Clues: Roots of a Scientific Paradigm Author(s): Carlo Ginzburg Source: Theory and Society, Vol. 7, No. 3 (May, 1979), pp.

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Bologna. In such a situationit is indispensableto be able to distinguishbetween originalsand copies. which for this very reason are the easiest to imitate. Giovanni Morelli(Schwarzewas a Germanequivalentof this last name.have been re-paintedor are in bad condition. be no doubt of its existence in fact. are full of paintingswhose authorshiphas been attributedinaccurately. In particular. one should not work (as is usually done) on the basis of the most striking features of paintings. Museums. like believe that the distinction does not exist on principle. a seriesof articleson Italianpaintingappeared the in Zeitschriftfur bildendeKunst.But to restore each painting to its real author is a difficult task: often these works are not signed. . Theirauthorwas an unknown Russianscholar. and Lermolieff a quasi-anagram it).I intend to show how."2 Let us see of what this method consisted.These articles proposeda new method for the attribution of ancient paintings that kindled divergent reactions and lively discussions. The author was an Italian. the lifted-to-heaveneyes of Perugino'sfigures. Although some. there quietly emerged in the sphere of human sciences an epistemological model (or which has not yet been given enough attention.Morellisaid. their translationinto Germanhad been done by another unknown. Art historians even nowadays still talk about a of "Morellian method. The following brief remarksapproach this issue from a standpoint that is perhaps ratherunusual. "paradigm'"1) Between 1874 and 1876. Johannes Schwarze.Severalyears passed before the author cast off the double mask behind which he had hidden himself. towardsthe end of the nineteenth century. But to do this. Morellisaid.273 CLUES Roots of a Scientific Paradigm CARLOGINZBURG The distinction between sciences of natureand human scienceshas been long debated and will probably be discussedfor some time. there can Levi-Strauss.the smile of Universitd degli Studi. Ivan Lermolieff.

always considered a copy by Sassoferrato of a lost painting of Tiziano. those least influenced by the characteristics the school the painterbelongs of to: the lobes of the ears. We shall see that Windcame very near to diviningthem. but preliminaryproblems of a philologicalnature. paintings) that were anonymous.3(It may well be however. The problems that Morellitried to solve were of a philologicalnaturein that they were similar. there was an exasperationwith the worshipfor the directnessof genius. and much more complex. he aimed at reconstructingthe text (the painting) as it was originally. but not in copies. by definition. One should ratherexamine the most negligibledetails. who consideredthem typical of the modern attitude to works of art . to those of a philologist editing a text.partly maybe because of the almost arrogantassurancewith which it was presented. Morelli'smethod was very much criticized. In this mannerMorellidiscovered. the copies of a protrait by Raffaello will never be able to do this.an attitude tending to an appreciationof details rather than of the work as a whole. Afterwards it was considered mechanical.4 This interpretationis not very convincing.the shape of the fingersand toes. But to mention copies is probably a sufficient indication of the existence.and painstakingly cataloged. that of Cosme Tura. A painting is. that many scholarswho resistedit went on using it silently for their attributions. and so on: these traitswere present in originals.6 Like the latter. For our culture.7The editions of OrlandoFurioso may exactly reproducethe text as it was written by Ariosto.a fact well-known for its . only a literarytext is perfectly reproducible (after the invention of printing. whereasa work of figurative art is reproducible only imperfectly (despite the invention of engraving techniques and later of photography). With this method he proposed scores of new attributions in some of the most important museums of Europe.even with mechanicalmeans).Wind believed. In Morelli. the fingernails. a stretched-outVenus in the Dresden Gallery. Wind. and fell into discredit. side by side with the similarity. Despite these results. Morelliwas dealingwith texts (that is.in a certain sense. damaged. palimpsestic and copied only more or less faithfully.5 Actually the implications of the method proposedby Morelliwere different.274 Leonardo's. that he had seen during his youth in his contacts with the Romantic groups in Berlin. of a decisive difference.)The renewalof interest in Morelli's writingswas an achievementof E.and so on. or of a textual critic. something unique that can never be repeated . was identified by Morellias one of the very few works certainlyattributableto Giorgione. grossly positivistic. In many cases his attributionswere sensational:for instance.since Morellidid not propose to solve problemsof an aestheticnature(and he was criticizedfor this later).the shape of ears typical of Botticelli.

