Speaking of Mother Tongue

1

2

Speaking of Mother Tongue
Group members:
Sanne Kok Mette Frost Bertelsen Jocelyn Sacopayo Schmidt Assia Khan Niels Uni Dam

Supervisor:
Tove Skutnabb- Kangas House 3.1.2 - Cluster A - H.I.B Autumn Semester 1995

3

Table of contents
1. Introduction 2. Problem Formulation 3. The Process of Limitation 4. Presentation of Methodology 5. Definition of Concepts 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Introduction to Definition of Concepts Ethnic Identity Assimilation Integration Linguicism Mother Tongue A minority Bilingualism 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 28 29 33 33 33 34 37 37 39 21 21 22 23 23 8 10 12 16 20 20 20 20

6. Language Learning in Education 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6..7 6.8 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 Early Theories of Bilingualism The Way towards the Contemporary Theories Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills and Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency The Development of BICS and CALP Adult Second Language Learning Separate or Common Underlying Proficiencies Risks and Problem when a Child is Taught through Its Second Language Only Sum Up of Why We Find Bilingualism the Desirable Goal Delimitation Language and Culture, Symbol/Marker of Ethnicity Mother Tongue and Identity A minority as an Ethnic Group Ethnic Group Minority 7. Ethnic Identity and the Role of Language in the Integration Process

4

7.4.3 7.4.4 7.5 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3. 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2. 6 8.2.7 8.2.8 8.2.9

Ethnicity Ethnic Identity The School in Relation to Language learning and Integration Introducing the Theories and Treaties Baker’s Ten Types of Models of Bilingual Education Baker’s Table Submersion Education Submersion with Withdrawal Classes Segregationist Education Transitional Bilingual Education Mainstream Education (with Foreign Language Teaching) Separatist Education Immersion Education Maintenance Bilingual Education

41 43 44 48 48 49 49 50 51 51 51 52 52 53 54 55 55 57 57 61 61 62 63 63 65 65 65 65 67 68 69 70 70 5

8. Bilingual Educational Models & the Rights of the Child

8.2.10 Two-Way/Dual Language Bilingual Education 8.2.11 Mainstream Bilingual Education 8.3 8.3.1 8.4 8.4.1 8.4.2 9.1 9.2 Model of the Development of Minority Education Table of Development of Minority Education Conventions UN Convention of the Rights of the Child The Copenhagen Document Introducing the Three Documents Investigation of the Official Danish Policy on Integration and Language 9.2.1. Background 9.2.2. 9.2.3. 9.2.4 9.2.5 9.2.6 9.2.7 9.2.8 The Working Group The "Co-operation" with the Immigrant Council The people concerned Goals Diagnosis Measures Integration ?

9. Investigation of 3 Official Danish Documents

9.2.9

School

71 71 73 74 74 76 77 77 78 79 79 81 82 82 84 84 85 85 87 87 88 89

9.2.10 Means 9.2.11 BICS and CALP 9.2.12 Mother Tongue 9.2.13 Mother Tongue Education 9.2.14 Critics of Mother Tongue Education 9.2.15 Human Rights 9.2.16 The quality of the Mother Tongue Education 9.2.17 Official Statements 9.2.18 Summary 9.2.19 Model 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7 9.3.8 9.3.9 9.4 Mother Tongue Education (Undervisningsministeriet 1994) The development of the Guide Terminology The Factor of Need Bilingualism as a Goal Theories of Deficiency The Importance of Mother Tongue Seemingly more Positive Goals Comparing the Means CALP and BICS Report from the Working Group Appointed by the Immigrant Council Concerning the Integration of the Ethnic Minorities (1990) 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 9.4.5 9.4.6 9.4.7 9.4.8 The Six Basic Principles An Alternative Integration Program for Children The Danish Integration Policy According to I.R The Role of the Danish Language in the Integration Policy

9.3.10 Sum up of the Goals

90 90 93 94 96

The Integration of Ethic Minority Children in the age 0-6 Years 97 The Mother Tongue and the Second Language The Linguistic Conditions in the Integration Process Conclusion 6 98 99 101

and in the School Age.

9.4.9 9.5 9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3 9.5.4 9.5.5 9.5.6

The Placement of the Education Program in Model of “The Development of Minority Education” Investigation of whether the I.I.D. Falls into one or more of Baker’s Models. Typical Type of Child Language of the Classroom Danish Policy - Submersion Education Submersion Education with Withdrawal Classes Societal and Educational Aim Aim in Language Outcome 104 104 104 105 105 105 106 107 109 110 113 116 102

9.5.7 Summary 10. Conclusion 11. Process of Group Work 12. Danish summary of the Report 13. Bibliography

7

1. Introduction
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” and are entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration" without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status". (UN, 1948: Article 1 & 2) Over the last decades, Denmark has been host to a number of people coming from different parts of the world in search of work, and a refuge for quite a number of political refugees. In many cases, they have stayed (to live) permanently and become immigrants in the country. Denmark has never been a totally ethnically homogeneous culture and society but with the influx of the immigrants and refugees, Denmark is compelled to address the issue of integration of the ethnic minorities into the rest of the Danish society. Being a democratic country, Denmark is expected to address this issue in a way that the minority (both adults and children) has a fair chance of participating in the democratic process. Education is considered to play a vital role in ensuing this participation. The motivation behind the conception of this project report is the need to examine the educational responses of the Danish government towards the increasing number of ethnic minority children in Denmark. Is there a sufficient educational provision for minority children? We will also try to shed light on the aims behind and the basis of the Danish educational policy towards ethnic minorities which we believe play an integral part in the integration of the 2nd generation minorities in Denmark. An issue that continues to persist, when discussing the most desirable form of education for minority children, concerns the role played by the mother tongue in the schooling process. Is the mother tongue a hindrance or a resource/help in learning Danish? Another issue of concern is what the right approaches or models of education are in educating a diverse, multi-cultural and multilingual populace: Monolingualism or bi-/multilingualism? We, in the group, believe that education leading to bilingualism/multilingualism is the ideal model of education, also because the model respects linguistic human rights.

8

"Bilingualism is necessary for minorities in order to allow them to have full access to all resources (education, employment, social welfare etc.) and to participate in government and administration. Bilingualism is essential in a democratic and pluralist society. A state which does not adequately provide support towards making minorities bilingual is, in practice, denying full human rights to minorities. Similarly, a state which does not provide at least some degree of official recognition towards a minority language is denying minority identity" (Minority Rights Group Profile Leaflet, 1990). As a group, we find it essential to emphasise the principle behind writing this report. We had, from the very beginning when writing the report, kept in mind the basic human right of an individual. We have chosen this principle because we believe that every human being's rights should be uphold, whether one is adult or child. The declaration of children's linguistic human rights as proposed by Skutnabb-Kangas (1990) has played a prominent role in our process of investigation and discussion. Therefore, we find it important to present the demands here, as a credo to introduce the report. 1. Every child should have the right to identify positively with her original tongue(s) and have her identification accepted and respected by others. 2. Every child should have the right to learn the mother tongue(s) fully; 3. Every child should have the right to choose when she/he wants to use the mother tongue(s) in all official situations (Skutnabb-Kangas,1986:160) 4. Every child has the right to learn fully at least one of the official language in the country where she/he is resident according to her own choice (Skutnabb-Kangas & Phillipson 1987) mother

9

2. Problem formulation
Cardinal Question:
To what extend does the official Danish policy support the linguistic development of second generation ethnic minorities, and how does this effect the integration process. To investigate this cardinal problem, we have formulated a number of supportive sub questions, which we will elaborate on to the extend we choose. 1. What is the role of language in the development of an ethnic identity and in the process of integration, and what how are the concepts related. 1.1 What is integration? 1.2 Why should an ethnic minority be integrated in a linguistic perspective? 1.3 What is the role of language in integration? 1.4 What is an ethnic identity? 1.5 How are identity and integration related? 1.6 What is the role of language in the creation of an ethnic identity?

2. How are languages learned, and what role does education play? 2.1 How is your mother tongue learned and developed? 2.2 How is your second (third etc.) language learned and developed. 2.3 What importance does the mother tongue play in the learning of other languages? 2.4 How does it effect a child to be educated through the medium of his/her second language only? 2.5 Is bilingualism a desirable goal?

10

3. How is the official Danish Policy using the learning of language in education for the purpose of integration. 3.1 How are the concepts of integration and ethnic minority defined in the Danish integration policy? 3.2 What are the goals and means of the policy? 3.3 Can the goals be reached through the means suggested? 3.4 What are the results of the educational program described in the policy? 3.5 How are the goals and results criticised, are there alternative/additional suggestions? 3.6 How do the alternatives differ from the policy? 4. What type of education is described in the policy in relation to international covenants and theoretical models? 4.1 What are the relations of the policy to the international human right covenants? 4.2 What type of education is described by the policy in relation to recognised theoretical models? 4.3 At what stage/level is the program compared to the defined stages for development for minority education with the aim of bilingualism 4.4 Are the alternative/additional suggestions at a higher or lower stage?

