IN
BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
G. S. Monk
Mathematics 112
Revision Winter 2005
Published by Professional Copy
4200 University Way NE,
Seattle, WA 98105
(2066342689)
Copyright c _1981 by G.S. Monk. All rights reserved.
ii
Contents
Preface v
1 Tangents and Derived Graphs 1
Worksheet #1. The Vertical Speed of a Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Worksheet #2. Two Versions of Marginal Revenue and Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Worksheet #3. Tangents and Secants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Worksheet #4. Drawing Speed Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Worksheet #5. Drawing and Using a Marginal Revenue Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Worksheet #6. Derived Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2 Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative 27
Worksheet #7. The Formula for the Slope of the Tangent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Worksheet #8. The Formulas for Two Speed Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Worksheet #9. Taking Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Worksheet #10. Using the Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost Formulas . . . . . 41
Worksheet #11. Two Balloons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Problem Set #1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Answers to Problem Set #1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3 Dierentiation Technique 59
Worksheet #12. A Second Set of Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Worksheet #13. Combining Dierentiation Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Worksheet #14. Predicting the Value of a Stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4 Optimization 77
Worksheet #15. The ZeroDerivative Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Worksheet #16. Local and Global Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Worksheet #17. Using the Second Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5 Functions of Several Variables 93
Worksheet #18. Line Fitting and Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Worksheet #19. Linear Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Problem Set #2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Answers to Problem Set #2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
iii
iv CONTENTS
6 Going Backwards: Integration 117
Worksheet #20. Distances from Speed Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Worksheet #21. Total Revenue and Cost from Marginal Revenue and Cost . . . . . 124
Worksheet #22. Area Under Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Worksheet #23. Areas by Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Worksheet #24. AntiDerivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Worksheet #25. The Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Problem Set #3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Answers to Problem Set #3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises 163
Preface
Like Math 111, Math 112 does not follow the example/problem/example/problem model where you
simply work problems exactly like given examples, only with dierent numbers. There are very few
drill problems. You will often be asked questions that need to be answered with words instead of
numbers or formulas. You will be challenged to think about ideas rather than plugging numbers
into formulas. This makes some people uncomfortable at rst, but most people nd that they get
used to it with practice.
How to Use This Text
The heart of this text consists of twentyve worksheets. Each worksheet begins with one or
more Key Questions. The Key Questions are followed by a list of exercises.
You should begin each worksheet by reading and thinking about the key questions. You will
not always be able to answer the Key Questions right away; that is the purpose of the exercises.
They will lead you to an understanding of the issues involved and, we hope, to answers to the Key
Questions.
Each exercise is numbered, like 8 You should work all of the exercises carefully. Sometimes,
you might not see right away what it is that they are getting at, but go ahead and play along anyway.
Write up your solutions to ALL of the exercises. Do not just jot down computations. If
your answers involve drawing on given graphs, either carefully copy the graphs into your notebook
or draw right on the graphs in the text.
Interspersed with the exercises, you will nd bits of exposition. They will be formatted like this
paragraph. They do not require answers, but you will certainly want to read them.
After each chapter, youll nd a Problem Set in the text. These are problems which (a) provide
some review of the material covered in that portion of the course, (b) add a little bit of new material,
and (c) try to tie things together.
Math Study Center (MSC)
Because of the challenging nature of this course, the Mathematics Department oers a Study
Center for the students in Math 111 and 112. The Math Study Center provides a supposrtive
atmosphere for you to work on your math either individually or in groups. Details regarding the
time and location of the Math Study Center will be announced in class and on your instructors
website.
Comments, Suggestions, Typos, . . .
v
vi PREFACE
In creating this new edition, we have attempted to remove all reported errors from previous
editions. Undoubtedly, in the process we have introduced some brand new typos. They should be
reported via email to
taggart@math.washington.edu
Also, feel free to send in your comments and suggestions. We will keep an updated list of corrections
posted on the web at
http://www.math.washington.edu/m112/m112typos.html
Chapter 1
Tangents and Derived Graphs
2 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
Worksheet #1 The Vertical Speed of a Shell
Key Question
A shell is red straight up by a mortar. The graph below shows its altitude as a function of time.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
100
200
300
400
Imagine that there is a tiny speedometer in the shell that records the shells velocity just as the
speedometer in your car records the cars velocity.
I. What is the reading on the shells speedometer at time t = 2?
II. What is the reading on the shells speedometer when it reaches the highest point of its path?
III. Does the shell stop at the top?
IV. What is the reading on the shells speedometer at time t = 0, just as it is being red?
The function describing the shells altitude (A) vs. time will be denoted by A = f(t). The formula
that corresponds to this graph is
A = f(t) = 160t 16t
2
.
A is in feet and t is in seconds.
1 Use the graph to nd the following quantities:
a) The distance covered from time t = 2 to t = 4.
2
Worksheet #1 The Vertical Speed of a Shell 3
b) f(6.5) f(4.5)
c) The average speed of the shell from time t = 0 to time t = 3.
d) The average speed of the shell from time t = 1 to time t = 4.
e)
f(5) f(2)
3
f) The time required for the shell to reach the altitude 300 ft.
2 Recall that the following quantities can be read from my graph.
graph
height of
height
change in
secant
slope of
First read the following quantities from the graph and then tell what this quantity is in terms
of a shell being red.
a) The height of the graph at t = 3 seconds; t = 7 seconds.
b) The change in the height of the graph from t = 2 to t = 4.5 seconds.
c) The slope of the secant to the graph from t = 3 to t = 3.5 seconds.
To use the formula to get the information you have been getting from the graph, you have
to recall
The Substitution Rule. To nd f(4) from the formula you substitute 4 in for t everywhere
in the formula: f(4) = 160(4) 16(4)
2
= 384 feet. To nd f(5) f(4), you substitute and
follow the recipe:
f(5) f(4) = [160(5) 16(5)
2
] [160(4) 16(4)
2
] = 400 384 = 16 ft.
To nd
f(5) f(3)
2
, you substitute and again follow the recipe:
f(5) f(3)
2
=
[160(5) 16(5)
2
] [160(3) 16(3)
2
]
2
= 32 ft/sec.
3 Use the formula for A = f(t) to determine the quantities in questions 1(a)(f) and 2. Check
your answers against the answers you got from the graph.
Thus far the questions have required that you get information about average speeds and
distances covered from the graph or formula. There is an accuracy problem with the graph,
but there should not be any great confusion about how these quantities are to be found.
However, we have not yet dealt with the issue of the readings on the imaginary speedometer
in the shell. There can be great confusion about this issuein fact, at the beginning, it is a
matter of personal opinion and preference.
3
4 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
4 One approach to the question of what is a speedometer reading is the one we used in Math
111:
Math 111 version. The speedometer reading is the average speed over a very tiny
time intervalfor instance, one that is 0.1 or .01 seconds long.
The average speed is measured on the graph by the slope of the secant over the time interval.
Draw your best approximation to the secant line to the graph from t = 2 to t = 2.1 or
t = 2.01. Whichever line you choose, draw a nice big one with a plastic ruler and compute
its slope. Would you say that this number is an accurate reading of the speedometer reading
at t = 2, and therefore an answer to Key Question I?
5 By measuring the slope of the secant to the graph over a very tiny time interval, make your
best estimate of the speed of the shell when it reaches the peak of its path, at time t = 5.
Thus you have a graphical answer to Key Question II.
6 16 When I answer Question 5 with my clear plastic ruler I draw a line that is absolutely
horizontal. Its slope is 0, so I conclude that the speed of the shell at t = 5 seconds is 0. Do
you agree? Does this mean that the shell stops at time t = 5? As you answer this question,
think carefully about the way the word stops is used in everyday English.
7 17 Many people would say that at time t = 0, just as the shell is red, it has no speed, or
that its speedometer is not reading, or that its speedometer reading is 0. However, if you
adopt the Math 111 version of speedometer readingsthat they are given by secants over
tiny time intervalswhat would you say the speedometer reading of the shell is at t = 0?
This is your rst answer to Key Question IV.
The graph gives relatively quick answers to the speedometer questions. But there is always
the issue of accuracy with graphs. So lets use the formula to get the same answers.
8 Again take the Math 111 version of the speedometer reading at t = 2 to be the average speed
from t = 2 to t = 2.1, or from t = 2 to t = 2.01. That is
f(2.1) f(2.0)
0.1
or
f(2.01) f(2.00)
0.01
.
Use the Substitution Rule in the formula for f(t) to determine these two values. Compare
the two answers you get with the answer you got from the graph in Question 4.
Its true that the graph is not accurate, but at least it gives one answer. It looks as if the
formula can not make up its mind as to the speedometer reading at time t = 2.
9 Again, take the speedometer reading to be the average speed over a tiny time interval and
use the formula to approximate the reading of the speedometer at t = 5 seconds.
10 The speedometer reading at t = 5 seconds that I got from the graph was 0 ft/sec. Presumably,
your answer to Question 9 is dierent. How do you explain the dierence? Which answer
would you say is more correct? Do you believe that the speedometer would actually read
0 at t = 5 seconds?
11 Use the technique applied in questions 8 and 9 to make your best estimate of the speedometer
reading at time t = 0. The answers I get from this technique are 158.4 ft/sec and 159.84
4
Worksheet #1 The Vertical Speed of a Shell 5
ft/sec. These are not quite what I got from the graph. What would you say the speedometer
reading at time t = 0 would actually be?
Thus far we have used the Math 111 approach that says that the speedometer reading is the
average speed over a tiny time interval. This is all right on the graph, because graphs are
somewhat inaccurate anyway. But when we use the formula it leads to the confusion that
we get dierent answersdepending on how short a time interval we use. The answers the
formula gives us are all pretty close, so we could just round them o and say thats the
answer. But rounding o throws away the accuracy that comes from the formula.
Here is a dierent approach that many people nd appealing (and others do not). Whatever
your feelings toward this approach, follow it and see where it leads. The graphical version of
this approach is as follows:
The Tangent Approach. The slope of the secant to the curve from t = 2 to t +2.1 is a good
approximation to the speedometer reading, but we will do better if we take a smaller time
interval. In fact, there is one line that just touches the graph at t = 2 (and nowhere else)
that best represents the speed. This line is called the tangent line. (See top of next page.)
PSfrag replacements
2
A = f(t)
t
A
tangent line
12 You might believe that the tangent line I have illustrated above actually touches the graph
at more than one point, or you might believe that there is some other way of thinking about
a line that goes in the same direction as the graph at t = 2. Whatever your belief, draw
your best tangent line to the graph of altitude vs. time at t = 2. Use a plastic ruler and
draw a long line. (For many of you the line may not be any dierent from the secant line you
drew earlier.) Measure the slope of the tangent line you drew. Would you say this is a better
approximation to the speedometer reading at t = 2?
13 Draw the tangent to the graph at t = 5 and use it to approximate the speedometer reading
at that time. Are you willing to draw a tangent line to the graph at t = 0? If so, use it to
make your best estimate of the speedometer reading at time t = 0.
Thus the tangent line approach to the speedometer problem is based on the belief that at
any one point on the graph, there is a unique line that captures the steepness of the graph
at the point in question. The slope of this line is then taken to be the ocial speedometer
reading of the shell at the given time. People have three distinct reactions to this approach:
a) There is no such line.
b) Of course, there is such a line, and anybody can see it.
c) There sort of is such a line, but it really is just a secant line for two very, very close
points.
5
6 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
If you do not believe in such a line, then I would think you would have a tough time believing
in speedometer readings. If you do believe there is such a line, but it is just another secant
line, then you are saying your cars speedometer measures a type of average speedwhich
I do not believe. I am going to try to persuade you that, with some mindstretching, you
can imagine that there is exactly one tangent line to the curve at each point, but it is not a
secant line. It really does only touch at one point.
The interesting question is: How can we use the accuracy of the formula to precisely describe
such a line and get a really accurate reading of its slope?
6
Worksheet #2 Two Versions of Marginal Revenue and Cost 7
Worksheet #2
Two Versions of Marginal Revenue and Cost
Key Question
Below are the Total Revenue and Total Cost graphs for small orders in your print shop.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
TR
TC
Quantity (Reams)
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
The ocial economics text denition of Marginal Revenue is:
Increment.The Marginal Revenue at q items is the increment in Revenue that comes
when we increase q by 1 item.
In Math 111 we found it easier to read Marginal Revenue from a graph as follows:
Slope. The Marginal Revenue at q items is the slope of the secant between the points
on the TR graph at q items and one more item.
Check that both denitions give the same answer at q = 1 reams.
Now suppose that things have gotten more complicated at the print shop, and you take orders
by the Hundreds of pages (1 Hundred pages = 0.2 Reams). Thus one more item is 0.2 Reams.
Then what is the Marginal Revenue at q = 3 Reams by the increment denition and by the slope
denition? What would happen if you took orders by the page, so that one more item means
one more page = 0.002 Reams?
7
8 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
1 Calculate the change in the height of the TR graph from q = 2 to q = 3 Reams. Do you see
that this number is the Marginal Revenue at q = 2?
2 Draw a nice long secant line connecting the points
on the TR graph at q = 2 and q = 3. Use two
points on this line that are quite far apart to mea
sure its slope. Your numerical answer here should
be the same as your numerical answer to Ques
tion 1, except that, technically speaking, the units
in the rst question are dollars, whereas the units
here are dollars/Ream. Do you see why they give
the same numerical answer?
change
in TR
2
Two points used
1 Ream
3
The reason lies in the fact that even though you used two very farapart points on the secant
line to measure its slope, the points at q = 2 and q = 3 could also have been used. The run
between these two points is 1 Ream. The rise between these two points is the change in
Revenue.
3 Whatever holds for Marginal Revenue should hold for Marginal Cost. Use the following
economists denition of Marginal Cost to compute the MC at q = 2 (taking an item to be 1
Ream).
Increment. The Marginal Cost at q items is the increment in Cost that comes
when we increase q by one more item.
4 The slope denition of Marginal Cost is
Slope. The Marginal Cost at q items is the slope of the secant between the points
on the TC graph at q items and one more item.
But since the TC graph given above is straight, secant lines to it are always the graph itself.
Measure the slope of the TC graph and check that this is numerically the same as the answer
you got to Question 3.
Now suppose that, as in the Key Question, we decided to take the basic unit of printing to
be one Hundred pages (=0.2 Reams). Then by the economists denitions, the MR and MC
should get much smaller, because one more item is actually a smaller quantity. On the
other hand, if you take the slope denitions, MR and MC are not going to change much, if
at all, because moving the points closer along the graph is not going to change very much
the secant line you actually draw. The confusion is in the units.
One way to deal with the units problem is, if we are going to print orders in Hundreds of
pages, then we should relabel the horizontal axis in hundreds of pages. Thus 1 Ream is
relabeled 5 Hundred pages, 2 Reams is relabeled 10 Hundred pages and so forth.
5 Relabel the horizontal axis so that the units are Hundreds of pages. (Do not obliterate the
old units, because we really are going to go back to them.)
8
Worksheet #2 Two Versions of Marginal Revenue and Cost 9
6 Since one more item = 1 Hundred pages, the increment denition of MR at q = 15 Hundred
pages requires that you calculate the change in the height of the TR graph from 15 to 16
Hundred pages. Are you willing to make a guess as to what this number is? Explain.
7 The slope denition of MR at q = 15 Hundred pages requires that you draw a nice long secant
line from q = 15 to q = 16 Hundred pages and measure its slope, using two points that are
far apart. Do so and use your answer to give the MR at q = 15 Hundred pages. Then use this
answer to tell what the increment in Revenue would be as you move from 15 to 16 Hundred
pages.
8 What is the MC at q = 15 Hundred pages?
Thus everything works outthe two types of denition agreeif you relabel axes. But thats
a tedious thing to have to do. The secant line we drew did not change; only the numerical
value of its slope changed. The way to deal with this problem is to leave the units alone and
always be prepared to convert (by arithmetic) to new units. But mainly, we will avoid the
problem by focusing on the slope denition and not changing units.
9 We want the MR and the MC at 20 Hundred pages when one more item means 1 Hundred
pages. But we want to use the old units, Reams, on the horizontal axis. This means we want
secants from q = 4 Reams (= 20 .2) to q = 4.2 Reams (= 21 .2). Draw the two required
secant lines and measure their slopes in dollars/Ream.
10 Your answer to Question 9 says that an increase of 0.2 Reams leads to a rate of increase of a
certain number of dollars/Ream. Convert this rate to a certain number of dollars per Hundred
Pages and then tell what the MR and MC would be at 20 Hundred pages. [MR = $1.56 per
Hundred; MC=$.91 per Hundred].
Presumably, by now you see that when one item is a small dierence on the horizontal
scale, we have to use the slope denition of MR and MC in order to read numbers from the
graph. If we are very careful and keep the units straight, this denition is basically the same
as the economics text (increment) version of MR and MC. But we would rather not have to
be so careful. The nice thing is that we can use the slope denition and not be so careful,
and everything works out just ne.
11 We want the MR at 17 Hundred pages. Thus, we want the slope from q = 3.4 to q = 3.6
Reams. Measure the slope of this secant line and leave the units in dollars/Ream. Check
that the MR at 13 Hundred pages is $10.60 per Ream and that the MC at any number of
Hundreds of pages is $4.55 per Ream.
12 The prot for printing any size order is the dierence between the Total Revenue and Total
Cost for that quantity. This is measured by the vertical distance between the two graphs.
Find the quantity q (in Reams) at which prot is maximized.
13 Now take one item to mean 0.2 Reams (=1 Hundred pages) and check that, at the quantity
q you gave in Question 12, MR is equal to MC. Use the slope denitions of these, of course.
Thus, regardless of units or which denition you use, the basic principle for economics still
holds: Prot is maximized when Marginal Revenue is equal to Marginal Cost.
9
10 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
Next suppose we take one item to be one page =0.002 Reams. This means that the MR (or
MC) at 3 Reams is the slope of the secant from q = 3 to q = 3.002 Reams. Even though we
are taking one item to be one page, we still measure slopes in the units dollars/Ream.
14 What is the MC at q = 3 when one item means one page? Convert the units of this slope
into dollars/page and give the ocial economics text version of the MC at q = 3.
15 The secant line to the TC graph from q = 3 to q = 3.002 Reams is not much of a mystery.
But what about the secant line to the TR graph from q = 3 to q = 3.002 Reams? Do you
believe that such a line exists? Are you willing to draw it? If so, measure its slope and tell
what the MR at q = 3 Reams is when one item is one page.
16 When pressed to draw the line asked for in Question 15, students describe the line they drew
in one of the following ways:
a) (Touches) It touches the graph just at q = 3 and nowhere else.
b) (Magic secant) It really is connecting two points on the graph that are very, very close.
c) (Balanced) The graph bends o equally on both sides.
d) (Sliding secants) Imagine drawing secant lines between q = 3 and points nearby, and
then imagine the nearby points getting closer to q = 3. This line is the secant line they
are getting close to.
How would you describe the line you drew in Question 15by one of the above descriptions?
If none of the above descriptions is the same as yours, write out your own description. Can
you give yours a caption name, like the ones in parentheses?
17 Draw the line necessary to measure the MR at q = 4.6 Reams, when one item means 1 page
= 0.002 Reams. Measure its slope using units of dollars per page.
18 In the paragraph following Question 11 in Worksheet #1 there is a rst description of the
notion of a tangent line. Go back and reread that discussion and your own answer to Ques
tion 12 that follows it. Would you say that the line you drew in Question 17 above is a
tangent line? This really is a matter of personal opinion. Write out clearly why you believe
the line you drew is or is not a tangent line. As a start, think about how you actually drew
the line.
10
Worksheet #3 Tangents and Secants 11
Worksheet #3 Tangents and Secants
Key Question
The graph below is of the function f(x) = x
2
+ 6x + 7
1 2 3 4 5
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
x
y
y = f(x)
If the graph were viewed as a graph of altitude vs. time, then a reasonable question to ask would
be to use the graph to determine the speedometer reading at time t = 2 (as in Worksheet #1). If
the graph were viewed as a graph of Total Revenue vs. quantity, then a reasonable question to ask
would be to determine the MR at x = 2.
Most students would agree that a good rst approximation to these answers could be obtained by
drawing the tangent line to the graph at x = 2 and measuring its slope. However, we have a formula
for the graph, which gives us great accuracy, and this is the age of fancy handheld calculators.
Surely, we should be able to use these two devices, the formula and/or the calculator, to answer
the question of what the steepness of the graph (or its tangent) is at x = 2. For instance, we could
nd the height of the graph at x = 2, (f(2)) by plugging into the formula, nd the height of the
graph at x = 2.1 (f(2.1)), subtract (f(2.1) f(2)) and then divide by 0.1 (
f(2.1) f(2.0)
0.1
) to
nd the slope of the secant from x = 2.0 to x = 2.1. The table below summarizes the numerical
answers obtained from the formula with the aid of a calculator for various values of hwhere h is
the distance you go to the right from x = 2.
Table of Slopes at 2
2 +h f(2 +h) f(2) f(2 +h) f(2)
f(2+h)f(2)
h
2.1 15.19 15 0.19 1.9
2.01 15.0199 15 0.0199 1.99
2.001 15.001999 15 0.001999 1.999
2.0001 15.00019999 15 0.00019999 1.9999
2.00001 15.00002 15 0.00002 2.0000
2.000001 15.000002 15 0.000002 2.0000
11
12 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
Does this convince you that the real value of the slope of the tangent to the graph at x = 2 is
2.0000?
1 Presumably, by now you have your own rm version of how to draw a tangent line to the
graph at x = 2. Use it to draw this line and then measure the slope of this line to check that
slope = 2.000 is roughly the correct answer.
Presumably, you are also getting impatient to know what the ocial denition of a tangent
line is. It is coming. But as you will see, the denition does not really tell you how to draw
the line, and it is also not very intuitively appealing.
Before we discuss the ocial denition, we will work with the table that the formula and the
calculator gave us.
2 Below is a large blowup of the piece of the graph near x = 2.0.
B
2.0 2.01 2.1
A
PSfrag replacements
y = f(x)
On the blowup locate the following quantities as dimensions on the picture: f(2.0), f(2.01),
f(2.1).
3 On the blowup there are dimensions labeled A _ and B _. Tell in your own words why the
following are true. (Pretend you are explaining to a friend in the class why these are correct.)
A _= f(2.1) f(2.0) = 0.19 B _= f(2.01) f(2.0) = 0.0199.
4 There are two secant lines on the blowup above. Using the Table of Slopes at 2 in the Key
Question, or your answers to Question 3, tell what their slopes are. For practical purposes I
have drawn the two secant lines as having quite dierent steepnesses. Is this consistent with
the numerical answers you got? How would you redraw my blowup in order to get a picture
consistent with the numerical answers?
5 You should now be able to describe on the blowup how the rst two lines of the Table of
Slopes at 2 appear. One secant line has slope 1.9, and the other has slope 1.99. How would
you indicate on the regular graph of f(x) how these two slopes appear?
12
Worksheet #3 Tangents and Secants 13
6 How would you use a blowup to indicate how the third line of the Table of Slopes at 2 tells
us about the slope of a secant line to the graph? Then how would you illustrate the third
line of the table on the regular graph of y = f(x)?
The next question is, of course, How would you illustrate the fourth line of the Table of
Slopes at 2 on the full size graph of y = f(x)? And the answer is that once you get past
the rst line of the table, all the secant lines look the same on the regular graph. If there are
dierences among the secant lines, you would have to make bigger and bigger blowups to
see them. Thus, as far as the graph is concerned, you can take the tangent to be a magical
secanta secant between two points so close together you can not see the dierenceand
you can take the slope for this particular graph at that point to be 2. The formula and the
graph give exactly the same information.
But is slope = 2 really the correct answer?
7 There is a distinct pattern to the answers in the rst four lines of the Table of Slopes at 2.
Then it stops. It looks like the breakdown of the pattern is due to the fact that my calculator
rounded o. Suppose my calculator had not rounded o, and the pattern had persisted.
Complete the following computations by following the patterns established in the rst four
lines of the Table of Slopes at 2.
f(2.00001) = f(2.000001) =
f(2.00001) f(2) = f(2.000001) f(2) =
f(2.00001) f(2)
0.00001
=
f(2.000001) f(2)
0.000001
=
It looks like, if we had a superlarge calculator that never rounded o, then we would get a
dierent answer every time we took a new point to the right of, but closer to, 2. And it does
not look like any of these answers is 2. They get closer, but they never quite get there.
Calculators are a convenience, but this roundingo error makes them too inaccurate for our
present purposes. But you know enough algebra to do without one.
8 The formula for f(x) is f(x) = x
2
+ 6x + 7. Then by the substitution Rule
f(2 +h) = (2 +h)
2
+ 6(2 +h) + 7.
Simplify the expression on the right hand side of the above equation so that the equation
reads
f(2 +h) = ( )h
2
+ ( )h + ( ).
Then write out a formula of the form
f(2 +h) f(2) = ( )h
2
+ ( )h + ( ),
and then use your formula to show that
f(2 +h) f(2)
h
= 2 h.
13
14 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
9 This last formula, which came from the Substitution Rule and algebraic simplications, is very
powerful. If you give it a particular value of h, say h = 0.1, it gives you the corresponding
value of
f(2+h)f(2)
h
which is the slope of the secant from 2 to 2 + h (= 2 0.1 = 1.9 in
this case). Use this formula to check the second line of the Table of Slopes at 2. Then use
the formula to nd the value of
f(2+h)f(2)
h
when h = 0.00001. Check this answer against
your answer to Question 7 and against the corresponding line in the table. It looks like the
calculator really does make errors.
The formula
f(2+h)f(2)
h
= 2 h tells us that no matter how small we make h (no matter
how close the two points are), the slope of the secant line from 2 to 2 + h is never going
to reach 2, although it can be made as close as we like to 2. You cannot set h equal to 0,
because if you do, then you do not have two dierent points, and you are not talking about
a secant line. The whole idea collapses. Thus, mathematicians say: The tangent line to
this graph at x = 2 is the line that touches the graph there and has slope 2. This does not
tell you how to draw the tangent line directly from the graph, and it does not really say what
kind of line the tangent line isit just says that it is a particular line with slope 2. On the
other hand, once you draw the line you probably will agree that:
A. The tangent line is very, very close to the secant line connecting the two points very
close to 2.
B. The tangent line is an indicator of the steepness of the graph.
A good deal of this course involves the notion of a tangent line. But I can not quite tell you
what sort of a creature it is. On the other hand, if we have the formula for the graph, I can
tell you with great accuracy what the slope of the tangent line is.
10 Draw your own version of the tangent to the graph at x = 1.
11 Using the Substitution Rule and some algebra, complete the following equations, and then
check the last line.
f(1 +h) = ( )h
2
+ ( )h + ( )
f(1 +h) f(1) = ( )h
2
+ ( )h + ( )
f(1 +h) f(1)
h
= 4 h.
12 Use the last formula in Question 11 to nd the slope of the secant to the graph from x = 1
to x = 1.000002.
A mathematician would use the last line of Question 11 to say that the slope of the tangent
to the graph at x = 1 is 4. This is because 4 is the slope that the secant lines are getting
closer to as you let the two points get closer. But this also says that the tangent line is
dierent from all of the secant lines, because the secant lines all have slope dierent from 4.
If the graph we started with were a distance vs. time graph, then we would say that the
instantaneous speed at time t = 1 is 4 ft/sec.
13 Imitate the procedure used in questions 11 and 12 to nd the slope of the tangent to the
graph of f(x) at x = 2.5. Then check your answer by drawing the tangent line on the graph
and measuring its slope.
14
Worksheet #4 Drawing Speed Graphs 15
Worksheet #4 Drawing Speed Graphs
Key Question
The graphs below give the distance vs. time for two electronically controlled cars moving along
parallel tracks. At time t = 0 the cars are next to one another.
I. Find the time t at which the cars are furthest apart.
II. Find the time t at which the two cars are going the same speed. [1.5 mins]
III. Find a time t at which Car B is going 1 ft/min faster than Car A. [1.3 mins]
1 2 3 4
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Car B
Car A
Time (minutes)
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
(
f
e
e
t
)
1 Key Question I is just a question about graph reading. You are being asked for the value of
t at which the two graphs are furthest apart. What is your answer?
2 Key Question II asks for the value of t for which the slopes of the tangents to the two graphs
shown are equal. You can either nd this directlywhich is dicult, since the two graphs
are so far apart for the values of t you are looking at. Or you can recall a basic principle
about such graphsthat they are furthest apart when their tangents are parallel. What is
your answer?
3 Key Question III can be answered by a trialanderror method. But it is much more dicult
than Key Question II, because looking for tangent lines that have a specic numerical rela
tionship between their slopes is much more dicult than looking for parallel tangent lines.
Furthermore, when you are looking for parallel tangent lines you are also looking for the place
where the graphs are furthest apart. You have no such visual clues for Key Question III. We
will approach Key Questions II and III more systematically, but for now you should make
your best guess for the answer to Key Question III.