8 At first. the distinction is eminently historical. but it is not at all obvious. . Hence the problem raisedby Morelli -how to identify the originalamong a multitude of copies. mechanically).the immediatelegibility of both: Galileoon the contrary emphasized that "philosophy .referredto philology. it attended to only the reproducible featuresof a text (reproducibleat first by hand. It is sufficient to rememberthe decisive role of voice intonation in oral literatureto see that this concept of text is connected to a cultural choice of incalculable significance. out of the livinganimal.numbers and movements. The traditionalmedieval comparisonbetween book and world was founded on the self-evidence.. written down on this great book that is continually open to our eyes (I mean the universe). This way it avoided the main stumbling-blockof the human sciences: quality.The result of this double process was a progressive dematerializationof the text.10 It is significant that Galileo.12 .275 considerablecommercial implications. and other geometric figures. it gradually came to be purified of all sensory references.based on the assumption of two decisive historical turning points: the invention of writing and the invention of printing.On the contrary. the contrary.in fourteenthcentury On Italy. later all elements connected to the physical aspects of writing were deemed irrelevant."' For the natural philosopher. The distinction between literary texts and pictorial "texts" cannot be explained by the alleged eternal characteristicsof literatureand painting. especially textual criticism. but not odors or tastes or sounds.9 This thoroughly abstractconcept of a text explainswhy philology. the text is something deep and invisible that has to be reconstructedbeyond all sensory data: "figures. circles. no matter how elegantly illumated they might be. as for the philologist. all elements connected with voice and gesture were consideredirrelevantto the text. . . was the first of all humanistic disciplines to acquire a scientific character.afterGutenberg.nothing but words. That this choice was not occasioned by mechanicalreproductionreplacingwriting by hand is provedby the strikingcase of China. people who were able to discriminate between "good" and "bad" codices of the Commediawere alreadywell awarethat texts werenot identical with their material prop of paper or vellum. "triangles.later." that is.where the invention of printingdid not cut the ties between literarytext and handwriting. when founding (with an equally drasticreduction)the modern science of nature. cannot be understood unless one learnsfirsthow to understand languageand recognizethe letters its in which it is written. It is well known that textual criticism was born after the former (when Homer's poems were transcribed)and was consolidated after the latter (when humanists began to prepare the first editions of the Classics).Makinga radicaldecision. which I believe to be.All this strikes us as obviousnow.

or adopt a strongscientific standardto attain resultsof no great importance.. several decades earlier.16 The art connoisseur is comparable to a detective who establishes the author of a "crime"of a painting) on the basis of clues that are not perceptibleto most people. that was later to turn out to be extraordinarily successful. are countless and well known.But Morelli. i.who comparedMorelli'smethod.at last a scientific basis to the studies of art history. method. . the discovery of a reliablemethod for identifying unique artistic personalities.e.they must either adopt a weak scientific standardso as to be able to attain significant results. ."14 Whatmeaning are we to give this assertion? We have seen that Morelli'smain object. cigarette ashes. apparently. . But to convince ourselves of the accuracy of the comparison proposed by Castel- .. This was the point where the gulf between the sciences of natureand human sciencesbeganto open. was attributedto Sherlock Holmesby his creator." writes Wind. and so on. He declaredthat his aim was to give . one cannot talk about what is individual.ArthurConanDoyle. They are sprinkledwith illustrationsof fingersand ears.13 Attempts to bridge this gulf are well known. But is it possible to take absolute singularityas the object of scientific analysis? Modern science has implicitly adopted the scholastic motto individuumestineffabile. has made possible the most glorious discoveries. in a tendentially anti-anthropocentricand anti-anthropomorphic sense it never lost. precisely for its uniqueness. polluted as they were by and amateurishness inaccuracy.througha systematicuse of the "experimental which beginningfrom Leonardoand Galileoup to Volta and Darwin. One of them is Morelli's seeminglynegligibleattempt. careful records of the characteristictrifles by which an artistgiveshimself away. "Morelli's books. "look different from those of any other writer on art. The quantitativeand anti-anthropocentric approachof the sciences of nature from Galileo on has placed human sciences in an unpleasantdilemma. as a criminal might be spotted by a fingerprint. .for excludingthe methods of the sciences of nature.276 With this sentence Galileo gave a radically new direction to the science of nature. any art gallery studied by Morelli begins to resemble a rogues' gallery .What Morelli meant to locate was unique artistic personality. distinguishing originals from copies.Only linguisticshas been able to escape this dilemma. The instances of Holmes' shrewdnessin interpretingfootprints in the mud. excluded the conventional methods of textual criticism. based on the study of clues. had already proposed a different solution. to a method that. almost in those same years.All the more reason.15 This comparison was brilliantlydeveloped by Castelnuovo.

Of course. There was the same shortening of the pinna. Texts give a surprisingcorroborationto this. . I perceived that her ear correspondedexactly with the female ear which I had just inspected."The case begins with two severed ears sent by mail to an innocent old lady. showing how to distinguish . In last year's AnthropologicalJournal you will find two short monographsfrom my pen upon the subject. grizzledhair.I learnt that a Russianart-connoisseur.277 nuovo.' But on this point modem psychology would certainly support Morelli: our inadvertentlittle gesturesreveal our character far more authentically than any formal posture that we may carefully prepare. I had. Freud writes: "Long before I had any opportunity of hearing about psychoanalysis.19But first it will be useful to consider another valuable insight of Wind's: "To some of Morelli'scritics it has seemed odd that 'personality should be found where personal effort is weaker. The CardboardBox (1917). though when she glanced round to find out the cause of his silence he had become as demureas ever.": we are immediatelytempted to replace the generic phrase "modern psychology" with a specific name .In all essentials the same ear.Imaginemy surprisethen. it will be sufficient to take a look at a relatively late story. It was evident that the victim was a blood relation. . where Sherlock Holmes literally "morellizes. when. and probably a close one . Ivan Lermolieff. and had carefully noted their anatomicalpeculiarities."20 "Ourinadvertentlittle gestures . had caused a revolution in the art galleries of Europe by questioning the authorship of many pictures.Watson. her but I could see nothing which could account for my companion's evident excitement."17 Later on Holmes explains to Watson(and to the reader)the route his quick-as-lighting mental workingshave taken: "As a medical man. her little gilt ear-rings.her trim cap. and differs from all other ones. you are aware. I at once sawthe enormousimportanceof the observation. placid features. At the beginning of the second paragraph. Wind's writing about Morelli has attracted the attention of scholars21to a long-neglectedpassage of Freud's famous essay The Mosesof Michelangelo(1914). The matter was entirely beyond coincidence. . examined the ears in the box with the eyes of an expert.that of Freud. Each ear is as a rule quite distinctive. the same broad curve of the upper lobe. on looking at Miss Cushing. Surpriseand satisfaction were both for an instant to be read upon his eager face. ."18 We shall soon see what the implicationsof this parallelism were. Here we see an expert at work: Holmes "wasstaringwith singularintentnessat the lady's profile. the same convolution of the inner cartilage. therefore.that there is no part of the body which variesso much as the human ear. I [Watson]staredhardmyself at her flat.

