identity qµ Kproton = 0 we ﬁnd that there are only 2 independent form factors: « „ «„ « „ K2 qµ qν qµ qν µν + pµ + pν + Kproton = K1 −g µν + 2 q M2 2 2

The goal is then to measure these form factors experimentally and to try to calculate them theoretically.

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e p Cross Section

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Parton Model
• The Parton Model • Bjorken Scaling • Parton Distribution Functions

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Extending the Rutherford Experiment
Recall that based on a surprisingly high number of large-angle events in elastic α Au scattering, Rutherford deduced atomic substructure (i.e., the nucleus)

In a similar fashion, one can investigate the structure of the proton in e p scattering, particularly in the deep inelastic scattering regime where q 2 is large. The proton was found to have substructure (SLAC, late 1960s). These constituents came to be known as partons which are now recognized as quarks and gluons.

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Electron-proton scattering behaviour

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Some deﬁnitions

Initial state: Final state:

pN = (MN , 0) p′ = (MN + ν, q) N where −Q2 = q 2

ν = E − E = Q2 /2MN

ν is the energy lost by the electron Q2 is the square of the 4-momentum transfered between the electron and nucleus by the photon

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(ν, Q2 ) plane
Electron lab energy is 10 GeV (SLAC energy) ν = E − E ′ is the energy transfered from the electron to the proton Q2 is photon energy squared

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Cross section

Note the weak dependence on q 2 for the DIS scattering where W 2 = M 2 + 2M (E − E ′ ) − 4EE ′ sin2 (θ/2) for elastic scattering W = M
Physics 506A 12 - Parton Model Page 6

Parton scattering
• The cross section e + p → e + X should reduce to e + q → e + q (which is identical to e + µ → e + µ) – 2 » 4α2 E3 dσ θ θ q2 q2 2 2 − sin ) cos (eµ → eµ) = δ(ν + 4 dΩdE3 q 2 2m 2 2m – 2 » 4α2 E3 θ dσ θ (ep → eX) = W2 cos2 + 2W1 sin2 4 dΩdE3 q 2 2 where ν = E1 − E3 (initial and ﬁnal energies) • For convenience deﬁne Q2 = −q 2 (Q2 is a negative quantity). • Relating eµ → eµ and ep → eX cross sections gives
point 2W1

Q2 Q2 δ(ν − ) = 2m 2m

point W2

Q2 = δ(ν − ) 2m

• At large Q2 , inelastic ep scattering is viewed as elastic e-quark scattering off a free quark inside the proton

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Scaling
The W1 structure function is observed to be independent of Q2 The scaling behaviour was explained by Feynman who said that the proton was made up of point-like partons. Structure functions W → F (x) are give the distribution of partons within the proton

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Parton Distribution Functions
• If quarks are truly free within the nucleus for sufﬁciently high-energy probes, the PDFs will be δ-functions. For the proton then, ( „ « ) 2 “ ” „ 1 «2 “ ” 2 mu md p F2 (x) = x 2 + − δ x− δ x− 3 M 3 M • More generally, we can generalizing the PDFs: ) („ « „ «2 2 1 2 p u(x) + d(x) F2 (x) = x 3 3 • The precise determination of u(x) and d(x) is measured by experiment, but these functions must satisfy certain sum rules: Z 1 Z 1 xu(x) dx = 2 xd(x) dx
0 0

(i.e., total momentum carried by u-quarks is twice that of d-quarks.)
Physics 506A 12 - Parton Model Page 9

Constraints on PDFs
• Experimental surprise: both sides of the above equation are measured to be 0.36, meaning that only 54% of the proton’s momentum is accounted for. What happened to the other 46%?

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Gluons
• Since gluons are electrically neutral, they do not contribute to e p scattering, but they are evidently hoarding away some of the proton momentum (and spin too). • This leads to a long list of PDFs that will be required to describe the proton accurately: ¯ u(x) d(x) s(x) . . . u(x) d(x) s(x) . . . g(x) ¯ ¯

• Where we once had just one unknown function F2 (x), we now have 13!

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Relating the PDFs
• By distinguishing between valence and sea quarks, we can clear up most of the clutter. Since the sea quarks are all produced by the same gluon-splitting mechanism, ¯ u(x) ≃ d(x) ≃ s(x) ≃ s(x) ¯ ¯ The c, b, and t quarks are sufﬁciently heavy as to be ignored. • For u(x) and d(x), we separate the valence and sea contributions, so that u(x) = uv (x) + s(x) d(x) = dv (x) + s(x)

• The neutron PDFs are related to the proton PDFs by isospin (i.e., un (x) = dp (x)), so we have many different ways to measure the PDFs. v v

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Proton and Neutral PDFs I
Proton structure function (uud)
p i 1 F2 (x) 4 p 1h p p p = [u + u ] + d + d + [sp + sp ] x 9 9 9

Similarly the neutron structure function (udd)

Using isospin invariance

i 1 n F2 (x) 1h n 4 n n n = [u + u ] + d + d + [sn + sn ] x 9 9 9 up = dn = u(x) dp = un = d(x) sp = sn = s(x)

We get

p i F2 (x) 4 1h = [u + u] + d+d+s+s x 9 9 i 1 n F2 (x) 4h = d + d + [u + u + s + s] x 9 9
12 - Parton Model Page 13

Physics 506A

Proton and Neutral PDFs II
The proton consists of 3 valence quarks (uv , uv , dv ) accompanied by many quark-antiquark pairs u = uv + us d = dv + ds

us = us = ds = ds = ss = ss = s The quark distributions must give the correct quantum numbers Z [u − u] dx = 2 Z h i d − d dx = 1 Z [s − s] dx = 0
p F2 (x) 1 = [4uv + dv ] + x 9 n F2 (x) 1 = [uv + 4dv ] + x 9

So that

4 s 3 4 s 3

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Comparison with experiment I
p F2 (x) 1 4 = [4uv + dv ] + s x 9 3 n F2 (x) 1 4 = [uv + 4dv ] + s x 9 3

The ratio F p tends to F 1 if s dominates 4 if dv dominates 1 if uv dominates 4

n

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Comparison with experiment II

Difference between proton and neutron functions
p n F2 (x) − F2 (x) =

x [uv − dv ] 3

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Parton Distribution Functions
x f(x)
0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

x

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Page 18

Breakdown of scaling

At high momentum (high Q2 ) the partons are free indicating that the scattering of the parton does not affect the other partons. At smaller values of x, there is a strong violation of scaling.

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Electron-proton scattering at HERA
The DESY Laboratory in Hamburg operates the HERA e-proton collider.

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HERA

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Zeus and H1 experiments

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Deep inelastic scattering DIS

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Electron proton cross section
The differential cross section for the neutral current process e N → e X can be written as
4πα2 d2 σ = (s − M 2 ) dx dx Q4 »„ M 2 xy 1−y− s − M2 « F2 + xy 2 F1 –

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Neutral current DIS

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Charged current DIS

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Kinematic reach of HERA

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F2 structure function

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Parton density functions (PDF)

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Why is this important?

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QCD
• Describing Color • The Feynman Rules • Some Simple Examples • Hadron collider physics

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Quark Color
• Recall that we have inferred the existence of 3 quark colors from the hadron production rate σ(e+ e− → hadrons) R= σ(e+ e− → µ+ µ− ) • Denoting the three colors as ‘‘red”, “blue”, and “green”, we will need to append a color vector, c, to every external quark wavefunction (u or v): 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 C B C B C B B 0 C B 1 C B 0 C cg = @ cb = @ cr = @ A A A 1 0 0

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8 Gluon Colors
• When a gluon interacts with a quark, the quark color might change. This means that the gluon carries one unit of color and one unit of anticolor • QCD is based on an SU (3) color symmetry, so there are 8 gluons ¯ • Explicitly, 3 ⊗ 3 = 8 ⊕ 1 means that we have a color octet √ |1 = (r¯ + b¯)/ 2 b r √ |2 = −i(r¯ − b¯)/ 2 b r √ ¯ |3 = (r¯ − bb)/ 2 r √ |4 = (r¯ + g¯)/ 2 g r √ |5 = −i(r¯ − g¯)/ 2 g r √ |6 = (b¯ + g¯ g b)/ 2 √ ¯ |7 = −i(b¯ − g b)/ 2 g √ ¯ − 2g¯)/ 6 |8 = (r¯ + bb r g

and a colour singlet

√ |9 = (r¯ + b¯ + g¯)/ 3 r b g

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The Gell-Mann Matrices
• The 8 gluon states can be regarded as 3 × 3 matrices in “color-space”. These are the Gell-Mann matrices:
B λ1 = B 1 @ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 C C A 1 C C A 0 0 i B λ2 = B @ 0 0 0 i 0 −i 0 0 0 0 0 1 C C A 1 C C A 0 1 B λ3 = B 0 @ 0 0 0 0 0 1 C C A 0 1 0 −1 0 0 0 0 1 C C A 1 C C A

0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

B λ4 = B @

B λ5 = B 0 @ i 0 −i 0 1 C C A

−i 0 0

0 0 1

0 1 0

B λ6 = B @ 0 1 0 0 0

B λ7 = B 0 @ 0

1 B λ8 = √ B 0 3 @ 0

−2

• The Gell-Mann matrices will appear in the quark-gluon vertex factor for QCD. • The Gell-Mann matrices λα are the SU (3) counterparts of the Pauli matrices σ i for SU (2).