15
16 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
What we need to solve Key Questions II and III is a very accurate table of slopes of the
tangents to the two graphs for many values between 0 and 4. Then we could just scan the
table for the place where the readings for A and B are the same (to answer Key Question
II), and then scan the table to nd the value of t where the reading for B is 1 ft/min greater
than the reading for A (to answer Key Question III). Our next step is to make such a table
and then use it to answer the Key Questions. We will make a complete table with t ranging
from 0 to 4, because later on we will want to answer the question: For what value of t is
Car A going 3 ft/min faster than Car B (which is like Key Question III, but dierent)?
4 With the techniques we have available to us at this stage, nding the slopes of tangents to
the two graphs and lling in the tables is going to be tedious. Fortunately for you, weve
done most of the work for you. Fill in the remaining entries of the following table by drawing
the appropriate tangent lines and approximating their slopes.
t 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Speed of Car A
at time t 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6
Speed of Car B
at time t 24 16.36 11.76 8.77 6.72 4.17 3.34 2.7 2.19 1.78
t 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4
Speed of Car A
at time t 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8
Speed of Car B
at time t 1.44 1.16 0.93 0.73 0.42 0.29 0.18 0.09 0
5 Now that you have the tables of speeds vs. time for the two cars, you should be able to answer
Key Questions II and III with great ease. Do so, and compare your answers to the answers
you got in questions 2 and 3. However, as you see, the tables are not perfect either, since
they have holes in them and still must be used to estimate.
6 Use the speed vs. time tables to nd the time t when Car A is going 3 ft/min faster than
Car B.
The tables are quite ecient for answering speed vs. time questions for the two cars. But
looking at them tells nothing about the patterns of speed vs. time of the two cars. Now that
we have the tables, we might as well take the next step and draw the graphs of speed vs.
time for the two cars. But before doing this, you should decide in your own mind what the
patterns of speed vs. time for the two cars are.
16
Worksheet #4 Drawing Speed Graphs 17
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0
1.5
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
Time (minutes)
S
p
e
e
d
(
f
t
/
m
i
n
)
7 First use the two distance vs. time graphs to give an overall description of speed vs. time for
each of the two cars. (E.g., Car X speeds up the whole time, or Car Y speeds up and then
goes at a constant speed.)
8 Using your table draw, on the axes above, the speed vs. time graph of Car A ONLY.
9 Now use the graph you drew in Question 8 to describe in everyday words the speed vs. time
pattern of Car A.
10 Now it is time to plot Bs speed vs. time graph on the axes above. You will not be able to
include the rst two or three entries of your table, because the speed axis does not go high
enough, so start at about t = 0.4.
We started with two Distance vs. time graphs and asked speed vs. time questions. This led
us to making speed vs. time tables. That led us to making speed vs. time graphs. As you can
see, the speed vs. time graphs have dierent shapes. In fact, even though the two distance
graphs are not that dierent, the speed vs. time graphs pick up and describe dierences
between distance graphs that the naked eye would not ordinarily see.
But the speed vs. time graphs are also handy for answering practical questions.
11 Use the speed vs. time graphs to determine the time when Car A is going 1 ft/min faster
than Car B. Check your answer on the two distance vs. time graphs at the beginning of this
worksheet.
17
18 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
Worksheet #5
Drawing and Using a Marginal Revenue Graph
Key Question
The curvy graph below is of Total Revenue of selling Blivets. The straightline graphs are three
possible Total Cost graphs of manufacturing Blivets (TC
1
, TC
2
and TC
3
). We wish to determine
the quantity q at which the prot is maximized for each of the three TC graphs. One approach
is to nd the value at which the distance between the TR graph and a particular TC graph is
greatest. Another is to nd the value at which the TR and a particular TC graph have the same
slope. Use this second approach on the given graphs to nd the three desired values of q. Then
tell how you would nd the three values of q, if, instead of the given graphs, you had graphs of
Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
440
460
480
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
440
460
TC
1
TC
2
TC
3
TR
Hundreds of Blivets
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
1 First assume that the TC graph is TC
1
, and use the method of nding the greatest vertical
distance between the TR graph and the TC
1
graph to nd the value of q that maximizes
prot. The TR graph bends so little that it may be hard to nd a unique best quantity q. If
so, give an interval of values of q that you think lead to maximum prots.
2 Check that the value (or values) of q that you chose in Question 1 has the property that: AT
that value of q the tangent to the TR graph is parallel to the TC
1
graph. In fact, it may be
18
Worksheet #5 Drawing and Using a Marginal Revenue Graph 19
that by just using slopes of tangents you can limit the possible range of qs better than by
using the vertical distance between the graphs.
You should be clear on why the prot is maxi
mized when the slope of the TR graph is equal
to the slope of the TC
1
graph. One way to think
about this is that, for points to the left of this
value of q, the TR graph is steeper and therefore
headed away from the TC
1
graph. For points
to the right of this value of q, the TR graph is
less steep and therefore is headed toward the
TC
1
graph. The point q that you chose, then, is
a kind of balancing point, where the TR graph
is neither headed away from nor headed toward
the TC
1
graph. That is the place where the TR
graph is furthest away from the TC
1
graph.
away
Headed toward
Balanced
Headed
3 Find the value of q (or a small range of values of q) where the slope of the tangent to the
TR graph is the same as the slope of the TC
2
graphand therefore nd the value of q that
maximizes prot, when the Total Cost graph is TC
2
. Repeat this problem when the Total
Cost graph is TC
3
.
4 If we take the Total Cost graph to be TC
1
, then the Marginal Cost is constant and is equal
to the slope of TC
1
. Compute this slope and call it MC
1
. If the units of this slope are in
dollars/hundred Blivets, then (in the terminology of Worksheet #2), you are giving the slope
denition of MC. Can you switch units around to tell how much more money it costs to
produce one more Blivet if the Total Cost graph is TC
1
?
Again, as in Worksheet #2, we will use the slope denition of Marginal Revenue and Cost.
It is easier to deal with and diers from the economists denition only in units. Also, as in
Worksheet #2, we will take the slope of the tangent to the TR graph to represent Marginal
Revenuewhereas, technically, we should use a secant line which connects two points one
Blivet (not one hundred Blivets) apart. Thus, in Question 3, above, you have maximized
prot by nding q where Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost are equal. This would be an
easy problem if we had an MR graph instead of a TR graph. That is what we will get next.
5 We want a graph that gives Marginal Revenue at all values of q between 0 and 7. For that
we should imitate the preceding worksheet and nd the tangents to the TR graph at 20 or 30
points, and then plot their slopes. However, along with most economics texts, I have drawn
a very nice TR graph. Using the graph make the most accurate readings you can of the
MR at q = 2, 4 and 6. Then plot these values on the axes below.
19
20 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
Hundreds of Blivets
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
p
e
r
h
u
n
d
r
e
d
6 If you have done Question 5 with much care, the three points you plotted will be pretty close
to a straight line. Draw a straight line that comes closest to going through these three points.
7 The graph you drew in Question 6 is a candidate for the MR vs. q graph. Determine the
values it gives for q = 1 and q = 5. Then, by drawing the tangents to the TR graph, check
to see that this straight line is the correct MR graph (within reasonably tolerable levels of
accuracy for graph reading).
8 In Question 2 you were looking for the value of q at which the slope of the TR graph is equal
to 90the slope of the TC
1
graph. The slope of the TR graph is MR. So you are looking
for the value of q at which the MR graph you drew takes the value 90. Use the MR graph to
nd this value of q and check against your answer to Question 2.
9 Use the MR graph you drew to nd when the MR is equal to the slope of TC
2
. Check your
answer against Question 3.
10 Use your MR graph to nd the quantity q at which prot is maximized when the Total Cost
graph is TC
3
. Check against your answer to the last part of Question 3.
11 Suppose you wanted to draw an MC graph if the Total Cost graph is given by TC
2
. Then
you would choose a quantity q and measure the slope of the tangent line to the TC
2
graph
at that point. This is weird, but to a mathematician, the tangent to the TC
2
graph at any
value of q is just the straightline TC
2
graph. Thus you would get the same MC all along the
TC
2
graph. On the axes following Question 5, draw the MC graph that goes with the TC
2
graph. Check that the prot is maximized when the MC and MR graphs cross.
12 As a nal twist, suppose that you had an added Revenue of $120even if you sold no Blivets
at allso that your entire TR graph was raised by $120. Then what would the resulting MR
graph look like? How would this aect the quantities at which prots are maximized for the
various TC graphs?
20
Worksheet #6 Derived Graphs 21
Worksheet #6 Derived Graphs
Key Question
We have below the graphs of three functions, y = f(x), y = g(x) and y = h(x). For each of the
graphs we could follow a procedure similar to the one used to get the speed graphs from the distance
graphs in Worksheet #4 and similar to the one used to get the Marginal Revenue graph from the
Total Revenue graph in Worksheet #5. That is, we could: Measure the slope of the tangent at
various points, say, x = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , 8, and, on a new set of axes, plot these slopes of tangents. By
this procedure we would have formed three new graphs, called the Derived Graphs of the graphs
shown. (Do not draw the derived graphs yet, though.)
I. For each of the graphs shown below, tell when its derived graph crosses the xaxis.
II. Give the longest interval you can over which the derived graph of the graph of g(x) is positive
but decreasing.
III. Is there an interval of values of x over which the derived graph of the graph of h(x) is higher
than the derived graph of the graph of f(x)if both were placed on the same axes?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4
0
4
8
12
y
x
f(x)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
16
8
0
8
16
24
32
y
x
g(x)
21
22 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
16
12
8
4
0
4
8
12
16
y
x
h(x)
1 Carefully measure the slopes of the tangent lines to y = f(x) at x = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 8 and plot
the values on the axes below.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
20
16
12
8
4
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
x
2 The graph you drew in Question 1 should be below the xaxis on the interval x = 2 to x = 6.
How does this fact appear on the graph of y = f(x)?
3 The graph of y = f(x) gets less steep as you go from x = 0 to x = 2. How does this fact
show up in the derived graph of the graph of f(x)?
4 Now look at the graph of g(x) and describe in words what the pattern would be if you
measured the slopes of the tangent lines at x = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 8. The easiest way to read o
this pattern is to let a straightedge run along the graph, watching how the slope of the
straightedge goes up and down.
22
Worksheet #6 Derived Graphs 23
5 Use the pattern you came up with in Question 4 to draw a rough sketch of the derived graph
of the graph of g(x). (Do not do it on the axes above.)
Notation. When you answered Question 1, you measured the slope of the tangent line to the
graph of f(x) at various points. We need a name for this.
f
(1) means the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f(x) at x = 1.
f
(2) means the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f(x) at x = 2.
In general
PSfrag replacements
f
/ _
(p) = the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f(x) at x = p
which value of x
which graph
or function
indicates slope of tangent line
6 By my measurements, g
(2) = 4.2. Draw the appropriate tangent line and check my answer.
Likewise, check that g
(4) = 0.5.
7 Determine the numerical values of g
(0), g
(1), g
(3), g
(5), g
(7), and g
(1) means the slope of the tangent to the graph of f(x) at x = 1. But it also is the value
of the derived graph at x = 1. Therefore, we will give the derived graph the name f
(x).
Then, f
(2) =
(x) at x = 2.
But since these two dierent things are really the same number, no confusion will arise by
giving them the same name.
23
24 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
10 Look at the axes below Question 1. I have already drawn a graph there. This is the graph of
h
(x). That is, what you have there is the derived graph of the graph of h(x). Use this graph
to nd the values of h
(0), h
(3), and h
(3), and h
(x), g
(x) and h
(x), you should be able to easily answer Key Question II. But now
tell if there is an interval over which h
(x) and f
(x).
How will this aect the shape of A(x) in relation to the shape of g(x)?
24
Worksheet #6 Derived Graphs 25
If you are in doubt about your answer to Question 17, go back and look at the derived graphs
f
(x) and g
(x). Each is a vertical shift of the other, but the two graphs we started with are very
dierent.
25
26 Chapter 1. Tangents and Derived Graphs
26
Chapter 2
Tangents and Formulas; The
Derivative
28 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
Worksheet #7
The Formula for the Slope of the Tangent
Key Question
In Worksheet #5 you found places where the tangent line to a graph had certain preassigned
values. The graph used in Worksheet #5 is shown below. But actually there is a formula that
belongs to the graph in Worksheet #5 and that is also shown below. We would like to use this
formula to get more accurate readings of the slopes of the secant lines and tangent to the graph,
and to use algebra to solve the Key Question of Worksheet #5. To the right below we have a
blowup of one tiny segment of the graph shown to the left.
480
440
400
360
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hundreds of Blivets
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
PSfrag replacements
m
TC
1
TC
3
TC
2
TR
BLOWUP
M
f(m+h) f(m)
h
m
m
m+h
M
M
Slope =
f(m+h)f(m)
h
f(x)=(
15
2
)x
2
+120x
To nd the slope of the secant line shown in the blowup, we just use the Substitution Rule in the
formula for f(x) and follow the recipe
f(m+h)f(m)
h
:
(1) f(m+h) = (
15
2
)(m+h)
2
+120(m+h) = (
15
2
)m
2
15mh(
15
2
)h
2
+120m+
120h
(2) f(m) = (
15
2
)m
2
+ 120m
(3)
f(m+h)f(m)
h
=
15mh \(
15
2
)h
2 \
+120h \
h \
= 15m(
15
2
)h + 120
I. Use formula (3) to nd the slope of the secant line from x = 3 to x = 3.01.
II. Use formula (3) to nd the slope of the tangent line at x = 4.
III. Use formula (3) to nd the slope of the tangent line at x = m.
1 Use the formula for f(x) to evaluate f(2) and f(5). Check your answers on the graph.
2 Use the formula for f(x) to evaluate f(3). Then use this result and your answer to Question 1
to nd the value of
f(5)f(3)
2
. Then use the graph at the beginning of Worksheet #5 to check
your answer. Repeat this with the number
f(3.5)f(3)
0.5
.
28
Worksheet #7 The Formula for the Slope of the Tangent 29
The rst two questions are a rerun of questions you answered in Worksheet #5. By using
the Substitution Rule and a lot of calculations you get roughly the same answers to questions
about slopes of secants that you got with the graph. The formula answers are more accurate.
3 Use the formula for f(x) (and a calculator) to nd
the slope of the secant line from x = 3 to x = 3.01.
Thus you have answered Key Question I. But
presumably you have not used the algebra that
comes just before Key Question I to do it.
In Questions 2 and 3 you found values of
f(3.5)f(3)
0.5
and
f(3.01)f(3)
0.01
. That is, you found
slopes of secants between x = 3 and points
nearby to the right of it. If I ask you for
f(3.25)f(3)
0.25
, then you have to go back and do
a lot of calculations all over again. Lets use
algebra to save some steps. A point h units to
the right of x = 3 is called x = 3 +h.
PSfrag replacements
h
Slope =
f(3+h)f(3)
h
f(3 +h) f(3)
3 3 +h
4 The height of the graph at x = 3 + h cannot be found on the graph, because we have
not specied h yet, but we can get a formula value for it in terms of h from the formula
for f(x). By the Substitution Rule evaluate f(3 + h) and then write it out in the form
f(3 +h) = ( ) + ( )h + ( )h
2
.
5 Use your answer to Question 4 in the recipe
f(3+h)f(3)
h
to write out a formula in terms of h
for
f(3+h)f(3)
h
= ( ) + ( )h.
6 By setting h = 0.5 your answer to Question 5 should give you the value of
f(3.5)f(3)
0.5
. Make
the substitution and then check your answer to Question 2.
7 To nd
f(3.01)f(3)
0.01
you must set h = 0.01 in your answer to Question 5. Do so. Check against
your answer to Question 3.
As a way of approaching Key Question II,
we will repeat at x = 4 what we just did at
x = 3. The point nearby and to the right
of 4 will be denoted by 4 +h
8 Use the Substitution Rule and some algebra
to write
f(4 +h) = ( ) + ( )h + ( )h
2
.
9 Use your answer to Question 8 in the recipe
f(4+h)f(4)
h
to write out a formula in terms of
h
f(4 +h) f(4)
h
= ( ) + ( )h.
PSfrag replacements
4
h
Slope =
f(4+h)f(4)
h
f(4 +h) f(4)
4 +h
29
30 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
10 Use your answer to Question 9 to nd the slopes of the secants
f(4.1)f(4)
0.1
,
f(4.001)f(4)
0.001
and
f(4.00001)f(4)
0.00001
.
The power of doing the algebra here is that we
get a formula for slopes of all secants to the
right of x = 4all at once, not just one at a
time. We have not yet gotten the slope of the
tangent, but we must be close.
11 As you let h take smaller and smaller values, the
slopes of the secants
f(4+h)f(4)
h
get closer and
closer to one number. This number seems like a
good bet for the slope of the tangent at x = 4. Do
you agree? Then, according to this, what is the
value of f
(4)
h
4 +h 4
Thus we have answered Key Question II, but we still have not used all that algebra in the
Key Question, have we?
Suppose that, instead of giving you the specic points x = 3 or x = 4, I said, lets deal with
a point x = m, and decide later on what its specic value will be. Then we would have the
same picture and the same algebra, except that we would have to drag along the symbol
m instead of computing with the numbers 3 or 4. But this is just a complication, not a
whole new approach.
12 Imitate your work in Questions 4 and 8 to complete the formula
f(m+h) = ( )m
2
+ ( )mh + ( )h
2
+ ( )m+ ( )h.
To check your answer, go back and look at the rst line of the algebra in the Key Question.
13 Imitate your work in Questions 5 and 9 to complete the formula
f(m+h) f(m)
h
=
( )m
2
+ ( )mh + ( )h
2
+ ( )m+ ( )h
h
.
Then simplify your answer by canceling out some hs. To check your answer look back at the
last line of the algebra in the Key Question.
30
Worksheet #7 The Formula for the Slope of the Tangent 31
Thus you have shown that the slope of the
secant line in the picture to the right is
15m(
15
2
)h + 120,
which is what all that algebra in the Key
Question is all about.
14 In Questions 12 and 13 you worked with a
general, unspecied point x = m, instead of
the numerical values x = 3 or x = 4. Your
answer to Question 13 should tell you about
specic values when x = 3 or x = 4. Replace
m by 3 in your answer to Question 13 and,
after simplifying, check against your answer
to Question 5. Then repeat this process with
x = 4 to check your answer to Question 9.
PSfrag replacements
m+h
h
Slope = 15m(
15
2
)h + 120
m
Thus all the algebra in the Key Question is a way of getting a formula once and for all for the
slope of the secant
f(m+h)f(m)
h
. By taking specic values of m and h, we can nd slopes
of specic secants.
But then we want a value for the slope of the tangent at x = m. This will, of course, involve
the letter m.
15 In Question 11 you used the formula
f(4+h)f(4)
h
= 60(
15
2
)h to deduce that f
(m) = 15m+ 120 gives the slope of the tangent to the graph of f(x) at the
general, unspecied point m. If we let m = 3 or m = 6, we get particular slopes of tangents,
i.e., f
(3) and f
(6). Use the formula to nd these values and then check the answers by
drawing tangent lines on the graph at the beginning of Worksheet #5.
31
32 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
18 The table below plots values of f
(m) 75 60 30
Complete the table. Then on the axes below sketch the graph that goes with the table.
7
15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
1 2 3 4 5 6
Even though you used the formula to get the values of the table, the table is a table of slopes
of tangents to the graph of f(x). You would get the same table if you had drawn a lot of
tangents and measured their slopes. Thus the graph you just drew is the derived graph of
the graph we started with. The formula f
(x)
f(x) = (
15
2
)x
2
+ 120x
Measure slopes of
tangents
Plot points
Draw derived graph
Write formula for
slope of secant
Do algebra
Let h go to 0
32
Worksheet #7 The Formula for the Slope of the Tangent 33
20 In Worksheet #5 we wanted values of q where the Marginal Revenue is equal to the Marginal
Cost for each of the three Total Cost graphsbecause those are the places where Prot is
maximized for the various TC graphs. The three Marginal Costs are just the slopes of the
three TC graphs. I read them as $90/Hundred, $66/Hundred and $50/Hundred. Thus all
the work of that worksheet was devoted to the following three questions:
a) For what value of q is MR = 90?
b) For what value of q is MR = 66?
c) For what value of q is MR = 50?
Use the formula for MR (which is in terms of the variable m and not q, obtained in Question 18
above) to answer these three questions. Then check your answers against Questions 8, 9, and
10 of Worksheet #5.
33
34 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
Worksheet #8
The Formulas for Two Speed Graphs
Key Question
The two graphs to the left below are the distance vs. time graphs of Worksheet #4. To the
right below are the speed vs. time graphs that you laboriously plotted in that worksheet.
1 2 3 4
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
1 2 3 4
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Needless to say, the graphs I drew in Worksheet #4 are the graphs of functions with formulas.
The formulas are:
Car A : A(x) = x
2
Car B : B(x) = x
25
x + 1
+ 25.
Since the speed graphs to the right are derived graphs, you ought to be able to follow the
pattern of Worksheet #7 to compute the formula for the speed graphs (and thereby avoid
that awful job of measuring and plotting thirty slopes of tangents). Below is a description
of a general procedure for starting with a function K(x), given by a formula, and nding
the slope of the tangent, K
(m).
f
(m) = 2m.
2 We use the letter m to give the impression of working with a xed value of x while we
do all the algebra in the procedure for nding A
(m) = 2m can
be rewritten as A
(x) = 2x. Check that this is indeed the formula for the speed graph
of Car A.
Thus by algebra we are getting a formula that describes exactly the speed graphrather
than measuring lots of slopes of tangents and still getting a rough graph. The procedure
for nding B
(m) from B(x) follows the general pattern. But, since this formula is a
little more complicated, you may need some guidance with the algebra.
3 Perform Step I on B(x). It is routine. In performing Step II, use parentheses a lot to
make sure that you do not lose track of the negative signs. Your answer to Step II should
be h
25
m+h+1
+
25
m+1
.
4 Step III just amounts to putting an h in the denominator.
5 It is far from clear how to simplify the result of Step III. There are hs all over the place,
and they do not easily cancel. There is a trick. Combine the fractions.
25
m+h + 1
+
25
m+ 1
=
25h
(m+h + 1)(m+ 1)
.
6 Using the trick in Question 5, your answer in Step IV should be
B(m+h)B(m)
h
= 1 +
25
(m+h+1)(m+1)
. This is pretty simple, but most important, you should be able to tell
what happens to this formula when h becomes innitely small.
7 Use the answer to Question 6 to show that the result of Step V is B
(m) = 1 +
25
(m+1)
2
.
8 Switch the name of the variable from m to x in the formula for B
(2), B
(3), B
(6), and B
(x) = 5, which is the same as 2x = 5, which gives x = 2.5. Find the time at which
the speed of Car B is 3 ft/min.
35
36 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
10
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1 2 3 4
14
12
8
6
4
2
1 2 3 4
PSfrag replacements
B
(x)
A
(x)
D
A(x)
t
Measure slopes of
tangents
Plot Points
Draw derived
graphs
Write formula for
slope of secant
Do algebra
Let H go to 0
A(x) = x
2
B(x) = x
25
x+1
+ 25
A
(x) = 2x
B
(x) = 1 +
25
(x+1)
2
B(x)
10 Key Question II of Worksheet #4 asks for the time at which the speeds of the two cars
are identical. Can you see that this asks for a solution to the equation 1+
25
(x+1)
2
= 2x?
Unfortunately, there are no elementary techniques for solving this equation. You might
try to see how far you get. On the other hand, you can use the equation to check the
answer you got to Key Question II in Worksheet #4. The answer I got was x = 1.5, and
this checks perfectly.
11 Key Question III in Worksheet #4 asked for the value of x at which B
(x) = A
(x) +1.
Check that you agree with this. Then replace B
(x) and A
(x) = 2x B
(x) = 1 +
25
(x+1)
2
In each of these examples we began with the formula for the original graph, wrote out
the formula for the slope of the secant, did some algebra, let h go to 0, and then got a new
formula. Here is this procedure worked out for the function C(x) = x
3
, keyed to the steps
described in the Key Question to Worksheet #8.
I. C(x +h) = (x +h)
3
= x
3
+ 3x
2
h + 3xh
2
+h
3
II. C(x +h) C(x) = 3x
2
h + 3xh
2
+h
3
III.
C(x+h)C(x)
h
=
3x
2
h+3xh
2
+h
3
h
IV.
(C(x+h)C(x)
h
= 3x
2
+ 3xh +h
2
V. C
(x) = 3x
2
.
******* The function that we get, the formula for the derived graph, is called the
derivative of the function we started with. Thus, 3x
2
is the derivative of x
3
.
Similarly, the derivative of f(x) = (
15
2
)x
2
+ 120x is f
(x) = m x
m1
, then
37
38 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
E.g., if A(x) = x
2
, then A
(x) = 3x
2
. Likewise, if
g(x) = x
13
, then g
(x) = 13x
12
. The rule says that to take the derivative of f(x) = x
m
, put
the exponent down in front of the x, and give x a new exponent that is one less than the old
one.
PSfrag replacements
f(x) = x
m
f
(x) = m x
m1
In writing the Power Rule down, we think of it as being about powers of x like x
13
and x
2
.
But it is about other powers of x as well, e.g., x
2
= 1/(x
2
) and x
1/2
=
x. The rule then
says that
g(x) =1/(x
2
) =x
2
h(x) =
x =x
1/2
D D D D
D D D D
D D D D
g
(x) = 2 x
3
=2/(x
3
) h
(x) = (1/2)x
1/2
= 1/(2
x)
Thus, if we begin with M(x) = 1/x, we rewrite it as M(x) = x
1
, we apply the Power
Rule to get M
(x) = (1)x
2
, and then rewrite the answer as M
(x) = 1/x
2
. Likewise,
if we begin with K(x) =
3
x, we rewrite it as K(x) = x
1/3
, apply the Power Rule, and get
K
(x) = (1/3)x
2/3
, and then rewrite the answer as K
(x) = 1/(3
3
x
2
).
THE COEFFICIENT RULE If f(x) =cg(x)
D D
D D
D D
f
(x)=cg
(x)
, then
This rule says that if you are trying to write down a derivative, and there is some real number
sitting in front of the formula, then just carry the real number along in your answer. e.g.
d(x) =3 x
2
E(x) =15 x
5
L(x) =4/x
2
=4 x
2
D D D D D D
D D D D D D
D D D D D D
d
(x) =3 2x= 6x E
(x) =15 5 x
4
= 75x
4
L
(x) = 4(2)x
3
= 8/x
3
THE SUM RULE If f(x) = g(x) + h(x)
D D D
D D D
D D D
f
(x) = g
(x) + h
(x)
, then
38
Worksheet #9 Taking Derivatives 39
This rule says that if you begin with two functions, g(x) and h(x), and you want to write
down the derivative of their sum, f(x) = g(x) +h(x), then write down the derivatives of the
two functions, and add them. E.g.,
d(x) = 3x
2
+ 5/x f(x) = (
15
2
)x
2
+ 120x
D D D D D D
D D D D D D
D D D D D D
d
(x) = 3 2x + 5 (1/x
2
) f
(x)= (
15
2
)(2x) +120x
0
= 6x 5/x
2
=15x + 120
which is the formula we got in Worksheet #7.
Note that in the last example I wrote that the derivative of x is x
0
. This is because of the
Power Rule and the fact that x = x
1
. That is not such a surprising fact, though, when you
consider the graphs.
PSfrag replacements
y
Derived
graph
f(x) = x
1
x
We can also apply the Power Rule to the function g(x) = m, where m is some real number.
Then
g(x) =m 1 =mx
0
D D
D D
D D
g
(x) = m(0 x
1
) = 0.
That is, the derivative of g(x) = m is 0. But this fact
is also not too surprising, if you consider the graph.
The graph of g(x) = m is a horizontal straight line
at y = m. The slope of the tangent to this graph is
always 0. So the derived graph of the graph is the
xaxis.
PSfrag replacementsm g(x) = m
Exercises I. Use the Power, Coecient and Sum Rules to nd derivatives of the following
functions.
a) f(x) = 3x
2
2x + 1 [f
(x) = 6x 2]
b) g(x) = 3
x + 2/x [g
(x) = 3/(2
x) (2/x
2
)]
c) h(x) = 3x
4
5x
3
+ 2/x
2
[h
(x) = 12x
3
15x
2
4/x
3
]
d) k(x) = (4/
x) (3/
2
x
3
) + 12 [k
(x) = 2x
3/2
+ (9/2)x
5/2
]
39
40 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
These three rules are just the start of the rules of dierentiationthe rules for nding, or
taking, derivatives. The later rules get pretty bizarre. Notice that the function B(x) =
x
25
(x+1)
+ 25 does not yet t our rules, because
25
(x+1)
cannot be written as a power of x.
Thus you cannot yet nd its derivative by this mechanical technique.
This process of taking derivatives has been around for a long time and another notational
system has grown up to describe it. You will need to know this system. Suppose that you write
the function f(x) = 3x
5
+4x
2
+5 as y = 3x
5
+4x
2
+5 (that is, you use the variable y instead
of functional notation), then instead of writing f
(x) = 15x
4
+8x, you write
dy
dx
= 15x
4
+8x.