varying in acceptability.as it were. Some have surmisedthat Morelli'stendency to erasehis own personality as a writerby concealingit underpseudonymshad been caught by Freud: and conjectures. is accustomed to divine secrets and concealed things from unconsidered or unnoticed details.dem 'refuse' . of our observations(auch diese ist gewohnt. that. . the contact with Morelli'swritingstook place. that Morelli had had a considerableintellectual influence on him long before his discovery of psychoanalysis("lange bevor ich etwas von der Psycho-analysehoren konnte .It is a connection corroboratedby definite evidence. Before we try to understandwhat Freud was able to acquire from reading . and not conjecturallike most of Freud's "antecedents"or "forerunners".of the lobe of an ear. Popper"Lynkeus"mentioned in reprints of Traumdeutung25) a coincidence that has been found out later. "22 The essay on the Moses of Michelangelowas published anonymously at first: Freud acknowledgedit as his only when he included it in his complete works.aus dem Abhub . not (as in the and case of the passageon dreamsof J. from the rubbish-heap.der Beobachtung. Freud had stated. or more generallyto the essaysupon subjects connected to art history. of things like the drawing of the fingernails.It. the whole of Freud's statement places Morelliin a specialposition in the history of psychoanalysis. and he laid stress on the significance of minor details.23 cloak of anonymity. too. and constructing hypothetical artists for those works of art whose former supposed authorship had been discredited.24 improperly limits the significance of Freud's words: "It seems to me that his method of inquiry is closely related to the technique of psychoanalysis". in any case.In fact. moreover."). as we have said in Freud's "pre-analytic" period. after the of discoveryhad taken place. have been advanced upon the Thereis no doubt. under the meaningof this convergence. To reduce this influence to the essay upon the Moses of Michelangeloalone. of aureoles and unconsidered trifles which the copyist neglects to imitate and yet which every artist executes in his own characteristicway.We are thereforein the presenceof an element that has contributed directly to the crystallizationof psychoanalysis. in a form that was both explicit and reticent. I was then greatly interested to learn that the Russian pseudonym concealed the identity of an Italian physician called Morelli. It seems to me that his method of inquiry is closely related to the technique of psychoanalysis.278 copies from originals with certainty.. as some authorshave done. Geheimes und Verborgenezu erraten). He achieved this by insisting that attention should be diverted from the general impression and main features of a picture. who died in 1891. aus gering geschdtzten oder nicht beachteten Zuigen.

. Milano.I learnt that a Russian art-connoisseur.31 At that moment. Ivan Lermolieff's real name was revealedfor the first time in the frontispieceof the Englishtranslation of these same essays. Upon his copy Freud wrote the date of the purchase: Milan."27It seems unlikely that before this date Freud could be attracted by the writing of an unknown art historian.later analyzed in Psychopathologyof EverydayLife -had taken place in which he had vainly tried to rememberthe name of the artist of the Orvietofrescoes.26 a terminuspost quem we can As propose 1883. 1880) were precisely about the works of Italian masters in the galleriesin Munich. or ratherthe moments.now. September 14. As a terminusante quem we can propose the year 1895 (when Freud's and Breuer'sStudies upon Hysteria were published)or 1896 (when Freudfor the first time used the term "psychoanalysis".. Among Freud's books that have been preservedin London there is a copy of GiovanniMorelli(Ivan Lermolieff). For some months he had been concerned with memory lapses.it will be useful to state precisely the moment in which this reading took place. because Freudmentions two distinct stages: "Long before I had any opportunity of hearingabout psychoIvan Lermolieff. 1897. Boltraffio)were mentioned in Morelli'sbook. a short time before. moreover.".in September1898. both the real artist(Signorelli) and the incorrectones that Freudhad first recalled (Botticelli. in December.Le gallerie Borghese e Doria Pamphili in Roma.28 It is possible to establish perhapswith an even better approximationthe date of Freud's second contact with Morelli's writings.Before that he had had no interest in painting. which appearedin 1883. in reprintsand translations appearingafter 1891 (the year of Morelli'sdeath) both his name and his pseudonym are mentioned.30 The only time Freud visited Milan was in the autumn of 1898.it is perfectly plausible.Morelli'sbook had a further interest for Freud.Freudwrote his fiancee a long letter about his "discoveryof painting"duringa visit to the DresdenGallery. on the other hand. while browsing in a bookshop in Milan. in Dalmatia.29It is not impossible that one of these volumes should have been seen eventuallyby Freud:but probablyhe found out about IvanLermolieffs identity by pure chance. that he should start reading them shortly after his letter to his fiancee about the DresdenGallery." About the date of the first statement we can only advance a conjecture.since the first of Morelli'sessays to be collected in a volume (Leipzig. then greatly interested to learn that the Russianpseudonym concealed the identity of an Italianphysiciancalled Morelli. he wrote. the episode . The moment. . "I sloughed off my barbarismand began to admire. That year.. .279 Morelli.32 .Dresden and Berlin. "I was analysis. Now. Lella pittura italiana: Studii storico critici.