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Gluon Wavefunctions
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C A

B B B B B B B B |1 ⇒ a = B B B B B B B B @

The gluon wavefunctions will consist of a polarization vector (ǫµ ) and an 8component color vector aα :

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Vertex Factors
• The basic QCD vertex, q

g, α, µ

q contributes a factor of − igs α µ λ γ 2

• gs is a dimensionless coupling constant and is related to the QCD version of the ﬁne-structure constant by
2 gs αs = 4π

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Gluon Self-Couplings
• Just as photons couple to particles with non-zero electric charge, gluons couple to particles with color. • Photons are electrically neutral, so they do not couple (directly) to other photons. Gluons have color, therefore they can couple directly to each other :

O(gs )

2 O(gs )

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Propagators
• Each internal gluon connects two vertices’s of the form λα γ µ and λβ γ ν , so we should expect the gluon propagator to contract the indices α with β and µ with ν. −igµν δ αβ Gluon propagator: q2 • Internal quarks have the familiar fermion propagator, Quark propagator: i(/ + m) q q 2 − m2

The sign of q matters here — we take it to be in the same direction as the fermion arrow.

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External Lines
• As in QED, the external line factors must sit on the outside in order to make a number out of the amplitude. • Work backwards along every quark line using:

q in uc

q out u c† ¯

q in ¯ v c† ¯

q out ¯ vc

g in ǫµ aα

g out ǫ∗ aα∗ µ

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Example: The Quark-Antiquark Interaction
• Assuming that the quark ﬂavors are different, we have just one diagram: 3 4

1 • From the Feynman rules, we have

2

M

=

« « „ h i „ ig −igµν δ αβ s α µ λ γ [u1 c1 ] i u3 c† ¯ 3 − 2 (p1 − p3 )2 « h i „ ig s β ν † × v2 c2 ¯ − λ γ [v4 c2 ] 2

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The Origin of Color Factors
M f = =
2 gs f u v − 2 [¯3 γ µ u1 ] [¯2 γµ v4 ] q 1 “ † α ”“ † α ” c2 λ c4 c λ c1 4 3

• This QCD amplitude looks just like the QED amplitude for e− µ+ scattering except that we now have a color factor of f . • This means that, insofar that αs is sufﬁciently small to justify perturbative QCD, we will have a Coulomb-like potential Vqq (r) = − ¯ f αs r

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Colour factors
• Octet Conﬁguration 1 1 “ † α ”“ † α ” c2 λ c4 = − c3 λ c1 f = 4 6 • Singlet Conﬁguration 1 “ † α ”“ † α ” 4 f = c2 λ c4 = c3 λ c1 4 3 • With the color factors we have calculated, the q q potentials are: ¯ 8 < −4α /3r (color singlet) s Vqq (r) = ¯ : +αs /6r (color octet) • This means that the quark and antiquark are attracted to each other in the singlet conﬁguration but repelled in the octet conﬁguration. ⇒ This explains why mesons are color singlets.
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Feynman diagrams
The calculation of QCD processes that can be compared to experimental results cannot be done with the Feynman rules alone. We can calculate the e+ e− → q q process but quarks do not exist outside the proton. In high-energy collisions, quarks hadronize into other hadrons (e.g. pions, kaons, ...). If the quarks are relativistic, then the associated hadrons are seen to be part of jets.

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Jets
In e+ e− collisions, it was observed that the particles tended to be in collimated streams or jets.

The jets are postulated to be correlated with a hadronizing quark. The e+ e− → q q should follow a (1 + cos2 θ) angular distribution. 3-jet events were seen as evidence for the gluon

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CERN Fermilab CERN 1980-1990 1990-2000 2008-2020 SPS Collider pp (discovery of W and Z) Teavtron pp Large Hadron Collider (LHC) pp

UVIC participated in UA1 and UA2 Large UVIC group in the ATLAS collaboration (LHC)

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Quark-quark collisions I
How can one see the actual collision between the two quarks when there are four other spectator quarks? The spectator quarks hadronize in the forward regions of the detectors, producing many mesons (primarily pions) that are parallel to the beam axis.

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Quark-quark collisions II

The trick learned by the UA1 and UA2 experiments in the 1980’s is to look for tracks with a large amount of momentum in the direction transverse to the beams (transverse momentum).

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Quark-quark collisions III
Observation of 2 and 3 jet events in the UA1 experiment. Calorimeter energy deposits (θ versus φ)

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Quark-antiquark scattering at Fermilab
Fermilab collides protons and antiprotons.

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CDF detector

D0 event
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Inclusive jet cross section
Fermilab collides protons and antiprotons.

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ATLAS 2 and 3 jet events

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ATLAS inclusive jet cross section
dσ / dp [pb/GeV] 106 anti-k 10
5

jets, R=0.4, |y | ≤ 2.8
jet

∫ L dt=17 nb

-1

( s =7 TeV)

T

104 103

Systematic Uncertainties

NLO-pQCD (CTEQ 6.6)+ Non pert. corr.

102 10 1 ATLAS Preliminary 100 200 300 400 500 600

Data/Theory

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

pT [GeV]
100 200 300 400 500
T

600

p [GeV]

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Weak Interactions
• Discovery of the W and Z • Feynman Rules for the W Bosons • Muon Decay • Fermi’s Effective Theory of the Weak Interaction

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Intermediate Vector Bosons
• Like QED and QCD, the weak interaction is mediated by spin-1 (vector) particle exchange. • Unlike the photon and gluons, the weak mediators are massive: MW = 80.425(38) GeV MZ = 91.1876(21) GeV

This means that the longitudinal polarization mode is available, for a total of 3 independent polarizations. • Evidence for the W (charged current weak interaction) is indirectly obtained from the observation β-decay • The Z 0 was indirectly observed in 1973 in the Gargamelle experiment at CERN via the processes νµ + e ¯ νµ + N ¯ → → νµ + e ¯ νµ + X ¯

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UA1 Experiment
The W and Z 0 were directly observed in 1983 by the UA1 and UA2 detectors at CERN via proton-antiproton collisions. UA1 and UA2 experiments (UA = underground area) were the ﬁrst large 4π detectors with a large volume tracking chamber and a magnetic ﬁeld. A 4π detector allows one to measure the neutrino or missing energy in an event, needed for the observation of the W → e ν decays.

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First proton-antiproton collider
The accelerator used active feedback to reduce the transverse motion of the antiproton beam. The development by van der Meer won him the Nobel Prize.

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Vertex and Propagator for the Bosons
• The W bosons mediate charged current (CC) weak interactions. They couple to leptons via νℓ

−igw √ 2 2

γ µ (1 − γ 5 )

W

ℓ− • This interaction mixes vector (γ µ ) and axial vector (γ µ γ 5 ) terms. We call this a V − A interaction and it leads to parity violation. • The propogator is “ −i gµν − q2 −
qµ qν M2 M2

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Example:

νµ + e− → µ− + νe

Start with νµ + e− → µ− + νe which is experimentally possible and then evaluate the muon decay rate µ− → e− + νµ + ν e 3 : νe W 4:µ

1:e 0

2 : νµ „
qµ qν 2 MW

M

=

i u3 ¯

»

« – −i gµν − B −igw µ √ γ (1 − γ 5 ) u1 B @ 2 q 2 − MW 2 2 » „ « – −igw ν √ γ (1 − γ 5 ) u2 × u4 ¯ 2 2
14 - Weak interactions

«1 C C A

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II:

νµ + e− → µ− + νe
2 ˜ˆ ˜ gw ˆ u3 γ µ (1 − γ 5 )u1 u4 γµ (1 − γ 5 )u2 ¯ ¯ 2 8MW

2 • For low momentum transfer q 2 ≪ MW , the matrix element simpliﬁes to

M

=

• Averaging over initial state spins and summing over ﬁnal stste spins, we get !2 D E 2 ˜ ˆ 1 gw ⇒ |M|2 = Tr γ µ (1 − γ 5 )(/1 + me )γ ν (1 − γ 5 )/3 p p 2 2 8MW ˆ ˜ × Tr γµ (1 − γ 5 )/2 γν (1 − γ 5 )(/4 + mµ ) p p • Note the leading factor of
1 2

(electrons have 2 spins and the ν has 1 spin).