That is, the symbol
dy
dx
replaces f
u
3
[
dz
du
= (3/2)
u]
d) g(x) = (1 + 2x
2
)
2
[g
(x) = 8x + 16x
3
]
e) w = (4t)
2
4 + (1/t)
f) f(z) = 16
g) y = 16/t
2
[
dy
dt
= 32/t
3
]
Exercises III. The three graphs in Worksheet #6 are given by the three formulas:
f(x) = (x
3
/3) 4x
2
+ 12x
g(x) = (x
3
/3) 4x
2
+ 16.5x 16
h(x) = (x
3
/3) + 3x
2
5x + 5.
Use the rules for dierentiation to nd f
(x), g
(x), and h
3
10
q
2
+ q
H
u
n
d
r
e
d
s
o
f
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
Quantity (Hundreds)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
p
q
The formulas for the graphs are given, so that, by taking derivatives, you can nd the formulas
for Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost. For each of the quantities given below do the
following:
I. Tell in words what you would look for in the MR or MC graph to nd the quantity.
II. After sketching the MR and MC graphs (on the axes to the right above), use the graphs
to determine the desired quantity.
III. Use the formula for MR or MC to determine the desired quantity.
Quantities
A. The quantity q at which TR is greatest.
B. The quantity q at which MC is least.
C. The quantity q at which Prot is greatest.
1 First imagine that you had large, clear graphs of TR and TC, and you were going to
measure slopes of many tangents and then sketch the derived graphs of these graphs (to
get the MR and MC graphs). What would be the shapes of these two graphsdescribe
them in words.
2 Now, in terms of the rough sketches of the MR and MC graphs you drew in Question 1,
what would you be looking for to nd each of the quantities asked for in the Key
Question? Put your answers in the spaces below.
41
42 Chapter 2. Tangents and Formulas; The Derivative
A.
B.
C.
3 Write out the formula for the derivative R
(q) = (0.1)q
2
(0.6)q +1.
By looking at the form of this formula, tell what the shape of the MC graph is.
10 Plot the values C
(0), C
(1), C
(2), . . . , C
(t) = 1.6t
2
+ 16t 20 G
(x) = 6.
b) Determine the value of
f(2+h)f(2)
h
when h = 3.
c) Find a value of x for which f(x+
2) f(x) = 7.
d) Find two values x = u and x = v
such that f
(u) = f
(v).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
x
y
y = f(x)
e) Give an interval over which the derived graph of f(x) is
(i) positive and increasing
(ii) negative and decreasing.
f) Find an interval over which the derived graph of f(x) is shaped like
g) Which of the graphs to the right is clos
est to the shape of the graph of f
(x)
over the interval 0 to 2?
2 The graphs to the right are of distance
vs. time for two cars, Car A and Car B.
We denote the distance functions by
A(t) and B(t), respectively.
a) Find two times when the speeds
of the two cars are equal.
b) Find a time t such that the aver
age speed of Car A over the next
three minutes is 4.0 ft/min.
c) Find a 4minute time interval
over which Car B travels 7 ft.
d) Find the longest time interval
you can over which Car As
speed graph is higher than 5
ft/min.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
t
d
A(t)
A(t)
B(t)
B(t)
47
48 48
e) Find a time interval of at least 3 mins when the graph of B
(t) = 0.
e) Find a time interval at least 2 hours long over which the derived graph of
A(t) is shaped like the graph on the right.
f) Give a time interval at least one hour long when the slope of the tangent to the graph
of A(t) is negative but increasing.
II. The Slope of the Secant and the Tangent.
5 Below is a rough sketch of the graph of the function y = H(z). The slope of the secant line
shown is
H(m+r) H(m)
r
= 4m+ 2r 3
49
50 50
a) Determine the value of H(5) H(3).
b) Write out a formula in terms of k for
H(2 +k) H(2).
c) Find the value of
H(4.002)H(4)
0.002
.
d) Write out a formula in terms of p of
H
(p).
PSfrag replacements
m+r
y
m
y = H(z)
z
Now suppose that g(z) = 3z
2
+ 2z is another function
e) Write out a formula in terms of z and z for g(z +z) = ( )(z)
2
+( )(z) +( ).
f) Evaluate g
(1) and g(1), and then use them to give the best estimate you can of g(1.0003).
HINT: Use the fact that g
(3) is approximately
R(3.001)R(3)
0.001
, nd the additional Rev
enue that results from selling the 3,001st Blivet.
8 To the right is a rough sketch of part
of the graph of the amount (in hundreds of
gallons) of water owing into a reservoir as
a function of time. The units of g(t) are
hundreds of gallons. Denote the function by
A = g(t). We are not given the formula for
g(t), but instead are told that
g(t +m) g(t) =
m
(t + 1)(t +m+ 1)
.
a) Find the average rate of ow of water
into the reservoir from t = 2 to t = 5
hours.
A
m
o
u
n
t
(
h
u
n
d
r
e
d
s
o
f
g
a
l
s
)
(hours)
PSfrag replacements
t
g(t +m) g(t) =
m
(t+1)(t+m+1)
t +m
51
52 52
b) Write out a formula in terms of h for
g(2+h)g(2)
h
.
c) Write out a formula in terms of t for the function that gives the instantaneous rate of
ow of water at time t.
d) Suppose that there are 50 gallons in the reservoir at time t = 1. Use the formula for
g(t +m) g(t) to nd the amount of water in the reservoir at time t = 3.
Now suppose that A = H(t) = 2t
2
3t + 4 gives amount of water
vs. time for another reservoir.
e) Write out a formula in terms of r for the slope of the secant to the graph of H(t) from
t = 1 to t = 1 +r.
f) Evaluate H
(2) and H(2). Then use them to make the best estimate you can of
H(2.0003).
III. Part A. Using the Derivative.
In these problems use only the formulas to give your answers. The graphs are just rough
sketches.
9 To the right are rough sketches of the graphs of
two functions.
f(x) = 2x
2
+ 20x
g(x) = (x
3
/3) 3x
2
+x + 10.
a) Write out formulas for f
(x) and g
(x).
b) Find the value of x at which the slope of the
tangent to the graph of f(x) is 10.
c) Find the value of x at which the derived
graph of g(x) reaches its lowest value.
f(x)
g(x)
d) Find the value of x at which the function P(x) = f(x) g(x) is at its maximum value.
e) What is the maximum value reached by the function P(x)?
f) Give a value of x at which f(x) is greater than g(x), but g
(x).
g) Write down an equation you would solve in order to nd the value of x at which the
slope of the graph of f(x) is 4 units greater than the slope of the graph of g(x). Do not
solve the equation. Write it in the form: ( )x
3
+ ( )x
2
+ ( )x + ( ) = 0. (Some of
the coecients may be 0.)
h) Give an interval of values of x over which f
(6.5) = 5.25 yds/hr and the derivative of B(t) to tell which, if any,
of the following statements is/are true.
i) The two balloons are both rising and getting closer together.
ii) The two balloons are both rising but getting further apart.
iii) The Aballoon is rising, but the Aballoon is lower than the Bballoon (so the picture
is wrong!).
III. Part B. Finding derivatives.
The last part of question III of the midquarter will ask you to write down the derivative of a
function. Here are some samples of the kind of question you can expect.
13 a) Find
dy
dx
, if y =
x (x
3
/4).
b) Find A
(t) if g(t) =
2
t
3
3
3
t
2
.
f) Find H
(w) if H(w) =
w (1 (3/w
2
)).
g) Find
ds
dt
if s =
4t
3
3t
4
+t
5
t
2
.
54
Problem Set #1 Problem Set #1
IV. Information from the derived graph.
Here you must use the formula to get answers, except for those specic quantities indicated
on the graphs.
14 To the right are the derived graphs of two
graphs. The original graphs from which
these graphs came are not shown. The origi
nal graphs are given by the functions
Original graphs: y = f(x), y = g(x).
The derived graphs that are shown are given
by the formulas
f
(x) = 2x
2
10x + 8 g
(x) = 6x 16.
a) Find the values of x where the graph of
f(x) has a horizontal tangent.
b) Find the value(s) of x where f
(x) has a
horizontal tangent.
6
2
PSfrag replacements
x
g
(x)
f
(x)
c) Is there an interval of length 2, between x = 0 and x = 8, over which f(x) is increasing
and g(x) is decreasing? If so, name it. If not, tell why.
d) Find the value of x between x = 2 and x = 6 where the value of g(x) is the lowest. Show
your work.
e) Find the value of x between 0 and 1 where f(x) is highest. Show your work.
f) Suppose that the original graphs, of f(x) and g(x), cross at x = 2. Tell whether the
following statement is true or false. Explain your answer. The graphs of f(x) and g(x)
cross at x = 6.
15 To the right are the graphs of Marginal
Cost and Marginal Revenue of manufacturing
Trivets. Notice the units on the axes, but also
recall that (dollars/trivet) is equal to (thou
sands of dollars/thousand trivets).
a) Write out the formulas for Marginal
Revenue and Marginal Cost:
R
(q) =
C
(q) =
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
/
T
r
i
v
e
t
Thousands of Trivets
1 7
23
15
5
3
PSfrag replacements
C
(q)
R
(q)
55
56 56
b) Write out likely candidates for the formulas for Total Revenue and Total Cost. (Assume
that TR and TC of manufacturing 0 Trivets is $0.)
c) Determine the value q at which the prot of manufacturing Trivets is greatest.
d) Choose the quantity q between 1 and 3 thousand Trivets that gives the greatest prot.
Show your work and explain your answer.
e) Suppose that you could increase Marginal Revenue by $1.00 for every quantity of Trivets
sold, so that your entire R
(t) = 3t
2
16t + 23
B
(t) = 2t + 8.
a) At what time in the rst two minutes
are the two cars furthest apart?
b) At what time in the interval t = 2 to
t = 4 is the speed of Car A lowest?
S
p
e
e
d
(
f
t
/
m
i
n
)
5
Time (mins)
1
PSfrag replacements
t
B
(t)
A
(t)
c) What is the speed of Car B at the time after 2 mins when the two cars are traveling at
the same speed?
d) At what time in the time interval t = 1 to t = 2 minutes is the distance between the two
cars greatest?
e) Car B is ahead at time t = 4 minutes. Which of the three pairs of graphs below is closest
to the distance vs. time graphs for the two cars in the interval t = 4 to t = 6?
4 5
6 4 5 6 4 5 6
(i) (ii) (iii)
PSfrag replacements
A
B
A
B
B
B
B
A
A
A
56
Problem Set #1 Problem Set #1
17 The graphs to the right are rateofascent
graphs of two balloons. The altitude vs. time
functions will be denoted by H(t) and J(t).
The two balloons are next to one another, 50
feet up, at time t = 0.
a) Each of the following statements is ei
ther true (T), false (F), or you cannot
decide on the basis of the given infor
mation (DK). Circle the correct choice
for each.
6
8
4
0
4
(
y
d
s
/
h
r
)
(hours) 4
PSfrag replacements
J
(t)
H
(t)
t
(i) H(1) > H(2) T F DK
(ii) J(2) > 0 T F DK
(iii) At time t = 5 the Jballoon is above the Hballoon T F DK
(iv) The distance between the balloons is greater at 6 than at 5.5 hours T F DK
b) Find an interval of length 2 during which both balloons are going up. If none such exists,
tell why.
c) Find a time when the slope of the graph of H(x) is 2. If none exists, tell why.
d) Find the time in the rst 6 hours when the two altitude graphs (H(t) and J(t)) are
further apart.
e) Find the time in the time interval t = 2 to t = 4 hours when the rateofascent of the
Jballoon is lowest.
57
58 58
Solutions to Problem Set #1
(Note: The symbol [a, b] means the set of all values greater than a and less than b, e.g. [2, 5] means all those
numbers greater than 2 and less than 5, like 2.01, 2.4, 3.2, etc.)
1. a) 1.2 or 9.5; b) 1.25; c) 1 .2 or 8.0; d) many answers, e.g. 1.2, 9.5; e) (i) [8, 11], (ii) [4, 6]; f) [3.5, 8.5];
g) second from left.
2. a) 2.6, 7.6; b) 2.5,6.15; c) [1.9, 5.9]; d) [5, 7]; e) [3, 7]; f) anything from 3.0 to 5.0
3. a) MC = 0.48, MR = 1.38; b) 5.0; c) 0.1 thous.; d) 65/ c; e) (iv); f) 1.0; g) [3, 7.5].
4. a) [5.4, 6.9]; b) t = 1.5; c) [4.75, 7.2]; d) 4.9, 9.6; e) [5, 7]; f) [3.1, 4.8].
5. a) 26; b) 5k + 2k
2
; c) 13.004; d) 4p 3; e) 3(z)
2
+ (6z + 2)(z) + (3z
2
+ 2z); f) 5.0024.
6. a) [2(3)(0.8) (0.8)
2
+10(0.8)]/0.8; b) 8(s 1) (s 1)
2
; c) 1.99; d) 10 2t; e) [2(3 +h)
2
+12(3 +
h)] [2(3)
2
+ 12(3)]; f) 0.012.
7. a) $42,000; b) 13.001; c) C
(t) =
1
(t+1)
2
; d) 75 gals; e)
H(1+r)H(1)
r
= 1+2r;
f) H
(x) = 4x +20, g
(x) = x
2
6x +1; b) x = 2.5; c) x = 3; d) x = 5.472; e) P(5.472) = 69.295; f)
Any value after 5.472 for which P(x) is still positive (such as x = 6); g) (0)x
3
+(1)x
2
+(2)x+(15) = 0;
h) 1.25 to 3.75.
10. a) q = 1; b) 3q
2
+14q +10 = 0; c) MR at q = 1 is $70, at q = 7 is $10; d) q = 4; e) $320,000; f) 2 to
4.
11. a) 3t
2
+15t 20 = 0; b) 0 to 2.5; c) True because at such a time, 20t 2t
2
= t
2
+5t +45, which has
no roots; d) t = 0; e) see picture to right
20
5
PSfrag replacements
E
(t)
F
(t)
; f) t = 2.
12. a) 3t
2
27t +47 = 0; b) t = 3 to t = 6; c) 79 yds; d) closer together. A is above, but B is rising faster,
since B
x] (3/4)x
2
; b) (6/r
3
) + 35r
6
; c) 2t 6 + (6/t
2
); d) 2w + 3w
2
+ 1; e) 3t
5/2
+ 2t
5/3
; f)
1/(2
w) + (9/2)w
5/2
; g) 4 6t + 3t
2
.
14. a) 1, 4; b) 5/2; c) no, f(x) increases and g(x) decreases only between 0 & 1; d) 8/3, g
(x) = 0 implies
that 6x = 16, which implies that x = 8/3; e) f
(q) = 3q +26, C
(q) = C
(q),
q = 5 thousand; d) 3 thousand, because R
(3) = 7
dollars.
16. a) t = 1; b) t = 8/3; c) 18 ft/min; d) t = 1; e) (ii).
17. a) i) T; ii) T; iii) T; iv) F; b) 4 to 6; c) t = 6; d) t = 36/7; e) t = 4.
58
Chapter 3
Dierentiation Technique
60 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
Worksheet #12 A Second Set of Rules
In Worksheet #9 you learned the rules for nding derivatives of the most elementary functions. In
this worksheet (and the following one) you will learn a set of rules for nding derivatives of just
about any function you will ever encounter.
Part I. The Chain Rule
A. The examples y = (x
2
+ 3x + 1)
4
, y =
_
y
2
+ 3x + 1, y =
1
x
2
+3x+1
all fall into the category
y = [f(x)]
n
, where f(x) = x
2
+3x+1 and n = 4 in the rst case, n = 1/2 in the second case,
and n = 1 in the third case. The dierentiation rule for this category is
GENERALIZED POWER RULE
If y = [f(x)]
n
, then
dy
dx
= n[f(x)]
n1
f
(x)
In the above examples f(x) = x
2
+ 3x + 1 and f
(x) = 2x + 3. Thus
If y = (x
2
+ 3x + 1)
4
, then
dy
dx
= 4(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
3
(2x + 3).
If y = (x
2
+ 3x + 1)
1/2
, then
dy
dx
= (1/2)(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
1/2
(2x + 3).
If y = (x
2
+ 3x + 1)
1
, then
dy
dx
= (1)(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
2
(2x + 3).
Recall that
dy
dx
is only one notation for derivatives. The rst example above could be rewritten
as
If g(x) = (x
2
+ 3x + 1)
4
, then g
(x) = 4(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
3
(2x + 3)
or simply as
d
dx
[(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
4
] = 4(x
2
+ 3x + 1)
3
(2x + 3).
Exercises 1
i) Find
dz
dx
, if z =
_
3x + (1/x).
ii) Find
d
dt
[
1
3t
2
t
].
iii) Find f
(v), if f(v) = (
v + 2v
2
)
1/3
.
iv) What does the Generalized Power Rule say in the case in which f(x) = x?
Answers
i)
dz
dx
=
1
2
(3x + (1/x))
1/2
(3 (1/x
2
)).
ii) (3t
2
t)
2
(6t
1
2
t
1/2
).
iii) f
(v) =
1
3
(
v + 2v
2
)
2/3
(
1
2
v
1/2
+ 4v).
iv) It is the Power Rule from Worksheet #9.
60
Worksheet #12 A Second Set of Rules 61
B. Recall the number e that came up in continuous compounding. It comes up in many other
situations as well. The examples y = e
x
, y = e
(.01)x
, and y = e
3x
2
+1
all fall into the category
y = e
g(x)
, where g(x) = x in the rst example, g(x) = (.01)x in the second, and g(x) = 3x
2
+1
in the third. The dierentiation rule here is
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION RULE
If y = e
g(x)
, then
dy
dx
= e
g(x)
g
(x).
Thus in the above examples we have
If y = e
x
, then
dy
dx
= e
x
.
If y = e
(.01)x
, then
dy
dx
= e
(.01)x
(.01).
If y = e
3x
2
+1
, then
dy
dx
= e
3x
2
+1
(6x).
Exercises 2.
i) Find
dz
dx
if z = e
3x(1/x)
.
ii) Find
d
dt
[e
3t
2
t
].
iii) Find f
(v) if f(v) = e
v+2v
2
Answers
i)
dz
dx
= e
3x(1/x)
(3 + (1/x
2
)).
ii) e
3t
2
t
(6t
1
2
t
1/2
).
iii) f
(v) = e
v+2v
2
(
1
2
v
1/2
+ 4v).
C. Recall the logarithm function that came up at the end of Math 111. In calculus we always
use the natural logarithm (log
e
= ln), because that makes the dierentiation rule work out.
The examples
y = ln(x) y = ln((.01)x) y = ln(3x
2
+ 1)
all t into the category y = ln(g(x)), where g(x) = x in the rst example, g(x) = (.01)x in
the second, and g(x) = 3x
2
+ 1 in the third. The dierentiation rule here is
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION RULE
If y = ln(g(x)), then
dy
dx
=
g
(x)
g(x)
.
Thus, in the above examples we have
If y = ln(x), then
dy
dx
=
1
x
.
If y = ln((.01)x), then
dy
dx
=
.01
(.01)x
=
1
x
.
If y = ln(3x
2
+ 1), then
dy
dx
=
6x
3x
2
+1
.
Exercises 3.
61
62 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
i) Find
dz
dx
if z = ln(3x (1/x)).
ii) Find
d
dt
[ln(3t
2
t)].
iii) Find f
v + 2v
2
).
Answers.
i)
dz
dx
=
3+(1/x
2
)
3x(1/x)
.
ii)
6t(1/2)t
1/2
3t
2
t
.
iii) f
(v) =
(1/2)v
1/2
+4v
v+2v
2
.
We used an arrow notation to write out derivatives in Worksheet #9. E.g., y =3x
2
+ 4x
D D D
D D D
D D D
dy
dx
= 6x + 4
.
We can use the same notation here to describe the three rules we have given thus far, but we will
embellish the notation somewhat. An arrow
C
C
C
means copy the same thing below (as opposed
to an arrow with Ds which means write down the derivative below. Then we have
Generalized Power Rule
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
Dy = [f(x)]
n
dy
dx
= n[f(x)]
n1
f
(x)
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Exponential Function Rule
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
dy
dx
= e
g(x)
g
(x)
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
y = e
g(x)
Logarithmic Function Rule
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
y = ln(g(x))
dy
dx
=
g
(x)
g(x)
C
C
C
C
Notes
1. You might well ask where these rules came from. The answer is that they came from the same
place as the rules that you had in Worksheet #9. That is, you start with a particular function
y = f(x) (e.g., f(x) = e
g(x)
, you write out the formula for the slope of the secant,
f(x+h)f(x)
h
, you
do some strange ddling, and then you let h go to 0. When you play this game with functions like
62
Worksheet #12 A Second Set of Rules 63
y = x
12
, you can eectively set h = 0 at the right moment. That does not work with these new
functions.
2. The three rules given thus far are special cases of an even more general rule, the chain rule,
which says
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
y = A (f(x))
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
dy
dx
= A
(f(x)) f
(x)
We have no need of the general chain rule here, other than the three particular cases given thus
far. But when we are applying any of these three particular rules we will say that we are applying
the chain rule.
Exercises 4. Use the above rules to nd the derivatives of the following functions.
i) y = e
x+2x
ii) f(t) = (t
2
(1/t))
1/4
iii) z =
1
(2t+1)
4
iv) g(w) = ln[(1/w) (1/w
2
)]
v) y = (x +e
x
)
2
vi) z = e
1+x
vii) h(r) = ln(r +e
r
)
viii) w = (1 + ln(z) +e
z
)
4
Answers
i)
dy
dx
= (e
x+2x
)(
1
2
x
1/2
+ 2)
iii)
dz
dt
= 4(2t + 1)
5
(2)
v)
dy
dx
= 2(x +e
x
)(1 +e
x
)
vii) h
(r) =
1+e
r
r+e
r
Part II. The Product and Quotient Rules
Now we have rules of a dierent type. In Exercises II of Worksheet #9 you found the following
derivatives:
(a) If f(t) =
1+t
2
t
3
, then f(t) = t
3
+t
1
, and f
(t) = (3/t
4
) (1/t
2
).
(b) If y = (1 +x
3
)(1 x), then y = 1 +x
3
x x
4
, and
dy
dx
= 3x
2
1 4x
3
.
63
64 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
Exercise (b) falls into the category y = f(x)g(x) (where f(x) = 1 +x
3
, and g(x) = 1 x). That is,
it is a product of two functions. Exercise (a) falls into the category y =
f(t)
g(t)
, (where f(t) = 1 +t
2
,
and g(t) = t
3
). That is, it is the quotient of two functions. We have a rule for each of these two
types of situations. I will state the rules with the arrow notation of Worksheet #9 and also in the
more conventional derivative notations.
PRODUCT RULE
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
y = f(x) g(x)
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
dy
dx
= f(x)g
(x) +f
(x)g(x)
If y = f(x) g(x), then
dy
dx
= f(x)g
(x) +f
(x)g(x).
QUOTIENT RULE
PSfrag replacements
y =
f(x)
g(x)
dy
dx
=
g(x) f
(x) g
(x) f(x)
[g(x)]
2
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
C
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
If y =
f(x)
g(x)
, then
dy
dx
=
g(x) f
(x) g
(x) f(x)
[g(x)]
2
Observe that with both the product and quotient rules you copy each function and combine it with
the derivative of the other. The order in which you do this does not matter in the Product Rule,
but it makes a big dierence in the Quotient Rule. However, I have found that the best way to
avoid making mistakes when applying these rules is to adopt one particular order in which you do
things and never vary it. Applying these rules has to become automatic, almost unconscious, for
you.
Now we can apply the rules to the exercises we began this section with.
64
Worksheet #12 A Second Set of Rules 65
(b)
PSfrag replacements
D
D
y = (1 +x
3
)(1 x)
dy
dx
= (1 +x
3
)(1) + (3x
2
)(1 x)
D
D
D
D
C
D
D
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
(a)
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
D
C
D
f
(t) =
t
3
(2t) (3t
2
)(1 +t
2
)
(t
3
)
2
=
2t
4
3t
2
3t
4
t
6
=
3
t
4
1
t
2
f(t) =
1 +t
2
t
3
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Here are four more worked examples. The rst two could have been done in Worksheet #9 and
the last two not.
PSfrag replacements
dy
dt
=
t (1 + 6t) + (
1
2
)t
1/2
(t + 3t
2
)
y =
t (t + 3t
2
)
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
C
D
C
f(t) =
t
t + 3t
2
D
f
(t) =
(t + 3t
2
)(
1
2
t
1/2
) (1 + 6t)(
t)
(t + 3t
2
)
2
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
h(t) =
t + 1 (2t
2
4t
3
)
h
(t) =
t + 1(4t 12t
2
) + (
1
2
)(t + 1)
1/2
(2t
2
4t
3
)
C
D
C
C
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
PSfrag replacements
z =
e
x
x
dz
dx
=
x e
x
(
1
2
)x
1/2
e
x
(
x)
2
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
Exercises 5. Find the derivatives of the following functions.
i) y = (1 +x
2
x
3
)(
x 2)
ii) f(r) =
1 3r
2
+r
3r +r
3
iii) g(z) = (1 +e
z
+z
2
)(1 +z
3
)
65
66 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
iv) w =
e
t
+ 2t
t
1/3
v) A(w) =
e
w
+
w
ln(w)
vi) y = (ln(x) +
x)(
x + 2)
Answers.
i)
dy
dx
= (1 +x
2
x
3
)(
1
2
x
1/2
) + (2x 3x
2
)(
x 2)
ii) f
(r) =
(3r +r
3
)(6r + 1) (3 + 3r
2
)(1 3r
2
+r)
(3r +r
3
)
2
v) A
(w) =
ln(w) (e
w
+ (
1
2
)w
1/2
) (e
w
+
w)(1/w)
[ln(w)]
2
66
Worksheet #13 Combining Dierentiation Rules 67
Worksheet #13 Combining Dierentiation Rules
You now have all the rules necessary to nd all the derivatives of all the functions you are ever
likely to encounter. The only diculty is that some functions are put together in such a way that
it is not clear how to use the rules to nd their derivatives.
Part I. Multiple Use of the Product and Quotient Rules.
Suppose you have the function y = (x
2
+2x)(e
x
)(
x)
D
D
D
C
C
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
y = [(x
2
+ 2x)(e
x
)](
x)
Notice that while I was applying the Product Rule to the two expressions [(x
2
+ 2x)(e
x
)] and
x,
I had to nd the derivative of the expression [(x
2
+2x)(e
x
)], which involves a separate application
of the Product Rule. This is the common feature of the dierentiation problems of this worksheet:
You are in the middle of applying one rule and you have to apply a dierent (or the same) rule.
Here is another worked example.
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
f(t) =
(t
2
+ 1)(ln t)
t
3
f
(t) =
t
3
[(t
2
+ 1)(1/t) + (2t)(ln t)] [3t
2
(t
2
+ 1)(ln t)]
(t
3
)
2
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
Exercises 1. Below are two dierentiation problems. In each case I have grouped the expressions
in two dierent ways. For each problem use the two groupings to nd the derivatives in two ways,
and then use algebra to show that both answers are the same.
i) g(t) = [t
3
(
t + 1)](e
t
) = (t
3
)[(
t + 1)(e
t
)]
ii) y =
e
t
[t
3
(
t + 1)]
=
1
t
3
e
t
t + 1
Answers
i) First way: g
(t) = [t
3
(
t + 1)]e
t
+ [3t
2
t + 1 +t
3
1
2
(t + 1)
1/2
]e
t
ii) First way:
dy
dt
=
t
3
(
t + 1)e
t
[3t
2
t + 1 +t
3 1
2
(t + 1)
1/2
]e
t
[t
3
(
t + 1)]
2
67
68 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
Part II. Multiple Use of the Chain Rule.
We want to nd the derivatives of such functions as y = e
[(2x
2
+1)
1/2
]
and f(t) = [ln(1 +t
2
)]
4
. Both
of these problems require the Chain Rule, but there are so many symbols and letters ying around
that it is dicult to gure out where to start. Here is a device to get started with such a problem.
Make a diagram which tells what keys on an imaginary calculator you would push, and in what
order you would push them, to evaluate these functions. For the rst function I would write
x 2u
2
+ 1 u
1/2
e
u
e
[(2x
2
+1)
1/2
]
That is, I would punch the particular value x, then I would nd the value of 2x
2
+1 by imagining
that I have a key labeled 2u
2
+ 1 and punching that key. Then I would take the result and punch
the u
1/2
key to nd [(2x
2
+ 1)
1/2
]. Then I would take the result of that and punch the e
u
key to
nd the value of e
[(2x
2
+1)
1/2
]
. The diagram I just drew to describe these steps is called a owchart.
The order in which keys are punched is very important. For instance, the same keys punched in a
dierent order would give
x 2u
2
+ 1 e
u
u
1/2
_
e
(2x
2
+1)
_
1/2
which is an entirely dierent function.