symptoms in Freud'scase.Holmes' and Freud'smethods has thus been coming into focus. these marginaldata were revealing. which was repeated "as a consequence of habit and almost unconsciously."are pleasedto define me as one who is unable to see the spiritualmeaning of a work of art and therefore attaches particularimportance to outward signs such as the shape of hands. or clues in Sherlock Holmes'case." Morelliwrote ironically . ears. As for Morelli. the explanation seemssimple.(Incidentally. a man renowned forhis extraordinarydiagnostic ability. In all three cases we have a glimpseof the model of medical semiotics that makesit possible to diagnose diseases recognizablethrough a direct observationand is based on supernot ficialsymptoms sometimes irrelevantto the layman. Towards the end of the nineteenth century. because they representeda moment in which the artist's subordinationto cultural tradition was loosened and replaced by a purely individual trait.or more precisely. of such a disagreeableobject as the Morellitoo could have appropriated Virgilianmotto Freud the fingernails.37In all three cases." could provide the key for understanding the highest productof humanspirit:"my opponents. more . traces that may be infinitesimal make it possible to understanda deeper reality than would otherwise be attainable.Acherontamovebo.38 How can this triple analogy be explained? At first sight. Morellihad a degree in medicine. horribile dictu."35 Even more than the reference to the unconscious. then Hell I will arouse!")34Besides. "low.39 But this is not a case of mere biographiccoincidences.280 But what significance did Morelli's essays have for Freud? Freud himself indicates it: the proposal of an interpretativemethod based on debris. on marginaldata."("If HeavenI cannot bend. it is worth pointing out that the Holmes-Watson pair.we might say that the originalityof his method consistedin his consideringtraces.in Morelli'sopinion.pictorialtraces. considered as detectors.for instance. withthe shrewd detective and the slow-witted doctor. Freud was a doctor. Traces .as symptoms or clues. An analogy between Morelli's. is a splitting of a real figure. We have already mentioned the connection between Morelliand Holmes and the one between Morelli and Freud.not exceptionalin that period36 . details usually considered unimportantor even trivial.to Doctor Watson. Steven Marcus has discussed the remarkable convergence between Holmes' and Freud's proceedings.just the sort of irony Freud was bound to like ."33 was fond of and had chosen as an epigraphto his Interpretationof Dreams: "Flecteresi nequeo Superos.what is strikinghere is the identificationof the intimatecore of artisticpersonalitywith elements that are beyond the control of consciousness. This way. or even.one of ConanDoyle's professorsin his student days. Conan Doylehad been a doctor before he began to write.

281 preciselyin the decade 1870-1880. their attaining a as knowledge that implies aninevitable margin of hazardousness. At presentonly etymology revealsthe extremely ancient relationshipbetween medical semiotics and other sciences based on the decipheringof signs. For the sake of clarity. when an extraordinarydevelopment of sciences of natureresultedin a rearrangement the the of map of knowledge. probably tracesback to divination. semiotics has been considered an integral part of medicine. least) of culture. Inthis groupof sciences one undeniablydiffersfrom the others: philology. from Lionardo di Capua (end of the seventeenth to Cabanis(end of the eighteenth century). the interpreterof divinelanguage. beyond all differences. inasmuch they are individual.of conjecture.42But philology too is a science of signs: and assuch it canbe included in this group of disciplines. dubious.43As regardsthis last point. Itsfirst development. the priest.44 These characteristicsexplain the epistemologic ups and downs of medicine." results. sinceHippocrates time. far from it.and documents.45 The reasons for the "uncertainty"of medicine seemed to be basically two.Why semiotics? It developed for internal and external reasons. the medical man (social figures that were for a long time merged into a singleindividual)obviously are much more ancient than the semiologistor his direct ancestor. its Writings on the "unof certainty" medicine. one should consider the role of conjecture both in the variousforms of mantics and in philology. medicine (includingsemiotics) was suddenlyplaced in an ambiguousposition. admitted century) this lack of strictness. Its methodsseemed "uncertain. we shallseparatethem and begin with the former. their being based on the deciphering ofsigns. situations. though afterwardsthe latter tried to recognizethat medicinehad a scientific character of its own. reputation was torn to tatters in comparison with human Its sciences. 1. all the science that deciphers and interprets languagesand writings other than thoseof the gods.that might be defined as based on signs. their havingas objects individualcases. 2.Whatunites them is.40This does not imply .3. was a decisiveevent for the secularizationand democratization at (potential. . The epistemologicalmodel that unites them.Inthe seventeenth century. The oracle.which is decisive.as some have asserted41thatthese particularpractices were historically preceded a by generalscience of signs. a paradigmbased on semiotics began to emergein humansciences.made possible the social system of by the Greekpolis.