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III:

νµ + e− → µ− + νe

ˆ ˜ 5 )/ γ (1 − γ 5 )(/ + m ) • We need to evaluate the traces Tr γµ (1 − γ p2 ν p4 µ • Bring the (1 − γ 5 ) factors together ﬁrst: (1 − γ 5 )/2 γν (1 − γ 5 ) p = = = (1 − γ 5 )/2 (1 + γ 5 )γν p 2(1 − γ 5 )/2 γν p (1 − γ 5 )(1 − γ 5 )/2 γν p

• The m-dependent terms do not contribute to these traces, so we have E D 2 |M| = i 4 gw h µ ν µν µνλσ ν µ p1λ p3σ p1 p3 + p1 p3 − (p1 · p3 )g − iǫ 4 2MW

where

4 2gw = (p1 · p2 )(p3 · p4 ) 4 MW ´ ` λ σ λ σ ǫµνλσ ǫµνκτ = −2 δκ δτ − δτ δκ
14 - Weak interactions

× [p2µ p4ν + p2ν p4µ − (p2 · p4 )gµν − iǫµνκτ pκ pτ ] 2 4

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IV:

νµ + e− → µ− + νe

• We need to evaluate the two dot products. In the CM frame and neglecting the mass of the electron, ˜ ˆ (p1 · p2 ) = (p1 + p2 )2 − p2 − p2 /2 2 1 ˆ ˜ = (2E)2 − 0 − 0 /2 = (p3 · p4 ) = = = = 2E 2 ˜ ˆ (p3 + p4 )2 − p2 − p2 /2 4 3 ˜ ˆ (p1 + p2 )2 − 0 − m2 /2 µ ˜ ˆ 2 4E − m2 /2 µ » “ m ”2 – µ 2E 2 1 − 2E

• This gives D |M|2 E = » “ m ”2 – 4 8gw E 4 µ 1− 4 MW 2E

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V:

νµ + e− → µ− + νe
dσ dΩ „ E D «2 S |M|2 |pf | 1 8π (E1 + E2 )2 |pi |

• We can convert this to a cross section: =

• One can show that

» “ m ”2 – |pf | µ = 1− |pi | 2E

• The angular distribution is dσ dΩ = 1 2
2 gw E 2 4πMW

!2 »

1−

“ m ”2 – 2
µ

2E

Note that the cross section has no angular dependence.

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Muon Decay µ− → e− + νµ + ν e
Muon decay has been studied for decades and continues to be studied today as a means for testing the Standard Model and search for evidence of New Physics 3 : νµ 2 : νe ¯ 4:e

W 1:µ
2 • Again, working in the limit of q 2 ≪ MW , the amplitude is

M

=

2 ˜ ˜ˆ gw ˆ 5 µ 5 ¯ u3 γ (1 − γ )u1 u4 γµ (1 − γ )v2 ¯ 2 8MW

• This is identical to the amplitude in the previous example, except for u2 → v2 , p but both either spinors give us /2 in the trace (since mν = 0)
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Muon Decay II
• We have the identical spin-averaged squared matrix element as e ν scattering D E 4 2gw 2 (p1 · p2 )(p3 · p4 ) |M| = 4 MW • Since the kinematics of µ decay are different from those of e νµ scattering, we will need to start our work here. • In the muon rest frame, (p1 · p2 ) = mµ E2 , and ˜ ˆ (p3 · p4 ) = (p3 + p4 )2 − p2 − p2 /2 4 3 ˆ ˜ = (p1 − p2 )2 − 0 − 0 /2 ˜ ˆ 2 2 = p1 + p2 − 2p1 · p2 /2 = mµ (mµ − 2E2 )/2 • The spin-averaged squared matrix element simpliﬁes to D E 4 gw 2 |M| = m2 E2 (mµ − 2E2 ) µ 4 MW
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Muon Decay III
• Since |M| the decay rate from scratch with Fermi’s Golden Rule: E D 2 „ «„ «„ « |M| d3 p2 d3 p3 d3 p4 dΓµ = 2mµ (2π)3 2E2 (2π)3 2E3 (2π)3 2E4 × (2π)4 δ 4 (p1 − p2 − p3 − p4 ) D
2

E

(via E2 ) depends nontrivially on θ, we will have to work out

• Rather than list the derivation in the lectures, the reader is encouraged to review it in Grifﬁths

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Muon Decay IV
• The derivation of the matrix element yields valuable kinematic information max{E2 , E4 } 8 > > < > > : <
1 m 2 µ

<
1 m 2 µ 1 m 2 µ 1 m 2 µ

(E2 + E4 ) 9 > > = > > ;

E2 < E4 < (E2 + E4 ) >

• Since all three ﬁnal-state particles are assumed to be massless, energy and 3-momentum are the same. • The sum of the momenta for the 3 ﬁnal-state particles must be zero, therefore no single particle can have more than half of the available energy and no two particles can have less than half of the available energy.

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Electron energy spectrum in muon decay
• One can measure the lifetime of decay width of muon decay Often one measures the momentum spectrum of the outgoing electron • The following equation describes the electron-energy spectrum of muon decay. dΓµ dE = „ gw MW «4 m2 E 2 µ 2(4π)3 „ 4E 1− 3mµ «

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Electron energy spectrum data

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Muon Decay Rate
• Integrating over the electron energy, we obtain the muon decay rate: « « „ „ Z mµ /2 4E gw 4 m2 µ dE E2 1 − Γµ = MW 2(4π)3 0 3mµ „ « gw 4 5 1 mµ = 6144π 3 MW
2 • In the limit of q 2 ≪ MW , our results always depend on the ratio of gw and MW , and not the two constants separately.

Hence we can deﬁne the Fermi coupling constant GF , by GF = • This allows us to write the muon lifetime as 192π 3 τµ = 2 5 GF mµ

√ 2 2gw 2 8MW

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Fermi Coupling constant
• We can use the measurement of the muon mass and lifetime to measure the Fermi coupling constant 192π 3 τµ = 2 5 GF mµ • Muon mass and lifetime (2007 PDG) Mµ = 105.658369 ± 0.000009 MeV τµ = (2.19703 ± 0.0004) × 10−6 seconds • Using τµ and mµ , we can determine GF from this equation: GF = 1.16637(1) × 10−5 GeV−2

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How Weak is the Weak Interaction?
• The muon lifetime and mass measurements give √ 2 2gw GF = = 1.166 × 10−5 GeV−2 2 8MW • We can use the W mass measurement MW = 80.4 GeV to determine gw . gw = 0.65 ⇒ αw
2 1 gw = = 4π 29

• The weak interaction is inherently stronger than the EM interaction!
2 It is only the suppression factor E 2 /MW which makes the weak force seem so feeble.

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Twist experiment at TRIUMF I
• The electron energy spectrum is measured by the (active) TWIST experiment at TRIUMF. • Since this experiment uses polarized muons, the direction of the electron is no longer arbitrary, and a distribution in E and θ is created. • if the systematic uncertainties are made sufﬁciently small, one can look for evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model (e.g., right-handed charged-current interactions via WR bosons).

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Muon production at TRIUMF
Muons are directed into the detector where the electron momentum is measured.

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Michel parameters
• Experiments such as Twist measure the angular and momentum dependence of the outgoing electron • Rather than assume the nominal form of the weak interaction V − A, we can test for scalar, pseudoscalar and other tensor components • Michel spectrum (see µ section in PDG)  ﬀ 1−x 2ρ dΓ ≈ x2 3(1 − x) + (4x − 3) + 3η x0 dxdcosθ 3 x – » 2δ (4x − 3) ± x2 Pµ ξ cosθ 1 − x + 3 where x = Eµ /W , x0 = me /W and W = (m2 + m2 )/2mµ µ e • In the Standard Model, ρ = ξδ = 0.75, ξ = 1, and η = 0

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Charged Weak Interactions
• Neutron Decay • Pion Decay • The CKM Matrix

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Neutron Decay
• Ignoring neutron substructure, we could model neutron decay as a weak interaction process much like muon decay: 2 : νe ¯ 3:p 4:e

W 1:n

• In muon decay, all 3 ﬁnal-state particles (νµ , νe , and e) are essentially massless. ¯

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Kinematics of Neutron Decay
• In neutron decay, the proton mass is obviously quite large. • In addition, the mass of the electron (0.5 MeV) is a signiﬁcant fraction of the neutron-proton mass difference (1.3 MeV), so we cannot ignore me . • As a result, the phase-space calculation for neutron decay is more difﬁcult than that of muon decay. Consult Grifﬁths if you would like to see the details. • Using a pure V − A vertex factor, we obtain a neutron lifetime of τn = 1316 s

• The experimentally measured value is 885.7 ± 0.6 s (about 15 min) • Proton lifetime > 1029 years

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Pion Decay I
¯ • While the π 0 (u¯ − dd) decays to γ + γ via an electromagnetic interaction, the u ¯ u charged pions (ud and d¯) decay to a lepton-neutrino pair through the weak interaction. • In some respects, π − decay can be regarded as a scattering process: νℓ ¯ ℓ

W

d

u ¯

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Pion decay II
• If we’re going to have some unknown factor appearing in our results, we should make the rest of the calculation as simple as possible. • Let’s model π − decay by: νℓ ¯ ℓ