11

3. The Process of Limitation
When we first got interested in the process of integration and the forming of an ethnic identity, we tried to work out a framework showing different influential factors and indicators within these areas (see table of framework 3.1). We decided at an early stage that in our project we would concentrate on the second generation of ethnic minorities in Denmark (see definition chapter 5.7). Our reasons for doing that were mainly personal, as we all in our childhood have been in contact with second generation ethnic minorities. On top of that we have a group member who has grown up in Denmark but came originally from another country. This fact was of great importance as we have used her as a source of information to get another angle on the subject - "see it from the inside". Further more our group was enriched with two representatives of the first generation of an ethnic minority one representing an immigrant minority and one a national minority. Both representatives have children who then again are members of the same groups but second generation. The large variety of different groups of ethnic minorities represented within our group made it very clear to us that ethnic minorities are not a homogeneous gathering which media and politicians often tend to give the impression of by omitting to differentiate between the nationalities, ethnicities and individuals were reminded that needs and wishes are different within ethnic minorities not only on an and individual level but also at a group level depending on generation nationality, language and culture. We have, though, only to use the experiences indirectly to broaden our horizon and as inspiration, as we wanted to make our project more theoretical and general. Also the second generation was an interesting case within the context of identity forming and integration because they during their upbringing and through the rest of their lives will be under a strong influence of two cultures, nationalities and languages. Their situation can be unique compared to the surrounding society i.e. both the first generation and the Danes because they do not have one specific culture to relate to. Many of the parents may come from minorities in their country of origin, though (e.g. Curds from Turkey), or from multilingual and multicultural countries. It very soon became clear to us that we would have to narrow down our project if we wanted to cover our topic satisfactory. We therefore decided to work with the factors of education and language learning in relation to integration of second generation ethnic minorities in Denmark.

12

We chose to emphasise language learning for a number of reasons. Language is essential in: -The development of relations to other human beings i.e. to establish, maintain, deepen and deny contact. -Exchanging knowledge, information and experience with others, i.e. to learn, teach, receive and send messages, plan communal actions and establish communal attitudes. -Influencing others and being influenced i.e. to perform certain actions or give rise to specific feelings and opinions. -Constructing a social identity and belonging to a group. -Thinking i.e. to solve problems, plan, analyse, appraise and to maintain, sort and recall knowledge and acknowledgement. Language is socially the most powerful means of interaction and communication and culturally a symbolic way of expressing a group's values, traditions, history and community (see chapter 7) discussing the role of language in integration and the forming of identity. In the context of the second generation ethnic minorities we chose the learning of the mother tongue/original language and the learning of Danish. We believe that it is important to know your mother tongue (see definition chapter 5.6) in order to define yourself in relation to the surrounding society. Knowledge of your mother tongue plays an important role in the forming of an ethnic identity and therefore also in your mental as well as structural integration. In order to function in your close environment i.e. home family friends etc., you need to develop the above mentioned relations and skills in which the mother tongue is the medium to obtain this. The learning of Danish is essential to your structural incorporation but also to your social integration in the rest of the society. Without knowing the official language of the country one is living in, the participation in social, economic and political matters becomes limited if not non-existing. On the individual level your skills in the official language determine your possibilities of getting a job, higher education, developing personal connections and relations and maintaining your independence. Furthermore

13

learning Danish means getting introduced to another culture and to other ways of thinking, which could add to your ethnic identity and influence your degree of integration. From this point of view it seemed natural for us to choose education, meaning the school, to investigate our subject. The educational system influences people while they are still young and therefore easy to "shape". The educational system furthermore influences the individual through many years. The educational system has many functions in society. Through learning and education "qualification", "sorting”, and socialisation of youngsters are carried out. "Qualification" points to the development of children’s academic skills and potentials but also to a general acknowledgement of some of their skills. "sorting" refers to the way the system contributes to placing the youngsters in hierarchised slots in the society, e.g. to jobs. "Socialisation" influences the children to embrace a common cultural way of thinking, acting and feeling. A considerable part of your cultural awareness is created through education. Through school many ethnic minorities experience the most drastic culture clash, for some it might even be the first serious clash. They are as all other pupils faced with new demands, social conventions and circles of acquaintances. But they also have to combine the home realities with the school realities. The values, norms and traditions of their background matched with those of the school. Language is in this context a very important, perhaps the most visible means to investigate and "measure" how the children cope with the situation i.e. develop. The school is able to influence the children’s' development linguistically but thereby also in many other ways (see above) through the medium of the mother tongue/Danish learning. From hereon the interest moved in the direction of how school uses (abuses?) its powerful influential means. As the school is controlled by the government and receives its orders from it, we decided to take point of departure in the part of the Danish integration policy which deals with the educational system. We wanted to investigate how the policy actually handles the needs of the ethnic minorities. We acknowledge that there are other factors than the school which influences the learning of language, such as family and friends and that we by emphasising the school's role in this process will not be able to present a complete picture of the linguistic situation of second 14

generation of ethnic minorities in Denmark. But we believe that the school, being an institution that everybody has to attend in a certain period of their lives which is of enormous importance to the development of identity represents a most significant factor. In relation to integration, the school is also an indicator of how the majority society wishes to see and form the minorities' future role and incorporation in the rest of the society.

15

4. Presentation of Methodology
Introduction
To approach such a broad area as the one we chose to look into it was vital for us to start reading in order to acquire sufficient background knowledge and to be able to limit ourselves. In the beginning the selected material covered a variety of areas within the topic of integration of ethnic minorities, consisting of theoretical treatises and descriptions and empirical analyses. We read books and articles about the general situation and background of ethnic minorities(e.g. Hammer 1979, Liep 1994); empirical studies e.g. about young members of ethnic minorities from Pakistan , Turkey and Yugoslavia (Jeppesen 1989), about the Danes attitudes towards ethnic minorities(Körmendi 1986), interviews e.g. with 2nd generation ethnic minorities (Røgild 1995) and 1st generation ethnic minorities (Østergaard 1993), articles written by members of ethnic minorities in Denmark about their situation (e.g. Dehmir 1995) etc. (see bibliography chapter 13) After the process of limitation, our spectrum of primary in-depth theoretical reading was narrowed down to include only a few main pieces, being: “Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove 1990b. Minoritet, sprog og racisme, Tiden” “Baker, Colin 1993. Foundations of bilingual education. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.” “Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Petersen, Birgitte Rahbek 1983. God, bedre, dansk? -om indvandrerbørn integration i Danmark . København: Forlaget børn og unge” “Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Cummins, Jim 1988. (eds.) Minority education: From Shame to Struggle: Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.”. Since it would have been impossible anyway to make any sort of empirical studies of any representative kind and since three of the group’s members were ethnic minority representatives themselves, possessing valuable experience, it was deemed that the group’s 16

time was better used reading some additional interviews and descriptions rather than going out making interviews ourselves.

5. Definition of Concepts
To ensure maximum understanding of the project, there are certain concepts we need to define, as these can be and are being interpreted in different ways. We do not feel that we are in the position to create our own definitions, and therefore we choose already written definitions. The criteria we will use to select the definitions, are that these are the most suitable ones in this context, and the most similar to our personal opinions.

6. Language Learning in Education
In this chapter we present acknowledged theories about bilingualism and how people learn languages, the connection between the development of a mother tongue and the learning of 2nd languages. We will moreover explain our views on bilingualism.

7. Ethnic Identity and Integration
In this chapter, we discuss the concept of ethnic identity of the 2nd generation ethnic minorities in relation to language and culture in the context of the school.

8. Bilingual Educational Models & the Rights of the Child
In this chapter we present two types of models and two treaties. The models are Colin Bakers ten types of models of bilingual education and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas´ “Development of minority education” model. The treaties are the CSCE Copenhagen Document and two articles from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

17

9. Investigation of three Official Danish Documents
We investigate three official documents and relate them to Skutnabb-Kangas model and the two treaties presented in chapter 8. The three documents are: Indenrigsministeriet 1990. Integration af indvandrere i Danmark. Beskrivelse og forslag til bedre prioritering. København: Indenrigsministeriet. Undervisningsministeriet 1994. Modermålsundervisning for tosprogede elever,

undervisningsvejledning for folkeskole. København: Undervisningsministeriet. Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990. Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen nedsat af Indvandrernes Representantskab vedrørende integration af indvandrere. København: Inderigsministeriet We emphasise the first document, and investigate the two others on the background of it. Moreover, we will see whether the type of education presented in the main document falls into one or more of Bakers models.

10. Conclusions
We will on the basis of the investigations in chapter 9 and the theories put forward in chapter 7, try to answer the Cardinal Question posed in chapter 3.

18

11. Process of group work
In this chapter we describe how our group work has been working out. We tell about the problems we have had, how we have been working together and whether we have been able to fully use the resources within our group. We see whether we have learned anything in the process and mention what we will do differently the next time. We thank those who made it happen.

12. Danish summary
We will sum up the main features of the report in Danish.

19

5. Definition of Concepts
5.1 Introduction to the Concept Definitions
We have chosen the following concepts for our project as we found them being relevant to our topic. Through our project we are going to use these concepts definitions to avoid any misinterpretations and to make the use of the concepts coherent through out the report.