The owchart for the second function we began this part with is
t 1 +u
2
ln u u
4
[ln(1 +t
2
)]
4
Check that the same keys punched in a dierent order would give
t 1 +u
2
u
4
ln u ln
_
(1 +t
2
)
4
= e
[(2x
2
+1)
1/2
]
[
1
2
(2x
2
+ 1)
1/2
] 4x
68
Worksheet #13 Combining Dierentiation Rules 69
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
y = e
[(2x
2
+1)
1/2
]
dy
dx
= e
[(2x
2
+1)
1/2
]
[(2x
2
+ 1)
1/2
]
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
(Notice that doing this problem required applying the rule for dierentiating (2x
2
+1)
1/2
, while we
were in the midst of applying the rule for nding the derivative of e
A(x)
.)
When we took these same keys in a dierent order we got
y = [e
2x
2
+1
]
1/2
: x 2u
2
+ 1 e
u
u
1/2
Now to nd the derivative (in this new order) we rst look at the key u
1/2
and we see the function
as y = [ ]
1/2
, so that
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
C
C
D
C
C
C
y = [ ]
1/2
dy
dx
=
1
2
[ ]
1/2
[ ]
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
In this case [ ] is what goes into the u
1/2
key, so we have
PSfrag replacements
D
D
D
C
C
dy
dx
=
1
2
[e
(2x
2
+1)
]
1/2
[e
(2x
2
+1)
]
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
y = [e
(2x
2
+1)
]
1/2
This requires that we nd the derivative of e
(2x
2
+1)
, which requires the Exponential Functions
Rule. If z = e
2x
2
+1
, then
dz
dx
= e
2x
2
+1
(4x). Thus the answer to the above problem is
dy
dx
=
1
2
[e
(2x
2
+1)
]
1/2
(e
2x
2
+1
)(4x).
Exercises 2. The owcharts for the following functions are written above. Use the owcharts to
nd the derivatives.
i) f(t) = [ln(1 +t
2
)]
4
ii) g(t) = ln[(1 +t
2
)
4
]
iii) h(t) = [1 + (ln t)
2
]
4
Answers.
i) f
(t) = 4(ln(1 +t
2
))
3
(
2t
1+t
2
)
ii) g
(t) = (
1
(1+t
2
)
4
)(4(1 +t
2
)
3
)(2t)
iii) h
e
x
]
Answers.
i)
dy
dx
= e
[(3x+x
2
)
2
]
2(3x +x
2
)(3 + 2x)
ii) f
(t) =
1
2
(ln(t
2
+ 1))
1/2
(
2t
t
2
+1
)
iii)
dz
dx
=
(1/2)(e
x
)
1/2
e
x
e
x
Part III. Combining All the Rules.
Finally consider the following two functions:
y = (e
x
x
2
)
3
and f(t) =
_
t
4
+ 1
3t 1
.
We want to nd their derivatives, but again, we need to apply several rules, and it is not clear which
order to apply the rules in. For instance, the rst function requires the Product Rule (because it
involves e
x
x
2
), and it requires the Generalized Power Rule (because it is something to the third
power). To know which order to apply the rules in we expand the notion of a owchart. The order
for pressing the keys for these two functions is given by
PSfrag replacements
e
u
x
t
_
t
4
+1
3t1
(e
x
x
2
)
3
u
1/2
u
2
u
3
u
4
+ 1
3u 1
u
Thus we have expanded the notion of a owchart by adding the operations +, , , and . [When
we subtract in a owchart, we subtract the lower function from the upper. When we divide, we
divide the upper by the lower, as is being done in the second owchart where u
4
+1 is being divided
by 3u 1.] As we did when applying the Chain Rule, the general rule when using the owcharts
to nd the derivatives of these functions is to read from right to left.
Consequently, the rst function should be viewed as something to the third power, and we start
by using the Generalized Power Rule. As we are doing that, we will have to use the Product Rule.
While we are in the midst of using the Product Rule we will have to nd the derivative of e
x
, and
this will require the Exponential Functions Rule. That is
70
Worksheet #13 Combining Dierentiation Rules 71
y =
PSfrag replacements
(e
x
x
2
)
3
3(e
x
x
2
)
2
(e
x
x
2
)
(e
x
2x + [e
x
(
1
2
)x
1/2
] x
2
)
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
C
C
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
dy
dx
= 3(e
x
x
2
)
2
(e
x
2x + (e
x
(
1
2
)x
1/2
) x
2
)
To dierentiate the second function we use the second owchart as follows.
f(t) =
PSfrag replacements
C
C
C
(
t
4
+1
3t1
)
1/2
1
2
(
t
4
+1
3t1
)
1/2
(
t
4
+1
3t1
)
(3t1)(4t
3
)(3)(t
4
+1)
(3t1)
2
C
C
C
D
D
C
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
f
(t) =
1
2
(
t
4
+1
3t1
)
1/2
(
(3t1)(4t
3
)(3)(t
4
+1)
(3t1)
2
)
Exercises 4. Below are the owcharts of two more functions. Write out the formulas for the
functions and then use the owcharts to nd their derivatives.
PSfrag replacements
ii)
u
2
+ 1
3u
ln u g(x)
x
i)
e
u
+ 1 u
2
u
2
+ 1
u
2
+ 1
x
x
f(x)
Answers
i) f
(x) = (e
x
+ 1)
2
(2x) + [2(e
x
+ 1)e
x
](x
2
+ 1)
ii) g
(x) =
(
3x(2x)3(x
2
+1)
(3x)
2
)
(
x
2
+1
3x
)
Exercises 5. Write out owcharts for the following functions and then nd their derivatives.
71
72 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
i) g(x) = e
x
(x + ln(x))
ii) y =
ln(t
2
+ 1)
3t + 1
iii) z =
x e
x
x + 1
Answers
i)
dy
dx
= e
x
(1 + (1/x)) +e
x
(
1
2
)x
1/2
(x + ln(x))
ii)
dy
dt
=
(3t + 1)
2t
(t
2
+1)
(3)(ln(t
2
+ 1))
(3t + 1)
2
iii)
dz
dx
=
x + 1[x e
x
+e
x
] (x e
x
)(
1
2
)(x + 1)
1/2
(
x + 1)
2
Flowcharts are a handy device for getting started nding derivatives of complicated functions. But
ultimately you should be able to do in your head what a owchart does for you on paper. The
following problems are for you to practice your dierentiation technique on. As you go further on
with them, try to do them without owcharts.
Exercises 6. Find the derivatives of the following functions.
i) y = e
x
(ln(x + 1)) ii) f(t) =
(1 +x
2
)
3
x
4
iii) z = e
2t
2
+3t
iv) g(v) = (v
2
+ 1)(ln v)e
v
v) w =
u
2
+ 1
uln(u)
vi) h(x) = ln(e
x
+ 2x)
vii) z =
x
2
e
x
+ 1 viii) f(w) = (wln(w) + 1)
4
ix) y =
(ln x)
x + 1
x
x) g(z) = (
z + 2z
2
) e
2
xi) z = e
2x
2
+1
xii) g(v) = [ln(v + 1)]e
v+1
+v
2
xiii) y =
(t
2
+ 1)(t
3
+ 1)
t
xiv) h(x) = e
x
(x
2
+ 1) xv) z = (ln x)(x
2
+ 3x
4
e
x
)
xvi) f(t) =
ln(t
2
+ 1)
t
1/2
Answers
i)
dy
dx
= e
x
_
1
x + 1
_
+e
x
[ln(x + 1)]
iii)
dz
dt
= e
2t
2
+3t
(4t + 3)
v)
dw
du
=
u(ln(u))(2u) [u(1/u) + ln(u)](u
2
+ 1)
[uln(u)]
2
vii)
dz
dx
= (
1
2
)(x
2
e
x
+ 1)
1/2
(x
2
e
x
+ 2x e
x
)
ix)
dy
dx
=
x[(ln x)(
1
2
)(x + 1)
1/2
+ (1/x)(
x + 1)] (ln x)
x + 1
x
2
xi)
dz
dx
= e
2x
2
+1
(
1
2
)(2x
2
+ 1)
1/2
(4x)
xiii)
dy
dt
=
t[t
2
+ 1)(3t
2
) + (2t)(t
3
+ 1)] (t
2
+ 1)(t
3
+ 1)
t
2
xv)
dz
dx
= (ln x)(2x + 12x
3
e
x
) + (1/x)(x
2
+ 3x
4
e
x
)
72
Worksheet #14 Predicting the Value of a Stock 73
Worksheet #14 Predicting the Value of a Stock
It is often useful to express the rate of change of a quantity as a percent. Examples include the rate
of population growth, the rate of increase of the value of an investment, and the rate of ination.
In this worksheet, we will look at the value of Microsoft Stock from this point of view.
We begin with a review of some facts you learned in Math 111. First recall that if we have an
investment that grows at a nominal annual rate (APR) of r 100%, and if P
0
was the initial
amount of the investment, then the value of the investment after t years is given by the formula
P = f(t) = P
0
e
rt
.
1 Suppose that we invest $1,000 at an APR of 11%. Use the above formula to determine the
formula for f(t) in this case.
We also need three basic facts about logarithms:
ln(e) = 1, ln(x y) = ln(x) + ln(y), ln(x
y
) = y ln(x)
For instance,
ln (5 4) = ln(5) + ln(4) , ln
_
e
6
_
= 6 ln(e) = 6 , and ln
_
5 4
7
_
= ln(5) + 7 ln(4) .
2 Using the above identities, expand each of the following:
(i) ln
_
23 2
4
_
, (ii) ln(
_
37 e
5
_
, (iii) ln
_
37 e
5t
_
.
3 Let f(t) be the function that you found in Problem 1. Apply the three facts about logarithms
to nd a formula for ln (f(t)). If you do this correctly, you answer should be of the form
ln (f(t)) = mt +b
where m and b are constants.
The formula you obtained in Problem 3 is a special case of the general formula:
ln (f(t)) = ln
_
P
0
e
rt
_
= ln (P
0
) +r t .
In ordinary English, this means that when a quantity grows exponentially the graph of its
logarithm is a straight line, and the slope of that line is the nominal annual percent rate of
growth (the APR).
73
74 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
Lets look at the value of Microsoft stock over the 3 year period starting in Jan 1997. The
table below shows the value of the stock is the value at the END of each month for the period
Jan, 1997 through Dec, 1999. We want to graph the logarithm of these values. But we rst
have to convert time to years. So we let t denote the time in years after 1997. Because a
month is 1/12 = 0.0833 of a year, the times corresponding to the dates shown in the table
are t = 1/12, 2/12, . . . , 36/12.
Date t value ln(value) Date t value ln(value) Date t value ln(value)
Jan97 0.0833 $25.50 3.24 Jan98 1.0833 $37.30 Jan99 2.0833 $87.50
Feb97 0.167 $24.38 3.19 Feb98 $42.38 Feb99 $75.06
Mar97 0.250 $22.92 3.13 Mar98 $44.75 Mar99 $75.00
Apr97 $30.38 Apr98 $45.06 Apr99 $81.31
May97 $31.00 May98 $42.41 May99 $80.69
Jun97 $31.59 Jun98 $54.19 Jun99 $90.19
Jul97 $35.34 Jul98 $54.97 Jul99 $85.81
Aug97 $33.05 Aug98 $47.97 Aug99 $92.56
Sep97 $33.08 Sep98 $55.03 Sep99 $90.56
Oct97 $32.50 Oct98 $52.94 Oct99 $92.56
Nov97 $35.38 Nov98 $61.00 Nov99 $91.05
Dec97 $32.31 Dec98 $69.34 Dec99 $116.75
4 Complete the table above by lling in all time values and the natural log (ln) of all stock
values. Then plot the results on the grid below (as a check several points have already been
plotted for you).
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
Time (in years after Jan 1 , 1997)
l
n
o
f
s
t
o
c
k
v
a
l
u
e
74
Worksheet #14 Predicting the Value of a Stock 75
5 Although the points you plotted do not lie exactly on a line, they approximately do so. By
trial and error, nd the line that you feel best ts the data, and draw it on the grid above.
6 What is the equation of the line that you drew in Problem 5? The equation that you give is
your best guess at the formula for ln(f(t)).
7 Refer back to Question 3 explaining what the slope of the line represents. Then determine
the annual percent rate of growth of Microsoft stock from the equation of the line that you
found in Question 6.
8 Now use the equation for ln(f(t)), which you found in Problem 6, to nd an exponential
formula for f(t), the value of Microsoft stock at time t years after Dec 31, 1996.
9 The graph below shows the actual values of Microsoft stock in the years, 1997, 1998, and
1999. To get a feel for how well your formula for f(t) models the behavior of Microsoft stock,
carefully plot the graph of f(t) on the grid.
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
S
t
o
c
k
v
a
l
u
e
(
d
o
l
l
a
r
s
)
Years after Dec 31, 1996
10 Suppose that you invested $1,000 in Microsoft stock on Jan 1, 1997. What would be the value
of your stock at the end of 1999?
11 If Microsoft stock continues to increase in value at the rate that it has over the past three
years, how much will your $1,000 investment be worth at the the end of the year 2005?
12 Lets assume that Microsoft stock continues to increase in value at the same rate that it has
over the past 3 years. Suppose that you invested $1,000 in Microsoft stock on Jan 1, 2000.
What would you predict the value of your investment would be in 2010?
There is another way to understand exponential growth, this time working backwards using
our formulas for derivatives. Suppose that we didnt have a formula for f(t), the value of our
75
76 Chapter 3. Differentiation Technique
investment. But we did know that it grew at a constant percent rate of growth, say r. That
is, suppose that we know that the rate f
(t) = r f(t) ,
which we can rewrite as the equation
f
(t)
f(t)
= r .
What does this all have to do with the exponential function and with logarithms? Well, recall
that we have a dierentiation formula
(ln (f(t)))
=
f
(t)
f(t)
.
So
(ln (f(t)))
= r .
Since the derivative of ln(f(t)) is constant, the graph of ln(f(t)) must be a straight line of
slope r. That is
ln (f(t)) = rt +b .
and taking exponents we get
f(t) = e
rt+b
= e
b
e
rt
Notice that f(0) = e
b
is the value of our initial investment, P
0
. So e
b
= P
0
and we get our
original formula for f(t):
f(t) = P
0
e
rt
.
The moral here is that constant percent rate of growth of a quantity means that the graph
of the logarithm of the quantity is a straight line.
76
Chapter 4
Optimization
78 Chapter 4. Optimization
Worksheet #15 The ZeroDerivative Principle
Key Question
First
Consider the following setup: You start with
a function p = h(q) (show to the right) and
dene a new function
R = A(q) = Area of rectangle shown
= q h(q)
Then the function R = A(q) has a graph that
looks roughly like the lower one to the right.
From the graph of R = A(q) we can tell that
the derivative, R
= A
= A
(q) = 0.
m
q
p
p = h(q)
(q, h(q))
R
Second
Consider the following specic case. The function
h(q) is given by the formula
h(q) = q
2
50q + 625
(so that m = 25). Write out the formula for R =
A(q), and then use calculus to write out the formula
for R
= A
= A
(q) to
tell when the function R = A(q) is increasing, when
the function R = A(q) hits its peak, and when the
function R = A(q) is decreasing. Draw a rough sketch
of the graph of R = A(q) indicating this information.
m
q
R
R = A(q)
q 0 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 20
A
= A
(q) = 3q
2
100q + 625
Presumably, you were able to nd the roots
of
A
(7) = 72 and A
(4) = 273. This says to me that for a very small change in q, just
to the right of q = 4, A(q) increases quite a bit. For the same amount of change just to the
right of q = 6, would you expect A(q) to grow by more or less (than the change just to the
right of q = 4)?
4 We have started with facts that we read from the for
mulas for A(q) and A
The roots of any function F(x) are those values that make the function equal to 0. i.e., values of x at which
F(x) = 0.
79
80 Chapter 4. Optimization
LeastChange Principle (graph):
PSfrag replacements
Least change
When a function is given by a formula and not a graph, then we can use calculus to state
the LeastChange Principle. We also change the name of the principle.
ZeroDerivative Principle f
= A
= A
(q).
iii) Apply the ZeroDerivative Principle by solving the equation A
(q) = 0 for q.
11 Now let us change the Demand Curve only
slightly from the one given in the Key Ques
tion. Suppose the Demand Curve is given by
the formula
h(q) = q
2
50q + 700
(which is the Demand Curve in the Key Ques
tion raised by 75). Write out the formula for
R = A(q) and R
= A
(q) = 0. Does
this mean that R = A(q) reaches a maximum at both these values? Can that happen?
12 If you start at q = 0, the graph of R =
A(q) (for Question 11) certainly looks like the
sketch shown to the right. But what happens
next? If you did the algebra and calculus cor
rectly, you found that R = A(q) has a hori
zontal tangent at q = 10 and q = 70/3. It
looks like the graph reaches a peak at q = 10.
But then how can it reach another peak at
q = 70/3? Try drawing the graph so that
it reaches a peak at q = 10 and again at
q = 70/3. The graph is smooth and can be
drawn without lifting your pencil from the pa
per. Can you draw it with peaks at 10 and
70/3 without having a horizontal tangent be
tween these points?
PSfrag replacements
30
q
10 20
81
82 Chapter 4. Optimization
13 Here are some values of the function R = A(q) as given in Question 11.
q 9 10 11 12 ........ 22 23 24 25 ..... 30
R 2,979 3,000 2,981 2,928 ........ 1,848 1,817 1,824 1,875 ..... 3,000
Now do the best you can at drawing a rough sketch of the graph of this function R = A(q)
from q = 0 to q = 30, indicating all optimum values.
14 As a practice problem, suppose that a De
mand Curve is given by
h(q) = 625 125
q.
Find the value of q that maximizes Total Rev
enue. [q = 100/9]. Then draw a rough sketch
of the graph of Total Revenue from q = 0 to
q = 25.
PSfrag replacements
25
h(q) = 625 125
q
R
q
82
Worksheet #16 Local and Global Maxima and Minima 83
Worksheet #16
Local and Global Maxima and Minima
Key Question
The purpose of this worksheet is to give you a clearer working notion of the ZeroDerivative Prin
ciple, which we paraphrase as follows:
ZeroDerivative Principle: If you want to nd values of x at which the function y = F(x) reaches
optimum values, then rst look at the values of x at which F
(x) = 0.
The solidline graph below is of the function y = f(x) = (x
4
/3) (9/2)x
3
+18x
2
. Using this graph
we can dene a new function:
S(x) = Slope of the diagonal line from origin to (x, f(x))
= f(x)/x
PSfrag replacements S(x)
f(x)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
y
x
f(x) = (x
4
/3) (9/2)x
3
+ 18x
2
g(x) = (x
4
/6) (5/2)x
3
+ (25/2)x
2
h(x) = (x
4
/12) (5/4)x
3
+ (15/2)x
2
y = f(x)
y = g(x)
y = h(x)
By using a plastic ruler nd the value of x in the interval x = 1 to x = 7 at which S(x) reaches its
maximum. Then nd the value of x in the same interval at which S(x) reaches its minimum.
Now, using the recipe S(x) = f(x)/x and the formula for f(x), write out the formula for S(x), and
then write out the formula for S
(x) = 0).
83
84 Chapter 4. Optimization
Tell whether the ZeroDerivative Principle actually works in this case. If you use a plastic ruler to
measure it, does the function S(x) actually reach its maximum value at one of the roots of S
(x)
and actually reach its minimum at the other root of S
(x) = x
2
9x + 18, so that S
(3) = 0 and S
(x) = 0.
9 I get exactly one value of x for which T
(x).
13 What are the local maxima and local minima for U(x) over the interval x = 1 to x = 7?
What are the global maximum and global minimum?
Summary: Using calculus to nd global maxima and global minima. Given the function y =
F(x) on the interval x = a to x = b
A. Solve the equation F
(x)
r
r
r
r r r r
f
(x)
f(x)
(a) (b) (c) (d)
If the shape of the graph of f(x) near x = 2 were (a), then the derived graph would be positive,
then 0, then negative. I have drawn a rough sketch of the derived graph for shape (a) below (a).
You should do likewise for the other three shapes.
Now consider the slope of the derived graph at x = 2. [Yes, I mean the slope of the derived graph.]
One of the four derived graphs has positive slope at x = 2, one has negative slope at x = 2, and
two have 0 slope at x = 2. Make sure you know which is which. The slope of the derived graph
of f(x) at x = 2 is the value of the derivative of the derivative (the second derivative) at x = 2
(denoted by f
(x).
4 Write out the formula for the second derivative f
(r) = 0 when the shape of the graph near x = r is like (c). Put f
(r) = 0
in the box below (c).
8 Now consider the seat (d) in the Key Question. Explain why the derived
graph of this graph looks like the gure to the right. Use this fact to explain
why f
(r) = 0 in
the box below (d).
PSfrag replacements
r
You now have a summary of how the second derivative distinguishes among local minima,
local maxima and seats. It can be stated as:
Second Derivative Test for Local Maxima and Minima
If f
(r) = 0, then
A. If f
(3) = 0, S
(3), S
(6) and T
(5). Then use the Second Derivative Test to tell whether these points
are local maxima, local minima or seats. Check your answers about S(x) against the graph
in Question 4 of Worksheet #16. Check your answer about T(x) against the graph below
Question 9 of Worksheet #16.
10 Practice your skill at sketching the portion of a graph by considering the function y =
3x
2
9x+15
x+1
. First nd the derivative of the function, then the value(s) of x at which
dy
dx
= 0.
Then using the Second Derivative Test, draw a rough sketch of the graph of this function in
the interval x = 1 to x = 5.
In Math 111 you were taught the following facts about quadratic functions:
Given the quadratic function y = f(x) = ax
2
+bx +c, the graph of f(x) is a parabola and:
(i) The vertex, which is the value of x at which f(x) reaches an optimum value, is at
x = b/2a;
(ii) The parabola faces up if a > 0, and it faces down if a < 0.
89
90 Chapter 4. Optimization
You can now derive these facts, using calculus, as follows.
11 Write out the derivative of f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c. Then solve the equation f
(x) = 0 and
therefore show that the vertex of the parabola is at x = b/2a.
12 If the parabola faces up, the vertex is a local minimum. If the parabola faces down, the vertex
is a local maximum. Apply the Second Derivative Test to f(x) to show that
f(x) has a local minimum at x = b/2a, when a > 0.
f(x) has a local maximum at x = b/2a, when a < 0.
Thus (ii) above is proved.
The second derivative can be used to tell about a pictorial feature of graphs other than
whether the graph reaches a local maximum, minimum or seat.
13 In Worksheet #16 you worked with the diagonal function
U(x) = h(x)/x = [(1/12)x
4
(5/4)x
3
+ (15/2)x
2
]/x.
The graph of h(x) was the dashed graph. With your plastic ruler indicating the slope of the
diagonal, check that the graph of U(x) increases and has no local maxima or seats.
Thus the graph of U(x) goes up. The question is which of the two shapes below is closer to
the shape of U(x).
PSfrag replacements
f
(x) :
3
3
3
3 3
3 3
Concave Up Concave Down
f(x) :
90
Worksheet #17 Using the Second Derivative 91
14 On one of the graphs above the slope of the tangent is positive and increasing as x increases.
On the other graph the slope of the tangent is positive, but decreasing as x increases. Which
is which? Thus one of the two graphs above has a derived graph that goes up, and the other
graph has a derived graph that goes down. Give a very rough sketch of the derived graphs of
the two graphs shown on the axes below them.
15 According to your picture the slope of the derived graph of one of your graphs should be
positive at x = 3, and the slope of the other derived graph should be negative at x = 3.
Which is which? Correctly ll in the boxes below the two derived graphs, so that one has
f
(x) :
Concave Up
Concave Down
Concave Up Concave Up Concave Down Concave Down
r
r
r
r
r
f
(r) > 0
f
(r) < 0
f
(r) > 0 f
(r) > 0 f
(r) < 0 f
(r) < 0
x
x
x
x
x
x
r
r
r
r r
r r
r r r
x
x x
x x
x x x x
Increasing
Decreasing Decreasing Increasing Increasing
17 The graph to the right is of the function f(x) = x
2
8x+25.
Dene S(x) to be the usual slope of the diagonal from (0, 0)
to (x, f(x)) (as shown). Use the rst derivative to locate local
minima and local maxima of S(x) on the interval x = 1 to
x = 8. Then use the second derivative to determine whether
the point you have found is a minimum or a maximum. Then
use the second derivative to tell whether S(x) increases at an
increasing or a decreasing rate for values of x greater than
x = 10 (i.e. whether S(x) is concave up or down).
x
y
(x, f(x))
91
92 Chapter 4. Optimization
92
Chapter 5
Functions of Several Variables
94 Chapter 5. Functions of Several Variables
Worksheet #18 Line Fitting and Optimization
In Worksheet 14, you estimated the rate of growth of Microsoft stock by graphically tting a line
to a set of points in a coordinate grid. You were looking for a line that, in a vague sense, t the
observed data best. So in a way you were solving an optimization problemnding the best
tting line to the points. The goal of this Worksheet and the next is to make this vague notation
more precise.
Lets begin by reviewing the data that we will use. To reduce the amount of computation that
you have to do, use the following table of only 9 of the observed stock values that we used in
Worksheet 14:
i = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
t
i
= 0.08 0.42 0.75 1.08 1.42 1.75 2.08 2.42 2.75
y
i
= 25.50 31.00 33.08 37.30 42.41 55.03 87.50 80.69 90.56
z
i
= 3.24 3.43 3.50 3.62 3.75 4.01 4.47 4.39 4.51
In the table i gives the number of the observation and t
i
is the time of the ith observation (in years
after Dec 31, 1996). Similarly, we let y
i
be the ith observed the value the stock (in dollars), and
z
i
= ln(y
i
) the natural log of that stock value. For instance, the second observation corresponds to
i = 2, the stock value is y
2
= 31.00, and the natural log of the stock value is z
2
= 3.43.
Here is a plot of all nine of the points:
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
3.5
4
4.5
5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
Time (years after Dec 31, 1996)
l
n
(
s
t
o
c
k
v
a
l
u
e
)
Key Question
You can see that the points very roughtly lie on a straight line.
I. If you are given two lines, how could you tell which one does a better job of representing the
data?
II. How do you nd the line that does the best job of representing the data?
94
Worksheet #18 Line Fitting and Optimization 95
1 Just to illustrate the idea, lets look at the particular line z = g(t) = 0.1 t + 3.74. (There is
nothing special about this line, I could have chosen any of a number of other lines, instead.)
Draw this line on the grid above, and label it g(t). Do you think that it accurately describes
the data?
2 One way to measure how well the line z = g(t) in Problem 1 ts the data would be to measure
the errors z
i
g(t
i
) for each of the nine points. This is the dierence between the actual value
and the point on g(t) at time t
i
. Geometrically, this corresponds to the length of a vertical
line segment from a data point (t
i
, z
i
) to the line z = g(t). In the grid above, draw in each of
these nine line segments.
3 It would be nice to have a single number that says how well the line ts the data. You might
do this by computing the average of all the errors. In formulas, that comes out to
(z
1
g(t
1
)) + (z
2
g(t
2
)) + + (z
9
g(t
9
))
9
Compute this number. To help you to organize your computation, and for future reference,
ll in the following table. (Ignore the last row until Problem 4.)
i = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
z
i
= 3.24 3.43 3.50 3.62 3.75 4.01 4.47 4.39 4.51
t
i
= 0.08 0.42 0.75 1.08 1.42 1.75 2.08 2.42 2.75
g(t
i
) =
z
i
g(t
i
) =
(z
i
g(t
i
))
2
=
The number is pretty small, so the line must do a good job of tting the data (Right?). Can
you explain whats wrong with this straightforward approach? [Ans: 0.0017]
By the way, we are going to come accross lots of formulas where we have to sum up lots of
numbers. Mathematicians use the Greek symbol for sum. So a mathematician would write
the formula in Problem 2 as
1
9
(z
i
g(t
i
))
4 One problem with just adding errors is that positive and negative numbers can cancel to give
a small error, even if the line doesnt t the data very well. One way to get around this would
be to square all the errors. That way, you only get positive numbers, and the errors cant
cancel. For the line in Problem 1, compute the average square of the error:
(z
1
g(t
1
))
2
+ (z
2
g(t
2
))
2
+ + (z
9
g(t
9
))
2
9
.
Using sigmanotation, we would write simply
1
9
(z
i
g(t
i
))
2
. [Ans: 0.138]
95
96 Chapter 5. Functions of Several Variables
The quantity
1
9
(z
i
g(t
i
))
2
is called the meansquared error. It is the standard measure
of how well a line ts a set of data, and it often used in business applictions. You wont
always have 9 points. If n is the number of points in your data set, then the formula for the
meansquared error is
1
n
(z
i
g(t
i
))
2
5 Consider another line z = h(t) = 0.5t + 3.1. Draw this line on the grid above and label it
h(t). Then compute the meansquared error for this line. Which line, z = g(t) or z = h(t),
does a better job of representing the Microsoft stock data?