W

π− where the π W interaction at the blob is described by the vertex factor −igw √ fπ pµ π 2 2 the pion is spin 0 so the interaction must be a scalar (no gamma matricies) and it must be a 4-vector (the simplest choice is p of the pion)
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The Pion Decay Amplitude I
• We can write the pion decay amplitude is
2 ˜ ˆ gw fπ ¯ p1µ u3 γ µ (1 − γ 5 )v2 M= 2 8MW

• Since the pion is a spin-0 particle, fπ can only depend on the pion momentum, p1 . • The only scalar we can make from p1 is p2 = m2 , so fπ is, in fact, constant! π 1 • We call fπ the pion decay constant, and experiments suggest that fπ ≃ 131 MeV determined from π + → µ+ ν decays (PDG 2007)

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The Pion Decay Amplitude II
M D E 2 ⇒ |M| =
2 ˆ ˜ gw fπ p1µ u3 γ µ (1 − γ 5 )v2 ¯ 2 8MW !2 2f gw π p1µ p1ν 2 8MW ˆ µ ˜ 5 ν 5 × Tr γ (1 − γ )/2 γ (1 − γ )(/3 + mℓ ) p p !2 2f ˆ ˜ gw π p1µ p1ν Tr γ µ (1 − γ 5 )2 /2 γ ν (/3 + mℓ ) p p 2 8MW

=

=

• We start by using (1 − γ 5 )2 = 2(1 − γ 5 ). The mℓ terms will not contribute, as they all involve traces of an odd # of γ-matrices. The ǫ-tensor produced by the trace involving γ 5 will vanish when contracted with p1µ p1ν . !2 E D 2f ˜ ˆ gw π p1µ p1ν 8 pµ pν + pν pµ − (p2 · p3 )g µν = ⇒ |M|2 2 3 2 3 2 8MW

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The Pion Decay Amplitude III
D |M|2 E = 1 8
2 gw fπ 2 MW

!2

˜ ˆ 2(p1 · p2 )(p1 · p3 ) − m2 (p1 · p2 ) π

• We can evaluate the various dot products by using p1 = p2 + p3 : p2 1 m2 π ⇒ (p2 · p3 ) Similarly, (p1 · p2 ) (p1 · p3 ) = = = = = (p2 + p3 )2 (m2 − m2 )/2 π ℓ m2 + 2(p2 · p3 ) ℓ

(m2 − m2 )/2 π ℓ

(m2 + m2 )/2 π ℓ

D

|M|2

E

=

1 16

2 gw fπ 2 MW

!2

m2 (m2 − m2 ) π ℓ ℓ

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The Pion Decay Rate I
• Recall from an earlier lecture, Γ = |pf | |M|2 8πm2 π

• With |pf | equalling the neutrino energy, |pf | = = = E2 (p1 · p2 )/mπ (m2 − m2 )/2mπ π ℓ gw 4MW «4

⇒ Γ

=

2 fπ πm3 π

m2 (m2 − m2 )2 π ℓ ℓ

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The Pion Decay Rate II
2 fπ m3 π

Γ

=

gw 4MW

«4

m2 (m2 − m2 )2 π ℓ ℓ

• fπ can be extracted from this expression. • Let’s compare the π − decay rates to electrons and muons so as to cancel fπ : Γ(π − → e− + νe ) ¯ m2 (m2 − m2 )2 e π e = 2 ≃ 10−4 − → µ− + ν ) 2 − m2 )2 Γ(π ¯µ mµ (mπ µ Surprisingly, the muon mode is heavily favored in spite of the smaller phase s pace available. • The suppression of the electron mode can be understood in terms of angular momentum.

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• For leptons, the W couples within a particular generation: 0 1 0 1 0 1 ν ν ν @ e A @ µ A @ τ A e µ τ • Things are more complicated for quarks, as the W couplings can mix generations: 0 1 0 1 0 1 u c t @ A @ A @ A d s b • With the discovery of neutrino mixing, it implies there is mixing between the generations

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The CKM Matrix
• Instead, the W coupling works within the weak generations 0 1 0 1 0 1 u c t @ A @ A @ A d′ s′ b′ • The primed quarks (weak eigenstates) are related to the unprimed quarks (mass eigenstates) by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) Matrix: 1 10 1 0 0 ′ d Vud Vus Vub d C CB C B B CB s C B s′ C = B V A A @ cd Vcs Vcb A @ @ b Vtd Vts Vtb b′

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With Only 2 Quark Generations
• The 2 × 2 mixing matrix is really just a single rotation: 0 1 0 1 10 ′ d cos θC sin θC d @ A=@ A A@ ′ s − sin θC cos θC s where θC ≃ 13◦ is the Cabibbo angle • This helps us understand semileptonic decays such as K − → ℓ− + νℓ . ¯ • The π − decay involves a ud coupling =⇒ factor of cos θC The K − decay features a us coupling =⇒ factor of sin θC .

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π − and K − Decays I
The ratio of the decay rates of π − → l− ν µ to K − → l− ν µ should be proportional to the Cabibo angle d
−igw √ 2 2

γ µ (1 − γ 5 )cosθC

W u s

−igw √ 2 2

γ µ (1 − γ 5 )sinθC

W u

Γ(π − Γ(K

2 fπ − → l νµ) = πm3 π 2 fK → l νµ) = πm3 K −

«4 gw m2 (m2 − m2 ) cos2 θc π l l 4MW „ «4 gw m2 (m2 − m2 ) cos2 θc K l l 4MW

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π − and K − Decays II
• The ratio of the widths Γ(K − Γ(π − → µ) = → l− ν µ ) l− ν
2 fK 2 fπ

m3 π m3 K

m2 K m2 π

− m2 l 2 − ml

!

tan2 θc

• The lifetimes of the π − and K − are 2.60 × 10−8 and 1.24 × 10−8 seconds Other measurements give fπ = 132 MeV and fK = 160 MeV. • Using the above numbers gives This gives θc = 13.1◦ cosθc = 0.974 The branching ratios for π − → µ− ν µ is 100% and K − → µ− ν µ is 64%.

• The d-quark mass eigenstate is a mixture of the weak d and s-quark eigenstates d′ = 0.97d + 0.23s

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Problems with the Cabibo model
• The Cabibbo angle solved many problems, but new ones appeared. • The branching ratio for K 0 → µ+ µ− is 9.1 × 10−9 The predicted decay rate is proportional to sinθc cosθc which gives a siginﬁcantly larger result than the experimental result. K 0 (ds) state µ νµ M ∼ + sin θC cos θC µ ¯

W u d

W

s

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The GIM Mechanism
• Glashow, Iliopoulos, and Maiani (GIM) proposed a solution in 1970 to explain ¯ the low incidence of K 0 → µ + µ decays. This required the postulation of the charm quark. • Instead of exchanging a u quark, a new quark (c-quark) is exchanged • The cancellation is not exact because the u and c have different masses. One can infer the charm quark mass by measuring a GIM-suppressed process. µ νµ M ∼ − sin θC cos θC µ ¯

W c d

W

s

In 1974 the c-quark was discovered.
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CKM matrix I
• Vud • Vus • Vcd • Vcs • Vcb • Vub • Vtb Comparison of π + → π 0 e+ νe and µ+ → e+ νe ν µ Comparison of π + → π 0 e+ νe and K + → e+ νe ν µ Neutrino induced charm production from d-quarks Charm decays of the W boson B → Dl+ ν decays b → ul+ ν decays t → bl+ ν decays

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With 3 Quark Generations
• The CKM matrix can be parametrized in terms of 3 rotation angles and 1 CP-violating complex phase. • The angles are such that the CKM matrix is somewhat diagonal. The magnitudes of the matrix elements are approximately: 1 0 0.97 0.22 0.004 u→ C B 0.04 C c → B 0.22 0.97 A @ 0.01 0.04 0.999 t→ d↑ s↑ b↑

• Many experiments have or are measuring the CKM matrix elements There are extensive reviews of each of the values of the CKM matrix (see the PDG)

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Wolfenstein CKM matrix
• This provides a more intuitive view of the CKM matrix • The Wolfenstein representation of the CKM matrix deﬁnes λ = sinθc and expresses the other terms in powers of λ 2 6 6 4 1− λ2 /2 1− λ λ2 /2 −A λ2 Aλ3 (ρ A 1 − iη) 3 7 7 5

Aλ3 (1 − ρ − iη)

−λ

λ2

The parameters A, ρ and η are real numbers.