5.2 Ethnic Identity (ethnicity)
Common cultural identity with a number of behaviour and linguistic traits which are carried on from generation to generation through the upbringing" (SOS Racisme 1995, p.9, our translation)

5.3 Assimilation
(To assimilate) In the debate about ethnic minorities in Denmark, assimilation means a onesided Danish translation: that immigrants and refugees shall resign their own culture and language and replace it with the Danish language, Danish norms and way of living, way of dressing etc. The concept is often discussed in relation to "integration"(SOS Racisme 1995, p.4, our translation) "The disappearance of distinctive ethnographical features: that is , objectively, on the one hand, the loss of specific elements of material and non-material culture and, subjectively, on the other hand, the loss of the feeling of belonging to a particular ethnic group (loss of what Soviet scholars call "samosoznani");simultaneously, there is the acquisition of traits belonging to another culture which replace those of the former culture accompanied by the subjective feeling of belonging to the second culture" (Skutnabb-Kangas & Robert Philipson 1986, p. 488)

20

The second definition is our main definition and the first is merely an addition concentrated on the Danish conditions. "Formation of a series of common features in an ethnically heterogeneous group" (Skutnabb-Kangas & Robert Philipson 1986,p. 488)

5.4 Integration
In this report Integration is not seen as a final product, or as a characteristic in the minority individual/group, or as something only the minority has to do. Instead it is seen as a process and a socially constructed relation which the minority and the majority have to negotiate between themselves, and where both have to change. A majority can prevent integration by refusing to change itself, regardless of how ready a minority group is for integration. Is the degree of integration (and wish to integrate) of the whole society that has to be assessed. The results of the negotiation process about integration depend crucially on the power relationships between those who negotiate, the majority and the minorities" (Skutnabb-Kangas,1990 p 12.)

5.5 Linguicism
Is akin to the other negative -isms: racism, classism, sexism, ageism .Linguicism can be defined as ideologies and structures which are used to legitimate, effectuate and reproduce an unequal division of power and resources(both material and non-material) between groups which are defined on the basis of language (on the basis of their mother tongues).(Skutnabb-Kangas 1988, p.13)

5.6 Mother tongue

21

Definitions of mother tongue The four most used definitions of mother tongue are: Criterion 1. origin Definition the languages one learned first

2. Identification a. internal the language one identifies with b. external the language one is identified as a native speaker of by others 3. competence 4. function Skutnabb-Kangas The definition of function is the most primitive, as the individual does not always have the possibility to chose which language to speak. In the case of a minority child, spending time in a majority language speaking kindergarten or school, the language the child uses the most often is the majority language, thus making this definition subject to possible justification of linguistic imperialism. The definition of competence is also primitive, as an underdeveloped knowledge of the minority language often is a result of lacking or poor mother tongue education, and by using this definition one legalises further mistreatment of the minority languages, another problem with this definition is how to measure competence, as the competence in language can be a very complex matter (See chapter 6) We have chosen to use the definition of origin together with the definition of internal identification: Mother tongue is the language one learns first and the language one identifies oneself with: Mother tongue is the language/languages one learns first and the language one identifies oneself with. We have chosen this definition as it is the one most 22 the language one knows best the language one uses most

coherent to the Declaration of children’s linguistic human rights (see Chapter 1), and thus the most suitable to the basic point of view of our project.

5.7 A Minority
1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "minority" shall mean a group which is smaller in number than the rest of the population of a State, whose members, who are nationals of that State, have ethnic, religious or linguistic features different from those of the rest of the population, and are guided by the will to safeguard their culture, traditions, religion or language. 2. Any group coming within the terms of this definition shall be treated as an ethnic, religious or linguistic minority. 3. To belong to a national minority shall be a matter of individual choice and no disadvantage may arise from the exercise of such choice. ( Skutnabb-Kangas & Phillipson 1994, 401).

5.8 Bilingualism
Some comments on table Definitions of bilingualism (Skutnabb-Kangas,1984:91): The different definitions on bilingualism are grouped according to which criteria used. The definitions vary a lot. The definitions of competence show the most variation. The reason for this is that even very little competence in the other language has been defined as in some extent enough to be regarded as bilingual. “Either the competence definitions are too broad, so that according to them almost all human beings become bilingual. Or they place such high demands that even languages which we speak very good are not included" (Skutnabb-Kangas 1990, page 47, our translation). Another problem is that they do not specify sufficiently, what one should be enabled to within the different fields. All the other definitions, except some of the competence definitions claim high demands on a person before he/she is regarded as bilingual. Also the criterion of function is problematic as it

23

only gives limited information of the degree of bilingualism. The individual does not always have a free choice of which language to speak in which situation and one will use the different languages he/she speaks depending on the context. We have chosen to focus on the criteria of origin and identification, as we think that these two give the most elaborated picture of bilingualism. The criterion of origin is not the ideal for the purpose in our project, because we want to use it as a desirable state and as a goal. If you use the definition of origin then you exclude all individuals who do not fulfil point a and b under the criterion of bilingualism. Moving on to the criterion of identification we acknowledge that point b (the external identification) is not always useful as the individual may not identify with the language imposed upon him/her externally. The last criterion of identification(point a) is also problematic to use as it only shows the individual's own perception of what bilingualism is and not in any way limit the spectra of the definition. In order to get a more useful definition which sums up the content of the criteria we will choose the following definition as the final in the further work with our project: "A speaker is bilingual who is able to function in two (or more) languages, either in monolingual or bilingual communities, in accordance with the sociocultural demands made on an individual's communicative and cognitive competence by these communities and by the individual herself, at the same level as native speakers, and who is able positively to identify with both (or all) language groups (and cultures) or parts of them" (SkutnabbKangas, 1984:90) In this definition the term "native speakers" can be interpreted in different ways, as the

native speaker is going to use the language in various ways according to his/her socioeconomical status in the society, gender, age, education etc.

24

6. Language Learning and Education.
We think that it is important to mention that we in this project take our point of departure in bilingualism as being the desirable goal for all children. In the following we will try to explain why. We would also like to take a look at some general theories about language learning and the importance of mother tongue. We have based this chapter mainly on; Tove Skutnabb-Kangas "minoritet, sprog og racisme" 1990, Colin Baker "Foundations of bilingual Education and Bilingualism" 1993 and Jim Cummins "Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues In Assessment and Pedagogy" 1984.

6.1 Early Theories of Bilingualism
Western theories from the early nineteenth century and up to the 1960'es often saw bilingualism as being something negative that had disadvantages for the individual as well as for the society. This attitude was maybe especially common in America where the goal was for all immigrants to assimilate via the melting pot and become "English only" speaking Americans. Bilingualism was seen as the negative period where the immigrant went from being monolingual in his/her own language to being monolingual in the new language - English. This period was often associated with poverty and being bilingual to many people meant not speaking a sufficient English. Much research from that time showed that monolinguals did better in tests (of intelligence) than did bilinguals. There are some explanations to these results one of them being that the tests were simply conducted in an "invalid" way. The criteria for being bilingual were often questionable, the groups of children used for research often did not match on other factors such as socio-economic class, gender, age, urban/rural background etc. and the IQ tests where mostly conducted only in English.

25

6.2 The Way towards the Contemporary Theories
In the middle of this century there was a period where research showed no significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals and then in the 1960'es research started to report about how balanced bilinguals did better than their monolingual peers in various tests (Pearl and Lambert 1962, from Baker 1993). Apart from ordinary IQ tests researchers also started testing for divergent thinking, cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness and bilinguals did better than monolinguals here too.

6.3 Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills and Cognitive/Academic language proficiency
Cummins has made a distinction between two levels of language competence which helps explain the complexity of bilingualism; the basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP). BICS is the ability to speak a language fluently in face to face "context embedded" situations, whereas CALP is the ability to use the language as a tool for thought in "context reduced" academic situations. Cummins uses the image of an iceberg to describe the two levels where we have BICS above the water surface with the language skills of comprehension, application, pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar, whereas under the surface lies CALP and the skills of analysis, synthesis, evaluation and semantic and functional meaning(see figure 1).

6.4 The development of BICS and CALP
BICS is developed reasonably fast and a normal monolingual child will at the age of 5 be able to carry out a conversation on concrete everyday subjects. CALP however is developed considerably slower and a monolingual child will not reach an "adult level" until the age of 15-16 from where it will increase a little gradually for the rest of the person's life. Cummins finds that it takes about 2 years for a second language learning child to acquire the same level of context embedded second language fluency as a monolingual, whereas it takes five to seven years or more to reach the same level of context reduced fluency. See graphs next page. (See figures 2.a,b,c) 26

When second language learners so relatively fast catch up with the monolinguals in BICS, they may seem as if they have learned the new language completely and are capable of fully understanding everything in the second language in the classroom. Cummins' theory however suggests that they do not yet have the sufficient level of context reduced language proficiency to participate in the cognitive activities of the classroom with evaluation, discussion etc., as their CALP is not developed to the same level as their BICS. The period where the second language learner master the BICS of the new language but has not yet developed the CALP, Skutnabb-Kangas calls the "risk period". (See figure three)

6.5 Adult Second Language Learning
One of the reasons why it may seem as if the second language learners have already reached the level of the monolinguals in the second language is according to SkutnabbKangas that when adults learn a second language, their CALP might be developed to a high level while their BICS is still reasonably low - when adults learn a second language late the pronunciation for example rarely ever takes the form of that of a native speaker. So when a child speaks the second language fluently and without a foreign accent it might seem from an adult language learning point of view that the child master the language completely. Such a misjudgement of a second language learning child may often occur during the earlier mentioned risk period. The consequences of this will be considered later in this chapter.