Of course it was possible to dissect corpses. fromthe assumptionthat seemingly details could reveal deep and far-reaching negligible phenomena. the impossibility of medicine achievingthe reliability of the sciences of nature stemmed from the impossibility of quantification. The fluttering robes depicted by Florentine painters.diseasestake on different characteristics. qualitative from the identity of the subject that knows and the object that is known. or of an entire society. used forinstance by Marx and Engels. Second. inaccessible.282 First.that of Hegel. But despite the great success of Marxism.Side by side with decadence of systematic thought.from Nietzsche to Adorno. already injuredby the processes of death. or of a writer. one of them linguistics) the of paradigm semiotics. a telltale light: there is no escapingthe paradigm). The metaphor of the anatomy of society. as a matter of fact. as Cabanis said.the neologisms of Rabelais. medicine acquired an unepistemologicaland social ascendancy. and the presence of individualelements. each time in a different sense. as these discussions epistemological beganto develop in the early nineteenth century they took medicine as their model. the characteristics living individuals?46 of This double diifficulty made it inevitable that it was not possible to prove the effectivenessof medicalpractice.In the seventeenthcentury collections of PoliticalAphorisms . Aphorisms. based on signs. expresses an aspirationto a systematic in knowledge an agethathad witnessedthe collapse of the last greatphilosphic system. Discussionsabout the "uncertainty" of medicine quickly formulated the crux of the "human sciences. analternativebegins to appear:the anatomic paradigmon the one hand. was the title of a famous work by Hippocrates.(It is a clue.as we haveseen. While other recently formulated disciplines based on signs (as phrenology)were about to be definitely labelled as fictitious sciences. precendented Butwhich part of medicine? Towardsthe middle of the nineteenth century. knowledge of diseaseswas always indirect and based on clues: living bodies were. as but significant clues of more general phenomena: the outlook of a small social class. the semioticone on the other. by definition. In conclusion.the healing fifteenth-century ofscrofula patients by French and English kings (to quote only a few of many possible instances) have been taken.human sciences have adopted (with few exceptions. and degradedto the rank of forms of divination. it was not enough to catalog single diseases so as to build up an orderly framework:in each individual.the impossibility of a quantificationstemmed from the inevitable presence of and individualelements. but how could one infer from a corpse.47 A discipline such as psychoanalysis developed. The very word aphoristic is revealing. there was a rise in the fortunesof the aphoristic thought ." In fact. a symptom.

the the clueprovided by a small detail like papillaryridges proved more useful thanthe complex description of macroscopicbodily features such as height and arms-breadth. thefull sense of the word. An analysisof statisticaldata about criminality in France since 1870 onwards shows a dramaticincreasein the number of at of recidivists: the end of the century they were 50% prosecutedcriminals. "Crisis" is a medical. . The first problem was solved by creatingpolice registers. by occasional thieves transformedthemselvesin jail into criminalsin marginals.To catch elusive uniquenessof individuals. supersedingthe old marks.among them those interestedin social control.Juvenileoffenders.283 began to be published. It is highly significant. by the finger-print method based on Francis Galton's discoveries. The increasing uncontrollability of social tensions produced a new phenomenon: thegrowing"criminalization" the "classopponent. individuality and identity grew in importanceas issuesto specific social groups.in this context. in that the anthropometric method elaborated by Alphonse Bertillon was defeated. But the growingpercentageof recidivists. was necessaryto prove that (a) he/she had been condemnedbefore.the second. posed fresh problemsto policemen and governments.especially afterthe economic crisis of 1873. and(b) he/she was the same person who had been condemned before. the figures of criminal proletarian and tendedto merge:that is.at the end of the century.48Aphoristicliteratureis by definition an attempt to formulateopinionsaboutman and society on the basis of clues. it can said that the the be individual. New social controllers appeared: the doctor and the policeman.To identify somebody as a reciit divist.It was in this context that the new paradigmemerged. Until the middle of the nineteenth century. that are undergoinga crisis. which had been abolished all advanced countries. as the criminalcodesbecame tighter and covered a larger area. In fact." Factorieshad of been built takingjails as a model. the distinction between lower classes and criminalsblurred. Ina sense it canbe said that a distinct criminalfringebeganto form only in thelatter part of the century. by devising new identification methods. of symptoms: a humanity and a society that are diseased.hippocraticterm. This exampleshows thedeep connection between the problemof individuality and problem of social control.49 too The success of an epistemology based on clues can also be explained by external reasons. and disciplinein workhousesfollowed that of convict prisons.5s Thisphenomenon testified to thecomplete failureof theredeemingqualities ascribed philanthropists tothe new penitentiarysystem. well as as the rising influence of international workers' associations.50Later.