• The complex phase is the only source of CP violation in the Standard Model. • The amount of CP violation in the Standard Model is not particularly large and cannot explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe

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Unitarity Triangles I
• The unitarity triangles are used to visualize the results from complementary experiments • The unitarity of the CKM matrix means that the various rows (as well as the columns) are orthonormal, since V V † = 1 leads to 0 {r o o o w w w 1 0 z}|{ r 1} B CB CB o CB C 2} C B w CB CB 1 AB @ ∗ 3} |{z} z}|{ r o w 2 ∗ |{z} z}|{ 1 r C 0 o C 1 C C B w C=B 0 C @ C 3 C 0 A ∗ |{z}

B B B B B {r B B @ {r

0 1 0

0

C 0 C A 1

1

• In b physics, we use the 1st (d) and 3rd (b) columns, so that
∗ ∗ ∗ Vud Vub + Vcd Vcb + Vtd Vtb = 0

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Unitarity Triangles II
The most commonly used unitary triangle arises from
∗ ∗ ∗ Vud Vub + Vcd Vcb + Vtd Vtb = 0

∗ The sides are normalized to Vtd Vtb

The verticies of the triangle are (0, 0), (1, 0) and (ρ, η). If the complex phase is zero (or π), the unitarity triangle will have zero area CP violation can be established either by measuring all three sides or at least one of the angles

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Unitarity Triangles III

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Unitarity Triangles IV
A variety of measurements provide complementary information that can limit the values in the (ρ, η) plane.

Global ﬁts to the data yield λ = 0.2272 A = 0.818 ρ = 0.221 η = 0.340

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CP Violation with leptons
• CP violation in the universe cannot explained by CPV we see with quarks Another source of CPV could be the lepton sector (none yet observed). • SuperK and SNO have shown that neutrino mix νe ⇐⇒ νµ and νe ⇐⇒ ντ which means neutrinos have mass and lepton number is no conserved • There may be a CKM-like matrix for neutrinos 1 0 0 Ve1 Ve2 Ve3 νe C B B B νµ C = B Vu1 Vu2 Vu3 A @ @ Vt1 Vt2 Vt3 ντ

10

where νe · · · are the mass eigenstates and ν1 · · · are the weak eigenstates

ν1 C CB C B ν2 C A A@ ν3

1

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Neutral Weak Interactions
• The Z 0 Boson: • Feynman Rules • The Weak Mixing Angle • Resonance in e+ e− Scattering

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Fermi’s Theory
• Recall that Fermi modeled the weak interaction as a four fermion contact interaction with a coupling of GF : f3 f4

f1

f2

˜ˆ ˜ GF ˆ ¯ µ 5 ¯ γµ (1 − γ 5 )f2 ∼ GF E 2 M = √ f3 γ (1 − γ )f1 f4 2 • From quantum scattering theory, one has a problem if |M| ∼ 1 This is known as the unitarity bound. • For the Fermi model, we can state that it will not work beyond E ∼ 300 GeV. This is resolved by incorporating a W -boson (MW ∼ 80 GeV) into the theory of weak interactions
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Unitarity Bounds I
• Even after we incorporate W ± bosons into a theory of the weak interaction, another unitarity bound is encountered • The amplitude for the e+ e− → W + W − process is a problem assuming that it proceeds by the Feynman diagram: W− W+

νe e− e+

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Restoring Unitarity
• In order to make the weak interaction self-consistent, we require two additional contributions to the e+ e− → W + W − scattering process: W− W+ W− W+

γ

Z0

e−

e+

e−

e+

• We require two neutral bosons, the γ and the Z 0 to ﬁx the unitarity problem

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Discovery of the Z 0
• The Z 0 was indirectly observed in 1973 in the Gargamelle experiment at CERN via the processes νµ + e ¯ νµ + N ¯ → → νµ + e ¯ νµ + X ¯

• The forward-backward asymmetry (AF B ) in e+ e− → µ+ µ− also indirectly showed the need for the Z 0 • The Z 0 was directly observed in 1983 by the UA1 and UA2 detectors at CERN via proton-antiproton collisions. • The Z 0 is slightly heavier than the W ± , with MZ = 91.1876(21) GeV

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The Weak Mixing Angle
• Many of the parameters of the electroweak interaction are related to each other. The masses and couplings are related by weak mixing or Weinberg angle (θw ) • For example, the masses of the W and Z bosons are related by MW = MZ cos θw • The vertex factor (gZ ) for the Z 0 is related to the W vertex factor (gW ) gz = gw cos θw

• Both gw and gz are related to the QED coupling constant ge gw = ge sin θw gz =

ge sin θw cos θw

This is why the weak force is inherently stronger than the electromagnetic force. • Experimentally,
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16 - Neutral current interactions Page 6

Feynman Rules for the Z 0
• The Z 0 propagator looks just like that of the W : „ « qµ qν −i gµν − M 2
Z

2 q 2 − MZ

• The Z 0 bosons mediate neutral current (NC) weak interactions. They couple to fermions via f

−igz 2

γ µ (cV − cA γ 5 )

Z0

f

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Fermion Couplings to the Z 0
• The vector and axial couplings cV and cA are speciﬁed by the GWS model: f νℓ ℓ− qu qd cV
1 +2 1 − 2 + 2 sin2 θw

cA +1 2 −1 2 +1 2 −1 2

+1 − 2 −1 + 2

4 3 2 3

sin2 θw sin2 θw

• Note that the Z 0 does not change the lepton or quark ﬂavor. The Standard Model has no ﬂavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC) at tree level.

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Gauge Boson Self-Couplings
• Just like QCD, the electroweak bosons can interact with each other: W+ W− X

Z0, γ

W−

W+

Y

where (X, Y ) can be (γ, γ), (γ, Z 0 ), (Z 0 , Z 0 ), or (W + , W − ). Consult Appendix D of Grifﬁths for vertex factors.

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Compare γ and Z 0 diagrams
• The Z 0 couples to every charged fermion, just like the photon does. γ→ff Z→ff

• The similarity between the γ and the Z 0 made it difﬁcult to detect the Z 0 2 because at low energies. The QED effects dominate due to the (q 2 − MZ )−1 factor in the Z propogator. • For example, the forward-backward asymmetry became more pronounced as the centre-of-mass energy became larger • Unlike the photon, the Z 0 also couples to neutrinos. Z→νν

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¯ Example: e+ e− → f f
¯ • We now have a new diagram for the e+ e− → f f process

3:f

¯ 4:f

Z0

1 : e−

2 : e+

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The Scattering Amplitude
• The amplitude is M = « – −i gµν − » „ 6 −igz µ f γ (cV − cf γ 5 ) v3 6 i u4 ¯ A 4 2 2 q 2 − MZ « – » „ −igz ν e γ (cV − ce γ 5 ) u1 × v2 ¯ A 2 2 „
qµ qν 2 MZ

«3 7 7 5

2 • At low energies, q 2 ≪ MZ , the Z 0 -mediated diagram is similar in structure to −2 the QED diagram. The γ amplitude would dominate as q −2 ≫ MZ

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2 Scattering amplitude at q 2 = MZ : I
• If q 2 is not small, we can no longer simplify the Z 0 -propagator. Keeping the full propagator, M = −
2 gz

2 4(q 2 − MZ ) ˜ ˆ × v2 γ ν (ce − ce γ 5 )u1 ¯ A V

i h f 5 µ f u4 γ (cV − cA γ )v3 ¯

gµν −

qµ qν 2 MZ

!

• If we can neglect all fermion masses, the

qµ qν 2 MZ

part of the propagator will

contribute nothing, since we can write q as either p1 + p2 or p3 + p4 .

• We can write q as either p1 + p2 or p3 + p4 then the / factors lead to combinations like u4 /4 and /3 v3 , q ¯ p p ¯ which, by the Dirac equation, are u4 m4 and −m3 v3 .

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2 Scattering amplitude at q 2 = MZ : II
• The scattering amplitude can be written as M = i h 2 gz f 5 µ f u4 γ (cV − cA γ )v3 ¯ − 2 4(q 2 − MZ ) ˜ ˆ × v2 γµ (ce − ce γ 5 )u1 ¯ V A " #2 i h 2 gz f 5 f 5 ν f µ f p p Tr γ (cV − cA γ )/3 γ (cV − cA γ )/4 2 8(q 2 − MZ ) ˜ ˆ e 5 e e 5 e p p × Tr γµ (cV − cA γ )/1 γν (cV − cA γ )/2

E D 2 |M|

=

• The traces are best evaluated by ﬁrst bringing the cV and cA terms together: (cV − cA γ 5 )/3 γ ν (cV − cA γ 5 ) p = = (cV − cA γ 5 )2 /3 γ ν p p (c2 + c2 )/3 γ ν − 2cV cA γ 5 /3 γ ν A p V

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2 Scattering amplitude at q 2 ≈ MZ : III
¯ • The cross section for Z 0 -mediated e+ e− → f f is !2 2E gz 1 [(cf )2 + (cf )2 ][(ce )2 + (ce )2 ] σ = A V V A 2 3π 4[(2E)2 − MZ ] • Note that this cross section blows up when E = MZ /2. • This is much more serious than the inﬁnite cross section for Rutherford scattering because this (Z 0 ) divergence can be traced all the way back to the amplitude.