[Ans: 0.0163]
6 Now answer Key Question I.
Lets summarize where we stand: We know how to measure the meansquared error for any
particular line, and if we have equations for two lines, we can tell which one ts the data best
by nding out which line has the smaller meansquared error. But we still do not know how
to nd the line that actually ts the data best.
To solve that problem, we will have to adopt a more sophisticated approach. We will not
speciy the line ahead of time; instead, we will look at an arbitrary line of the form
z = k(t) = mt +b
where b and m are the unknowns that we want to nd. We will denote the meansquared
error for the line by E = F(b, m). That makes sense because the error depends on the line
and the line depends on m and b. You should think of E = F(b, m) as a function of the two
variables m and b.
We can rephrase Key Question II as follows:
How do we nd the values of b and m that give the smallest value for F(b, m).
To answer that question, we need to nd a simpler formula for F(b, m) than
E = F(b, m) =
1
9
(z
i
(mt
i
+b))
2
We can get one by a little algebra.
In the formula for F(b, m), you have to add together a bunch of terms. If we expand each
96
Worksheet #18 Line Fitting and Optimization 97
term, and then add together columnbycolumn, we get
F(b, m) =
1
9
b
2
+t
2
1
m
2
+ 2t
1
b m2z
1
b 2t
1
z
1
m+z
2
1
+b
2
+t
2
2
m
2
+ 2t
2
b m2z
2
b 2t
2
z
2
m+z
2
2
+b
2
+t
2
3
m
2
+ 2t
3
b m2z
3
b 2t
3
z
3
m+z
2
3
+b
2
+t
2
4
m
2
+ 2t
4
b m2z
4
b 2t
4
z
4
m+z
2
4
+b
2
+t
2
5
m
2
+ 2t
5
b m2z
5
b 2t
5
z
5
m+z
2
5
+b
2
+t
2
6
m
2
+ 2t
6
b m2z
6
b 2t
6
z
6
m+z
2
6
+b
2
+t
2
7
m
2
+ 2t
7
b m2z
7
b 2t
7
z
7
m+z
2
7
+b
2
+t
2
8
m
2
+ 2t
8
b m2z
8
b 2t
8
z
8
m+z
2
8
+b
2
+t
2
9
m
2
+ 2t
9
b m2z
9
b 2t
9
z
9
m+z
2
9
F(b, m) =
1
9
_
9 b
2
+
_
t
2
i
_
m
2
+ 2
_
t
i
_
b m2
_
z
i
_
b 2
_
t
i
z
i
_
m+
z
2
i
_
This gives a fast way to compute the formula for F(b, m) for any specic values of b and m.
7 Find the formula for F(b, m) by computing all of the terms in the formula above. That is, ll
in the spaces below with numerical values (I have supplied some of them to help you check
that you are computing correctly):
F(b, m) = b
2
+2.748 m
2
+
_ _
b m+
_ _
b+
_ _
m+
_ _
8 It is important that you compute the formula for F(b, m) correctly, so as a check that you
did, you should use your formula for F(b, m) to evaluate F(3.74, 0.1). Just as for functions
of one variable, you do this by setting b = 3.74 and m = 0.1 everywhere in your formula for
F(b, m). Since F(b, m) is the meansquared error corresponding to the line z = 0.1 t + 3.74,
you should get the value 0.138, the numerical answer in Problem 4. (Do you see why?).
9 If you use your ruler to get a rough
guess for a line that ts the Microsoft
data, you will notice that it appears
that the yintercept is about b =
3.2. If you x b at that value, then
you get a function of m alone:
G(m) = F(3.2, m) .
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
m
Imagine how the error will change if you keep b xed at 3.2 but you allow the slope of the
line to vary. Write out the formula for G(m). What sort of curve does it describe? Graph
the function G(m). What value of m gives you the smallest value for G(m)? Explain the
meaning of the value of m that you found.
97
98 Chapter 5. Functions of Several Variables
10 We reverse the roles of b and m in
Problem 9. If you visually examine
the various lines that pass near the
data, you might notice that a line of
slope m = 0.5 seems to t the data
pretty well. Fix m = 0.5, and write
out the formula for the function
H(b) = F(b, 0.5) .
2.5 3 3.5 4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
b
What sort of curve does it describe? Graph the function H(b). What value of b gives you the
smallest value for H(b)? Explain the meaning of the value of b that you found.
As you have seen, we have been starting with the formula
E = F(b, m) = b
2
+ 2.748 m
2
+ 2.833 b m7.76 b 11.76 m+ 15.26
and, part of the time we have taken b to be the variable, while at other times we have taken
m to be the variable. We have made this especially clear by giving b a specic numerical
value at one time, and m a specic numerical value at another. Next we will take one step in
generality. We will write b
when
we mean some xed, unspecied value of m. Thus
E = F(b
, m) = (b
)
2
+ 2.748 m
2
+ 2.833 (b
) m7.76 (b
) 11.76 m+ 15.26
is really a function of m alone, and
E = F(b, m
) = b
2
+ 2.748 (m
)
2
+ 2.833 b (m
) 7.76 b 11.76 (m
) + 15.26
is a function of b alone. When E is a function of m alone, then we can take its derivative
with m as the variable. When E is a function of b alone, we can take its derivative with b as
the variable. However, to keep things straight we need to adopt a new notation system for
derivatives. Instead of writing
dE
dm
= F
(b
, m), when b
, m) =
Derivative of F(b, m) when m is the
variable and b is held xed.
Then, remembering that, by this notation, b
, m) = 5.496 m+ 2.833b
11.76
Likewise,
E
b
= F
b
(b, m
) = 2b + 2.833m
7.76 .
When you compute a partial derivative, you make one variable constant, then you compute
the derivative. Consequently, when taking partial derivatives, you can use all of the rules you
know for taking derivatives.
98
Worksheet #18 Line Fitting and Optimization 99
Actually, when you have done this for a while, you will not need the crutch of writing
next
to variables to remember that they are, for the moment, xed. The notation
E
m
means that
m is the variable, and b is xed. The notation F
m
(b, m) means the same. Likewise,
E
b
means that b is the variable, and m is xed, as does the notation F
b
(b, m).
11 Just for practice, compute the partial derivatives
z
x
and
z
y
for the function
z = f(x, y) = x
3
+xy +y
2
x y + 5 .
Lets get back to our main problem of nding the best tting line. We have the following
formulas
E
m
= 5.496 m+ 2.833b 11.76 and
E
b
= 2b + 2.833m7.76 .
Now suppose that the line given by (b, m) = (b
, m
and let b vary, the derivative with respect to b has to vanish when b = b
becasue the error is smallest then. Reversing the roles of b and m shows that the derivative
E/m also must vanish. Thus, we should be able to nd the best tting line by solving the
equations
E
m
= 0
E
b
= 0 .
Substituting the formulas for
z
x
and
z
y
that we found, and bringing the constant over to
the right gives
5.496 m+ 2.833b = 11.76 2b + 2.833m = 7.76 .
12 Solve this system of equations as follows: Use the second equation to nd a formula for b in
terms of m. Then use this formula to replace b in the rst equation by the formula, and solve
for m. Finally, use the value of m you nd to gure out the value of b.
[Ans: (b, m) = (3.15, 0.515)]
13 As a review of what we have done. Suppose that we are given the following data
i x
i
y
i
1 0.178 1.83
2 2.172 9.10
3 3.928 12.48
4 6.154 16.23
5 7.954 17.74
6 10.12 22.25
Find the line y = mx +b that best ts this data. Do this as follows:
(a) First, compute the error function E(b, m).
99
100 Chapter 5. Functions of Several Variables
(b) Next, compute the derivatives
E
m
and
E
b
.
(c) Finally, solve the system of equations
E
m
= 0 and
E
b
= 0 .
Plot both the data and the line that you nd on a coordinate grid.
100
Worksheet #19 Linear Programming 101
Worksheet #19 Linear Programming
Key Question
Your company makes two fruit juices, AppleCranberry and CranberryApple. AppleCranberry
is 60% apple juice and 40% cranberry juice, while CranberryApple is 30% apple juice and 70%
cranberry juice. You make $0.40 prot on each gallon of AppleCranberry juice that you sell, and
$0.50 prot on each gallon of CranberryApple juice that you sell. Your daily supply is limited to
12,000 gallons of pure apple juice and 11,000 gallons of pure cranberry juice.
I. How much AppleCranberry juice and CranberryApple juice should you produce daily so as
to maximize your prot?
II. What is your maximum daily prot?
III. How much apple juice and how much cranberry juice should you buy so as to maximize your
prot?
IV. Suppose that your production capacity is reduced so that, you cannot produce more than
10,000 gallons of CranberryApple juice daily, and you cannot produce more than 15,000
gallons of AppleCranberry juice daily. How should you adjust your production so as to still
maximize your prot?
Before trying to answer these questions, lets set up some notation. Let x denote your daily
production of AppleCranberry juice (measured in thousands of gallons), and let y denote your
daily production of CranberryApple juice (again measured in thousands of gallons). Notice that
neither x nor y can be negative, so your daily production of both juices corresponds to a point in
the rst quadrant of the (x, y)plane.
1 How much apple juice do you need to make 10,000 gallons of AppleCranberry juice (x = 10)
and 20,000 gallons of CranberryApple juice (y = 20)?
2 Let A(x, y) denote the amount of apple juice (in thousands of gallons) that you need to make x
thousand gallons of AppleCranberry juice and y thousand gallons of CranberryApple juice.
Find a formula for A(x, y). [Ans: A(x, y) = 0.6x + 0.3y.]
3 Since your daily supply of apple juice is limited to 12,000 gallons, your daily production has
to satisfy the inequality
A(x, y) 12 .
Draw the line A(x, y) = 12 on the axes on the next page. Notice that the point (x, y) = (10, 20)
is on the line. Explain in ordinary English what it means for the point (10, 20) to be on the
line.
4 Notice that the line A(x, y) = 12 divides the rst quadrant into two parts: points (x, y) where
A(x, y) > 12 and points where A(x, y) 12. Shade in the portion of the quadrant where
A(x, y) > 12.
Is it possible achieve a daily production that corresponds to a point in the shaded region?
Explain why or why not.
101
102 Chapter 5. Functions of Several Variables
10 20 30 40
10
20
30
40
x
y
Thousands Gals. AppleCranberry juice
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d
s
G
a
l
s
.
C
r
a
n
b
e
r
r
y

A
p
p
l
e
j
u
i
c
e
5 Now let C(x, y) denote the amount of cranberry juice (in thousands of gallons) that you need
to make x thousands gallons of AppleCranberry and y thousand gallons of CranberryApple.
Find the formula for C(x, y).
6 Since your daily supply of cranberry juice is limited to 11,000 gallons, your daily production
has to satisfy the inequality
C(x, y) 11 .
On the same set of axes, draw the line C(x, y) = 11. That line divides the octant into two
parts: the part where C(x, y) > 11, and the part where C(x, y) 11. Is it possible achieve a
daily production that corresponds to a point in the region where C(x, y) > 11? Explain why
or why not.
Shade in all points in the rst quadrant where C(x, y) is bigger than 11.
The points in rst quadrant lying in unshaded are the important onesthey correspond to
daily productions that you could actually achieve. (Remember, you have limited supplies of
both apple juice and cranberry juice.)
102
Worksheet #19 Linear Programming 103
The overlap of the regions A(x, y) 12 and C(x, y) 11 (i.e. the unshaded region) is called
the region of feasibility. Your daily production must correspond to a point in the region of
feasibility.
7 Now lets get look at your daily prot, which we are going to measure in thousands of dollars.
What is your daily prot if your daily production is 10,000 gallons of AppleCranberry and
10,000 gallons of CranberryApple?
8 Your prot depends on your daily production of AppleCranberry juice and CranberryApple
juice. That is, your prot is a function of the two variables x and y. Lets denote this function
by P(x, y). Find a formula for P(x, y). Since prot is the thing that we are interested in
maximizing, we call this our objective function.
[Ans: P(x, y) = 0.40x + 0.50y.]
We can now rephrase Key Question I: Find the point (x, y) in the feasible region at which
the objective function is greatest.
9 To get a feel for how prot depends on x and y, nd all points in the rst quadrant where
your daily prot is $2,500. That is, nd all solutions of the equation
P(x, y) = 2.5
This corresponds to a line in the (x, y)plane. Draw that line on the grid below. Lets
gradually increase our prot. Draw the constant prot lines P(x, y) = 5, P(x, y) = 7.5, and
P(x, y) = 10. For future reference, label each line by the prot to which it corresponds (i.e.
P = 2.5, P = 5.0, etc.).
What do you notice about the lines that you drew? Without computing, guess what the line
P(x, y) = 12.5 might be?
10 Use the graph to approximate what your daily production of AppleCranberry and Cranberry
Apple juice should be in order to maximize your daily prot.
Hint: Look at how the constant prot lines change as prot increases, and remember that
only points in the region of feasibility matter.
11 Now complete the answers to Key Questions I, II, and III.
Hint: To get exact answers, you will have to accurately compute the position of the point
where you think that prot is greatest. That point is the intersection of two lines, so you
should be able to nd it exactly by using a little algebra.
Important observation: The region of feasibility is a polygon, and the point (x, y) at which
prot is greatest is one of its vertices.
12 Now consider the situation described in Key Question IV. The additional conditions restrict
the region of feasibility still further. Express each of the constraints described in IV as an
inequality.
103
104 Chapter 5. Functions of Several Variables
13 In the grid below, draw the region of feasibility corresponding to the conditions given in IV.
(Dont forget to include the constraints A(x, y) 12 and C(x, y) 11). Is the region of
feasibility still a polygon?
By drawing in lines of constant prot, give a rough answer to Key Question IV. Then give an
exact answer by noticing that the point where prot is maximized is the intersection of two
lines.
10 20 30 40
10
20
30
40
x
y
Thousands Gals. AppleCranberry juice
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d
s
G
a
l
s
.
C
r
a
n
b
e
r
r
y

A
p
p
l
e
j
u
i
c
e
104
Problem Set #2 Problem Set #2
Problem Set #2
I. Dierentiation Technique
You will be asked to nd three derivatives in problem I on the test. One will be rather simple,
another somewhat complicated, and a third will be a partial derivative. The three problem sets
below illustrate these three types.
1 Find the derivatives of the following functions.
a) f(t) = t
2
(t
4
+t
2
+ 1) + 3t b) y =
x
2
+ 2x
x
2
+ 4x + 2
+ 3x
2
c) g(z) = ln(z
2
+ 1) d) h(w) = e
3w
2
+4w+2
+w
3
e) z = (u
2
+ 3u + 4)
4
f) f(x) = (x
4
3x
2
+ 2x)(2 +x
3
5x
5
)
g) y = (3t
2
+ 4t + 5)e
t
+ ln t h) g(x) =
1
(x
4
x
3
+ 2x)
4
2 Find the derivatives of the following functions.
a) f(t) = t
2
ln(t
2
) b) y = x
x + 1 (ln x)
c) g(z) =
z
2
z
2
+ 1
d) h(v) =
v
4
(v + 1)
4/3
v
2/3
e) z =
_
e
t
2
+ 1 f) R(q) =
q
2
+ 2q + 1
e
q
(q
3
+ 3q)
g) d = (t
2
+ 2t)(t
3
3t) +e
t
t h) f(x) =
x
2
x + 1
x
3
ln(x)
3 Find the indicated partial derivatives.
a)
z
x
if z = x
3
y
2
+ 3y
3
6e
x
y b) f
t
(t, m) if f(t, m) = te
m
+t
2
(m
2
+ 2m)
c)
w
y
if w =
x
3
y
y + 1
d)
t
s
if t = (s
2
+rs)(r +s
3
)
e) g
v
(u, v) if g(u, v) = e
u
2
v
f)
p
y
if p = x
3
y
2
+ 3x
2
y + 4x
2
5y
2
g) h
u
(u, v) if h(u, v) =
u +v
u v
h)
z
m
if z = (m
2
p +p
2
m)(m+p)
3
105
106 106
II. Onevariable optimization
4 The formula for the parabola to the right is
w = g(x) = (1/4)x
2
4x + 36.
We dene a new function by S(x) = the slope of
the diagonal to the point (x, g(x)). Thus S(x) =
g(x)/x.
PSfrag replacements
w
v
a) Write out formulas for S(x) and S
(x).
b) Find all the positive values of x at which the graph of S(x) has a horizontal tangent.
c) Apply the Second Derivative Test to each of the values x at which S(x) has a horizontal
tangent. What does the test tell you?
d) (i) Find the value of x in the interval x = 1 to x = 6 at which S(x) reaches a global
maximum.
(ii) Find the value of x in the interval x = 1 to x = 6 at which S(x) reaches a global
minimum.
Show your work and explain your answer in both parts.
e) For values of x greater than 20, does S(x) increase at an increasing or decreasing rate?
Explain, using the second derivative.
f) Give a positive number m for which the following is true: There is no positive value of
x for which S(x) = m.
g) Give an interval of length 1 over which S(x) is increasing and g(x) is decreasing.
5 To the right are the distance vs. time graphs for
two cyclists. Let D(t) be the distance by which
Cyclist A is ahead of Cyclist B.
a) Determine the time at which Cyclist B
passes Cyclist A.
b) Give the largest and smallest values of D(t)
in the interval t = 0 to t = 12.
(
m
i
l
e
s
)
(minutes)
PSfrag replacements
B(t) = (1/6)t + 1
A(t) =
t + 2
c) Find the times t at which B reaches his highest and lowest overall average trip speed in
the time interval t = 1 to t = 12. Explain your answer.
d) If we dene the function F(t) = B(t) A(t), then F(t) has positive values after a while.
Moreover F(t) is increasing after t = 40 minutes. Is the shape of the graph of F(t)
concave up or down for values of t greater than t = 40?
106
Problem Set #2 Problem Set #2
6 The graph to the right is of Total Revenue of sell
ing Framits. (q is in thousands of Framits, and
R(q) is in thousands of dollars.)
a) Write the formula for Marginal Revenue of
manufacturing Framits. (The units will be
dollars.)
b) Find all values of q at which the MR graph
has a horizontal tangent.
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d
s
o
f
d
o
l
a
l
r
s
(thousands of framits)
PSfrag replacements
q
R(q) = (1/6)q
4
(31/6)q
3
+ 55q
2
+ 200q
c) Apply the Second Derivative Test to each value that you gave in part (b). What does
the test tell you?
d) Determine the global maximum value and global minimum value of MR over the interval
q = 0 to q = 12 (thousand).
e) Use the second derivative to tell whether the TR graph is concave up or concave down
at q = 12.
7 The formula for the graph shown to the right is y = 2 +
4
3x 1
. In our usual fashion we
dened a new function
A(x) = The area of the rectangle determined by x.
a) Write out formulas for A(x) and A
(x).
b) Apply the Second Derivative Test to each
value of x in the interval x = 1/3 to x = 3
at which A
(x) to
tell whether A(x) is increasing or decreasing, and use A
5
2
x
3
+ 8x
2
+ 12x.
We use this graph to dene a new function
D(x) = Slope of diagonal to f(x) =
f(x)
x
.
x
y
y = f(x)
D(x) = slope =
f(x)
x
a) Write out the formulas for the functions D(x) and D
(x).
b) Find all values of x at which the graph of D(x) has a horizontal tangent. Use the Second
Derivative Test to determine whether D(x) reaches a local maximum, a local minimum
or neither at each of these points.
c) Determine the lowest value of D(x) on the interval x = 1 to x = 12. Show your work
and tell why your answer is correct.
d) We dene a new function
T(x) = Slope of the tangent to graph of f(x) .
Determine all positive values of x at which T(x) has a local minimum or local maximum.
10 The Demand Curve for Blivets shown in the graph at the right has the formula
p = h(q) = 12 4
q ,
where q is measured in thousands of Blivets and p is
measured in dollars. We get Total Revenue (measured
in thousands of dollars) from this curve by the recipe
R(q) = q h(q). The Total Cost (measured in thou
sands of dollars) of manufacturing Blivets is given by
the formula C(q) = q + 1. Due to the limited supply
of raw material, we can not manufacture more than
3500 Blivets (q = 3.5).
quantity (thousands)
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
/
B
l
i
v
e
t
R(q)
q
p
p = h(q)
a) Write the formulas for R(q) and R
t
i
= 450
t
2
i
= 40510
s
i
= 55.2
s
2
i
= 633.36
109
110 110
c) Determine the partial derivatives
E
b
and
E
m
.
d) What is the equation of line of best t?
14 Suppose p = h(r, s) = 12 +rs + (27/r) + (8/s).
a) Write out formulas for
p
r
and
p
s
.
b) Find all values (r, s) which are candidates for local maximum or local minimum.
c) Assume that s
, nd the values of r that are candidates for local maximum or minimum values of p,
with this xed s
.
d) For each of the values of r you gave in (c) use the Second Derivative Test (for one
variable) to determine whether p reaches a local maximum, a local minimum, or neither
(or the test does not tell).
e) Find a value of (r, s) at which the following occurs:
If you x r and increase s slightly, then p increases.
If you x s and increase r slightly, then p decreases.
15 Suppose z = f(x, y) = x
3
+ 8y
3
+ 4xy + 6.
a) Write out formulas for f
x
(x, y) and f
y
(x, y).
b) Find the largest and smallest values of f(x, 1) over the interval x = 2 to x = 2.
c) Use partial derivatives to tell which of the following numbers is bigger:
f(1.00003, 1) f(1, 1)
0.00003
f(1, 1.00003) f(1, 1)
0.00003
.
d) Consider the following four functions of y: f(2, y), f(1, y), f(0, y), f(1, y). Use partial
derivatives to tell which of these functions has the steepest graph at y = 1.
16 Suppose that z = 2x
2
+ 12x 6y
2
+ 4y + 4xy + 24.
a) Write out the two partial derivatives.
b) Find all values of (x, y) that are candidates for a local maximum or a local minimum of
f(x, y).
c) Use derivatives to tell which of the following numbers is bigger. Show your work:
f(2.0001, 0) f(2, 0)
0.0001
f(2, 0.0001) f(2, 0)
0.0001
.
17 Suppose that z = g(x, y) = x
3
/3 +y
3
/3 xy + 7.
a) Write out the two partial derivatives of z.
b) Find all points (x, y) which are candidates for local minima or local maxima of z.
c) Which graph is steeper h(t) = g(2, t) at t = 3 or k(t) = g(t, 3) at t = 2?
110
Problem Set #2 Problem Set #2
18 You are trying to decide between investing in two stocks, Amicon and Beadex. The table
below summarizes the information you have about the past dollar values of the two stocks
over the last 3 years (with t = 0 corresponding to Jan 1, 1997).
Amicon Beadex
time stock value time stock value
0.000 90.005 0.000 9.438
0.474 90.908 0.521 9.087
0.998 99.889 0.991 9.708
1.445 96.729 1.567 11.436
2.010 111.420 1.911 12.510
2.595 114.223 2.541 12.304
2.851 121.944 2.795 14.029
a) Assume that both companies are equally sound. Assume also that over the next ve
years both stocks will perform in roughly the same way as they have over the past three
years. Find exponential functions that best model the performance of the stocks. Which
stock would you choose to invest in? Show all computations that you do, and explain
your answer.
b) You have $2,000 to invest. To be safe, you invest $1,000 in Amicon stock and $1,000 in
Beadex stock. After ve years, what do you predict will be the value of each of your
investments?
19 Suppose p = P(r, s) = r
2
s +rs
2
5rs + 2r.
a) Write out formulas for
p
r
and
p
s
.
b) Find all values of (r, s) which are candidates for a local maximum or a local minimum.
c) Which graph is steeper: P(3, s) at s = 2 or P(r, 2) at r = 3?
d) Assume that r = r
, of course.
20 Suppose z = f(x, y) = 6x
2
2x + 2y
2
3y + 7xy + 3.
a) Write out formulas for
z
x
, and
z
y
.
b) Find all values of (x, y) which are candidates for a local maximum
c) Find the largest and smallest values of z for y = 1 and x ranging from 0 to 3.
d) Suppose (x, y) = (3, 4). Circle the correct answer: A small increase in y (with x held
xed) leads to a ( larger smaller ) increase in z than a small increase in x
(with y held xed).
111
112 112
e) Suppose a and b are xed positive numbers and that a is greater than b. Which of the
following numbers is larger: The slope of f(a, y) at y = 3; The slope of f(b, y) at
y = 3?
IV. Linear Programming
21 The Grass is Greener lawn care company produces two dierent lawn fertilizers, Regular and
Deluxe. The prot on each bag of Regular is $0.75, while the prot on each bag of Deluxe
is $1.20. Each bag of Regular contains 3 pounds of active ingredients and 7 pounds of inert
ingredients. In contrast, each bag of Deluxe contains 4 pounds of active ingredients and 6
pounds of inert ingredients. Due to limited warehouse facilities, the company can stock up to
8,400 pounds of active ingredients and 14,100 pounds of inert ingredients. Let x denote the
number of bags of Regular, and let y denote the number of bags of Deluxe.
a) What is the formula for P(x, y), the prot earned in producing x bags of Regular and y
bags of Deluxe?
b) What is the formula for A(x, y), the number of pounds of active ingredients needed to
produce x bags of Regular and y bags of Deluxe? What is the formula for I(x, y), the
number of pounds of inert ingredients needed to produce x bags of Regular and y bags
of Deluxe?
c) Sketch the region of feasibility. Find the (x, y) coordinates of all vertices of the region
of feasibility?
d) How many bags of each product should the company produce to maximize prot?
22 Your company makes two household cleaners: Miracle Bathtub Cleaner and Speedex Floor
Cleaner. Your daily production of both cleaners combined is limited to 2,000 gallons. Your
daily sales of Miracle Bathtub Cleaner never exceed 1,200 gallons, and your daily sales of
Speedex Floor Cleaner never exceed 1,400 gallons. Finally, you make $1.00 prot on each
gallon of Miracle Bathtub Cleaner that you sell and $2.00 on each gallon of Speedex Floor
Cleaner that you sell.
Let x be your daily production (in thousands of gallons) of Miracle Bathtub Cleaner, and let
y be your daily production (in thousands of gallons) of Speedex Floor Cleaner. The goal of
the problem is to nd the daily production schedule that will yield the greatest prot. You
will do this by formulating the problem as a linear programming problem.
a) Find the formula for your daily prot, P(x, y) (expressed in thousands of dollars).
b) Sketch the feasible region.
c) Find the exact coordinates of all vertices of the feasible region.
d) How much of each cleaner should you produce daily in order to maximize your prot?
Explain your answer.
e) What is your maximum prot?
112
Solutions to Problem Set #2 Solutions to Problem Set #2
Solutions to Problem Set #2
1. a) t
2
(4t
3
+ 2t) + (2t)(t
4
+ t
2
+ 1) + 3
b)
(x
2
+ 4x + 2)(2x + 2) (2x + 4)(x
2
+ 2x)
(x
2
+ 4x + 2)
2
+ 6x
c)
2z
z
2
+ 1
d) e
3w
2
+4w+2
(6w + 4) + 3w
2
e) 4(u
2
+ 3u + 4)
3
(2u + 3)
f) (x
4
3x
2
+ 2x)(3x
2
25x
4
) + (4x
3
6x + 2)(2 + x
3
5x
5
)
g) (3t
2
+ 4t + 5)e
t
+ (6t + 4)e
t
+ (1/t) h) 4(x
4
x
3
+ 2x)
5
(4x
3
3x
2
+ 2)
2. a) (t
2
)(
2t
t
2
) + (2t)(ln t
2
) b) (x
x + 1)(
1
x
) + [x
1
2
(x + 1)
1/2
+
x + 1][ln(x)]
c)
(
z
2
+ 1)(2z) (1/2)(z
2
+ 1)
1/2
2z z
2
z
2
+ 1
d)
v
2/3
[v
4
(4/3)(v + 1)
1/3
+ 4v
3
(v + 1)
4/3
] v
4
(v + 1)
4/3
(2/3)v
1/3
v
4/3
e) (1/2)(e
t
2
+ 1)
1/2
e
t
2
(2t)
f)
e
q
(q
3
+ 3q)(2q + 2) (q
2
+ 2q + 1)[e
q
(3q
2
+ 3) + e
q
(q
3
+ 3q)]
[e
q
(q
3
+ 3q)]
2
g) (t
2
+ 2t)(3t
2
3) + (2t + 2)(t
3
3t) + e
t
+ (e
t
)(t)
h)
x + 1 (2x) x
2
(1/2)(x + 1)
1/2
x + 1
[(x
3
)(1/x) + (3x
2
)(ln x)]
3. a) 3x
2
y
2
6e
x
y b) e
m
+ 2t(m
2
+ 2m) c)
(y + 1)x
3
x
3
y
(y + 1)
2
d) (s
2
+ rs)(3s
2
) + (2s + r)(r + s
3
) e) e
u
2
v
(u
2
)
f) x
3
2y + 3x
2
10y g)
(u v) (u + v)
(u v)
2
h) (m
2
p + p
2
m)3(m + p)
2
+ (2mp + p
2
)(m + p)
3
4. a) S(v) = (1/4)v 4 + (36/v), S
(x) = 2 +
(3x 1)4 (4x)(3)
(3x 1)
2
= 2
4
(3x 1)
2
b) A
(
1 +
2
3
) is pos, so
1 +
2
3
gives a min c) graph is incr, conc up.