6.6 Separate or Common Underlying Proficiencies
In the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century when researchers saw bilingualism as a disadvantage, a common theory was that the brain contained two balloons or barrels one for each language. Then one could only expand at the expense of the other and what you learned in one language could not be transferred into the other. BICS and CALP were not separated but both were seen as residing in the same language barrel. Cummins calls this theory the separate underlying proficiency model of bilingualism. It has now been rejected by most researchers but might still be how many "ordinary" people think of bilingualism. Toukomaa and Skutnabb-Kangas' 1977 and Cummins' 1978 (Taken from 27

Baker 1993) alternative to this is the common underlying proficiency model. Again is used the iceberg to illustrate; above the surface we have two separate icebergs representing the first and the second language surface features. Underneath the surface the two icebergs are connected and the two languages function through a central operating system.(see figure 5) Skutnabb-Kangas explains it with the barrel analogy where the brain has a common barrel with different channels for each language. Inside the barrel is CALP common for both (all) languages. BICS is separated from CALP and BICS in each language has its own barrel in the brain i.e. people need to learn separately for each language how to speak it fluently, with a native-like accent, whereas they can transfer s lot of the linguistic cognitiveacademic capacity from one language to another. (See figure 4).

6.7 Risks and problems when a Child is Taught Through Their Second Language Only
When a child is taught through the second language only, everything that should fill up the "brain barrel" with CALP has to go through the channel 2 which the child in the so-called risk period does not have sufficient competence in yet. Thus when the minority child is taught through the medium of the second language it will have to concentrate more in order to be able to work with the input than if it was listening to the mother tongue. When concentrating more, the child will be tired faster than the fluent second language speakers and will need more and longer breaks in order not to loose concentration. This means that less information will enter the brain barrel. The minority child might also at a very early age be exposed to an unreasonable amount of stress. Even though a child speaks a language (e.g. the mother tongue) fluently, there will always be some words that she/he does not know or understand, but when knowing the language well it is usually possible to construct the meaning of the sentence anyway and thereby guess the meaning of the unknown word. This, however, will be much more difficult in a second language. Besides, there will usually be more words that the second language learner does not understand, so the minority child, being taught through the second language, is likely to loose a lot of information due to that. The child might start to feel that

28

it is more or less helpless in trying to listen, as she/he does not understand anyway, and therefore she might cut off mentally and not engage herself in the teaching. When the child does not always understand what is being said in the classroom, he/she might also have difficulties expressing herself and never get to say anything demanding in the second language. If the child has learned the BICS, it will seem to the other pupils and maybe to the teacher, that the child has learned the second language fluently, and so the reason why the child never participates must be because he or she is stupid. The child itself might easily start to believe that also and thus the self esteem will suffer. It is therefore very relevant to call the period were the child has learned the BICS but not the CALP of the second language a risk period. During the first years of exposure to the second language when the child is still developing the BICS, progress will usually be fast, noticeable and measurable and as the child has just started learning the language, the surroundings (fluent second language speaking children, teachers etc.) will often be tolerant when the child makes for example grammar- or pronunciation mistakes. Later however, when the child superficially seems to have learned the second language but still cannot answer the teacher's questions or understand a difficult text, the tolerance may not be as considerable. That is when the minority child will often have problems in school, the surroundings will stop believing that the child is capable of much, the child's self confidence will be damaged, this will affect his possibilities of learning negatively and so it easily a bad circle for the minority child being taught through his/her second language only.

6.8 Sum up of Why We Find Bilingualism the Desirable Goal
When on the other hand bilingualism is fostered in the school the child will have two channels through which to fill the brain barrel and develop CALP. The development of the first language of the child is important in order for the CALP to reach a sufficiently high level for the child to solve intense cognitively demanding problems. When the teaching of the mother tongue has been effective and competence in the first language is high, the child will have the best chances of developing a significant level of CALP. When being taught a second language, the child will then have to learn the BICS of the new language but will be able to use a lot of her CALP developed through the mother tongue in cognitively

29

demanding context reduced situations in both languages. This is one of the reasons why we in our report when discussing bilingualism see this as the most desirable goal for all children although we have chosen to deal specifically with minority children. We have in this chapter tried to show why it from a language learning point of view is so important for the minority children to be taught through their mother tongue with additional good second language teaching. We will bare this in mind in our further work in the report. In chapter 7 we will discuss how the learning of your mother tongue is also important in the development of your ethnic identity.

30

table

31

table

32

7. Ethnic Identity and the Role of Language in the Integration Process
7.1 Delimitation

What role do language and culture play in the development of an ethnic identity? What is ethnic identity and what kind of ethnic identity can be formed in the integration process of the 2nd generation ethnic minorities in Denmark. Does the identity formed signify integration of the 2nd generation ethnic minorities in Denmark and why? But before these questions can be discussed, it is important for us to emphasise that we are not going to try to answer the questions but rather present or infer various existing theories and draw conclusions out of these theories. theories on minorities, ethnic group and related topics. We will limit our discussion on the role of language and culture in the development of the ethnic identity of the 2nd generation ethnic minorities of Denmark into the context of the school. This means that we will not discuss the parental/home environment or the historical and societal context. One must remember that when using ethnic identity, we are referring specifically to linguistic identity. Cultural identity is for our purposes included in linguistic identity, because "the basis of a minority in most cases is the language, and the culture transmitted through the language" (Nissen, Der Nordschleswiger, Nov. 1982 in Byram ,1986). We will also site some definitions/theories on the subjects seen as integral part of ethnic identity; these are

7.2

Language and culture, symbol/marker of ethnicity

Language and culture are seen as two parts of a whole. Culture can be defined as a generic way of life consisting of values, beliefs, behaviour patterns, symbols and institutions unique to a particular group or society while language is a culture's primordial institution. Language establishes the bond (between individuals, and between individuals and groups) which makes group life possible and without it, group life is

33

inconceivable.

Language as an organised social institution serves at least three

functions: (1) intergroup communications; (2) transmission of the group's ethnicity and culture; and (3) the systematic recording of the group's ethnicity, culture and history, which serves to give a group identity (Banks, 1981: 160). The fundamental role played by a language (or a dialect) is group communication. Although language is not the only way of communication, language is of overarching importance because it is the fundamental medium through which knowledge and ethnicity are transmitted and shared. It serves as a tool to categorise, interpret and share experiences. This also makes language a marker of ethnicity, language being the medium and ethnicity the message.

7.3 Mother tongue and Identity
In his work, Jean Piaget (1983), a child development psychologist, shows that formative development of a child starts at the first month of life. Cognitive development, language ability, growth of vocabulary, concept formation, begin to develop and take shape while the child is still in his or her "pre-formal" education period. Parents and family play an important role in the formative development of the child, especially in the language development. In the case of a child living in Denmark who has minority parents, the probability of the parents using their mother tongue as medium of communication in their home is quite high. Starting formal education, where the medium of instruction is Danish and the learning of the mother tongue is in the best case relegated to a few hours of studying it as a subject, could be a dilemma, resulting in the child's linguistic competence/command of both the mother-tongue and Danish being less than ideal! This phenomenon is described in the work of Cummins (1979:228, quoted in Andersen, 1992:20)): "There is strong evidence that some groups of minority language and migrant children are characterised by...less than native-like skills in both languages with its detrimental cognitive and academic consequences". The role of the mother-tongue in the education of minorities has been a very controversial issue for decades. In Denmark, quite a number of people (writers, researchers, etc.) have written about this topic. Sometimes the information given

34

contradicts each other, viz.: "Until today the Danish Government has offered up to five hours of mother-tongue teaching per week throughout the whole period of schooling which is more than in most other countries", Andersen states in introducing one of the chapters in her book (1992:56). Both parts of this statement are in fact false. No immigrant minority child in Denmark has had 5 hours of mother tongue teaching throughout her/his entire schooling, and both the regulations covering mother tongue education and the implementation are more progressive in many countries. In fact, Denmark has actively prevented discussion on racism in education in European Union contexts, according to Glyn Ford, the European Parliament Official Rapporteur on Racism and Xenophobia ( Report drawn up on behalf of the Committee of Inquiry into Racism and Xenophobia 1990. Glyn Ford said this at two hearings in Copenhagen, 2.12.1991 and 18.6.1993). Skutnabb-Kangas (1995:16) defines the mother tongue by using 4 criteria, viz.: Origin (i.e. the language(s) a child learns first), Competence (the language(s) the speaker knows best, Function (the language(s) she/he uses most and Identification (i.e. the language(s) one identifies with (see our definition of concepts). Furthermore, Skutnabb-Kangas (ibid.: 16-18) present four theses about the definitions. They are:

"A person can have two mother tongues, especially according to definitions by origin and identification, but also according to the other criteria;" • "The same person can have different mother tongues, depending on which definition is used;" • "A person's mother tongue can change during her lifetime, even several times, according to all other definitions except the definition by origin." This phenomena may arise through emigration, marriage, work; • "The mother tongue definitions can be organised hierarchically according to the degree of linguistic human rights awareness of a society."

