Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation 28th June 2002, Genoa, Italy

The use of composite materials in vehicle design
Enrico Mangino, Enrico Indino

Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation - 28th June 2002, Genoa, Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design, E. Mangino, E. Indino

Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission.

Index

The presentation will deal about: Automotive industry drivers Composites in Automotive TP vs. TS Why composites? Composites simulation example Conclusions

Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation - 28th June 2002, Genoa, Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design, E. Mangino, E. Indino

Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission.

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reliability Security. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. E. people on the roads) Environment (production. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document.5 CO2 [ g/km ] 150 140 140 130 Modifications of power-train Vehicle weight reduction 120 120 110 2003 Years 2008 2012 Need of new materials and technologies for lightening Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . E. 2 . E. vehicle use. Genoa. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. use versatility Frequent and fast model change Environmental feeling Lancia Y REGULATIONS Security (vehicle occupants. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. brand policy Customisation. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Emission regulations EMISSION REDUCTION (CO2 reduction CAFE target) 170 160 167. Mangino. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. E.Market and regulations THE MARKET Price competitiveness Maintenance economy Quality. end of life) Fiat Multipla Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . performances Differentiation. Genoa.28th June 2002. Mangino.28th June 2002.

Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. E. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document.28th June 2002.5% Target 2006 15% 5% Target 2015 5% 10% ? 92. Mangino. Mangino. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. E. speaking about structural composites. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. we think about thermoset matrixes In Automotive industry it is not always true: thermoplastic matrixes are very widespread Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . E. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. 3 . E. Genoa. light commercial and three wheels vehicles) EC current foreseen 7. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission.5% Without control or unknown Recovery 80% Recycling and re-use 85% Landfill Recovery: treatment of used materials for energy production Recycling: treatment of used materials for same or different production (except energy) Re-use: use of an old vehicle component for the same application as the original Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . polymeric or ceramic Usually.28th June 2002.Recycling regulations END OF LIFE REGULATION (cars. Composites COMPOSITES Materials composed by a matrix with fibres bundles as reinforcements Matrix may be metallic. Genoa.

Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Genoa. Mangino. Mangino.00% 8. typically produced using injection moulding Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document.28th June 2002. E.28th June 2002..00% 6. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission.00% 124 850 PUNTO THEMA PRISMA RITMO TIPO DEDRA BRAVO/A MAREA CINQUECENTO PANDA UNO 128 127 131 2. Thermoplastic composites In the Automotive industry most used TP matrixes are: Polypropylene (PP) Polyamide (PA) ABS PC+ABS Typical reinforcements are: glass fibres mineral filler (talcum) vegetal fibres Fiat Coupè Lancia Y Mercedes Benz Travego Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . E. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission.00% 1100 500 1300/1500 0. Genoa. E.00% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Source: Fiat Auto Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . Indino . 4 . E.Polymeric materials Fiat cars 10. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document.00% 4.

Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document.28th June 2002. paintings.28th June 2002. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. Production processes are injection (BMC. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. Mangino.Thermoset composites Fiat Ulysse Typical thermoset resins have polyester matrixes … … most of the times they are used to produced structural/functional components. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. E. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. E. Genoa. E. E. Mangino. ZMC) and compression (SMC) Renault Espace Fiat Stilo Iveco Stralis There are also applications with other matrixes: PU PVC Usually they have aesthetic applications like foams. Thermoset panels Ford Aeromax 9500 THERMOSET AESTHETIC PANELS Big dimensions Class A surfaces Dimension stability Coupling control Style freedom Dodge Viper Coupè Fiat Ulysse but Recycling problems Heavy materials Alfa Romeo Coupè Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . 5 . Genoa. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. coatings … but not always Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation .

E.28th June 2002. E. Genoa. 6 . It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission.. performance target .cost target . Genoa.Thermoplastic panels Ecobasic THERMOPLASTIC AESTHETIC PANELS Weight reduction High style freedom Environmental friendly Passive security Parts and functions integration Investments reduction but . Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design.aesthetic aspect . Mangino.28th June 2002. Mangino..weight vs. TP or TS: which one is better? There is not a definitive answer Many factors influence the answer technical requirements: .performances external boundary conditions production rates Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. E. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. Maintenance costs reduction Dimensional stability problems Critical coupling control Class A surfaces difficult to obtain Renault 5 GT turbo Smart Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . E.