8. a) 15/2, 25/2 b) 15/2 min, 25/2 max
c) f(0) = 1500, f(15/2) = 375, f(25/2) = 458.33, f(15) = 375 (see graph)
113
114 114
PSfrag replacements
y
x
1500
375
15
2
25
2
15
9. a) D(x) = x
3
/6 (5/2)x
2
+ 8x + 12, D
(x) = (1/2)x
2
5x + 8.
b) x = 2: D
97
4
and
15+
97
4
.
10. a) R(q) = 12q 4q
3/2
, R
(q) = 12 6q
1/2
.
b) Candidates: q = 0, 3.5 (endpoints) R
(q) = 0.
P
(q) = 11 6
q = 0 at q = (11/6)
2
3.3611
P(0) = 1, P(3.3611) = 11.3241, P(3.5) = 11.308.
So max. prot at q = (11/6)
2
.
11. a) R(q) = q
3
30q
2
+ 225q;
b) $100 per Trinket;
c) $196 per Trinket.
12. a)
z
x
= 12x + 2 + 8y
z
y
= 8y 3 + 8x
b) (1/4, 5/8) c)10, 106 d) larger e) f(x, 10)
13. a)
t
i
s
i
= 4983.4
b) E =
1
5
5 b
2
+ 40510 m
2
+ 900 bm110.4 b 9966.8 m + 633.36
= E = b
2
+8102 m
2
+180 bm
22.08 b 1993.36 m + 126.672
c)
E
b
= 2b + 180m22.08;
E
m
= 180b + 16204m1993.36
d) line: s = 1.54t 127.56
14. a)
p
r
= s
27
r
2
p
s
= r
8
s
2
b) (9/2, 4/3)
c) None if s
less than 0. If s
greater than 0, r =
27/s
d)
27/s
min,
27/s
max
e) any r less than 9/2 and 8/r less than s, and s less than 27/r
2
[(4, 3/2) is one answer]
15. a) f
x
(x, y) = 3x
2
+ 4y, f
y
(x, y) = 24y
2
+ 4x
b) 14, 18 c) second is bigger d) f(1, y)
16. a)
z
x
= 4x + 4y + 12,
z
y
= 4x 12y + 4.
114
Solutions to Problem Set #2 Solutions to Problem Set #2
b) (5, 2);
c)
f(2,0.0001)f(2,0)
0.0001
is bigger. (Explain!)
17. a)
z
x
= x
2
y,
z
y
= y
2
x,
b) (0, 0) and (1, 1).
c) h(t) at t = 3.
18. a) First compute the least square error E(b, m) =
1
n
i
(ln(y
i
) mt
i
b) for each stock (where y
i
is the stock value at time t
i
:
E
Amicon
= b
2
+ 3.172m
2
+ 2.964mb 9.27b 13.94m + 21.49;
E
Beadex
= b
2
+ 3.090m
2
+ 2.95mb 4.811b 7.37m + 5.81.
Next nd the line z = mt + b that best ts each data set:
Amicon : 4.48 + 0.107t Beadex : 2.18 + 0.151t .
Thus, Amicon stock grows at an annual rate of 10.7% and Beadex stock grows at an annual rate
of 15.1%.
b) The values of your $1,000 investments are given by exponential functions:
Amicon : A(t) = 1000e
0.107t
and Beadex : B(t) = 1000e
0.151t
.
After ve years your investments are worth: A(5) = $1, 707.45 and B(5) = $2, 127.61, respec
tively.
19. a)
p
r
= 2rs + s
2
5s + 2
p
s
= r
2
+ 2rs 5r
b) (0, 4.56), (0, 0.44), (1, 2), (17/3, 1/3)
c) P(r, 2) at r = 3 d) s =
5 r
2
20. a) f
x
(x, y) = 12x 2 + 7y, f
y
(x, y) = 4y 3 + 7x, (x, y) = (13, 22)
b) min f(3/4, 1) = 4
5
8
, max f(3, 1) = 35 c) smaller d) 1st is larger
21. a) P(x, y) = 0.75x + 1.20y
b) A(x, y) = 3x + 4y, I(x, y) = 7x + 6y
c) Vertices: (0,0), (600,1650), (0,2100),(2014.29,0)
d) Compute prot at each vertex: P(0, 0) = 0, P(0, 2100) = 2520, P(2014.29, 0) = 1510.71,
P(600, 1650) = 2430. Max prot achieved when company produces 0 pounds of Regular and
2100 pounds of Deluxe
22. a) P(x, y) = x + 2y.
b) The feasible region is a polygon with 5 vertices.
c) Vertices: (0, 0), (1.2, 0), 0, 1.4). (0.6, 1.4), (1.2, 0.8).
d) The maximum prot occurs at a vertex of the feasible region. To nd the production level
that gives maximum prot, we check all vertices. We nd that maximum prot is achieved at
(x, y) = (0.6, 1.4). So you should produce 600 gallons of Miracle Bathroom Cleaner, and 1,400
gallons of Speedex Floor Cleaner
e) Maximum prot is P(0.6, 1.4) = 3.4 thousand dollars.
115
116 116
116
Chapter 6
Going Backwards: Integration
118 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
Worksheet #20 Distances from Speed Graphs
Key Question
The graphs to the right are of
speed vs. time for two cars trav
eling along a straight track. The
cars are next to one another at
time t = 0. To get a feeling for
what the graphs say, rst give a
playbyplay description of what
you would see if you watched these
cars. Who is ahead at various
times? When is one car pulling
way from or getting closer to the
other? Then do your best to an
swer the following numerical ques
tions:
I. What is the distance be
tween the two cars (and who
is ahead) when the speed
graphs cross?
II. At what time does Car B
rst catch up to and pass
Car A?
III. Does Car A overtake Car B
in the period 7 to 9 minutes?
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
(Minutes)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
(
Y
a
r
d
s
p
e
r
M
i
n
u
t
e
)
Car A
Car B
1 The readings of the two graphs for the rst 2 minutes are:
t 0 .5 1 1.5 2
Car A 22 18 15 12 10
Car B 8 8.5 9 9.5 10
Does this mean that the two cars are getting further apart or closer together? Explain.
2 Starting right after t = 2 minutes, Car B is going faster than Car A. Describe the relative
positions of the two cars over this time. Car A goes faster than Car B for the rst two
minutes; Car B goes faster than Car A for the next two minutes. Does this mean that Car B
catches up to Car A at time t = 4? Explain your answer in everyday terms.
3 Car B goes faster than Car A for the ve minutes between t = 2 and t = 7. Does this balance
out the rst two minutes and mean that Car B is ahead of Car A by time t = 7? Explain.
118
Worksheet #20 Distances from Speed Graphs 119
4 Suppose you had just the rst four minutes of the two speed graphs we started with, and you
could alter the speed graph of Car B for the time interval t = 3 to t = 4 minutes. How would
you change the graph so that Car B does catch up to Car A at time t = 4?
To answer the two numerical Key Questions we will have to nd a reasonable way to read
distances from the speed graphs.
5 Presumably you are familiar with the formula Distance = Speed Time. Use this formula
to determine the distance covered by a car if it travels 20 yards/min for 30 minutes. Use this
same formula to determine the distance covered in 40 minutes by the car whose speed vs.
time graph is (a) below.
y
d
s
/
m
i
n
y
d
s
/
m
i
n
y
d
s
/
m
i
n
min min min
C
A
R
V
C
A
R
U
PSfrag replacements
(a) (b) (c)
15
30
15
30
15 15 15
30 30 30
40
40
40 40 40
6 To apply the formula given in Question 5 to either of the graphs (b) above, you need a single
speed to multiply the 40 minutes by. But both of the cars, Car U and Car V, are speeding up
the whole time. Car Us speed goes from 0 to 15 yds/min over the 40 minutes. Would you
agree that Car U had a typical speed of 7.5 yds/min over this time, so that its distance
covered is 7.5 yds/min 40 mins = 300 yds? Use this typical speed idea to tell how far
Car V goes in the 40 minutes.
7 Would you make a guessestimate of the distance covered by the car in graph (c) above? Does
this car cover less distance than Car V in the graph (b)? If you had to, would you estimate
the typical speed of the car in graph (c)?
The moral is that the typical speed of computing distance covered works for straight line
speed graphs, but it becomes more and more of a guessing method for curvy graphs. It will
turn out that we can get around this diculty.
119
120 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
8 Make the best estimates you can of the distances
covered by the three cars whose speed vs. time
graphs are shown to the right.
9 The speed graph of Car A (in the beginning of this
worksheet) is quite close to being a straight line
for the rst two minutes, while the graph of Car B
is a straight line. Estimate the typical speeds of
the two cars over the rst two minutes and use the
typical speeds to compute the distances covered
by the two cars in the rst two minutes. Thus
you can answer the rst part of Key Question I:
What is the distance between the cars when the
graphs rst cross at t = 2 minutes?
min
y
d
s
/
m
i
n
PSfrag replacements
40
30
20
10
20
20
40
40
60
X
Y
Z
Answering the second part of Key Question I is going to be much more complicated than the
rst part, because the graph of Car A is not anywhere close to being a straight line for an
interval lasting more than two minutes. The key to nding the distance covered by Car A in
the rst seven minutes is to nd how far Car A has gone in each of the 1minute intervals 0
to 1, 1 to 2, 2 to 3, etc. and then add these distances up. We can nd these smaller distances
because for each of the 1minute intervals the graph of Car A is close to being a straight line.
10 By estimating the typical speed over each interval, ll in the chart below. Each entry should
be a distance covered by the given car in the given 1minute interval.
Interval 01 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89
Distance covered in interval by
Car A
18.5 12.5 8.5
Distance covered in interval by
Car B
8.5 9.5 10.5
11 First use the chart in Question 10 to nd out how far the two cars have gone in the rst 2
minutes and check your answer to Question 9. Then use the chart to nd out how far the
two cars have gone in the rst 7 minutes. Answer the second part to Key Question I.
The chart in Question 10 gives lots of distance information, but for instance, it is not par
ticularly helpful for answering Key Questions II or III (try them). The diculty is that these
questions are about distances covered overall from the beginning of the race to a given
time, and the chart gives distances covered in one minute intervals. We need another kind
of chart.
12 For each of the times in the chart below, ll in the distance covered by each car from time
t = 0 to that time by adding up the appropriate entries in the chart in Question 10.
120
Worksheet #20 Distances from Speed Graphs 121
Time t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Distance covered by
time t by Car A
0 18.5 31 39.5
Distance covered by
time t by Car B
0 8.5 18 28.5
13 The chart in Question 12 is just the usual table of distances covered vs. time for 2 cars. Using
this cart, sketch smooth distance vs. time graphs for the two cars on the axes below.
y
d
s
(min)
PSfrag replacements
t
120
80
40
3 6 9
14 Use the distance vs. time graphs or chart to answer Key Questions II and III.
You just drew the distance vs. time graphs for the two cars. We started with the speed
graphs. Thus the graphs we started with are the derived graphs, and we have found the
original graphs.
15 Use your distance vs. time graphs to tell when Car A is furthest ahead of Car B. According
to a standard principle, the two cars should have the same speed at this time. Use the speed
graphs to check to see if this is true. Repeat this question with the time at which Car B is
furthest ahead of Car A.
By careful graph reading and breaking the graph of Car A into oneminute intervals we have
managed to answer the Key Questions and also draw the distance vs. time graphs for the
two cars. But it would really be nice to have a visual, pictorial way of reading the distances
covered by the cars without all the computationsthe way we can read speed from a distance
graph by looking at the slope of the tangent. It turns out that this can be done.
121
122 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
There is a formula from geometry that says that if
you have a gure shaped like the one to the right
(it is called a trapezoid), then the area of this gure
is equal to
1
2
(a + b)c. On the other hand, if you
have a speed graph like the one shown to the right,
then to calculate the distance covered by the car in
this interval, you calculate the speed halfway be
tween the 10 and the 30 (to get the typical speed),
and then multiply this speed by the time elapsed
to get the distance covered in the interval. That
is distance =
1
2
(10 + 30)15, because
1
2
(10 + 30)
gives the speed halfway between 10 and 30. Thus,
what we have is the odd coincidence that in order
to calculate the distance covered by the car, you
do the same computations as you would do to cal
culate the area of the trapezoid that has the speed
graph as its top. Here is another example. The
speed graph just to the right here forms the top of
a trapezoidthe shaded one. To get the distance
covered by the car in that time interval you multi
ply
1
2
(5 + 30) (which is the typical speed) by 15,
the time elapsed, to get
525
2
. To get the area of
that trapezoid you compute
1
2
(5 + 30)15. So the
two quantities are the same.
PSfrag replacements
25
a
b
c
30
20
10
5
20
30
30
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
16 The speed graph for Car B for the time t = 2 to t = 6 is the top
of a trapezoid with dimensions as shown to the right. Calculate
the area of the trapezoid to nd the distance covered by Car
B over this time interval. Then check your answer using the
table in Question 10.
PSfrag replacements
14
10
2 6
17 The speed graph of Car A for the time interval t = 7 to t = 9 is (close enough to) the top
of a trapezoid. Use the formula for the area of a trapezoid to determine the distance covered
by Car A in this time interval. Check your answer using the table in Question 10.
If we wanted the distance covered by Car A from time t = 3 to time t = 6, we could, as
usual, break the graph up into a bunch of oneminutelong straight line graphs. Then we
could calculate the area under these graphs by using the formula, and then we would add.
What we would be doing, then, is computing the area under the speed graph of Car A from
time t = 3 to t = 6 minutes. Thus
122
Worksheet #20 Distances from Speed Graphs 123
3 6
2
4
6
8
10
Car A
3 6
2
4
6
8
10
Car A
Car A
Shaded region gives dis
tance covered by Car A
from t = 3 to t = 6
t
18 You can measure this area by counting the squares and partial squares in the region. I count
9 whole squares and then some partial partial squares. The area of each of these squares is 2
yds/min times 1 minute. So each square is worth 2 yards. First tell how many squares there
are in the region shown above, and then use this number to tell how far Car A goes in the
given time interval. Then use the table in Question 10 to check your answer.
19 The area under the speed graph of Car A from time t = 0 to time t = 2 indicates the distance
covered by Car A in the rst two minutes. The area under Bs speed graph from t = 0 to
t = 2 indicates the distance Car B goes in the rst two minutes. Thus the area between the
two graphs should indicate how far Car A is ahead of Car B at time t = 2 minutes. By
counting up squares and partial squares between the two graphs from t = 0 to t = 2 estimate
how far Car A is ahead of Car B at time t = 2. Then check your answer by using the table
in Question 12. Give a similar interpretation to the area between the two speed graphs from
t = 2 to t = 6. Compute this area. Can you see how you could use these two areas between
the graphs to tell which car is ahead at time t = 6?
123
124 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
Worksheet #21
Total Revenue and Cost from Marginal Revenue and Cost
Key Question
The graphs below are of the Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost of producing Framits.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
(Number of Framits)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
(
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
p
e
r
F
r
a
m
i
t
)
MC
MR
Recall that the MR and MC graphs are the derived graphs of the TR and TC graphs, respectively,
so that out there in the world someplace are TR and TC graphs which have the above graphs as
derived graphs. Assume that Fixed Costs are 0, so that the TC graph starts at 0. By looking at
the MR and MC graphs try to answer the following questions:
I. For what quantity q is the Prot of producing Framits maximized?
II. What is the largest value of q at which a prot can be made by manufacturing Framits?
III. What is the largest Prot that can be made by manufacturing Framits?
Key Question I is purely qualitative, and you should be able to answer it from your knowledge
of Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost. But the other two Key Questions require that you read
numerical (or quantitative) information from the MR and MC graphs in a way that you have not
done before.
124
Worksheet #21 Total Revenue and Cost from Marginal Revenue and Cost 125
1 The ocial denition of MR is: The Marginal
Revenue at a quantity q is the additional Revenue
obtained by selling one more Framit. A very ac
curate blowup of the beginning of the MR graph
is shown to the right. Since the MR at q = 0 is
14, this says that the rst item brings in Total
Revenue of $14. How much is the TR if you sell 2
Framits [$27.80]. What is the TR of selling 3, 4,
5 Framits? [Careful: to get the TR for 5 Framits
you add up the MR for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Framits.]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
12.0
13.0
13.4
13.8
14.0
2 The MR at 5 Framits is $13, and the MR at 10 Framits is $12. Use these facts to draw an
exact blowup of the MR graph from q = 5 to q = 10 on the axes above.
3 By my calculations, the TR of selling 5 Framits is $68.00. Use your accurate blowup to
calculate the TR of selling 6, then 7, then 8, then 9, and then 10 Framits. [TR at q = 10 is
$131.]
Clearly, we cannot continue making blowups of graphs and adding long columns of gures.
We need a gimmick to shortcut these calculationsarea is going to be the gimmick.
4 Calculate the area of the trapezoid that has the
rst 5 minutes of the MR graph as its top. Com
pute the area of the trapezoid that has the rst 10
minutes of the MR graph as its top. Check that
these areas are numerically very close to the Total
Revenues of selling 5 and 10 Framits, respectively.
PSfrag replacements
10
14
13
14 14
12
5
It certainly seems like another odd coincidencethat we can get TR either by adding a lot
of numbers or by computing an area. But it is not really a coincidence; there is a theoretical
justication for this fact. There is even a justication for why there is a slight discrepancy
between the answers we get from the two methods. Unfortunately, these justications are
quite theoretical, and they do not seem to persuade students of anything. As you will see,
computing TR by area works wellthis is the best justication I know of.
Thus, for now, we will take the following principle
as accepted. Given a straightline MR graph, the
Total Revenue of selling q items is the area of the
trapezoid, and is therefore given by
1
2
(a + b)q. A
similar fact holds for the straightline MC graph.
PSfrag replacements
q
a
b
5 The chart below is of TR vs. q for selling Framits. Complete the chart by computing areas.
q 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
TR 0 67.5 130 287.5 400 450 490
125
126 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
6 Use the chart above to draw a smooth graph of TR vs. q on the axes below.
PSfrag replacements
100
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
600
500
400
300
200
7 The best check on this idea of computing TR by measuring areas is to see if it gives the
correct TR graphor more accurately, if it gives the TR graph that looks like it goes with
the MR graph. Use the graph that you just drew to measure the Marginal Revenue of selling
q = 2, 4, 6 Framits. (That is, measure the slope of the tangent to your graph at these places.)
Check your readings against the readings on the MR graph given at the beginning of this
worksheet.
It would be nice if we could nd values of TC as easily as we have found values of TR, but,
unfortunately, the MC graph is not a straight line. To get values of TC we have to use the
same trick we used in the previous worksheet when faced with curvy graphs. We observe that
even though the MC graph is not a straight line, short segments of it are close enough to
straight lines for us to work with them as if they were straight lines. To keep things straight
as we do so, we will need functional notation. Let C(q) be the Total Cost of manufacturing
q Framits.
8 To my eyes the MC at q = 0 is 6, the MC at q = 5 is 4.2, and the graph is straight between
q = 0 and q = 5. Use these facts to compute the TC at q = 5. (I.e., nd C(5).) Remember
that Fixed Costs are assumed to be $0.
9 To my eyes the MC graph from q = 0 to q = 10 has a little too much sag in it to be called a
straight line, but the MC graph from q = 5 to q = 10 is close enough to being a straight line.
Compute the area under that part of the MC graph (from q = 5 to q = 10).
I get 18 as the area under the MC graph from 5 to 10. But this does not mean that the
Total Cost of manufacturing 10 Framits is $18. It means that as you change q from 5 to 10,
126
Worksheet #21 Total Revenue and Cost from Marginal Revenue and Cost 127
then your costs increase by $18. i.e. C(10) C(5) = $18. To get C(10) you have to add
the $18 to the TC at q = 5. By this method I get that C(10) = $43.10.
Thus, calculating TC from the curvy MC graph is a twostep processjust as getting the
distances from the curvy speed graph was. First you need the areas of the slices that have
straight lines as their tops. Then you must add.
10 The chart below is of changes in Total Cost as you go from one value of q to another. E.g.,
it says that C(35) C(30) = $18. Complete the chart by measuring areas over the 5Framit
intervals.
Interval 05 510 1015 1520 2025 2530 3035 3540 4045 4550 5055 5560 6065 6570
Change
in TC
25.5 18 13 18 48 63 122.5
11 By adding the entries in the above chart, complete the chart below of Total Cost vs. q for
Framits.
q 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
TC 0 25.5 43.5 56.5
12 Use the chart in Question 11 to draw a smooth graph of TC vs. q on the axes below Ques
tion 6on the same axes that have your TR graph.
13 By measuring some slopes on your TC graph, check that the MC graph we started with is
the derived graph of your TC graph.
14 Use the TR and TC graphs you drew to answer Key Questions I, II, and III.
In the terminology of the rst part of this course, the TC graph is the original graph, and the
MC graph is the derived graph. Thus, as in the previous worksheet, we have constructed the
original graph from the derived graph by using area.
When we use this process of constructing a new graph by measuring areas, we will say that
we are forming an accumulated graph. Forming the accumulated graph is, then, the opposite
of forming the derived graph.
We have used the fact that area under an MR (or MC) graph measures TR (or TC) when
the graph is a straight line or is very close to it. To get answers from the curvy MC graph we
broke it into straightline segments. But the fact is that area under an MR (or MC) graph
always measures TR (or TC), as you can see by working the following question.
15 To get the TC at q = 30, you found the areas of the six trapezoids: from 0 to 5, from 5 to
10, from 10 to 15, etc., and then added these areas up. Were not you just nding the area
under the MC graph from q = 0 to q = 30, then? To check this, nd the area under the MC
graph from q = 0 to q = 30 by adding squares and partial squares. The area of each square
is 2 5 = $10.
16 Let R(q) be the Total Revenue of selling q Framits. By counting squares, nd R(30).
127
128 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
Now let P(q) be the Prot that results from manufacturing and selling q Framits, so that
P(q) = R(q) C(q).
17 Using your answers to questions 14 and 15, nd P(30). Check this answer against your TR
and TC graphs.
Since P(q) = R(q) C(q), and R(q) is the area under the MR graph between 0 and q, while
C(q) is the area under the MC graph from 0 to q, it must be that P(q) is the area between
the two graphs from 0 to q.
18 By counting squares, determine the area between the MC and MR graphs from q = 0 to
q = 15. This should be P(15). Check your answer against your TR and TC graphs.
As q takes the values 5, 10, 15, 20, etc., the area between the graphs increases, so that Prot
increases. But then starting beyond q = 40, the MC graph is above the MR graph, so that
additional items cost more than they bring in, and Prots decline. We take care of this by
assigning areas negative value when MC is above MR. Thus Prots reach their peak when
the MC graph crosses the MR graph from below, as it does at q = 40. Furthermore, Prots
will cease altogether when the area between the graphs to the right of q = 40 equals the area
between the graphs to the left of q = 40, as in the picture below.
PSfrag replacements
MC
10
20
30
40 50 60 70
MR
30
30
20
20
10
10
19 In Question 14 you answered Key Question II and found the value of q where Prot drops to
0. Check that for this value of q the two areas do balance one another out, as in the picture
above.
128
Worksheet #22 Area Under Graphs 129
Worksheet #22 Area Under Graphs
Key Question
The graph below is of the function y = f(x).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8
4
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
For any value of m between 0 and 8 we use this
graph to dene another function, which we shall
call A(m), as follows:
A(m) = The area between the graph
of f(x) and the xaxis from
x = 0 to x = m, as shown in
the diagram to the right
To compute values of the areas we give area above
the xaxis positive value and area below the xaxis
negative value. For each of the statements below
tell whether it is true (T), false (F), or there is
not enough information to tell (DK).
PSfrag replacements
m
y = f(x)
129
130 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
I. A(2) > A(1)
II. A(4) < A(5)
III. A(5.7) = 0
IV. A(7) = A(1)
1 Suppose you were asked for A(.001). Then you would have to measure the area of a very tall,
very narrow region which is like a rectangle, except that the top is sloped. Imagine that the
top is horizontal. What would be the value of A(.001)? Roughly similarly, what would you
estimate A(.00001) to be?
2 We would like to decide on the value of A(0). To do so, look at the denition of A(m) and
replace m by 0. Do you agree that A(0) is the area of a region that has width 0?
To a mathematician, a region with width 0 has area equal to 0. Thus A(0) = 0, although
there is something arbitrary about this. Another reason for taking A(0) to be 0 is that A(0)
should be close to the values of A(.001) and A(.00001). According to my calculations A(.001)
is approximately 40 .001 = 0.04 and A(.00001) is approximately 40 .00001 = .0004.
3 To answer Key Question I, rst look at the denition of A(m). When m = 2, you are
measuring a certain area. When m = 1, you are measuring a certain area. Which area is
bigger?
To go further with these questions we will introduce a notation for describing areas related
to graphs.
_
b
a
f(x)dx = The area between the graph
of f(x) and the xaxis,
between x = a and x = b (as
in the diagram to the right).
PSfrag replacements
y = f(x)
a b
For example, each of the symbols below stands for the indicated area.
130
Worksheet #22 Area Under Graphs 131
PSfrag replacements
stands for
2
3 5
6 8
_
2
0
f(x)dx
_
5
3
f(x)dx
_
8
6
f(x)dx
stands for
stands for stands for
stands for
This symbol is a complicated one and requires some explaining. There are four parts:
(i) The stretched out s
_
tells you that you are taking areas. This symbol is called an
integral sign.
(ii) The f(x) tells you that we are measuring areas between the graph of the particular
function f(x) and the xaxis. This helps keep things straight when there are several
graphs present, as in previous worksheets.
(iii) The letters or numbers at the bottom and the top of the integral sign tell you where to
start and stop measuring areas.
(iv) The dx is there for purposes we will not deal with in this course. So, for now it is only
a decoration. The entire symbol
_
b
a
f(x)dx is called the denite integral.
In terms of this symbol, the function we are working with in this worksheet can be written as
A(m) =
_
m
0
f(x)dx.
4 Using this new symbol, we can now write such things as A(1) =
_
1
0
f(x)dx and A(2) =
_
2
0
f(x)dx. Key Question I asks you to compare A(1) and A(2). To do this you compare the
areas of two regions. Which is bigger?
We would like to get numerical values for A(1) and A(2), and eventually for A(7) and A(8).
Thus we need to nd areas under a curvy graph.
5 To nd the values of A(1) and A(2), rst use the quick and dirty method of counting
squares and partial squares. Notice that in this case the area of each square is 4 0.5 = 2.
131
132 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
Now we wish to nd A(1) and A(2) by building the regions up with trapezoids that are .5
units wide. That is
A(1) =
_
.5
0
f(x)dx +
_
1
.5
f(x)dx
A(2) =
_
.5
0
f(x)dx +
_
1
.5
f(x)dx +
_
1.5
1
f(x)dx +
_
2.0
1.5
f(x)dx
6 Assume that for each of these .5unit intervals the graph of f(x) is a straight line, so that
you can use the formula for the area of a trapezoid to determine the value of the four areas
required to nd A(2) and A(1). Then use these values (of the four areas) to nd the value of
A(1) and A(2). [I get A(1) = 29.2, A(2) = 40.3.]
Suppose that you wanted to nd the value of A(2.5). What you would want to do is take
your value of A(2) and add to it the area between the graph and the xaxis between 2.0
and 2.5. But over that interval, part of the graph is above the xaxis and part is below.
Remember that area above the graph is positive and area below the graph is negative. I
would say that between 2 and 2.5 there are 0.4 squares above the xaxis and 0.1 below, so
that the net contribution to the area between 2 and 2.5 is 0.3 squares = 0.3 2 units = 0.6
units. Thus, by my eyes A(2.5) = 40.9.
7 Compute the value of
_
3.0
2.5
f(x)dx by using the formula for a trapezoid. This should be a
negative number. Then use your value to compute A(3.0).
8 Before we get caught up in minute computations, go back to the Key Questions. Key Question
II asks if A(5) is greater than A(4). If you knew A(4) and were going to compute A(5), what
would you do? Would you be producing a larger or smaller number?
9 Key Question III asks if the negative numbers you get as you compute the areas below the
xaxis between x = 2.3 and x = 5.7 balance out the positive numbers you get going from
x = 0 to x = 2.3. What do you think?
10 Key Question IV asks you to compare the areas
_
1
0
f(x)dx and
_
7
0
f(x)dx. Are they equal?
Which is bigger? (Remember that
_
7
0
f(x)dx includes some negative area.)
11 The obvious next thing to do is to plot the graph of the function A(m). But before doing this,
draw a rough sketch of what you think it will look like. It starts at 0, because A(0) = 0. For
what values is A(m) increasing; decreasing? Does it go below the horizontal axis for values
of m between 0 and 8?
To draw the graph of A(m) we will use the method of drawing an accumulated graph that we
used in the two previous worksheets. That is, we will use the formula for area of a trapezoid
to get areas of slices and then add the areas of slices to get areas under the curvy graph.