35

From the point of view of "linguicism", the third thesis about the definitions is the most interesting one, as the use of definition by function pre-empts most minority children to use L2 because there are no facilities in their mother tongue. Linguicism can be defined as "ideologies and structures which are used to legitimate, effectuate and reproduce an unequal division of power and resources (both material and non-material) between groups which are defined on the basis of language (on the basis of their mother tongue)" (Skutnabb-Kangas, 1988:13). Until the 1960s, a child’s first language was strongly seen as causing the difficulties facing the learning of L2. Today researchers within this field generally agree that the mother tongue is not a source of interference in second language learning (Ellis, 1990:6). On the contrary, the mother tongue is believed to function as a resource in second language acquisition, as new concepts can be elaborated and instruction can be clarified through the mother tongue (Andersen 1992:23). According to Marilyn Martin Jones, "second language learning involves building on the knowledge of the first language and on the experience of first language acquisition" (1989:15). In addition, the discussion on BICS and CALP in chapter 6 shows that CALP is a cross-linguistic dimension of competence which if acquired in the mother tongue can be transferred to the learning of another language (see 6.4). Thus the mother-tongue is not a hindrance but rather a help in learning Danish. Furthermore, according to the U.N. Convention on Rights of the Child, minority children have a certain right to their mother-tongue: "Children of minority and indigenous populations shall freely enjoy their own culture, religion and language" (The Rights of the Child 1989:9, see 8.4). Thus, as Skutnabb-Kangas and Cummins (1988:393-4) put it when concluding their book Minority Education, "the dilemma when emphasising the learning of the minority mother tongues (and second languages)... is that it can be done with at least three completely different purposes. Firstly, the mother tongue can be emphasised to the exclusion of the learning of both the second language and other skills, as is done in segregation programmes. Secondly, the mother tongue can be emphasised as a part of ethnicity, to the exclusion of societal questions of economic and political power, as is done in most of the multiculturalism discourse. This is a therapeutic approach, which builds on deficiency theories, and is used as a form of pacification..." Or thirdly, in the view both the authors, "the mother tongue can be emphasised partly in 36

its own right, as a self-evident human right, and partly in order to be able to give a better instrument for coping with both the learning of the second language and the learning of other skills, and to include analysis, understanding, evaluation and action in relation to societal questions of economic and political power." "On a cultural level, language is the symbolic expression of community, encoding a group's values, its folkways and its history. Socially, it is the most powerful means of interaction and communication, and it is through language that an individual or a group seeks and attains participation in society. The denial of a people's development and use of its native tongue is thus a denial of its participation in society and of its very peoplehood", says Eduardo Hern ndez-Ch vez (1988: 45).

7.4

A minority as an Ethnic Group

Before discussing the concept "ethnicity", we find it important to discuss the concepts "minority" and "ethnic group".

7.4.1 Ethnic Group
There are a number of definitions of "ethnic group". An ethnic group can be defined as a group of persons who share, in part at least, a common origin, as well as cultural, language and racial characteristics, and feel that they belong to the group (Allardt and Starck 1981). Eric Allardt, a sociologist (ibid.: 43) uses four criteria an ethnic group should have: (a) self-categorisation (self-identification); (b) descent; (c) specific cultural traits, e.g. the capacity to speak a specific language; and (d) a social organisation for interaction both within the group and with people outside the group. According to Allardt (1981, in Skutnabb-Kangas 1990:91), "there are no criteria for inclusion in an ethnic group that all the members should fulfil. But it is necessary that some members fulfil all the criteria before one can speak of an ethnic group, and every member must fulfil at least one criterion. Often most members fulfil all the criteria. But there are also some ethnic lukewarm and ethnic self-haters who do not categorise themselves as members despite being categorised as members by others."

37

Skutnabb-Kangas points out in her article "Legitimating or Delegitimating New Forms of Racism - the Role of Researchers" (Gorter, 1990:91), that "one problem in such situations with cognitive dissonance is that 'forced other-categorisations' are seen by many researchers (e.g. Liebkind, 1984:19) as violations of basic human rights. According to human rights oriented argumentation, it should be the right of every individual and group to have their own definition of their ethnic group membership (or mother tongue) accepted and respected by others". However, according to Allardt (Skutnabb-Kangas 1990), self-categorisations and othercategorisations have different logical structures for other-categorisations imply reference to other superficial criteria (like cultural traits, language or organisation) whereas selfcategorisation only presupposes a wish to identify or categorise as a member of the group. Therefore, Allardt sees it as unnecessary to have exo-categorisations as a part of the definition, but on different grounds from the human rights-oriented argument of Liebkind and others. In contrast, Skutnabb-Kangas (ibid:92) stresses that ethnicity can also be treated as a socially constructed relation rather than treating ethnicity as an inherent or acquired characteristics of an individual or a group. For her, ethnicity is also a relation and relations cannot be decided by one party alone, they have to be negotiated. "Ethnic groups which represent the object of some of discrimination are sometimes accepted and tolerated by dominating groups at the cost of their having to abandon completely their cultural identity. It should be stressed that the effort of these ethnic groups to preserve their cultural values should be encouraged. They will thus be better able to contribute to the enrichment of the total culture of humanity" (UNESCO Statement on Race and Racial Prejudice. Paris, 1967)

7.4.2 Minority
There are also numerous definitions of "minority", both in international law and in sociology. Often the notion of ethnic group is confused with that of the minority.

38

However, "minority group" in most definitions implies minority status not only in numerical terms but also in power terms. The term "minority" connotes inferior or lesser status vis-à-vis the majority. Minority is often equalised to numerical minority. But a numerical minority may also control a numerical majority, as manifested in South Africa before Nelson Mandela came into power, where white minorities held political and economic control, despite the larger numbers of Black South Africans. From a sociological perspective, whether or not an ethnic group is also a minority group depends, according to some views, on whether or not it holds a subordinate status in the society (Bennett, 1986:34) Louis Wirth (1945, in Bennett 1986:34) defined a minority group in terms of subordinate position, as "a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination." Joe Feagin (1978, in Bennett 1986:35) asserts that Charles Wagley and Marvin Harris have provided the most comprehensive definition of minority groups as "suffering discrimination and subordination within a society; set apart in terms of physical or cultural traits disapproved of by the dominant group; sharing a sense of collective identity and common burdens; having membership determined by the socially invented rule of descent; characterised by marriage within the group". We use here the following definition of a minority for purposes of linguistic human rights: "A group which is smaller in number than the rest of the population of a State, whose members have ethnic, religious or linguistic features different from those of the rest of the population, and are guided, if only implicitly, by the will to safeguard their culture, traditions, religion or language. "Any group coming within the terms of this definition shall be treated as an ethnic, religious or linguistic minority. To belong to a minority shall be a matter of individual choice.

39

The definition is based on our reformulation of the definition used by Council of Europe Commission for Democracy through Law (91) 7, Art. 2; see Appendix). We have in our definition omitted the requirement of citizenship ("who are nationals of that State"), because a forced change of citizenship to our mind cannot be required in order to be able to enjoy basic human rights. As long as many immigration states practice a fairly restrictive policy (for instance residence requirements which are more than 3-4 years, and/or linguistic requirements often based on evaluations by non-linguists) in granting citizenship, it also seems to us that especially children may suffer unduly if they are only granted basic linguistic rights after upwards of 5 years in the new country. If an individual claims that she belongs to a national minority, and the State claims that there are no national minorities in that State (e.g. Curds in Turkey or Finns in Sweden), there is a conflict, and the State may refuse to grant the minority person/group rights which it has accorded to granting to national minorities. In most definitions of minority, minority rights thus become conditional on the acceptance by the State of the existence of a minority in the first place, i.e. only exo-definitions (definitions by outsiders, not by the individual/group concerned) of minorities are accepted. According to our definition, Minority status does NOT depend on the acceptance of the State, but is either" objectively" ("coming within the terms of this definition") or subjectively ("a matter of individual choice") verifiable. Many of the definitions of indigenous minorities have this combination of "objective" characteristics and self-identification (e.g. the definitions of Sami for the purposes of voting rights to the Sami Parliaments in Finland and Norway, see Magga, this volume). The trend seems to be towards self identification only, for numerically small groups. Minority definitions can be compared to definitions of ethnic groups - see the discussions in Stavenhagen 1987; Skutnabb-Kangas 1987, 1991c; Riggs 1985. The degree to which an ethnic group retains minority group status depends on how it is received by and/or receives the host society (Bennett, 1986:36). Does it experience long-term segregation? Is it quickly absorbed into the mainstream? Does it wish to wish to retain its own cultural traditions? (ibid) Does the host country, in this context Denmark, in developing language policies regard its minority language as a "problem", a "resource" or as a "right"?(Ruiz 1984 in Andersen, 1992)