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Propogator for unstable particles
• The source of the problem is that the kinematics are such that e+ e− → Z 0 is a ¯ physically allowable process even without a subsequent decay to f f . • As a result, we need to modify the Z 0 -propagator in order to account for the instability of the Z 0 . Here’s what we do: 1. We recall the familiar conﬁguration-space wavefunction of a stable particle: Ψ(r, t) = ψ(r)e−iEt

2. Since the particle is stable, the probability of ﬁnding the particle somewhere is always equal to 1 since the wavefunction i s normalized: Z P (t) = |Ψ|2 d3 r = 1

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3. If the particle is unstable, we expect the probability of ﬁnding the particle to fall off with time according to the decay rate Γ Z P (t) = |Ψ|2 d3 r = e−Γt 4. In the particle rest frame, this means that Ψ(r, t) = ψ(r)e−iM t−
Γt 2

5. We then apply the substitution M → M − iΓ to the propagator of an unstable 2 particle and assume that Γ is sufﬁciently small that we can neglect the Γ2 term: 1 q2 − M 2 1 q 2 − (M − iΓ/2)2 1 q 2 − M 2 + iM Γ

→ ≃

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Cross Section
• With the modiﬁcation to the Z 0 propagator, 1 2 q 2 − MZ • The cross section takes the form σ ∼ → 1 2 q 2 − MZ + iMZ ΓZ

1 2 [(2E)2 − MZ ]2 + (MZ ΓZ )2

• This is known as a Breit-Wigner resonance. The height and width of the resonance peak are determined by the decay width ΓZ .

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Measurement of the Z 0 Peak : I

The Breit-Wigner shape is modiﬁed by higher-order (radiative) effects

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Measurement of the Z 0 Peak : II
¯ e+ e− → f f QED dominates at low energies „ « E 4 σZ ≃2 σγ MZ

The Z 0 -mediated process which dominates near the resonance peak « „ σZ 1 MZ 2 ≃ 200 ≃ σγ 8 ΓZ

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Number of light neutrino generations
Z 0 → νν is allowed Each ν species contributes to the total width ΓZ Since σ ∝ ΓZ the cross section will depend on the number of (light) neutrino generations

The data shows that there cannot be a 4th lepton generation with a light neutrino.

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The Z 0 Peak at CERN
• Precise measurements of electroweak parameters (MW , MZ , and sin2 θw ) also shed light on other Standard Model parameters such as mt and mH . • In the early days at LEP (started in 1989), a number of unusual systematic effects needed to be accounted for in order to measure these parameters accurately: 1. Tidal distortions of the ring 2. Water levels in nearby Lake Geneva 3. Correlations with the TGV

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Water levels in nearby Lake Geneva

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Tidal distortions of the ring

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Correlations with the TGV

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LEP-II WW and ZZ results:

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LEP-II WW and ZZ results:

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LEP-II WW and ZZ results:

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ATLAS W and Z results: W − → e− νe

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ATLAS W and Z results W − → τ − ντ

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ATLAS W and Z results Z 0 → e+ e−

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ATLAS W and Z results Z 0 → τ + τ −

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ATLAS W and Z results

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ATLAS W and Z results

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Electroweak Uniﬁcation
• Glashow recognized that even though the EM and weak interactions appear to be very different, they are manifestations of the same force • The apparent disparity in the strengths of the two interactions could be explained if the weak interaction was mediated by a massive particle (a force mediated by a massive particle has a short range) • Weinberg and Salam were able to explain why the EM has a massless mediator and the weak force has a massive mediator with the Higgs mechanism (GWS won the Nobel Prize) • The structure of the EM and weak interactions (ie. how we calculate Feynmann diagrams) is also very different

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Hiding the V − A
• Electromagnetism and the weak forces are very similar 1. The γ is massless, the weak bosons W ± , Z 0 are massive 2. The QED interaction is purely vector (γ µ ), whereas the weak interaction combines vector and axial terms (γ µ (cV − cA γ 5 )) • We can make the V − A vertex factor for the W ± look like a pure vector interaction if we associate part of the interaction with the fermion wavefunction: » „ « – −igw −igw 1 − γ5 u u = √ [¯γ µ uL ] √ u γµ ¯ 2 2 2 where (1 − γ 5 ) u uL ≡ 2

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γ 5 : Chirality vs. Helicity
γ5u = 0 0 0 @ @ @ 0 1 uB uA 1 10 A@ uA uB 1 A • For m = 0, we see that γ 5 behaves just like the helicity operator Σ · p. b

=

0 1 A

=

=

0 @

(p·σ) E+m (p·σ) E−m (p·σ) E+m

uA uB

1 A 0 10 A@ uA uB 1 A

• γ 5 is deﬁned as the chirality operator and it is only in the massless limit that helicity and chirality are the same.

• chiral refers to the hand-ness of the partitcle

0

(p·σ) E−m

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Chiral Fermions
• Since γ 5 acts just like the helicity operator Σ · p for massless fermions, b uL ≡
1 (1 2

− γ 5 )u

=

8 < 0 : u

if u has helicity +1 if u has helicity −1

• Similarly, we can project out the right-handed part of a spinor: 8 < u if u has helicity +1 5 1 uR ≡ 2 (1 + γ )u = : 0 if u has helicity −1 • Adjoint spinors uL and uR ? ¯ ¯ ¯ uL = u† γ 0 = u† 1 (1 − γ 5 )γ 0 = u† γ 0 1 (1 + γ 5 ) = u ¯ L 2 2 uR = u ¯ ¯
1 (1 2 1 (1 2

+ γ5)

− γ5)

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EM and Weak Currents I
• Recall the form of the EM current
µ jEM ∼ uγ µ u ¯

• For the weak current, we can write
µ jweak ∼ uγ µ 1 (1 − γ 5 )u ¯ 2

= = =

1 (1 + γ 5 )γ µ 1 (1 2 2 uL γ µ uL ¯

1 uγ µ 2 (1 − γ 5 ) 2 (1 − γ 5 )u ¯ 1

u ¯

− γ 5 )u

using the identity ˆ1 (1 − γ 5 ) 2 ˜2 =
1 [1 4

− 2γ 5 + (γ 5 )2 ] =

1 (1 2

− γ5)

• We can think of the charged weak interaction as a pure vector interaction between left-handed fermions.

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EM and Weak Currents II
• The QED current uγ µ u, can be expanded out into 4 currents (u = uL + uR ) ¯
µ ¯ jem ∼ uγ µ u

= =

(¯L + uR )γ µ (uL + uR ) u ¯ uL γ µ uL + uR γ µ uR + uL γ µ uR + uR γ µ uL ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

• Since

1 (1 2

1 − γ 5 ) 2 (1 + γ 5 ) =

1 [1 4

− (γ 5 )2 ] = 0

the LR and RL cross terms in the QED current vanish: uL γ µ uR ¯ = = =
1 (1 + γ 5 )γ µ 1 (1 + γ 5 )u 2 2 uγ µ 1 (1 − γ 5 ) 1 (1 + γ 5 )u ¯ 2 2

u ¯

0

• This means that only the LL and RR terms survive:
µ jem ∼ uγ µ u = uL γ µ uL + uR γ µ uR ¯ ¯ ¯

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EM and Weak currents III
• The charged weak currents, as mediated by the W ± , couple left-handed fermions together:
− jµ + jµ

= =

νL γµ eL ¯ eL γµ νL ¯

• The electromagnetic current, as mediated by the γ, couples left-handed fermions together, and it also couples right-handed fermions together:
em jµ

=

−¯L γµ eL − eR γµ eR e ¯

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Weak Doublets
• Since the W couples left-handed leptons and their neutrinos together, it seems natural to deﬁne the weak doublet: 0 1 νe A χL = @ e
L

• In terms of χL , the charged weak currents
− ¯ jµ = νL γµ eL + ¯ jµ = eL γµ νL

can be written as where 0

± ¯ jµ = χL γµ τ ± χL

τ+ ≡ @

0 0

1 0

1 A

τ− ≡ @

0

0 1

0 0

1 A

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A Neutral Current
• Suppose we deﬁne a third τ matrix in order to complete the symmetry: 1 0 1 0 A τ3 ≡ @ 0 −1 • From τ 3 , we can construct a current ± (with a factor of 1 for consistency with jµ ): 2
3 jµ

= =

χL γµ 1 τ 3 χL ¯ 2
1 ν γ ν ¯ 2 L µ L 1 − 2 eL γµ eL ¯

• It looks like we have a neutral current describing both the EM and weak interaction. However, this neutral current is pure V − A and it only involves LH particles. • The Z 0 , conversely, has a more complicated γµ (cV − cA γ 5 ) structure and, consequently, it also couples to right-handed particles.
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Hypercharge
• Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula This relation connects the charge Q, isospin component I 3 and hypercharge Y , of a quark or hadron: Q = I 3 + 1 Y 2 where the hypercharge is deﬁned to be Y = A + S with A being the baryon number and S is the strangeness.
(one of the goals of the strong hypercharge is to centre the quark model nonents at Y = 0)

• Weak hypercharge In a similar manner to the (strong interaction) hypercharge, we can deﬁne a relation for the weak hypercharge Q = I 3 + 1 Y 2 • We can then construct a weak hypercharge current:
Y jµ

= = =

3 em 2jµ − 2jµ

2 (−¯L γµ eL − eR γµ eR ) − 2 e ¯

−2¯R γµ eR − eL γµ eL − νL γµ νL e ¯ ¯

`1

ν γ ν ¯ 2 L µ L

1 e γ e ¯ 2 L µ L

´

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Weak isospin and hypercharge currents
¯ • Weak isospin current jµ = 1 χL γµ τ χL 2 ± 3 where jµ correspond to the W ± -mediated currents, and jµ is a left-handed neutral current. In the GWS model, jµ couples to a triplet of vector bosons Wµ with a coupling strength gw (−igw jµ · Wµ )
Y em 3 • Hypercharge current jµ = 2jµ − 2jµ

which couples with strength

g′ 2

Y to a singlet vector boson B µ (−i g jµ B µ ) 2

• The GWS model combines the two currents – » g′ Y µ −i gw jµ · Wµ + jµ B 2 • None of the four ﬁelds W 1 , W 2 , W 3 , and B correspond directly to the physical particles W + , W − , Z 0 , and γ.