Longhi judged Morelli. his relationship with the German intellectual milieu. he spoke about "materialistic indications" which rendered "his method shallow and useless from the aesthetician's point of view" ("Cartella tizianesca. would like him. XXXIV (1940). Spini. policemen.. Bari 1946. On Morelli's biography. Longhi. Torino 1969. Bari 1938. I am using this term in the meaning proposed by T. see his letter MarcoMinghetti from Basel. featureof developed bureaucracies. Fagiolo in G. Unfortunately. 97. spoke about "the sensualism of immediately perceived details" (La critica e la storia delle arti figurative. in The Structure of Scientific Revolution. . On Morelli's political engagement. lot of Lermolieff's book. He talked about thinking. see first of all E. his engagement in politics.. 4. proposing him for the chair of Italian Literature in Zurich (F. It would be useful to analyze. add M. 15). Art. his friendship with the As great Italian literary critic Francesco De Sanctis. for instance. one might see the passing references in G. 1882: "Old Jacob Burckhardt. p. 174sgg. OnMorelli. Saggi e ricerche: 1925-1928." in R. as if he knew it by heart. ed. 32-51. 34-38).which flattered me a great deal. 3. on the other hand. psychiatrists. besides his writings on art history. "a lesser. for De Sanctis.were increasingly superseded by new ones: physicians. See Wind. Kuhn. London 1963. Carteggio Minghetti.later on psychoanalysts and social scientists. there is no general study on Morelli. 51-74." (Biblioteca Comunale di Bologna. in Bergomum. Art and Anarchy. and insisted on spending the whole his evening with me. pp.is a typical as taxpayer. XXIII. was extremely kind to me. Lettere dall'esilio (1853-1860). by M.pp. and the bibliography quoted herewith. 234). See also the indices of De Sanctis' Epistolario being published by Einaudi Publishers in Turin. p. It. La rivoluzioni scientifiche. 2. pp. Enlarged. Croce. Second Edition. secularized meanonly in relation with the State. London 1973. to pp. This morning I am going to meet him questions again . "GiovanniMorelli. the NOTES struttura delle 1. op.M. in the nineteenth century.284 in born a religious context (persona). Questioni di metodo. 335. 000. 54). but considerable man": immediately afterwards. Archiginnasio. 2. 261. you. in On Art and the Mind: Essays and Lectures. not considering the distinctions andspecifications introduced later by the same author (see "Postcript 1969". De Sanctis. whom I visited last night. "Giovanni Morelli and the Origins of the Scientific Connoisseurship". 177-201. Croce. n. Wind. Firenze 1967. For the European echo of Morelli's writings. Guida alla storia dell'arte. Napoli 1956. It is in this context thatwe can understand the pervasive influence of the model based on clues semiotic paradigm. Ginoulhiac. He is a very original man. compared to the "great" Cavalcaselle. . C. pp. pp. 101. Argan .). criminal. trans. . soldier. Other contributions will be quoted later. 114. and used it to ask me a . however. his early scientific education. Chicago 1974. political subversive and so on Most aptly. La vita". Firenze 1974. both in his behaviour and in and especially Donna Laura. Concern with an individual's uniqueness ing . pp. 42-44. cit. by B.in footnote 21. the Morellianmethod was recently re-examined by Wollheim. A damaging comparison with Cavalcaselle is taken up. Fagiolo. such as priests. pp. acquired its modern. Risorgimento e protestanti. dated June 22. traditional figures of those who control everyday life in society. S. see Morelli's letter.

Timpanaro. Lermolieff. 208) surmises that the article's author could have been Conan Doyle himself. op. 388-91. in Encyclopaedia Universalis.. Torino 1969. pp. Art . pp. Curtius. in Comparative Studies in Society and History. It. 73 (Nov. ed..285 5. cit. Anyway. inPast and Present. 451-65. in The Complete Sherlock Holmes Short Stories. l7 Saggiatore. never is explicit in Morelli's writings. 937-38..cit. "Galileo on Primary and Secondary Qualities". Bologna Giovanni Schwarze e daltedesco in italiano dalla italiana.'" in Lacultura filosofica del Rinascimento italiano. 1968. 40-41. in the same Strand Magazine. .for the moment. Hauser. 14. . On the seventeenth century roots of this contrast. Le opere dei maestri russo in tedesco per cura deldott. . 525-27). p. 321. pp. . p. 6. 12. Tendenze e metodi della critica moderna. 97. II lapsus freudiano. See E. . I will further discuss this point in the forthcoming broader version of this essay. p. pp. Martinez. Morelli (I. Le Gallerie 7. see p. as far as I know. 73. op. who discusses the interpretation of this (and other) passages by Galileo. trans.Goody and J. p. ed. by W. Firenze 1961. II. Petrocchi Divina Commedia. . who compares Freud's detective-like method to Morelli's (see further. R. the stimulating remarks by S. VI. 923-47 (for the quoted passage. pp. V orale e civiltd della scrittura. London 1968. On the impact of the invention of writing... (1962-63).A. London 1976. The Annotated Sherlock Holmes. op.. "The Cardboard Box" was printed for the first time in The Strand Magazine. trans. See the introduction to the critical edition of the Commedia edited by G.Ricerche e documenti. 160-69. however. cit. Studii istorico 1886. 4. Galilei. see A. critici. pp. . . G. Benjamin. I. Bari 1973. 932). 15. But this is very likely to be a gratitous assumption: the article on ears had been preceded. The editor of The Annotated Sherlock Holmes (op cit. saggio critico baronessa K . 304-45.see also G. footnote 21). see my article "High and Low: The Theme of Forbidden Knowledge in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries". language"(I. Le opere dei maestriitaliani. 9. See Longhi.the parallel between "the spoken language and the painted or sculpted italiani nelle galleriedi Monaco. the page reproducing the different shapes of ears in the magazine irresistibly recalls the illustrations to Morelli's writings: this confirms the diffusion. Da See also E. 71 Saggiatore. More generally. Le teorie dell'arte. (DanteAlighieri... 13. 16. See.. Lermolieff). Milano 1965. see J. in Journal of the History of Behavioral Sciences. 6. e Psicanalisi critica testuale. . by an article entitled "Hands". Conan Doyle would have finally written Holmes' contribution to the Anthropological Journal (misquotation of Journal of Anthropology). "Attribution". 18. In other words. . July-December 1893). p. La 10. Conan Doyle. . of quences Literacy". . there appeared an anonymous article on the different shapes of the human ear ("Ears: a chapter on". p. 1976).. See Wind. 782. S. Sosio. It. A. "The Cardboard Box".. 208) that in the same quarterly.. He emphasizes. J. See E. op. cit. 38. Lermolieff.p. L 'opera d'arte nell'epoca della sua riproducibilitd tecnica. tradotto dal e Dresda Berlino. . Saggi. in those years. The Complete Sherlock Holmes . It. See A. See A. It has been remarked (see A. Garin's pointof viewis quite similar to my own. trans. 35-37. of this specific range of interests. 61-73. . advanced by E.. 17. a few months later. Conan Doyle. II. Cultura pp. p. Watt. in The Strand Magazine. Galilei. The analogy. Castelnuovo.. Della pittura Borghese e Doria Pamphili in Roma. A . a Omera Platone. Baring-Gould. Firenze. 10 (1974). on this subject. 264. Milano 1897. Torino 1975). by L. See W. Conan Doyle. cit. signed by Beckles Willson. V (January-June 1893). p. See also. "The Conse8. p. 11. Havelock. 1974). Torino 1974. "La nuova scienza e il simbolo del 'libro. Garin. pp. p.