40

7.4.3 Ethnicity
Everybody agrees that the term "ethnicity" is difficult to define, and many researchers do not even try to define it (Lange & Westin 1981, quoted in Liebkind 1984:1983). Definitions have varied constantly over time and across disciplines. 1977, quoted in Liebkind 1984:23). According to Skutnabb-Kangas et.al. (1993:137-138), ethnicity is a complex concept, which does not have a definite content. Through history, researchers have varied suggestions on which characteristics and conditions are important to define the concept. The importance of language for ethnicity is one of the conditions which is often emphasised. Skutnabb-Kangas et al present viewpoints/opinions of selected researchers on this relation and use several distinctions in discussing the various theories. The first distinction is that between primordialism and instrumentalism. According to the primordialistic researchers of ethnicity, language is something the individual was born to and not acquired, the members of the ethnic group inherit it in the sense, that it is not something they choose, but something they have been ascribed. Language therefore gets a character of something original and determined by fate. Primordialism is basically founded on emotional arguments, and is often seen by the instrumentalist as pre-rational (in contrast to instrumentalism which is seen as rational). Many primordialists support the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis, either in its strong form, as the language determining our conception of the world, or, mostly, in the weaker form where language as the beginning/starting point influences the way the world is experienced. In contrast, the instrumentalists perceive language as something acquired, socially constructed, and manipulable in the situation. When an ethnic group puts emphasis on the language, it is, according to the instrumentalists, (only) because the elite of the group, in order to achieve advantages, manipulates the group and uses all the characteristics, including language, which are effective in the mobilisation of the group. Therefore, language itself has no particular importance for the instrumentalists, but only acquires importance when it is used as a means to acquire a certain goal, in the same As a term, "ethnicity" has its scientific roots primarily in anthropology and ethnology (Dasdamirov

41

way as any other ethnic characteristics. Most researchers are not pure primordialist or instrumentalists, but unite characteristics from both theories. Another related theoretical distinction is between survivalists and evolutionists. Ethnicity is perceived by the survivalists as the basis for a categorisation/grouping of people, which is historically permanent (but dynamic and therefore changeable). It is tied to deep emotional needs for the individual, which the state or other types/levels of organisations cannot meet. In contrast, the evolutionists consider ethnicity as a non-existing, old- fashioned kind of social organisation which, with the development of the societies, is replaced by other, more "modern" kinds of social organisation. For example, many Marxist evolutionists perceive ethnicity as a non-developed kind of class-consciousness, which disappears in a stratified industrialised society or in a socialist/communist society. way to more rational kinds of (democratic) organisation. Since individuals choose an identification, which they perceive as the most useful for upward mobility in society, many (mostly evolutionist) researchers also consider class and ethnicity as alternative ways of categorisation/grouping. In a situation wherein it is not possible to use class or ethnicity as the basis/foundation of categorisation, the individual may choose a religion-based identification to secure mobility. For the liberal evolutionists, ethnicity is a primordial phenomenon which, as time goes on, must give

42

7.4.4 Ethnic Identity
The concept of identity is hard to define and evades many ordinary methods of measurement. Psychological theories on identity models tend to ignore the social context in which the identity develops while sociological models tend to ignore intraindividual factors and therefore fail to explain the differences in identity found within the same social category of people (Lange and Westin 1981 in Liebkind 1984:42). Identity can be defined in various ways. It can be defined through a positivistic approach; an existential phenomenology approach; cultural approach; among others. Identity literature operate with concepts such as identity content, identity structure and identity processes. The components of identity content can be ascribed, achieved or adopted. (see details Liebkind 1984). In this paper, ethnic identity is understood more in terms of what kind of linguistic identity the 2nd generation ethnic minorities have been given the conditions of forming: monolingual or bi/multilingual. According to Skutnabb-Kangas, "monolingual is a person who "knows" only one language, whatever that means. And for an individual, monolingualism almost inevitably means monoculturalism and monoculism, being able to see things with one pair of glasses only and having a poorly developed capacity to see things from another person's or group's point of view. It mostly means knowing not more than one culture from inside, and therefore lacking relativity. For a country, official monolingualism in the majority of cases means that all minorities are oppressed and their linguistic human rights are violated." Further, she states that to her monolingualism, both individual and societal, is not so much a linguistic phenomenon (even if it has to do with language). It is rather a question of a psychological state, backed up by political power. Monolingualism is a psychological island. It is an ideological cramp. It is an illness, a disease which should be eradicated as soon as possible, because it is dangerous for world peace. It is a reflection of linguicism." (1988: 11-13). A development of a bilingual (see our concept definition) ethnic identity of an ethnic minority is important for the following reasons: a good command of the mother tongue

43

is necessary for communicating with the family and extended family within and outside the country of origin and; re-integration in the country of origin should they wish to return. It is also necessary for cognitive development and a sound identity development. A good command of the second language is necessary for further education, for the labour market and in general for participation in the larger society. Since the development of a bilingual/bicultural ethnic identity (which is seen as a relation between the child and the rest of society which must validate this identity and create conditions for its development) is dependent on all the parties negotiating the conditions for the development of this identity, it is important to look at what the Danish society does in order to fulfil its part in creating good conditions in the educational system.

7.5

The School in Relation to Language and Integration

Schooling through the medium of mother tongue is advocated in 1953 by UNESCO, (known as "vernacular advantage" theory). UNESCO states that "it is axiomatic that the best medium for teaching a child is his mother tongue" (UNESCO, 1953:11). "Every child is born into a cultural environment. Thus, the acquiring of this language plays an important part in moulding the child's early concepts... pupils should begin their schooling through the medium of the mother tongue, because they understand it best and because to begin their school life in the mother tongue will make the break between home and school as small as possible" (ibid.). According to Skutnabb-Kangas (1984:135), L1 generally seems to be best medium of instruction for minorities. However, it is not necessarily the only possibility for all. By pointing to the need to look at the goals of different forms of provision, SkutnabbKangas argues that "it is not axiomatic... that L1 is always the best possible medium of instruction. It seems that those programmes whose goal is bilingualism (and not monolingualism) namely immersion and maintenance, (can) succeed in making children bilingual, either now, or in some cases with the help of minor improvements which can be made inside the school system". "The important question is ... what kind of society give bilinguals the greatest chance of satisfying their communicational needs". (ibid:39). This is also what is shown in 8.2, in Baker's models.

44

Integration can be discussed in different perspectives (sociological, psychological, philosophical and other field of disciplines) and dimensions (personal, relational-as small group integration or macrosociological level). Integration can be seen as a goal; as a means (individual and by group); and as a link (segregation-acculturation-integration Skutnabb-Kangas 1983). In this context, we will discuss integration based on a combination of the conceptualisation introduced by Skutnabb-Kangas (1983) and by Ruiz (language as a "problem", language as a "resource" and language as "right") (1984). Rahbek Pedersen and Skutnabb-Kangas (1983) claim that integration as a goal is defined as being an absolute opposite to assimilation (see our concept definition), meaning to keep one's own culture and language and complementing it with the new language and culture which to us means that this definition is additive. Another approach to integration as a goal has been to see it as very similar to assimilation (adopting to new culture and language by giving up the culture and language of origin), which we see it as being subtractive. Assimilation is seen as a process of interpenetrating and fusion in which persons or groups acquire sentiments and attitudes of other persons or groups, and, by sharing their experience and history, are incorporated with them in a common cultural life (Horst 1988 quoted in Andersen, 1992) Integration as a means can be divided into two level: individual and group. At an individual level, the individual wants to attain equality, with the same status as the majority, and with this goal, the minority uses structural integration (to learn the language; to have education at the majority school; to participate in the majority's institution in terms of economic, political and administration) as a means to attain this. The strategy is mainly use by minority individuals that do not differ from the majority by looks. For a minority that does not look similar to the majority, it would be more difficult to integrate in individual level hence they tend to integrate as a group. Looking at integration as a group strategy, is often seen as an opposition to segregation, for members who by appearance are so different from the majority that they cannot be 45 and assimilation) (Rahbek-Pedersen and

integrated or assimilated as individuals. Therefore, the only possibility is to integrate them as a group, the individual then attains high status and resulting him/her accepted by society. But then the status (whether low or high) of the group is of high importance in the acceptance by the rest of the society of the group. Historically, integration as a link can be seen as a process in immigration wherein the ethnic minority faces segregation in the sense that they have just arrived and do not know the structure of the society; acculturation is seen to be the second level which means that the ethnic minority is perceived as being structurally adapting to some extent to the society of the majority; then comes the third level where one possibility is integration where in some norms and attitude of the majority are added to the ethnic minority's original ethnicity; while they maintain much of their own. Another possibility is assimilation: the ethnic minority is taking over the language, norms and attitudes of the majority at the cost of their own. At the same time they give up their own ethnicity. The "reason" behind the development of language policy for ethnic minorities is seen to influence the result of the goal. "Reason" is the way a host country treats or see minority languages. A host country that sees minority languages as a "problem" because it sees it as serving as an impediment in the acquisition of the majority language, will in effect use assimilation in dealing with the problem .This would then lead to a transition, a shift to" monolingualism." (or a strong dominance of the majority language) On the other hand, minority languages can also be seen as a "resource", that is second language acquisition is seen as a process of building on the first which means that a host country encourages the maintenance and development of the first language and culture. This results to a development of a bilingual/multilingual oriented educational policy. Minority languages as a "right" mean that learning of the languages of the ethnic minorities are regarded as a linguistic human right. The fact that a well developed minority language also supports the learning of the majority language is a positive sideeffect but not the main reason for supporting the mother tongue. Moreover, according to Bernard (1973), "Integration is achieved when migrants become a working party of their adopted society, take on many of its attitudes and behaviour 46

patterns, and participate freely in its activities, but at the same time retain a measure of their original cultural identity and ethnicity/assimilation passes beyond this point... and takes place when migrants or their descendants have merged themselves so fully with the native inhabitants, have adopted new folkways and a new culture (a blend of their old culture and that of the host society) so thoroughly, and have abandoned their original ethnicity so wholly that they are indistinguishable from the natives and have attained a social invisibility" (1973:87 quoted in Hjarno 1995:200).