Genoa.Production rates High production rates: between 500 and 1500/2000 cars/day Most used production processes are: sheet metal stamping polymeric injection moulding Fiat Punto Fiat Stilo Fiat Coupè Niche vehicles: 50-100 vehicles/day 50Production processes currently tested are: sheet metal hydroforming polymeric non injection moulding RTM/RRIM Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. Fiat Barchetta Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . 7 . Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. E..28th June 2002. Source: Bayer Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . E. Mangino.. Genoa.28th June 2002. E. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Indino Why composites? Why do designers are thinking to use composites more and more? Why cannot we continue to use stamped metal sheets? Composites (fibre reinforced polymer matrix materials) are applied on vehicles for: function integration/pieces number reduction weight reduction style freedom . It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Mangino. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. E.

8 .28th June 2002. Weight reduction Mercedes Class A tailgate Aesthetic panel: GEP Noryl GTX panel (PPE/PA) Structure: GMT SMC Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . E. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. Mangino. Mangino. Genoa. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. E.Integration GM Chevrolet Silverado Ford Explorer Sport Trac Pick-up rear box produced with “RRIM/SRIM” technology Material: PU reinforced with chopped fibreglass Process developed in Italy by Cannon (for GM-USA) Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. E. E. Indino Pick-up rear box produced with SMC Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design.28th June 2002. Genoa.

Kevlar FR roof panel .28th June 2002. carbon SMC Lamborghini Diablo GT. E. Genoa.Concepts BMW. E. RRIM fascia. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. lower trim panels Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . Mangino. hand lay up carbon fibre Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . carbon fibres panels DC Dodge ESX3 (2002). Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Genoa. E. E. PET panels Mc Laren F1 Mosler Automotive MT900.28th June 2002. carbon fibre panels GM Ultralite (1992). C FR bumper beams Ford Equator (2002). Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. TP panels DC CCV GM Precept (2002). It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. fenders. Indino Porche Carrera GT Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. Mangino. wheel wells. Sport cars DC Pronto Spider. Kevlar FR bumpers. 9 .

Mangino. SMC trims Ford Th!nk.000 CBS (Composite Body Structure) is a SP System registered trademark:a laminated material with sandwich structure 100 10 100 1000 10.000.000 No. E. Mangino.Current production Ford Excursion. E. E.000 CBS in Carbon mould PrePreg carbon in Carbon mould CBS in Ni mould Steel in Steel mould 100.28th June 2002. all SMC panels Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . Produced Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . 10 .000. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design.28th June 2002.3sqm Body Component (Hood) 1.000 £ Cost/part RTM in Carbon mould RTM in Ni mould SMC in Steel mould 10.000 10 1. rotomoulded PE panels. Manufacturing costs Cost/Part vs Production Number vs Production Method . E. ABS roof panel Ford Thunderbird 2002.000 100. Genoa.000 1. Genoa. Indino Source: SP System Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document.

Genoa.Composite process simulation SMC compression moulding The bumper FEM model Initial charge Young modulus Orthotropic model Structural simulation if Melt flow Alignment direction Alignment coeff. Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . . Genoa. higher performances.. E. niche vehicles. Mangino.28th June 2002. Technalysis® Passage ® /Compression Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation . It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. not to plastics!!! Some external conditions (fuel consumption. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. weight reduction... E. E. E. Conclusions Vehicle history refers to metals. many designers do not still know composites each manufacturing process has its own best production rate/cost ratio you need to find a manufacturer able to produce what you are asking him . Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. but ….) are pushing toward wider use of composite materials. Mangino.28th June 2002. 11 .

Indino Centro Ricerche Fiat is the sole owner of this document.. E. you must… Design and structural simulation of composites in transportation .. It cannot be copied or given to third parties without permission. it is necessary to consider pros and cons for each application the process strongly influences the final product So . 12 .28th June 2002.. Italy The use of composite materials in vehicle design. …. E. Mangino.. Genoa..