.p. It could however be more than a mere parallel.286 19. Ibid. 20. 70 sgg. op.. But this is. 1-10. .Add. thoroughly revised byLayard in 1887 under Morelli's supervision. 21. Die Werkeitalienischer Meister in den Galerien von Munchen.. 120 v). cit. alas. pp. pp. See E. besides a precise reference of Hauser (Le teorie dell'arte . 22. Mitscherlich.. .especially since I hadthe opportunity in London to personally make the on acquaintanceof that wonderful Mr. Lermolieff). . . . Nelson. "Freud and the Understanding of the Art. B.. Henry Doyle's knowledgeof the Morellian method (that we may take for granted in an art historian inthose years) is proved by his Catalogue of the Works of Art in the National of Gallery Ireland (Dublin.. R. 44 (Hiver 1971). La vita e l'opera di Freud. . Lermolieff. Damisch." in Entfaltung der Psychoanalyse. pp. 27.. "Les methodes de la critique d'art et la psychanalyse freudienne". Torino 1967. . Layard Papers vol. herausgeg. "The Moses of Michelangelo".. wasn'table to see K. 107 lists two essays by Freud on his relationship with "Lynkeus"). 1890) where Kugler's handbook. herausgeg. opcit. We can except the perceptive essay by Spector. who made the best of impressions from Doyle are the individuals whom one ordinarily me. p. Holmes' first adventure (A Study in Scarlet)in 1887. Baden 1960). Johannes Schwarze. pp. A. 26. I. See S. . p. 27.". pp. 24-25.On Art and the Mind . Dresden und Berlin. translated the Italian Pictures in the from the German by L. It. cit. Freud. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: L'hommeetl'oeuvre. 82-83). Revue d'esthetique. 28. "Der 'Moses des Michelangelo' von Sigmund Freud. . Richter.. Kofman. Richter. Leipzig 1880. 77-101. pp. Gombrich. see also Damisch. von A." OnArt and theMind . An uncle of Conan Doyle's. 19. 70-96.painter and art critic. however. London 1883. Strachey. Italian Masters in German Galleries: A Critical Essay Galleries of Munich. Une interpretation de l'esthetique freudienne. See S. . See Wind. in 1869became director of the National Art Gallery inDublin (see P. 289. Dresden and Berlin. an unnecessary assumption: obviously. See S. footnote (the footnote to p. L'enfance de l'art. "Le gardien de l'interpretation. "Le gardien . "La partie et let tout". p. cit. Wollheim. 66 (1969). the original edition was printed in 1959): J.. p. cit.Spector. c. Freud. See. ed.. G. is quoted. Paris 1975. 40. XXVI (1966). Doyle.Art .. 209-120).. 97." Tel Quel. 84. von J. La rivoluzione psicoanalitica. Morelli (I. .. p. 38965. how different meetsas directors of European galleries!" British Library (the original text is in French). Aus dem Russischen ubersetzt von Dr. Henry Doyle. the intellectual trend that we are analyzing was diffused evenoutside Morelli's writings. . ..In 1887 Morelli met Henry Doyle and wrote about him to his friend Sir Henry Layard: "What you tell me about the Dublin Gallery interests me very much. It's on quite surprising that in this essay Gombrich doesn't mention Freud's passage Morelli. Diogenes. in trad. on 29.. Ein kritischer Versuch . Paris 1964. trans. Nordon. pp. All this shows that Conan Doyle may possiblyhave directly known Morelli's method. L'interpretazione dei sogni. who. p. It. . 2 (1970). H." op.und G. Torino 1976. Victorius. 210. in Freud on I Creativity and the Unconscious. n. 9). See M. New York 1958. 23. . op. M. J.. 168-188. The first English translationof Morelli's writings appeared in 1883 (see the bibliography listed in Italienische Malerei der Renaissance im Briefwechsel von Giovanni Morelli und Jean Paul Richter: 1876-1891. 25. n. Ms. 30. pp. op. XXXV.. Stuttgart 1956. "Freud's Aesthetics". . trans. H. after all. op cit. in Encounter. denies a real relationship between Morelli's and Freud's methodsm ("Les methodes . pp.Wollheim. 24. . Robert.