47

8. Bilingual Educational Models & the Rights of the Child
8.1 Introducing the Models and Documents
We have chosen to include 2 types of models (educational and developmental) and one treaty to support our investigation of the Danish policy on education. In order to be able to assess the education suggested for immigrant minority children in the Danish documents that we have analysed, we have looked at several typologies of education for both minority and majority children. Many of them are similar and partially based on or building on each other. We decided to use the typology from Colin Baker's book; "Foundation of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism" which is a development of Skutnabb-Kangas' models (1984, 1988, 1990). Baker's typology has been further developed by Skutnabb-Kangas and García (1995) but this typology is too detailed for our purposes. Baker has made a scheme in which he has developed categories within each type of education that gives a clear overview and makes the forms easy to compare. The next model shows the stages of the development of minority education and was developed by Skutnabb-Kangas partly on the basis of a report by Stacy Churchill for the OECD, CERI. (Skutnabb-Kangas 1990). We have chosen to use this model because we think that finding out which stage the Danish educational policy has reached will clarify the picture of it. We can put all our documents into the model and thus have a basis to compare them as the model, like Baker’s scheme use categories. It moreover shows the different types of education as stages in a development which means that a wider context is given and the possibility of moving on to the next stage is presented. The treaties of the rights of the child and the “Copenhagen Document” we have chosen because we believe that they are very important and should be naturally incorporated in every law and policy. Unfortunately this cannot always be taken for granted and therefore we find it crucial to compare the Danish policy to the treaty especially as this has been ratified by Denmark. We have chosen §29 and §30 from the Rights of the Child and § 34 from the “Copenhagen Document” because they specifically deal with the linguistic rights of the minority children.

48

8.2 Types of Bilingual Education
8.2.1 Bakers Table

49

Baker presents ten types of models of education for bilingualism. The first six models for bilingual education are weak forms which lead to monolingualism or limited bilingualism with very strong dominance in one language. The last four models are strong as they have bilingualism as an intended outcome. In the descriptions we have added some details from Skutnabb-Kangas 1995.

8.2.2 Submersion Education
This is the label to describe the education for language minority children who are placed in mainstream education. The language minority child will be taught in the majority language only, among classmates who are fluent in the majority language. Neither the teachers nor the pupils will be expected to speak the language of the minority child. The minority language is not developed and will eventually be replaced by the majority language. Baker and other researchers thus believe that the submersion education aims at assimilation of the language minority speakers. Furthermore it might "disable" the minority child as he or she has to learn the curriculum through an underdeveloped language which demands such an effort that there will be less time for the child to concentrate on the curriculum content itself. The self confidence of the minority child might suffer as they will have only fluent majority language speakers to compare themselves to (see our report chapter 6.7 ). As the minority language is not "allowed" in the school the child may easily feel that she/he, the parents, the native language and the home culture is disparaged and thus start to feel ashamed of her/his background. The analogy of this education is of a swimming pool where the minority child is thrown in and is supposed to learn to swim by themselves without getting any help or instruction. "Pupils may either sink, struggle or swim" (page 154)

50

8.2.3 Submersion with Withdrawal Classes
Some places the submersion education is used with the addition of withdrawal classes or "pull out" classes. The language minority children are withdrawn to have "compensatory" lessons in the majority language in order to keep them in mainstream schooling. This however might mean that the minority children fall behind in the curriculum content compared to the majority children not in withdrawal classes and also that they might be judged as being "disabled" or "limited in e.g. English" and thus get or feel excluded by the society.

8.2.4 Segregationist Education
This form of education is monolingual through the medium of the minority language only and could be for apartheid (e.g. earlier in South Africa) so that the ruling power can prevent the ethnic minorities from getting a common medium of communication needed to revolt and for obtaining more power. In this form, there is no (or only poor) teaching of the power language. It is important to differentiate between this model and the strong maintenance models which teach the power language well as a second language and which are voluntary for the child, whereas the segregationist classes are obligatory - the child is not offered any alternative.

8.2.5 Transitional Bilingual Education
As it is the case with the submersion education, the transitional bilingual education aims at assimilation but in the transitional model the language minority children can use their mother tongue temporarily until they are expected to be (superficially, orally) proficient enough in the majority language to cope in mainstream schooling. In that way the use of the majority language is gradually increased while the use of the mother tongue decreases. There are two forms of transitional bilingual education in the USA; early exit and late exit. In early exit the mother tongue is being used two years at the most, while in late exit the mother tongue can be used in up to 40% of the classroom teaching until the 6th grade. 51

When we think of the two levels of language proficiency, BICS and CALP, it seems likely that minority children may be judged by the teachers to be good enough in the majority language after grade 6, to be put in mainstream schooling when in reality only the BICS of the new language has developed. Therefore even they are likely to get almost as many problems with learning both the majority language CALP and the mother tongue CALP, even if they are in a somewhat better position than children who are put in submersion schooling right away.

8.2.6 Mainstream Education (with Foreign Language Teaching)
The term "drip-feed" is used to describe the learning of second (foreign) language in mainstream schooling. The pupils for instance have half an hour of drip-feed a day of a foreign language as a subject in the curriculum or they might have 2-4 hours per week for some years, as most Danish children have in relation to English, German and French. This could lead to bilingualism. Experiences in many countries however, show, that even many years of drip-feed (for example 12 years of French drip-feed language teaching of English speaking students in Canada) has not made the pupils fluent in the second/foreign language so in reality the mainstream education with foreign language teaching leads only to limited bilingualism. The situation in many small countries in Europe, for instance in Scandinavia, is better than in North America, in relation to the first foreign language (i.e. mostly English), but even here those who become really fluent develop the language also outside school, through television, music, travel, etc.

8.2.7 Separatist Education
This is an education that a language minority can use in order to protect itself from being overrun by the majority language or it could be for religious, political or cultural reasons. The education would be fostering monolingualism in the minority language, but it is not usual that such a school will separate itself purely on linguistic grounds.

52

Now we have come to the four "strong" forms of education, so called because they have bilingualism as an intended outcome unlike the 6 previous forms which do not foster bilingualism in school.

8.2.8 Immersion Bilingual Education
This education policy started in Canada in 1967 as a wish from some middle-class English speaking parents to send their children to an experimental kindergarten. The aim was for the children to become competent in speaking, reading and writing French at the same time as reaching normal achievement levels in English and the rest of the curriculum content and learning to appreciate the culture of the French-speaking Canadians. The outcomes of the education has been that by the end of the school period the immersion pupils were equally good or even better English language speakers than the youngsters having gone through ordinary English-medium schooling. Furthermore they had learned French almost up to the level of native French speaking children. There are various forms of immersion education differing in the age at which the child commences the education and the amount of time spent in immersion a day. There is the early immersion where the child is at kindergarten or infant stage when starting, the middle immersion where the child is 9-10 years old and the late immersion at secondary level. Regarding time, there is total immersion starting with 100% in second language later going down to 80% and ending the school period with 50%. Partial immersion uses about 50% second language all through the schooling period. The experiment in Canada shows that this form of education is very efficient as it seems to reach its aims of bilingualism and biliteracy. More than 1/2 million children have already been through immersion. There can be different reasons for the success of the immersion policy; first of all it is optional for the parents unlike the earlier mentioned submersion education for example and that might help to motivate the pupils. Among other reasons could be that all the pupils start at approximately the same level in the second language with the same lack of experience so that the self-confidence of the pupils will not be damaged in the same way as it might be for some in the mainstream education. At the same

53

time it will be easier for the teacher to teach pupils at the same level. All teachers are bilingual. The pupils can see that they are improving without having to compare themselves to fluent language speakers as in the submersion education.

8.2.9 Maintenance Bilingual Education
The maintenance education is the education of language minority children through the medium of their minority language in a majority language society with good teaching of the majority language as a subject throughout the schooling. All the pupils will have the same mother tongue and the teachers are bilingual. The parents have the choice of whether to send their children to "mainstream" schools or to maintenance language education. The maintenance language education is often used in situations where there is a danger that the minorities may loose mother tongue and the justification given is that "a minority language is easily lost, a majority language is easily gained" (page 164) as the children are surrounded by the majority language through television, advertisements, shops etc. And thus by concentrating on the minority language in school bilingualism will be achieved. The most important difference between Maintenance education and transitional programs is not the number of hours through the mother tongue or when (or if) the transition happens, but the status of the minority mother tongue. In transition the minority language is only being used in order to learn the majority language and has no status, whereas in maintenance education being taught through the medium of your mother tongue is seen as a linguistic human right and an enrichment process. Baker and Skutnabb-Kangas mention that he education has been tried successfully through the medium of Navajo and Spanish in the U.S, Catalan and Basque in Spain, Ukrainian, French, Inuktitut and Cree in Canada, Gaelic in Scotland, Finnish in Sweden, Swedish in Finland, Frisian in Holland, Russian in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania etc., Greek in Germany, Hungarian in Romania and Slovakia, several languages in Africa and many Asian countries notably India, and Welsh in Wales.