Below is a table of areas of the slices between the curve and the xaxis for .5 unit intervals.
e.g. it says that
_
6.5
6
f(x)dx = 3.7. [Note that rather than say area between the curve and
132
Worksheet #22 Area Under Graphs 133
the xaxis, mathematicians say the area under the curve. They will be taken to mean the
same thing.]
Interval 00.5 0.51 11.5 1.52 22.5 2.53 33.5 3.54
Area under the
curve for that
interval
17.2 12 7.4 3.7 0.6 1.6 3.1 3.8
Interval 44.5 4.55 55.5 5.56 66.5 6.57 77.5 7.58
Area 3.8 3.1 1.6 0.7 3.7 7.4 12 17.2
12 Use the above chart to complete the following chart of values of A(m).
m 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
A(m) 0 17.2 29.2 36.6 40.3 40.9 39.3
m 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
A(m)
13 On the axes below plot the graph of A(m) vs. m. Check that once again we have constructed
the original graph from a derived graph.
PSfrag replacements
8
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
14 The next question is to nd the value of
_
8
6
f(x)dx. First nd the value by using the table
preceding Question 12 to nd the areas of the four trapezoids that make up this area, and
then adding. But here is a quicker method: By looking at the picture you should be able to
see that
_
8
6
f(x)dx =
_
8
0
f(x)dx
_
6
0
f(x)dx = A(8) A(6).
133
134 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
Use the table you compiled in Question 12 to nd the values of A(8) and A(6). Then determine
_
8
6
f(x)dx by subtracting.
15 Use a method similar to the one used in the latter half of Question 14 to determine the value
of
_
6
2
f(x)dx.
Suppose we had another graph y = g(x) that
is exactly 4 units higher than the graph of
y = f(x) (as in the picture to the right), and
suppose we dened an area function
B(m) =
_
m
0
g(x)dx.
There ought to be a nice relationship between
the two functions A(m) and B(m), but what
would this relationship be? Are the graphs of
A(m) and B(m) parallel?
PSfrag replacements
y = f(x)
y = g(x)
16 Presumably, you agree that the graph of f(x) is the derived graph of the graph of A(m).
Likewise, the graph of g(x) is the derived graph of the graph of B(m). Then the question of
how the graphs of A(m) and B(m) are related is one you dealt with on the rst Midquarter.
Is it true that A(m) = B(m); is it true that the graphs of A(m) and B(m) are distinct but
parallel? If not, what can you say about the graphs of A(m) and B(m)?
17 A more computational approach to the graphs of B(m) and A(m) is to think in terms of
slices. The graph of g(x) is 4 units higher than the graph of f(x). Thus for instance
_
.5
0
g(x)dx =
_
.5
0
f(x)dx + 4 0.5 =
_
.5
0
f(x)dx + 2.
In general, all the slices of area under the graph of g(x) over intervals 0.5 units wide are
2 units bigger than the corresponding area under the graph of f(x). Suppose you made
a table of areas of slices under the graph of g(x) like the one I made for f(x) preceding
Question 12. Do you see that each of your entries would be 2 more than mine? If so, now
suppose that you used this table to make an accumulated table for B(m) like the one you
made for A(m) in Question 12. What would be the relationship between B(.5) and A(.5);
between B(1) and A(1); between B(1.5) and A(1.5), etc.? Check your answer against your
answer to Question 16.
134
Worksheet #23 Areas by Formula 135
Worksheet #23 Areas by Formula
Key Question
As in Worksheet #20 we want to nd distances covered by a car when we only have its speed graph.
First make sure that you understand the following piece of mathematical reasoning.
A car has a speed vs. time graph with the formula h(t) = 3t
2
+ 8t. We want to know its distance
vs. time function. For now we will give it the name H(t).
a) For any moving object the derivative of its distance vs. time function is its speed vs. time
function.
b) Thus, even though we do not have the formula for H(t), we do know the formula for the
derivative of H(t). It must be that
H
(t) = 3t
2
+ 8t.
c) We ask ourselves: What must the formula for H(t) look like in order for its derivative to be
3t
2
+8t? If you dierentiate t
3
+4t
2
, you get 3t
2
+8t. So, it must be that H(t) = t
3
+4t
2
,
and we have found the formula for H(t).
Second, suppose you are told that we have two cars, Car A and Car B, and the following information:
Car A
Speed vs. time: f(t) = t
2
8t + 22 Distance vs. time: F(t) = formula unknown.
Car B
Speed vs. time: g(t) = t + 8 Distance vs. time: G(t) = formula unknown.
Follow the pattern in the above mathematical reasoning to deduce the distance function for each
of the two cars. In order to check that your answer is correct, take the derivatives of your two
distance functions to see if you get the speed functions for the two cars.
1 Here is another example of the guessing backwards procedure used in the Key Question.
A car has the speed vs. time formula s(t) = t + 9 (the graph shown to the right below).
PSfrag replacements
6
t
t t
30
20
10
2
4
6 6 2 2 4 4
We will call the distance vs. time function D(t). Then we have the following reasoning pattern:
135
136 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
a) The derivative of the distance vs. time function is the speed vs. time function.
b) Thus the derivative of D(t) is t + 9.
c) In order for D(t) to have t +9 as its derivative, it must be that D(t) = (1/2)t
2
+9t.
Check that the derivative of (1/2)t
2
+ 9t is indeed t + 9, so that we have the correct
distance vs. time formula. Then plot this distance vs. time formula on the axes to the left
above. Check to see if the speed graph is the derived graph of the distance graph.
This process of coming up with the distance vs. time formula is a guessing backwards
process, because you are trying to gure out what the distance formula should look like, so
that when you dierentiate it, you get the given speed formula. Only experience with the
dierentiation process tells me that:
a) If the speed formula is t
2
, then the distance formula must be t
3
/3, because
d
dt
(t
3
/3) = t
2
.
b) If the speed formula is 8t, then the distance formula must be 4t
2
, because
d
dt
(4t
2
) =
8t.
c) If the speed formula is t
2
8t +22, then the distance formula must be (t
3
/3) 4t
2
+22t
because
d
dt
((t
3
/3) 4t
2
+ 22t) = t
2
8t + 22.
2 Did you get that the distance formula for Car A in the Key Question was F(t) = (t
3
/3)
4t
2
+ 22t? If not, go to the discussion preceding this question to see how I did.
Since the speed graph for Car B is given by g(t) = t + 8, the guessing backwards process
gives that the distance graph is given by G(t) = (t
2
/2) + 8t. On the axes below I have
sketched the graphs of distance vs. time (on the left) and speed vs. time (on the right) for
for the two cars. I have used the formulas to do this.
2 4 6 8
20
40
60
80
100
2 4 6 8
5
10
15
20
25
30
A
A
B
B
Car A
Car B
3 The speed graphs for the two cars in the Key Question are the speed graphs you worked with in
Worksheet #20. There you worked with the graphs without the formulas. In Worksheet #20,
below Question 13, you drew the distance vs. time graphs of the two cars. Look at the graphs
you drew there and check that they are the same as the distance vs. time graphs above, which
I drew using the formulas.
136
Worksheet #23 Areas by Formula 137
The moral is that if you want to read distances from a speed graph, and you do not have a
formula, then you have to measure areas. If you have a formula, then you just guess backwards
to get the function that has a given derivative; from this formula you can compute distances.
4 Go back to your table in Ques
tion 12 of Worksheet #20 and
read the distances covered by
Car A by time t = 2 and t = 7.
Recall that these appear on
the speed graph of Car A as ar
eas under the graph, as shown
2
Area =
_
2
0
f(t) dt
7
Area =
_
7
0
f(t) dt
to the right. Since we are calling the distance function F(t), you are evaluating F(2) and
F(7). Use the formula for F(t) to evaluate F(2) and F(7) and check that you get roughly
the same answer as you did from the table.
5 The area under the speed graph of Car A be
tween t = 6 and t = 8 is equal to F(8) F(6),
by subtracting areas. This area is denoted by
_
8
6
f(t)dt. It is indicated in the diagram to
the right. Use the formula for F(t) to evalu
ate F(8)F(6) and then, by counting squares
on the speed graph of Car A (at the beginning
of Worksheet #20) check your answer.
6 8
Area =
_
8
6
f(t) dt
In Worksheet #21 we plotted TR and TC graphs from MR and MC graphs by computing
areas. We began with the graphs to the right below and, using the technique of drawing
accumulated graphs, plotted the graphs shown to the left below.
10 20 30 40 50 60
100
200
300
400
500
10 20 30 40 50 60
5
10
15
20
25
30
TR
TC
MC
MR
6 In Worksheet #21 you computed the TR of selling 30 Framits by measuring the area under
the MR graph between 0 and 30. Similarly, you found the TC of producing 30 Framits by
137
138 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
measuring the area under the MC graph between 0 and 30. That is, in terms of denite
integral notation you evaluated
R(30) =
_
30
0
r(q)dq = C(30) =
_
30
0
k(q)dq =
where r(q) is the function that gives the MR graph and k(q) is the function that gives the
MC graph. Using the table in Question 5 of Worksheet #21, nd the value of R(30); and
using the table in Question 11 of Worksheet #21, nd the value of C(30). Fill in the boxes
next to the denite integrals above. Similarly, ll in the boxes below.
R(50) =
_
50
0
r(q)dq = C(50) =
_
50
0
k(q)dq =
The graphs of MR = r(q) and MC = k(q) used in Worksheet #21 are given by the formulas
MR = r(q) = (1/5)q + 14 MC = k(q) = (1/100)q
2
(2/5)q + 6.
We do not know the formulas for TR and TC, but we do know that the derivative of a TR
formula is a MR formula and the derivative of the TC formula is the MC formula. Thus
R
(q) = MR = (1/5)q + 14 C
(q) = MC = (1/100)q
2
(2/5)q + 6.
7 It must be that R(q) and C(q) look like
R(q) = ( )q
2
+ ( )q + ( )
C(q) = ( )q
3
+ ( )q
2
+ ( )q + ( ),
where we have to put numbers into the parentheses to make the derivatives come out right.
i.e. to make
R
(q) = (1/5)q + 14 C
(q) = (1/100)q
2
+ (2/5)q + 6.
Put the correct numbers into the parentheses in the formulas for R(q) and C(q). For instance,
we need the number (1/10) in the rst parentheses for R(q), because
d
dq
((1/10)q
2
) =
(1/5)q.
8 Use the formula to evaluate R(30), R(50), C(30), and C(50). Check your answers against the
answers you gave in Question 6.
In Worksheet #22 you started with the graph to the right below and, by the process of
drawing an accumulated graph, you constructed the graph on top left side of the next page.
The graph you drew was the original graph of the graph you started with. Or, put another
way, the graph you started with was the derived graph of the graph you drew. In functional
notation, then, we have A
(t) = f(t), we
guess backwards that the formula for A(t) must be A(t) = (1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t, which has the
solid graph to the left above. But (1/3)t
3
4t
2
+12t is not the only formula that has t
2
8t +12t
as its derivative. The derivative of (1/3)t
3
4t
2
+12t +4 is also t
2
8t +12, so it could also be
that A(t) = (1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t + 4, which is the dashed graph to the left above. What is going
on here? Is one of these formulas more correct than the other? If they are equally correct,
are there other equally correct formulas for A(t)? If so, how will we ever decide when we have
gotten all the formulas?
1 First check that
d
dt
((1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t) = t
2
8t + 12
d
dt
((1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t + 4) = t
2
8t + 12,
so that, for all we can tell, either one of these formulas could be the correct formula for A(t).
2 Name at least one other formula that would be a candidate for the formula for A(t), given
the fact that A
(t) = t
2
8t + 12. How would the graph of your formula be related to the
graphs of the two possible altitude vs. time graphs shown above?
3 Just playing with formula does not seem to tell us which altitude formula to choose, perhaps
the graphs will tell us. The rateofascent graph should be the derived graph of the altitude
graph. Does this tell you which is the more correct altitude graph among the graphs shown
above? Does one of those altitude graphs look like it should be preferred over others, given
that we started with the rateofascent graph shown?
4 There is a very subtle verbal distinction that casts some light on this confusing situation.
Suppose that I told you that the graph to the left were not of altitude vs. time, but was of
140
Worksheet #24 AntiDerivatives 141
altitude gained since time 0. If you plotted altitude gained since time 0, then where would
you start; what value would you plot at time 0? Do you agree that if the graph to the left
were to be of altitude gained since time 0, then there would be only one correct graph to the
left above?
Suppose that there were a clear grid on the graph of rateofascent, and instead of working
with formulas, we had plotted the accumulated graph of the rateofascent graph by measuring
areas. Then again we would have started from 0, and there would be only one correct graph
to the left above. The reason for this is that, technically, we would have been plotting altitude
gained since time 0. There is no way we could actually plot the altitude unless we knew what
altitude the balloon was at at time 0.
It is hard to admit it, but we seem to have a math problem here with lots of correct answers.
We have no way of telling which is the correct altitude vs. time graph. Is this not going
to lead to chaos? Well, not really. You should recall from earlier parts of this course that
even though there are lots of original graphs that belong to a particular graph, they are all
parallel to one another. So, even though we have an innite number of correct answers, we
do not have chaos.
5 Suppose the graph to the right is of the func
tion y = g(x), and suppose that we have another
graph that is 5 units higher than the graph shown.
Convince yourself that if this other graph is of
the function y = h(x), then h(x) = g(x) + 5.
Conversely, if k(x) is yet another function and
k(x) = g(x) +10, then the graph of k(x) is paral
lel to the graph of g(x), but 10 units higher.
PSfrag replacements
10
5
Thus, if A(t) describes one possible altitude vs. time graph, then the other altitude vs. time
graphs are parallel to this one and we get their formulas by adding (or subtracting) constants
to the formula for A(t).
But this is exactly what the formulas are telling us. We can guess backwards to nd the
formula for A(t), given that A
(t) = t
2
8
t
+12, but there are innitely many correct guesses
which dier from one another in the constant term, i.e. any of the following candidates is
correct:
A(t) =
_
_
(1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t
(1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t + 5
(1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t + 15
Thus to cover all possible answers we write:
If A
(t) = t
2
8t + 12, then A(t) = (1/3)t
3
4t
2
+ 12t + k,
where k is an as yet undetermined constant.
Similarly, If f
(x) = 3x
2
+ 4, then f(x) = x
3
+ 4x +k.
141
142 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
6 Suppose G
(t) = 6t
2
+ 2t 5. Write out the formula for G(t), including the undetermined
constant.
Here is a notation and terminology for this guessing backwards process. In Question 6 you
are told that G
(t) = 6t
2
+ 2t 5, and you conclude that G(t) = 2t
3
+t
2
5t +k. This is
because
6t
2
+ 2t 5 is the derivative of 2t
3
+t
2
5t +k.
We say that
2t
3
+t
2
5t +k is the antiderivative of 6t
2
+ 2t 5.
Similarly the expression
3x
2
+ 4 is the derivative of x
3
+ 4x +k
can be restated as
x
3
+ 4x +k is the antiderivative of 3x
2
+ 4.
We write 2t
3
+t
2
5t +k =
_
(6t
2
+ 2t 5)dt
x
3
+ 4x +k =
_
(3x
2
+ 4)dx.
The symbol
_
( )dx is read the antiderivative of. This symbol
_
( )dx is part of
the denite integral symbol, but you have to learn to keep the two symbols separate. They
will be connected in the next worksheet, but they are dierent things. Observe that
_
b
a
f(t)dt stands for an area, and when you have a specic func
tion f(t) and specic values for a and b, it gives a specic num
ber.
On the other hand
_
f(t)dt stands for a whole family of functions whose deriva
tive is the given function f(t). It always has the undetermined
constant in it.
The symbol
_
( )dx is sometimes called an indenite integral, but I will not use that
term, since it leads to too much confusion.
7 By taking derivatives check that the following antiderivatives are correct.
_
(4x
1/3
+ 4x
1/2
)dx = 3x
4/3
+ 8x
1/2
+k,
_
2
w
dw = 4
w +k,
_
_
3t
4
+ (1/8)t
3/2
_
dt =
3
5
t
5
1
4
t
1/2
+k
142
Worksheet #24 AntiDerivatives 143
It is time to develop techniques for writing out antiderivatives, just as we had techniques for
nding derivatives. Unfortunately, things do not work out so neatly for antiderivatives as they
did for derivatives. For instance, it is fairly dicult to nd the antiderivative
_
x(ln(x))dx;
it is extremely dicult to nd the antiderivative
_
dx
1 +x
2
, and it is impossible to nd the
antiderivative
_
e
(x
2
)
dx. Thus, in this book when dealing with antiderivatives, we will
consider only functions that can be written by adding expressions of the form ax
m
, where a
and m are any numbers at all. e.g. we will nd such antiderivatives as
_
[(
3
x
2
) +
x]dx
_
[(4/t
2/3
) 5t
3
+ 4]dt.
To nd the antiderivative of a sum we proceed just as we did with derivativeswe consider
each of the terms separately and then carry the plus signs down. Thus, to do the problems
above, we will need to nd the following antiderivatives, and then we will need to add the
answers:
_
(3/x
2
)dx
_
xdx
_
4/t
2/3
dt
_
(5t
3
)dt
_
4dt.
In general, we need to nd
_
ax
m
dx. By guessing backwards, the answer to this comes out
as
_
ax
m
dx =
a
m+ 1
x
m+1
+k (except when m = 1, where this
does not make sense).
To convince yourself that this antiderivative formula is correct, take the derivative of
a
m+1
x
m+1
+
k and see if you get ax
m
.
8 Using the above formula, nd the following antiderivatives. Then check your answers by
taking derivatives.
a)
_
(3/x
2
)dx =
_
3x
2
dx b)
_
xdx =
_
x
1/2
dx c)
_
(4/t
2/3
)dt =
_
(4t
2/3
)dt
d)
_
(5t
3
)dt e)
_
4dt =
_
4t
0
dt
Thus, you should now see that
_
((3/x
2
) +
x)dx = 3x
1
+ (2/3)x
3/2
+k
_
((4/t
2/3
) 5t
3
+ 4)dt = 12t
1/3
(5/4)t
4
+ 4t +k
.
143
144 Chapter 6. Going Backwards: Integration
9 Find the following antiderivatives. As always, check antiderivatives by dierentiating your
answer.
a)
_
[3x
4
(2/3)/x
2
+]dx b)
_
(
4
t
+
5
t
3
)dt
c)
_
[
1
6u
4
3
2u
3
1
2
]du d)
_
[
w
2
+
w)dw
There is one thread we have left dangling. In the general formula for
_
ax
m
dx we did not
deal with the case m = 1. That is, we have not written out the antiderivative
_
dx
x
. The
question is: What function as
1
x
as its derivative? and the answer is (coming in from left
eld) that [ln(x)] +k has
1
x
as its derivative. Thus
_
a dx
x
= a ln(x) +k.
144
Worksheet #25 The Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus 145
Worksheet #25
The Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus
Key Question
The graph below is of the function h(u) = u
3
13u
2
+ 31u + 45. We wish to nd the area of the
region between the graph and the uaxis from u = 1 to u = 5. That is, we wish to evaluate
_
5
1
(u
3
13u
2
+ 31u + 45)du.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
40
30
20
10
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
u
h(u) = u
3
13u
2
+ 31u + 45
The general approach to using calculus to determine this area is outlined below. Follow the approach
and supply the missing formula in step (d) and the numerical answer in step (f).
a) We imagine that there is an accumulated graph to the left of the graph shown above, i.e. a
graph that someone has plotted by computing areas under the graph of h(u). The function
for this accumulated graph will be called A(u). Thus, for instance, A(5) =
_
5
0
f(u)du, and
A(1) =
_
1
0
f(u)du.
b) Since A(u) gives the accumulated graph of h(u), it must be that h(u) is the derived graph of
A(u). Thus A
(u) = h(u).
c) Since A
(u) = h(u).
3 Since A
dx.
PSfrag replacements
6 3
II. Evaluate F(6) and F(1).
III. Subtract F(6) F(1).
In Step I you nd
_
[(1/3)x
2
3x + 6]dx, and in Steps II and III you are evaluating
_
((1/3)x
2
3x + 6dx
_
6
1
. So the single symbol
_
((1/3)x
2
3x + 6)dx
_
6
1
describes the
twostep process by which you have found the area
_
6
1
(1/3)x
2
3x + 6)dx.
9 Find the area
_
6
2
(3x
2
24x + 40)dx by rst writing out the formula for
_
(3x
2
24x + 40)dx
and then evaluating
_
(3x
2
24x + 40)dx
_
6
2
. This gives the area under the graph of f(x) =
3x
2
24x +40 between x = 2 and x = 6. This is the graph used in Worksheet #22, and the
area is the area you found in Question 15 there. Check your answer against the answer you
gave there.
148
Worksheet #25 The Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus 149
10 Find the area of the shaded region shown to the
right by going through the twostep procedure
indicated by
_
wdw
_
4
0
.
44
g(w) =
w
11 We wish to nd the area of the shaded region
shown to the right. First do this by nding the
area below f(x) between 0 and 9, and nding
the area below g(x) between 0 and 9, and then
subtracting. I.e., use the fact that
shaded area =
_
9
0
f(x)dx
_
9
0
g(x)dx.
99
f(x) =
x
g(x) =
x
2
27
Then try another approach by evaluating the denite integral
_
9
0
[f(x) g(x)]dx =
_
9
0
[
x (1/27)x
2
]dx.
In general, if you have two graphs h(x) and m(x), then to nd the area between them and
also between x = a and x = b, you evaluate the denite integral
_
b
a
[h(x) m(x)]dx.
h(x)
m(x)
a
b
12 The two graphs at the right are of speed vs.
time for two cars. The areas
_
4
0
a(t)dt and
_
4
0
b(t)dt represent the distances covered by
the two cars in the rst 4 minutes. The dif
ference in the areas is equal to the dierence
between the distances that Car A and Car B
have gone in the rst 4 minutes. Find this
distance by evaluating the denite integral
_
4
0
(b(t) a(t)) dt.
Car B: b(t) =
t
2
2
+ 2t
Car A: a(t) = t
2
4
16
149
150 150
Problem Set #3
I. Antiderivatives and Denite Integrals
1 Evaluate the following antiderivatives.
a)
_ _
x
3
x
2
_
dx b)
_
(u
2
+ 4u
3
+ 3)du c)
_ _
2
3
z
+
4
z
_
dz
d)
_ _
w
2/3
3
4w
3/2
6
_
dw e)
_ _
1
4
t
1/4
2 +
1
t
1/4
_
dt f)
_ _
5x
3
x
5
+ 2
x
_
dx
2 Find the signed areas indicated in the following diagrams.
44
1 6 1 6 99
2 6 2 6 66
5
5
5
5
2
8
2
8 (a)
y = x
2
+ 4x + 5
y = x + 5
(c)
y = u
2
+ 8u
y = u
2
8u + 24
(e)
h(v) = 2v
2
14v + 20
(g)
g(t) = t
2
/2 + 4t
f(t) = t
3/2
(b)
y = t
2
+ 2t + 8
(d)
f(z) = (1/3)z
3
4z
2
+ 15z
g(z) = 3z
(f) y = 2
x + 1
y = (7/9)x
150
Problem Set #3 Problem Set #3
II. Graphical Integration
3 The Altitude vs. time graph of a balloon is given by the function A = F(t). We are not
told the Altitude of the balloon at time t = 0. The graph of RateofAscent of the balloon is
shown below. We call this function r(t).
100
200
150
50
100
R
a
t
e

o
f

A
s
c
e
n
t
(
f
t
/
m
i
n
)
Time (minutes)
1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
0
50
a) Name all the times when the graph of F(t) has a horizontal tangent.
b) Give the time in the rst 10 minutes when the balloon is highest.
c) Give the 2minute interval during which the balloon gains the greatest altitude.
d) Give the time t after 3 minutes when F(t) = F(3).
e) Give the time in the rst 14 minutes when the balloon is highest.
f) Give a 1minute interval over which the balloon is ascending at a decreasing rate.
(None is a possible answer.)
g) Find a 3minute interval during which the balloon rises 550 feet.
h) What is the average rate of ascent of the balloon over the rst 3 minutes?
4 The graph to the right is of the
function y = f(t). Using it, we
dene another function:
A(m) =
_
m
0
f(t)dt.
a) Find the value of m between
0 and 11 (including 0 and
11) at which A(m) reaches
a global maximum; at which
A(m) reaches a global mini
mum.
9
1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
0
12
15
9
6
3
3
6
PSfrag replacements
t
y = f(t)
b) Find all values of m at which A
(m) = 6.
c) Give all values of m greater than 3.5 at which A(m) = A(3.5).
151
152 152
d) Circle T (true) or F (False) for each of the following statements.
(i) The graph shown above is the
derived graph of the graph of
A(m). T F
(ii) The graph of A(m) is the de
rived graph of the graph shown
above. T F
(iii) If we had formulas for f(t)
and A(m) (and we changed the
name of the variable m), then
f
(t) = A(t). T F
(iv) The graph of A(m) is always
above the maxis. T F
e) Give the interval of length 1 over which A(m) increases most. Give the interval of length
3 over which A(m) increases most.
f) Determine the value of
A(7) A(5)
2
g) Determine the value of A
(6.5).
h) Circle the correct answer: As m increases from 3.5 to 6.5, A(m):
Increases all
the time
Increases
then
decreases
Decreases
all the time
Decreases
then
increases
Remains
constant
None of the
preceeding
i) Imagine another function g(t) drawn on the same axes as the graph of f(t) above, but
drawn parallel to f(t) 3 units higher. Suppose we dene B(m) =
_
m
0
g(t)dt. Circle T or
F for each of the following statements.
(i) B(2) = A(2) T F (ii) B
(2) = A
(2) T F
(iii) B(2) = A(2) + 6 T F (iv) B(2) = A(2) + 3 T F
(v) B
(2) = A
(2) + 6 T F (vi) B
(2) = A
(2) + 3
5 The graphs to the right are of rate
ofow of water in and out of two
vats. We will denote the various
functions for this problem as fol
lows:
Amount of water
in Vat A at time t
= A(t)
Amount of water
in Vat B at time t
= B(t)
Rateofow at
Vat A at time t
= a(t)
Rateofow at
Vat B at time t
= b(t)
(hours)
Time
G
a
l
l
o
n
s
p
e
r
H
o
u
r
1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
12
15
9
6
3
3
6
9
18
12
PSfrag replacements
a(t)
b(t)
152
Problem Set #3 Problem Set #3
a) Determine the value of
_
3
1
b(t)dt. Determine the value of A(3) A(1).
b) We dene the function D(t) by D(t) = A(t) B(t). That is, D(t) is the dierence in
the amounts of water in the two vats. Give the largest value of D(t) in 10 hours.
c) Give the highest value of A
(7.2) > A
(3) T F (ii) A
(9) = 0 T F
(iii) B(9) < B(8) T F (iv) A(6) < A(5) T F
g) Give the global minimum of A(t) in the interval 0 to 10.
h) Give the global minimum of B(t) in the interval 0 to 10.
i) Give all local minima of A(t) in the interval 0 to 10 (not including 0 and 10).
6 The graphs to the right are of MR
(= r(q)) and MC (= k(q)) of pro
ducing Trivets (q in thousands of
Trivets). We denote the TR and
TC function of producing q thou
sand Trivets by R(q) and K(q) re
spectively.
a) Determine the increase in
the Revenue that results
from increasing q from 2 to
5 thousand Trivets.
b) Give the lowest value of MC
in the interval 0 to 9 thou
sand Trivets.
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
2
4
8
6
4
2
PSfrag replacements
MR = r(q)
MC = k(q)
c) By how much does Prot change when q is changed from 3 to 6 thousand Trivets? Is
this an increase or a decrease?
d) What is the largest possible Total Revenue that results from selling Trivets?
e) Is there a net loss from producing 12 thousand Trivets. (Assume that Fixed Costs = 0).
153
154 154
f) Determine the value of K(6) K(4).
g) Give a 3 minute interval over which the graph of Prot vs.
quantity is roughly shaped like the sketch to the right. (None
is a possible answer.)
7 The graphs to the right are of
speed vs. time of two cars. The
two cars are next to one another
at time t = 0. We denote the func
tions for this problem as follows:
Distance covered by
Car F by time t
= F(t)
Distance covered by
Car G by time t
= G(t)
Speed of Car F
at time t
= f(t)
Speed of Car G
at time t
= g(t)
1
S
p
e
e
d
(
y
a
r
d
s
p
e
r
m
i
n
u
t
e
)
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
450
400
350
250
300
200
100
150
50
Time (minutes)
PSfrag replacements
g(t)
g(t)
g(t)
f(t)
f(t)
f(t)
a) Tell which of the following statements are true.
(i) The graph of F(t) is the de
rived graph of the graph of
f(t).
(ii) G(m) =
_
m
0
g(t)dt
(iii) The graph of G(t) is the accu
mulated graph of the graph of
g(t).