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W + and W −
• One can show that jµ · W µ
3 2 1 jµ W µ1 + jµ W µ2 + jµ W µ3 ´ ` µ1 ´ ` 1 µ2 2 1 = 2 jµ + ijµ W − iW ´` ´ ` 1 3 2 1 + 2 jµ − ijµ W µ1 + iW µ2 + jµ W µ3

=

=

1 + √ jµ W µ+ 2

+

1 − √ jµ W µ− 2

3 + jµ W µ3

• We deﬁne the W + and W − by
± Wµ

1 √ 2

which corresponds to the wave functions representing the W ± particles

´ ` 1 2 Wµ ∓ iWµ

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W + and W − Vertex Factors
• From the general interaction – » g′ Y µ −i gw jµ · Wµ + jµ B 2 we see that the coupling involving the W − is −igw − µ− √ jµ W 2 • With

− jµ

= =

νL γµ eL ¯ ν γµ 2 (1 − γ 5 )e ¯ 1

we ﬁnd that the W − couples to an e and an νe with a vertex factor of ¯ −igw √ γµ (1 − γ 5 ) 2 2

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Weak mixing
• The two neutral states W 3 and B mix in the GSW theory 0 1 0 10 1 A cos θw sin θw Bµ @ µ A=@ A@ A 3 Zµ − sin θw cos θw Wµ where θw is the weak mixing angle • With the electroweak mixing, the interaction terms for the neutral particles are – – » » g′ g′ Y µ Y 3 3 cos θw jµ Aµ = −i gw sin θw jµ + −i gw jµ W µ3 + jµ B 2 2 » – g′ 3 Y −i gw cos θw jµ − sin θw jµ Z µ 2

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EM coupling constants
Y em 3 • We will substitute jµ = 2jµ − 2jµ . If Aµ is to represent the electromagnetic ﬁeld, then – » g′ Y 3 em cos θw jµ = gw sin θw jµ + jµ 2 ´˜ ` em ˆ 3 3 = gw sin θw jµ + g ′ cos θw jµ − jµ

ge = g ′ cos θw = gw sin θw

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Z 0 coupling constant
• Using ge = g ′ cos θw = gw sin θw the Z 0 interaction term is » – »„ « g′ ge cos θw 3 Y 3 −i gw cos θw jµ − sin θw jµ Z µ = −i jµ 2 sin θw – « „ ge sin θw 3 em 2(jµ − jµ ) Z µ − 2 cos θw ˜ ˆ 3 −ige em = jµ − sin2 θw jµ Z µ sin θw cos θw This gives gz =

ge sin θw cos θw

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cV and cA
• Let’s look at the up quark. With ˜ ˆ 3 em −igz jµ − sin2 θw jµ Z µ – » −igz µ 2 = Z (¯L γµ uL ) − 2 sin2 θw (¯γµ u) u u 2 3 – »„ „ « « 1 − γ5 −igz µ 2 = Z u uγµ ¯ u − 2 sin2 θw (¯γµ u) 2 2 3 9 3 8 2 > > >„ > > « „ « > 7 = < 1 6 1 −igz µ 6 4 7 5 2 u7 γ = ¯ Z 6uγµ − sin θw − > 5 > 2 4 2 3 2 > > >| {z } | {z } > ; :
cV cA

• In this way, we establish the Z 0 vertex factors to Standard Model fermions of the form −igz (cV − cA γ 5 ). 2

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Couplings to the Z 0
• In a similar fashion, we can work out how the other fermions couple to the Z 0 : f νℓ ℓ− qu qd cV
1 +2 1 − 2 + 2 sin2 θw

cA +1 2 −1 2 +1 2 −1 2

+1 − 2 −1 + 2

4 3 2 3

sin2 θw sin2 θw

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Measuring cv and cA
-0.032
mt= 178.0 ± 4.3 GeV mH= 114...1000 GeV

-0.035

mH

-0.038
ll + − ee + − µµ + − ττ
+−

gVl

mt

∆α

-0.041

68% CL

-0.503

-0.502

-0.501

-0.5

gAl

Measurements of gv and ga (equivalently cv and cA )

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Measuring sin2 θW
Afb
0,l

0.23099 ± 0.00053 0.23159 ± 0.00041 0.23098 ± 0.00026 0.23221 ± 0.00029 0.23220 ± 0.00081 0.2324 ± 0.0012 0.23153 ± 0.00016
χ2/d.o.f.: 11.8 / 5

Al(Pτ) Al(SLD) Afb
0,b

0,c Afb had Qfb

Average
10
3

mH [GeV]

10

2

∆α(5) = 0.02758 ± 0.00035 had mt= 178.0 ± 4.3 GeV

0.23

0.232

lept sin2θeff

0.234

Measurements of sin2 θW primarily from LEP, SLD and Tevatron experiments

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Limit on Higgs mass

80.5

LEP1, SLD data − LEP2 (prel.), pp data 68% CL

mW [GeV]

80.4

80.3

∆α

mH [GeV] 114 300 150

1000 175

200

mt [GeV]

Electroweak measurements can be used to estimate mtop or together with the top quark mass, put a limit on the Higgs mass

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The Standard Model Higgs
• Higgs couples to every massive particle in SM • We believe the Higgs (or something) exists because of unitarity. • The unitarity argument is only valid if mH < 1 TeV

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Unitarity problem in W scattering
The W + W − → W + W − cross section will diverge (σ → ∞) as √ s→∞

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Higgs as a solution to the unitarity problem
We can resolve the W + W − → W + W − cross section divergence with two additional diagrams

but only if mH < 1 TeV There is also a theoretical lower limit; if the mass is too small then the weak vacuum become unstable, however, experiment gives the current best lower limit.

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Higgs properties: decay width

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Higgs properties: branching ratios

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W boson mass dependence on Higgs mass
The mass of the W boson is sensitive to higher-order corrections that depend on the Higgs mass

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Top quark, W-boson, Higgs dependence
The measurement of mW and mtop can be used to place limits on the allowed values of mH

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Top quark, W-boson mass measurements
Top-Quark Mass [GeV]
CDF D∅ Average 173.0 ± 1.2 174.2 ± 1.7 173.3 ± 1.10
χ2/DoF: 6.1 / 10

W-Boson Mass [GeV]
TEVATRON LEP2 Average NuTeV LEP1/SLD LEP1/SLD/mt
80
July 2010

80.420 ± 0.031 80.376 ± 0.033 80.399 ± 0.023
χ2/DoF: 0.9 / 1

LEP1/SLD LEP1/SLD/mW/ΓW
160 170 180 190

172.6 − 179.2

+ 13.3 10.2 + 11.5 − 8.5

80.136 ± 0.084 80.363 ± 0.032 80.365 ± 0.020
80.2 80.4 80.6
July 2010

mt [GeV]

mW [GeV]

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18 - Higgs boson

Page 8

SM prediction for Higgs mass
The yellow regions are excluded by direct experimental searches. The blude band is the theoretical prediction using the top quark and W results.
July 2010

6 5 4

mLimit = 158 GeV

Theory uncertainty
0.02758±0.00035 0.02749±0.00012 incl. low Q2 data

∆χ2

3 2 1 0 Excluded 30
Preliminary

100

300

mH [GeV]

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Direct measurement at LEP

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Cross section at hadron collider

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Higgs production

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Direct measurement at Tevatron

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Discovery potential at the LHC

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Impact of LHC running at 7 TeV

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ATLAS 2010 Higgs limits

The Higgs boson mass ranges from 146 GeV to 230 GeV, 256 GeV to 282 GeV and 296 GeV to 459 GeV are excluded at the 95% CL

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Page 16

Neutrinos
• spin
1 2

paticle with no electric charge and weakly interacting

• νe discovered in 1953, νµ in 1962 and ντ in the 1990s • neutrino physics is very topical solar neutrino problem, neutrino mixing, neutrino masses T2K project

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19 - Neutrinos

Page 1

νe discovery
• νe discovered by Reines and Cowan in 1953 at Hanford (Noble Prize in 1995) • The Water + CdCl detector was situated near a nuclear reactor • Neutrino produces neutron from interaction with proton • Neutron wanders around and is captured by Cadmium (Cd∗ ) • Cd∗ decays to ground state by photon emission

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νµ discovery
• Lederman, Swartz, Steinbeger discovered νµ at BNL AGS (Nobel Prize 1988) • 15 GeV protons product pion beams which then decay µ → eνν • Electrons are ranged out leaving a neutrino beam • Neutrinos are scattered off detector, if electron emerges than neutrinos is νe and muon emerges then it is νµ

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Page 3

ντ discovery
Discovery of τ lepton in e+ e− → e+ µ− X requires a ντ otherwise lepton number is violated

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Only 3 light neutrinos
The Z 0 → f f is allowed for any fermion with mf < 1 mZ . The decay rate of the 2 0 is dependent on the number of fermions (including neutrinos). Z

Searches for a fourth-generation (massive) lepton result in limits of > 100 GeV.