40. and conjectormeans "divine". Watson. and particularlythe excellent essay by J. Memories and Adventures. p..C. I. Romeo. 309-328 (particularly p. Simmons. cit. Della pittura italiana . see T. 44. 43. putting them in a broader context. Simon (p. For the distinction between symptoms and clues. . Ellenberger. . 37. 41. Torino 1976. Moravia. B. York 1976. Bloomington. 39. Conan Doyle. Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street"). Schoenau. cit. Morelli (I. Lermolieff). Goody and J. The most convincing interpretation appears to me that of E. 21 (1973). op. La soluzione sette per cento... pp. 38. .. 144. 72)... p. Paris 1974. XVIII. . New . I mean to enlarge these statements. where Holmes and Freud appear together as characters). "Politique et parricide dans l"Interpretation des reves' de Freud"..I have used the Italian translation of Cabanis' tract (La certezza della medicina. ne' qualipartitamente narrandosil'origine e 'I progresso della medicina. London 1924. Trosman and R. 45. Milano 1976. p. The meaning of Freud's choice of this specific Vergilian verse fromAeneis. cit. Conan Doyle. . 214 (this is an undeservedly successful novel. for instance. pp. VV. Divination and Rationalite. Nascitadella clinica. 15/5 (1977). I. It.. p. 2 vols.. Foucault. 36. p. 42.. ecritures" (pp. Vita e opere di Freud. 25-26.. E. 31. Torino 1969.was printed for the first time in Naples. 74-75.that it refers to the oracle of Delphi. chiaramentel'incertezza della medesimasi fa manifesta. Introduction ("Two doctors and a detetective: Sir Arthur Canon Doyle. See H. It. or works such as C.S. //lapsus freudiano. See also A. trans. D. invisible side of reality is no less important than the visible one. 672 (I am very grateful to Pier Cesare Bori for calling my attention to this article). and Mr.. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: A facsimile of the stories as they were first published in the Strand Magazine .. who believes that the motto means that the hidden. signes. Firenze 1966). trans. Readers will have recognized the allusions to A. A. Brulley. Paris 1801 (which I wasn't able to see). 159 (on Boltraffio). Schorske.). pp.287 30. op. 34. Contributions to the Doctrine of Signs... X-XI. 61-73. See E. 7. The relevant fact for the right interpretation of Heraclitus' fragment is. Storia della psichiatria dinamica. See L.". Timpanaro. . I will expand this passage in a forthcoming version of this essay. in 1681. . Watt. 35. "The Freud Library". cit. . Introduzione a G."The Consequences . See.. Warburg (La rinascita del paganesimo antico. Indiana 1976. trans. L. 88-89 (on Signorelli). inmy view. . Spitzer (Die als Wortbildung stilistisches . 33. 197-98 and passim. the philological Divinationes. See Robert. . "Heraclitus and the Foundations of Semiotics". De l'art de conjecturer en medecine. op. The Annotated Sherlock Holmes . Milano 1964. Lermolieff). cit. Literarische Elements seines Stil. See H.Milano 1961. A. Ibid. op. on John Bell. in Vs. op. On the possible political implications of the motto (which had been already used by Lassalle) see the fine essay by C. La rivoluzione . It. I will quote here only AA. 73-90. His Parere . John A. 7 sgg. Loeb edition has been interpreted in various ways: see W. Bari 1974)with an introduction byS. p. For the moment I will say that by foremost interlocutor (both in agreement and disagreement)is S. the physician who inspired the character of Holmes. It trans. 32. See also the bibliographical appendix to N. See M. that is to a divinatory context. See A. 325 sgg. trans. Morelli (I. pp. pp. On Lionardo di Capua see N. See G. pp. 28 (1973).. Jones. Sebeok. Della pittura italiana . cit. pp.. M.. op. in Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. . Conan Doyle. 46. D.. p.. The very etymology of conjectura (from cum-javio) has divinatory overtones. It. See J. 47. in Annales E. divisato in otto ragionamenti. passim. 404. 4. La scoperta dell'inconscio. Bottero "Symptomes. 312. See his introduction to A. Mayer. Badaloni. Vico.. 70197). Stuttgart 1968. F. p. G. Sigmund Freuds Prosa.

M. Acknowledgment This is a draft of an on-going research. It. pp. 151-52). to M. Perrot. But the whole issueis too vast and complexfor a full bibliography be listedhere.30. di Aforismi Venezia1625 (cfr. besides Campanella's Aforismi politici. Chevalier. Roma 1949. 48.. G. MartaSofri Innocenti. d politici cavatidall'Historia 'Italia M. in June 1977. a first version of which was discussed at Bellagio. Bloch (I re taumaturgai: an Studi sul in caratteresovrannaturale attribuitoalla potenza dei re particolarmente Franciae in Inghilterra. 141-43.Bologna 1972. Paris1958. originallyprinted much in a Latin translation part of his RealisPhilosophia('De Politicain Aphorismos as digesta"). Classeslaborieuses classesdangereuses et a Parispendantla premieremoitie du XIXesiecle.Criticailluministae crisi della societa borghese." sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation. See. Scnttoripolitici italianidal 1550 al 1650. FrancescoGuicciardini. 49. trans. Koselleck.It.S.T. and to my translator.Torino1973).Amsterdam Printedin the Netherlands ? ElsevierScientificPublishing . see R. in The originalimplication.referred the sphereof law: for a shorthistory to of this word. See the well-knownbook by L. 51.. 50. Bozza. "Delinquanceet systeme penitentiaineen France au XIXe siecle.288 Mittel exemplifiziert Rabelais. 1975.however. Canini. during a conference on "Humanities and Social Thought.Halle1910).. pp.C. p. I am very grateful to all participants for their criticisms and suggestions.. 161-63. and Theory Society 7 (1979) 273-288 Company. 68." AnnalesE. See also the heading"aphorisme" Littre'sDictionnaire. trans.