(iv) F
(t) = f(t)
b) Give a precise value for the distance between the two cars at time t = 5. (Hint: Use
areas of trapezoids.)
c) Give a 3minute time interval over which the FCar is slowing down. (None is a
possible answer.)
Let D(t) be the distance by which Car G is ahead of Car F at time t, i.e., D(t) = G(t) F(t).
d) Determine the value of D(9) D(8).
e) Give a time after t = 3 when D(t) = D(3).
f) Give a 3minute interval over which D(t) decreases and then increases.
g) Give the average speed of Car G over the rst 2 minutes.
154
Problem Set #3 Problem Set #3
h) Give a time interval over which the distance between the cars increases by 200 yards.
i) Give all times (if any) for which the graph of D(t) has a horizontal tangent.
III. Derivatives and Integrals
8 To the right is the graph of
the Marginal Cost of producing
Framits. The formula for MC is
MC : k(q) = 3q
2
30q + 79. The
formula for the Total Revenue of
selling Framits is TR : R(q) =
(3/2)q
2
+55q, q is given in thou
sands of Framits and Revenue is
given in thousands of dollars.
Thousands of Framits
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
PSfrag replacements
MC : k(q) = 3q
2
30q + 79
a) Recall that TVC is the Cost function that has a graph starting at 0, i.e. if we denote
the TVC by VC(q), then VC(0) = 0. Write out the formula for VC(q).
b) Assume that Fixed Costs are 100 thousand dollars. Recall that TC=TVC+FC. Write
out the formula for TC. Denote this function by C(q).
c) Write out the formula for the Marginal Revenue of selling Framits.
d) Find the value of q at which the Prot for producing Framits is greatest.
e) What is the largest possible Prot that can be made from producing Framits? Remember
that FC = $100 thousand.
f) For what value of q is the TR from selling Framits largest?
9 To the right is the graph of the function f(x) =
x
2
18x + 72. We use this graph to dene another
function:
F(m) =
_
m
0
f(x)dx =
_
m
0
(x
2
18x + 72)dx.
12 6
a) Determine all values of m in the interval 0 to 15 at which F(m) has a local minimum or
local maximum. Include the endpoints, 0 and 15. Tell which points give minima and
which give maxima.
b) Determine the global maximum and global minimum of the function F(m) on the interval
0 to 15.
c) Now suppose that we have another function G(m) given by the formula G(m) = 2m
2
+
48m, and suppose we that plotted G(m) and F(m) on the same axes. Determine the
value of m in the interval 0 to 15 at which the dierence G(m) F(m) is greatest.
d) Give the longest interval starting at 0 that you can over which both functions F(m) and
G(m) are increasing.
e) Give the lowest value of F
(t) =
Altitude vs. time
for Balloon S
: S(t) =
Rateofascent
for Balloon S
: S
(t) = 2t 22
(t is given in hours, and Altitude is given in hundreds of feet.)
a) Write out all the candidates (to within an undetermined constant) for the formula for
Altitude vs. time for Balloon S.
b) Use the fact that S(0) = R(0) = 90 to determine the formula for S(t) without any
undetermined constant.
c) Give all the times at which the altitude of the Balloon R reaches a local maximum or
minimum in the rst 9 hours. Tell which is which.
d) What is the greatest altitude that Balloon R reaches in the rst 9 hours? What is the
lowest altitude that Balloon R reaches in the rst 9 hours?
e) What is the lowest altitude Balloon S reaches in the rst 9 hours?
f) Give the two times at which the two balloons are ascending (or descending) at the same
instantaneous rate.
g) What is the change in the altitude of the SBalloon in the time interval t = 2 to t = 5
hours?
h) Evaluate
_
2
1
[R
(t) S
(t)]dt.
11 To the right is a sketch of the graph of the function
f(u) = (1/6)u
3
(9/2)u
2
+ 36u + 14. We dene an
other function g(u) by: g
(u) and g
(u)du.
i) Determine the value of
_
3
0
[f
(u) g
(u)]du.
12 Water is owing in and out of two vats. Below is the rate of ow graph for Vat A. Denote
the Amount vs. time function for Vat A by A(t).
You are given that the Amount vs. time function for Vat B is given by the formula
B(t) = 2t
2
+ 16t + 40.
The two vats have the same amount of water in them at time t = 0.
(hours)
Time
RateofFlow
G
a
l
l
o
n
s
p
e
r
h
o
u
r
Vat A:
PSfrag replacements
a(t) = 3t
2
+ 24t 21
a) Determine all values of t at which the function A(t) reaches a local maximum or local
minimum on the interval 0 to 10 hours. Tell which is which.
b) Determine all values of t at which the function B(t) A(t) reaches a local maximum or
minimum on the interval 0 to 10 hours. Tell which is which.
c) Write out the formula for the Amount vs. time function for Vat A. Use the fact that the
vats have equal amounts of water in them at time t = 0.
d) At what time is the water level in Vat A rising most rapidly?
e) What is the largest amount of water in Vat A in the period t = 0 to t = 10 hours?
157
158 158
f) What is the highest rate at which water is coming into Vat B in the period t = 0 to
t = 10 hours?
g) How much water comes into Vat A from time t = 1 to time t = 8 hours?
13 The speed vs. time graphs of two rocket cars are given by the following formulas:
Car A : s = a(t) = t
2
8t + 18 Car B : s = b(t) = 2t + 13
where t is in minutes and speeds are in miles per minute.
We will denote the distance vs. time functions as follows:
Distance covered by Car A by time t = A(t)
Distance covered by Car B by time t = B(t).
Since we measure distances covered since time t = 0, we have A(0) = 0, and B(0) = 0.
a) Find the time when Car B is furthest ahead of Car A in the rst 10 minutes.
b) Write out the formulas for A(t) and B(t).
c) Determine the greatest distance by which B gets ahead of A in the time period 0 to 10.
d) Determine the lowest speed Car A ever travels at.
e) Write out the equation you would solve in order to nd the times when one car passes
the other. Your equation should be in the form Pt
3
+Rt
2
+St +U = 0.
f) Determine the two times at which the speed of Car A is 8 mpm.
g) How far does Car B travel in the time t = 2 to t = 5?
158
Solutions to Problem Set #3 Solutions to Problem Set #3
Solutions to Problem Set #3
1. a) (2/3)x
3/2
+ (3/x) + c
b) u
1
2u
2
+ 3u + c
c) 2z 6
z + 4 ln(z) + C
d) (3/5)w
5/3
+ (3/2)w
1/2
6w + C
e) (1/5)t
5/4
2t + (4/3)t
3/4
+ C
f) (5/2)x
2
+ (3/4)x
4
+
4
3
x
3/2
+ C
2. a) (125/3) + (125/2)
b) (8/3) + 4
c) (2/3)(216) + 8(36) 24(6) + (2/3)(8) 8(4) + 24(2)
d) 36
e) (432/3) 252 + 120 [(2/3) 7 + 20]
f) 36 + 9 (63/2)
g) (64/6) + 32 (64/5)
3. a) 5, 10
b) 5
c) 1 to 3
d) 8 (roughly)
e) 14
f) 3 to 4
g) 0.6 to 3.6
h) 170 ft/min
4. a) glob max at 2, glob min at 0
b) 1.6, 6, 7
c) 6.5, 9.625
d) (i) T
(ii) F
(iii) F
(iv) T
e) 0 to 1; 0 to 3 or 5 to 8
f) 5.25
g) 9
h) decreases then increases
i) F, F, T, F, F, T
5. a) 15, 19
b) A(0) B(0) + 128
c) 18
d) 2.1, 6
e) None
f) F, F, T, F
159
160 160
g) A(1) = A(0) 6
h) B(10) = B(0) 20.875
i) Same as (g)
6. a) $39,000
b) $4
c) Inc of $20,000
d) $100,000
e) Yes
f) $8,300
g) 5.6 to 8.6
7. a) F, T, T, T
b) 600 yds
c) None
d) 85
e) 7.5
f) None
g) 150 yds/min
h) t = 0 to t = 1.3
i) t = 5 and t = 10
8. a) VC(q) = q
3
15q
2
+ 79q
b) C(q) = q
3
15q
2
+ 79q + 100
c) R
(q) = 3q + 55
d) q = 8
e) $60,000
f) 18
1
3
9. a) 0 local min; 6 local max; 12 local min; 15 local max
b) max 180, min 0
c) m = 12
d) 0 to 6
e) 9
f) 288
g) 66
10. a) t
2
22t + k
b) t
2
22t + 90
c) 3 loc min, 6 loc max,
d) 90, 9
e) 27
f) 1, 7
g) 45
h) 5.333
160
Solutions to Problem Set #3 Solutions to Problem Set #3
11. a) 4.94, 21.06
b) 4.94
c) 2u
2
16u + 12
d) 7
e) loc min at 12, loc max at 6
f) 14
g) 4 loc min
h) 8
i) 102
12. a) loc max 7; loc min 1.
b) loc min: 7.74; loc max 1.59.
c) t
3
+ 12t
2
21t + 40
d) 4
e) 138
f) 16
g) 98
13. a) 5
b) A(t) =
1
3
t
3
4t
2
+ 18t, B(t) = t
2
+ 13t
c) 8.33
d) 2
e)
1
3
t
3
3t
2
+ 5t + 0 = 0
f) 1.55, 6.45
g) 18
161
162 162
162
Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises
WORKSHEET #1
1 (a) about 125 feet; (b) about 30; (c) about 112 feet per second; (d) about 80 feet per second;
(e) about 50; (f) about 2.5 seconds.
2 (a) The height of the graph at t = 3 seconds is about 335. This means that the height of the
shell after 3 seconds is about 335 feet. (b) The change in the height of the graph from t = 2
to t = 4.5 seconds is about 140. This means that the shell traveled approximately 140 feet
in the 2.5 seconds from t = 2 to t = 4.5. (c) The slope of the secant from t = 3 to t = 3.5 is
about 60. This is the shells average speed during the 1.5 seconds from t = 3 to t = 3.5.
3 (a) 128 feet; (b) 32; (c) 112 feet per second; (d) 80 feet per second; (e) 48; (f) 2.5 seconds.
4 The slope of the secant line should be about 95. This is a reasonable approximation of the
actual speed of the shell at t = 2: 95 feet per second.
7 aprroximately 175 feet per second
8
f(2.1) f(2)
0.1
= 94.4;
f(2.01) f(2)
0.01
= 95.84
WORKSHEET #2
1 about $11
3 about $4.55
7 about $2
8 about $0.91
9 MR is about $7.50 per Ream; MC is still $4.55 per Ream
11 MR at 17 Hundred Pages is about $9.22 per Ream (or $1.84 per Hundred Pages)
12 q = 6 Reams
14 MC is stil $4.55 per Ream, which is $0.0091 per Page
15 MR at q = 3 Reams is about $9.80 per Ream (or $0.0196 per Page)
17 MR at q = 4.6 Reams is about $6.50 per Ream (or $0.013 per Page)
WORKSHEET #3
6 Draw the secant line through x = 2.0 and x = 2.001.
7 f(2.00001) = 15.0000199999, f(2.00001) f(2) = 0.0000199999,
f(2.00001)f(2)
0.00001
= 1.99999;
f(2.000001) = 15.000001999999, f(2.000001) f(2) = 0.000001999999,
f(2.000001)f(2)
0.000001
=
1.999999;
163
164 Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises
8 f(2 +h) = (1)h
2
+ (2)h + (15); f(2 +h) f(2) = (1)h
2
+ (2)h + (0).
11 f(1 +h) = (1)h
2
+ (4)h + (12); f(1 +h) f(1) = (1)h
2
+ (4)h + (0).
12 3.999998
13 1
WORKSHEET #4
1 t = 1.5 minutes
6 t = 2.2 minutes
11 The speed graphs of both cars are shown on page 34 of your text.
13 at approximately t = 1.7 minutes
WORKSHEET #5
1 q = 2 Hundred Blivets
3 The slope of the tangent to TR is parallel to TC
2
at about q = 3.6 Hundred Blivets. The
slope of the tangent to TR is parallel to TC
3
at about q = 4.6 Hundred Blivets.
4 MC
1
= 90 dollars per Hundred Blivets. This is $0.90 per Blivet.
5 MR(2) = 90, MR(4) = 60, MR(6) = 30
12 The MR graph wouldnt change because, even though the TR graph would be higher, the
slopes of the tangent lines would all stay the same. The quantities that maximize prot also
would not change.
WORKSHEET #6
1
x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
f
(0) = 5, h
(3) = 4, h
(5) = 0
11 The derived graph of f(x) crosses the xaxis at x = 2 and x = 6. The derived graph of g(x)
never crosses the xaxis. The derived graph of h(x) crosses the xaxis at x = 1 and x = 5.
12 The rst statement is always true. The second statement is not.
13 The derived graph of g(x) is positive and decreasing from x = 0 to x = 4. The derived graph
of h(x) is negative and increasing from x = 0 to x = 1.
15 The derived graph of h(x) is higher than the derived graph of f(x) from approximately x = 1.6
to approximately x = 5.4.
WORKSHEET #7
2
f(5) f(3)
2
= 60;
f(3.5) f(3)
0.5
= 71.25
3 74.925
4 f(3 +h) = (292.5) + (75)h + (7.5)h
2
5
f(3 +h) f(3)
h
= (75) + (7.5)h
8 f(4 +h) = (360) + (60)h + (7.5)h
2
9
f(4 +h) f(4)
h
= 60 + (7.5)h
10
f(4.1) f(4)
0.1
= 59.25,
f(4.001) f(4)
0.001
= 59.9925,
f(4.00001) f(4)
0.00001
= 59.999925
11 f
(4) = 60
12 f(m+h) = (7.5)m
2
+ (15)mh + (7.5)h
2
+ (120)m+ (120)h
13
f(m+h) f(m)
h
=
(0)m
2
+ (15)mh + (7.5)h
2
+ (0)m+ (120)h
h
= 15m7.5h + 120
15 f
(3) = 75, f
(5) = 45, f
(6) = 30
20 (a) q = 2; (b) q = 3.6; (c) q = 4.67
WORKSHEET #9
II. a) f
(t) = 3t
4
t
2
b)
dy
dx
= 3x
2
1 4x
3
e)
dw
dt
= 32t t
2
165
166 Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises
f) f
(z) = 0
III. f
(x) = x
2
8x + 12; g
(x) = x
2
8x + 16.5; h
(x) = x
2
+ 6x 5
WORKSHEET #10
2 A. the quantity q at which MR crosses the qaxis
B. the quantity q at which the graph of MC (a parabola) has its vertex
C. the quantity q at which MR and MC intersect
3 MR = R
(q) = 0.4q + 2
5 q = 5
11 q = 3
14 q = 4.32
16 Prot=
1
30
q
3
+ 0.1q
2
+q
17
dP
dq
= 0.1q
2
+ 0.2q + 1
WORKSHEET #11
1 The fballoon would be descending and the gballoon would be ascending.
2 No. The gballoon is ascending during that time interval. But its speed is decreasing. That
is, its getting slower.
3 The fballoon is descending, but it too is getting slower. In fact, at t = 1.5, the fballoon is
stopped for an instant, ready to change direction.
4 Theyre getting further apart.
5 They are getting further apart.
6 Theyre getting closer together.
10 15
11 The elevation graph would have a horizontal tangent line at t = 7 and would be changing
from increasing to decreasing.
12 The elevation graph would have horizontal tangent lines at those two times. At the rst time
(about t = 1.5), the elevation graph would change from decreasing to increasing. At the
second (about t = 8.5), the elevation graph would change from increasing to decreasing.
14 The elevation graph is steepest at t = 5.
166
Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises 167
WORKSHEET #12
Exercise 4.
ii) f
(t) =
1
4
_
t
2
1
t
_
3/4
_
2t +
1
t
2
_
iv) g
(w) =
1
_
1
w
1
w
2
_
1
w
2
+
2
w
3
_
vi)
dz
dx
= e
1+x
1
2
(1 +x)
1/2
1
viii)
dw
dz
= 4(1 + ln(z) +e
z
)
3
_
1
z
+e
z
_
Exercise 5.
iii) g
(z) = (1 +e
z
+z
2
)(3z
2
) + (1 +z
3
)(e
z
+ 2z)
iv)
dw
dt
=
t
1/3
(e
t
+ 2) (e
t
+ 2t)
1
3
t
2/3
(t
1/3
)
2
vi)
dy
dx
= (ln(x) +
x)
1
2
(x + 2)
1/2
+
x + 2
_
1
x
+
1
2
x
_
WORKSHEET #13
Exercise 6.
ii) f(t) =
x
4
3(1 +x
2
)
2
(2x) (1 +x
2
)
3
4x
3
(x
4
)
2
iv) g
(v) = (v
2
+ 1)
_
(ln v) e
v
+e
v
1
v
_
+ [(ln v)e
v
](2v)
vi) h
(x) =
1
e
x
+ 2x
(e
x
+ 2)
viii) f
(w) = 4(wln(w) + 1)
3
_
w
1
w
+ ln(w) (1)
_
x) NOTE: e
2
is a constant. g
(z) = e
2
_
1
2
z
+ 4z
_
xii) g
(v) = ln(v + 1) e
v+1
(1) +e
v+1
1
v + 1
(1) + 2v
xiv) h
(x) = e
x
(2x) + (x
2
+ 1) e
1
2
x
xvi) f
(t) =
t
1/2
1
(t
2
+1)
(2t) ln(t
2
+ 1)
1
2
t
1/2
(t
1/2
)
2
167
168 Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises
WORKSHEET #15
1 The graph should have horizontal tangents at q = 8
1
3
and q = 25. The graph should be
touching the qaxis at q = 0 and q = 25.
2 The tangent line to A(q) at q = 7 has a positive slope. The tangent line to A(q) at q = 10
has negative slope.
3 less
4 q = 8
1
3
gives the largest rectangle. As q takes the values 2, 3, 4, and 5, A(q) gets bigger and
A
(q) gets smaller. As q takes the values from 2 to 5, the area of the rectangle increases,
while the rate at which the area grows decreases.
5 Youd see the greatest changes when q is close to 0 (and the rectangles are tall and thin) and
when q is close to 25 (and the rectangles are at and wide). Youd see the smallest changes
when q is close to 8
1
3
(where the graph of A(q) hits its peak).
7 R is equal to 0 at q = 0 and q =
b
m
. R increases for a while, reaches a maximum, and then
decreases.
8 A(q) = mq
2
+bq
9 A
(q) = 0 at q =
b
2m
10 i) R = A(q) = 625q 125q
2
ii) R
= A
= 0 at q = 2.5
11 R = A(q) = q
3
50q
2
+ 700q; R
= A
(q) = 3q
2
100q + 700; R
= 0 at q = 10 and q =
70
3
12 no, you cant
14 R = A(q) = 625q 125q
3/2
; R
= A
(q) = 625
375
2
q
1/2
; R
= 0 at q =
100
9
WORKSHEET #16
1 x = 3 gives a maximum. x = 6 gives a minimum.
3 x = 3 gives the global maximum.
4 i) x = 1 and x = 6 give local minima.
ii) x = 1 gives the global minimum.
iii) x = 3 and x = 8 give local maxima.
iv) x = 8 gives the global maximum.
6 (ii)
7 (ii)
168
Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises 169
8 T(x) =
x
3
6
5
2
x
2
+
25
2
x; T
(x) =
1
2
x
2
5x +
25
2
; T
(x) = 0 at x = 5
9 It rules out graph (i) because graph (i) doesnt have a horizontal tangent at x = 5. It rules
out graph (ii) because graph (ii) has too many horizontal tangents.
10 T(x) has a local and a global minimum at x = 1. T(x) has a local and a global maximum at
x = 7.
11 U(x) increases as x goes from 1 to 7. It doesnt pause.
12 U(x) =
x
3
12
5
4
x
2
+
15
2
x; U
(x) =
1
4
x
2
5
2
x +
15
2
; U
(x) is never 0
13 U(x) has a local and a global minimum at x = 1. U(x) has a local and a global maximum at
x = 7.
WORKSHEET #17
3 f
(x) = 0 at x = 2 and x = 6
4 f
(x) = 2x 9; S
(6) = 3,
which means that x = 6 gives a local minimum. T
(x) = x5; T
(x) = 0 at x =
b
2a
12 f
b
2a
_
= 2a which is positive. This means f(x) has a local min
at x =
b
2a
. If a < 0, then f
b
2a
_
= 2a which is negative. This means f(x) has a local
max at x =
b
2a
.
14 On the graph on the left, the slope of the tangent lines are positive and increasing. On the
graph on the right, the slope of the tangent lines are ositive and decreasing.
15 On the left: f
(3) < 0.
16 U
(3) = 1; U is concave down near x = 3 and the slope of the tangent lines to U(x) increase
at a decreasing rate near x = 3; U
(8) =
3
2
; U is concave up near x = 8 and the slope of the
tangent lines to U(x) increase at an increasing rate near x = 8.
17 S(x) = x 8 +
25
x
; S
(x) = 1
25
x
2
; S
(x) = 0 at x = 5; S
(x) =
50
x
3
; S
(x) is always
positive. That means that S(x) increases at an increasing rate for those values.
169
170 Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises
WORKSHEET #18A
1 (a) $100; (b) C
1
(x) = 0.05x
2 $113.62
3 C
2
(x, y, z) = 0.062x + 0.0536y + 0.047z
4 296 months (almost 25 years)
5 A(0.06, 4) = 1.2712, A(0.055, 3) = 1.1794
6 A(0.05625, 3) 1.18385 OR 1.183825 (Id accept either one.); A(0.045, 3.25) 1.1577 OR
1.1574534 (Id accept either one.)
7 A(r, 2) is the future value of $1 at (r 100)% interest held for 2 years.
8 (a)
A(0.45, 5) A(0.045, 2)
5 2
= 0.0527 dollars per year
(b) (NOTE: In order to have this rate of change have any meaning, Im leaving the interest
rates in the denominator in units of percentage points, rather than converting them to
decimals. To compute the balances in the table, interest rates are expressed as decimals
so the rates in the numerator are expressed as decimals.)
A(0.06, 3) A(0.045, 3)
6 4.5
= 0.035133 dollars per percentage point
(c) (NOTE: The balance at t = 0 is $1.)
A(0.05, 4) A(0.05, 0)
4 0
= 0.05535 dollars per year
9 (a) A(0.045, 3.25) 1.157675; (b) A(0.05625, 3) 1.1881833
10 If you hold the percentage xed and let the year vary, then the rate of change you get is in
dollars per year. If you hold the year xed and let the interest rate vary, then the rate of
change you get is in dollars per percentage point.
11
A
t
= re
rt
12
C
2
y
= 0.0536;
C
2
z
= 0.047
13
E
b
= 2b + 2.833m5.6
14 f
x
(x, y) = 3x
2
+y 1; f
y
(x, y) = x + 2y 1
WORKSHEET #18
3 0.0017; 4 0.138 (See table below.)
170
Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises 171
i = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
z
i
= 3.24 3.43 3.5 3.62 3.75 4.01 4.47 4.39 4.51
t
i
= 0.08 0.42 0.75 1.08 1.42 1.75 2.08 2.42 2.75
g(t
i
) = 3.748 3.782 3.815 3.848 3.882 3.915 3.948 3.982 4.015
z
i
g(t
i
) = 0.508 0.352 0.315 0.228 0.132 0.095 0.522 0.408 0.495
(z
i
g(t
i
))
2
= 0.258064 0.123904 0.099225 0.051984 0.017424 0.009025 0.272484 0.166464 0.245025
5 meansquared error=0.0163; h(t) does a better job
6 If you are given two lines, compute the meansquared error for each line. The line with the
smaller meansquared error does a better job of representing the data.
7 F(b, m) = b
2
+ 2.748m
2
+ 2.833bm7.76b 11.756m+ 15.2614
9 G(m) = 2.748m
2
2.6904m+ 0.6694. This is a quadratic; so, its graph is a parabola whose
lowest value occurs when m = 0.4895. This value of m is the slope of the line with y
intercept 3.2 that gives the smallest meansquared error.
10 H(b) = b
2
6.3435b + 10.0704. This is a quadratic; so, its graph is a parabola whose lowest
value occurs when b = 3.17175. This value of b is the yintercept of the line whith slope 0.5
that gives the smallest meansquared error.
11
z
x
= 3x
2
+y 1;
z
y
= x + 2y 1
12 b = 3.15, m = 0.515
15 (a) E(b, m) = b
2
+ 37.288447m
2
+ 10.168667bm26.543333b 178.42192m+ 219.18205
(b)
E
m
= 74.576894m+ 10.168667b 178.42192;
E
b
= 2b + 10.168667m26.543333
(c) b = 3.61 and m = 1.90; That is, the best tting line is y = 1.90x + 3.61.
WORKSHEET #14
1 f(t) = 1000e
0.11t
2 (i) (ln 23) + 4(ln 2); (ii) (ln 37) + 5; (iii) (ln 37) + 5t
3 ln(f(t)) = ln(1000e
0.11t
) = (ln 1000) + 0.11t
* The besttting line is s = 0.517t + 3.135
8 f(t) = 22.99e
0.517t
10 At t = 0 (January 1, 1997), one share of stock is worth $22.99. You buy $1000 worth of stock:
43 shares. (This is assuming you cannot buy fractional shares of stock.) After 3 years (at the
end of 1999), one share is worth $108.43. So, the value of your stock is $4662.49.
11 $103,700.21
171
172 Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises
12 On January 1, 2000 (t = 3), one share is worth $108.43. So, you can buy 9 shares. At the end
of 2010 (t=14), one share is worth $31,986.18. So, te total value of your stock is $287,875.66.
WORKSHEET #19
1 12 thousand gallons
2 A(x, y) = 0.6x + 0.3y
5 C(x, y) = 0.4x + 0.7y
7 9 thousand dollars
8 P(x, y) = 0.4x + 0.5y
9 All the lines you draw should be parallel. As prot gets larger, the lines should get further
away from the origin.
10 x = 17 thousand gallons; y = 6 thousand gallons
11 KQI: 17 thousand gallons of AppleCranberry; 6 thousand gallons of CranberryApple;
KQII: 9.8 thousand dollars
KQIII: 12 thousand gallons of apple; 11 thousand gallons of cranberry
12 x 15; y 10
13 The vertices of your feasible region are (0, 10), (15, 0), (10, 10), and (15,
50
7
). The prot is
largest at the vertex (15,
50
7
). So, you should produce 15 thousand gallons of AppleCranberry
and
50
7
= 7.143 thousand gallons of CranberryApple in order to maximize prot.
WORKSHEET #20
1 farther apart
5 600 yards; in (a), 600 yards
6 Car V: 600 yards
7 The car in graph (c) covers less distance than car V.
9 Car A: typical speed=16 yds/min; distance traveled=32 yds;
Car B: typical speed=9 yds/min; distance traveled=18 yds;
distance between = 14 yds.
11 At t = 7, car B is ahead by approximately 7 miles.
14 KQII: Car B catches up to car A around t = 5.
KQIII: Car A overtakes car B at some time between t = 8 and t = 9.
172
Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises 173
16 48 yards
17 approximately 46 yds
18 approximately 21 yds
WORKSHEET #21
1 TR(3) = 41.4; TR(4) = 54.8; TR(5) = 68.
2 rst 5 minutes: area=67.5; rst 10 minutes: area=130
8 C(5) = 25.5
9 area=18
14 KQI: q = 40;
KQII: q = 69 (approximately);
KQIII: approximately $266.60
WORKSHEET #22
1 A(0.001) 39 0.001 = 0.039; A(0.00001) 39 0.00001 = 0.00039
3 A(2) is bigger
6 A(1) = 29.2, A(2) = 40.3
7
_
3.0
2.5
f(x) dx 1.5; A(3.0) 39.4
8 If you knew A(4), you would subtract an area to get A(5). Youd be producing a smaller
number.
10
_
7
0
f(x) dx is bigger
11 A(m) increases from 0 to 2.4, decreases from 2.4 to 5.6, and increases again from 5.6 to 8. It
does not go below the horizontal axis.
14
_
8
6
f(x) dx = 40.3
15
_
6
2
f(x) dx = 17.1
WORKSHEET #24
2 A(t) could be any function of the form
t
3
3
4t
2
+ 12t +k, where k is any constant. It would
look just like the other two graphs, but shifted vertically.
173
174 Appendix I. Answers to Selected Exercises
4 NOTE: The graph of altitude gained would go through the origin.
6 G(t) = 2t
3
t
2
5t +k
8 (a)
3
x
+k; (b)
2
3
x
3/2
+k; (c) 12t
1/3
+k; (d)
5
4
t
4
+k; (e) 4t +k;
9 (a)
3
5
x
5
+
2
3x
+x+k; (b) 8
t
10
t
+k; (c)
1
18u
3
+
3
4u
2
1
2
u+k; (d)
3
w
3
+
2
3
w
3/2
+k
WORKSHEET #25
1 A(5) = 227; A(1) = 55; A(5) A(1) = 172
7 A(9) A(2) = 20.42; A(9) A(3) = 36
8 1.39
9 16
10 5.33
11 9
12 5.33
174