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Do Neutrinos Have Mass?
• As far as direct measurements go: ν Flavor νe νµ ντ Mass Limit mν < 3 eV mν < 190 keV mν < 18.2 MeV
3H

Process →3 He + e− + νe ¯ π → µ + νµ τ → 3π + ντ

• Theoretically, the Standard Model assumes that neutrinos are precisely massless. • There is no fundamental reason (e.g., a symmetry) why mν = 0.

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19 - Neutrinos

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νe mass measurement

νe mass is measured at the endpoint of the electron energy spectrum

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νµ mass measurement
• The νµ mass is measured from pion decay data π + → µ+ νµ • For a pion at rest m2µ ν = m2 π + m2 µ q − 2mπ p|2 + m2 µ µ

• We use the know pion and muon masses mπ = 139.56995 ± 0.000035 MeV mµ = 105.658389 ± 0.0000034 MeV

• Along with the pion momentum pµ = 29.79207 ± 0.00012 MeV

• This gives an upper limit of mνµ < 0.16 MeV
Physics 506A 19 - Neutrinos Page 8

ντ mass measurement
LEP experiments measured the limit on the ντ mass using τ → 3π − 2π + ντ decays. M (ντ ) < 18 MeV
E5π [GeV]
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

mν = 0 MeV mν = 100 MeV 5π+/- Monte Carlo
1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

m5π [GeV]

Physics 506A

19 - Neutrinos

Page 9

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Physics 506A

19 - Neutrinos

Page 10

Majorana Neutrinos
• One of the most important open questions in neutrino physics is the question of whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles. Dirac neutrinos: particles are distinct from their anti-particles. Majorana neutrinos: particles are identical to their anti-particles • Attempts to detect the Majorana nature of neutrinos focus around the double beta decay process (A, Z) → (A, Z + 2) + 2e− + 2¯e ν • If neutrinos are Majorana particles, the anti-neutrino emitted by one of the neutrons can be absorbed as a neutrino by the other. The resulting process, in which no neutrinos are emitted, is neutrinoless double beta decay (A, Z) → (A, Z + 2) + 2e−

Physics 506A

19 - Neutrinos

Page 11

Double β Decay
The electron energy spectrum from ββνν is continuous whereas the 0νββ spectrum looks like a 2-body decay

Physics 506A

19 - Neutrinos

Page 12

SNO+ Experiment
• The original SNO experiment is not being modiﬁed for double beta decay experiments • The heavy water is being replaced by liquid scintillator plus a radioative source 150 Nd which has been observed to decay via ββνν with a lifetime of 9.7 × 1018 years

Physics 506A

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Page 13

Solar Neutrino Problem
• In 1967, Ray Davis put 100,000 gallons of dry-cleaning ﬂuid in a tank a mile underground to try to measure the solar neutrino ﬂux. • The measured ﬂux (inferred from 1 Cl to Ar conversion every 2 days) was about a factor of 3 below the theoretical expectations from the Standard Solar Model. • Similar neutrino deﬁcits were later observed for the atmospheric neutrinos generated by cosmic rays. • Bth experiment and theory turned out to be right and these effects are now understood as neutrino oscillation effects.

Physics 506A

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Physics 506A

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Physics 506A

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Detecting neutrinos
Experiments need to be large as the rates are low deep to reduce the cosmic ray background clean to eliminate the radioactive backgrounds Water Cerenkov detectors are a common choice (eg. Super-K)

Physics 506A

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Page 17

Super-Kamiokande

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Physics 506A

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Physics 506A

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Physics 506A

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Neutrino Mixing
• If neutrinos have mass, then we must now allow a mixing between the weak eigenstates and the mass eigenstates. (Just as we have done for the quarks ) • The neutrino analogue of the CKM matrix is the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (MNS) matrix. • Like the CKM matrix, the MNS matrix can be parametrized in terms of 3 mixing angles and 1 CP-violating complex phase. • We label the neutrino mass eigenstates as ν1 , ν2 , and ν3 .

Physics 506A

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Neutrino Oscillations: 2 Flavor Model
• Neutrinos are always produced as weak eigenstates. Suppose that at t = 0 we produce an electron neutrino: |ν(0) = |νe

• Neutrinos propagate as mass eigenstates. In a 2-neutrino model, the weak and the mass eigenstates are related by 0 1 0 1 10 ν cos θ sin θ ν @ e A=@ A@ 1 A νµ ν2 − sin θ cos θ

Physics 506A

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Neutrino Oscillations
• In terms of the mass eigenstates, our original νe is |ν(0) = cos θ |ν1 + sin θ |ν2

• The two mass eigenstates pick up different phases as they propagate, so that |ν(t) = e−iE1 t cos θ |ν1 + e−iE2 t sin θ |ν2

• Going back to ﬂavor eigenstates, this is |ν(t) = e−iE1 t cos θ (cos θ |νe − sin θ |νµ )

+ e−iE2 t sin θ (sin θ |νe + cos θ |νµ )

• The probability of an oscillation from νe to νµ is then ˛ ”˛2 “ ˛ 2 −iE1 t −iE2 t ˛ +e Posc (t) = | νµ |ν(t) | = ˛sin θ cos θ −e ˛
Physics 506A 19 - Neutrinos Page 24

Neutrino Oscillations: Posc
Posc (t) = = = ˛ ”˛2 “ ˛ −iE1 t −iE2 t ˛ +e ˛sin θ cos θ −e ˛ h “ ”i 2 i(E2 −E1 )t −i(E2 −E1 )t 1 +e sin 2θ 2 − e 4
1 2

sin2 2θ [1 − cos(E2 − E1 )t]

• With ∆E = ∆m2 /2p and E ≃ pc & L ≃ tc ⇒ L t ≃ p E

• We get Posc (t) = = ˆ ` ´˜ 2 sin 2θ 1 − cos ∆m L/2E „ « 1.27 ∆m2 (eV2 ) L (km) sin2 2θ sin2 E (GeV)
1 2 2

Physics 506A

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Neutrino Oscillations
Posc (t) = sin2 2θ sin2 „ 1.27 ∆m2 (eV2 ) ′ L (km) E (GeV) «

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Observing Neutrino Oscillations
The oscillation probabilities depend on θ, ∆m2 , L, and E. We can either look for the appearance of a different neutrino ﬂavor (usually limited by background) or we can measure the disappearance of the expected ﬂavor (limited by calibration of source and target). Source Solar Atmospheric Reactor Accelerator ν Types νe νe , νe , νµ , νµ ¯ ¯ νe ¯ νµ , νµ ¯ Mode Disappearance Disappearance Disappearance Either Advantage Great distance Variable distance Low energy Control E and L

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Neutrino oscillation experiments
Natural neutrino sources • Solar sources: Homestake, SAGE+NO, SuperK, SNO, Borexino • Atmospheric neutrinos: SuperK Artiﬁcial neutrino sources • Reactor neutrinos: Chooz (1 km), KamLAND (180 km) • Long-baseline accelerator experiments: K2K (250 km), MINOS (735 km)

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Neutrino mixing matrix

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sin2 θ12 = 0.304+0.022 −0.016
Physics 506A 19 - Neutrinos

∆m2 = 7.65+0.23 × 10−5 eV 2 21 −0.20
Page 30

sin2 θ23 = 0.50+0.07 −0.06
Physics 506A

∆m2 = 2.40+0.12 × 10−3 eV 2 31 −0.11
19 - Neutrinos Page 31

Bound on θ13

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Current Status
+0.022 sin2 θ12 = 0.304−0.016 +0.07 sin2 θ23 = 0.50−0.06 +0.23 ∆m2 = 7.65−0.20 × 10−5 eV 2 21 +0.12 ∆m2 = 2.40−0.11 × 10−3 eV 2 31

sin2 θ13 < 0.35 (90% CL)

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T2k Experiment

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T2k Experiment

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