8.2.10 Two-Way/Dual Language Bilingual Education
54

In this education there is an approximately equal number of language majority children and language minority children (from one minority only) in the class and both languages will be used in the classroom initially mainly the minority language. The aim is both bilingualism and biliteracy for all children maybe with a small emphasis on native language literacy for both. Two-way programs have four characteristics: 1) A minority language is used for at least 50% of the instruction. 2) In each period of instruction, only one language is used. 3) Both minority and majority language speakers are present in preferably balanced numbers. 4) The minority and majority language speakers are integrated in all lessons except mother tongue lessons and, in good programs, second language lessons. The placement of children in this education is voluntary for the parents. Experiments with the education in other countries suggest that the language minority parents may be supportive of such a programs, while the majority language parents may need more persuading.

8.2.11 Mainstream Bilingual Education
In Europe this education is mainly being used in the ten special schools for employees of the European Union. Younger children use their native language as the medium of learning in their own subsections but also receive second language learning (English, French or German) from grade 1. From grade 3 they will also get some hours through the medium of this "vehicular" language which will be the child's "majority" second language. To encourage pluralism and multiculturalism the children also get "European Hours" were they are mixed from different language backgrounds. Here they do context embedded, cognitively undemanding projects together in their second language where they have to co-

55

operate. From grade 8, several cognitively demanding decontextualised subjects will be taught through the second language but the mother tongue continues to be used for several subjects throughout the hole education. Furthermore the pupils are taught a third language chosen among the languages present in the school, in the different subsections for at least 360 hours. The difference between this form of education and the Canadian immersion education is that in this the second language is taught as a subject before being used as a medium of instruction and it will continue to be taught as a subject thus leading to a high level of biliteracy. Research show that this education has been extremely successful in creating bilingual, bilateral and multicultural students. This however could partly be due to the fact that the children attending the education often come from bilingual, literacyoriented middle class bureaucrat homes which makes them privileged in the bilingual process.

56

8.3 Presentation of the Model of the Development of Minority Education
8.3.1 Table of the Development of Minority Education

57

The model showing the stages in the development of minority education consists of three categories: 1) the reason for problems, 2) measure and 3) goal. Each stage is inserted in these categories, developing from the first category to the next and finishing with the third. The first category shows the problems which arises in minority education, as they are recognised by the majority. The next category shows the measure which is used to solve the problems also suggested by the majority. Finally the third category shows the goals aimed at with this education. The first stage, first category describes in short the theory of the problems as being purely linguistic. The child does not know the majority language, referred to as L2, well enough, is linguistically handicapped. The child cannot cope with the demands of the school because of its limited skills in the language in which the lessons are taught and therefore have lower scores in tests and participate less in the lessons. The corresponding measure, category two, is more teaching of the majority language (here MaL) through for example introduction classes. The children are offered extra lessons in MaL to support the normal education. What is actually happening here is that the BICS of the child is developed while the CALP is lacking behind. All the sides of the language learning are not included here. The goal, category three, is to make the minority (here MI) MaL speaking as fast as possible, so that they can return fully to the normal classes. What is happening here is that the children will lack some basic knowledge to base further language learning on. Moreover the children will only develop the MaL language as that is the only one represented in the teaching. The second stage, first category the problem introduced are based on a social handicap. The parents come from the lowest social classes which may results in not enough support from the home in shape of intellectual stimulation and challenge. The measure to be used, category two, is more social and pedagogical help meaning psychologists, social workers etc. The goal, category, is like in the previously mentioned stage to get the concerned children on a level equal to that of the other children. This stage is not only directed towards the minority children but can be used on all children. The third stage, first category, is a cultural handicap. The child comes from a different culture and is therefore discriminated against and looses his/her self-confidence. What is probably thought of here is the lack of insight in the majority culture caused by the upbringing in the minority children have already been formed in the picture of one culture 58

through the up-bringing and some of the cultural traits such as norms, traditions and ways of thinking are contradicting the surrounding society’s norms and ideas. This causes problems for the child when it is placed in between two contradicting cultures and is forced to live with the demands of both of them. The discrimination caused is perhaps more due to the appearance of the child than to the culture itself especially in the lower grades. The measure (category two)suggested is more information to the majority (MA) about MI. Multicultural / intercultural programmes should be carried out and the teachers should attend additional courses. When concerned children and discrimination this might be a good idea, as they are open and easy to influence especially if the information is presented in a way which makes it easy for them to relate to their own life and feelings. When we talk about the racism performed by adults in connection with for example politics more than information is needed to change this attitude. The goal of this stage (category three) is to maintain MiL in a short period of time (one to two generations) until a high level of MaL has been reached and ousted MiL. Until this goal is reached the children are offered minimal help to support their knowledge of their own culture and language e.g. through mother tongue lessons. The fourth stage is the last of the deficit theories which means that a theory is based on a problem, a lack. That this is how the theory is recognised. Category one contains a linguistic problem same as in stage one but this time it is concerned with a lack of skills in L1. The child’s limited knowledge of her own mother tongue leads to a limited knowledge of L2 as the theory of CALP is used here as an argument. The measure, category two, does not follow this theory through as it suggests L1 used as a medium of teaching but only temporarily, until L2 has been developed satisfactorily. The minority language (MiL) has no intrinsic value but is merely therapeutic and to ensure self-confidence and a better cooperation with the home of the child in addition to functioning as a bridge to learning L2. The goal, category three, is the same as in stage three. The bilingual situation is only a phase before the skills in L2 have reached a high level then MiL is ignored. The fifth stage is an enrichment theory which means that it is recognised by positive characteristics and not by problems. Category one states that a high level of bilingualism is beneficial for the individual but difficult to achieve and demands much work and energy. The primary goal though, as it is already mentioned in this category, is to learn MaL properly. Value of bilingualism is here only a measure to learn L2 and not a goal in itself. 59

Category two starts with teaching through the medium of L1 parallel with additional teaching of MaL. A transition to teaching of MaL is carried out after a couple of years. Category three states that MiL is allowed to be maintained for private use only. Bilingualism is necessary, but MiL should only exist as long as there is demographic basis for it, as long as the language is “alive”. The sixth and last stage belongs to the enrichment theory and the first category says that bilingualism enhances development and that the problems which might arise are similar to those of the monolingual children, apart from those caused by racism. The second category suggests separate schools for MI and MA which are equal apart from the fact that the MI children should be taught in smaller units. Both groups of children should be taught in their mother tongue but the learning of L2 should be obligatory. The existence of MI is seen as an enrichment for the whole society and MiL has at least some official status. The use of MiL is encouraged for everybody. Here bilingualism is seen as a goal, the highest level one can reach within this area and neither as a mean nor as a problem.

60

8.4 Conventions
8.4.1 UN Convention of the Rights of the Child
19th of July 1991 Denmark ratified the UN Convention of the Rights of the child as state number 94.To ratify a convention means that a state must change its policy so that it does not violate the contents of this specific document. A state though can claim that it cannot stand behind parts of the convention as it is against the national law or tradition. A state can also choose to make a declaration on parts of the convention to clarify that a certain way of understanding/interpreting the document has been selected. The Convention was passed by the UN general assembly 20th of November 1989 after ten years of work . Two years after the convention had been ratified by 100 countries and furthermore signed by 42 more. The Convention contains both political, social , economic and cultural rights and is therefore more expanded than the previous documents concerning human rights. The Convention is an expression of the development of an acceptance of the children as an independent group with its own interests and need of protection. Children are not forming a strong and effective group of interest which is able to make the statesmen stick to their promises, therefore is the this Convention of enormous importance. The following articles are a step in the right direction of acknowledging the minority children as being a special group with special needs but is unfortunately a bit vague formulated. Article 30 for example only states that the children should not be denied the right to their own culture and language, not that they have the right to it. This formulation only demands of the state that it does not suppress the minorities directly and nothing is said about supporting or at least offer access to the development of ethnic provinces.(CSCE 1990,both articles have been taken from Skutnabb-Kangas and Phillipson, 1994) Article 29,1. In the Convention states as follows: "States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to": c) "The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the

61

country from which he or she may originate and for the civilisations different from his or her own." Article 30 states:" In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exists, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language."

8.4.2 The Copenhagen Document
The "Copenhagen Document" was created in 1990 on a CSCE meeting concerning the Human Dimension of the organisation in Copenhagen. We have chosen to emphasise the article 34, as it specifically is directed towards language and minorities and therefore highly interesting. Article 34 states:" The participating States will endeavour to ensure that persons belonging to national minorities, notwithstanding the need to learn the official language or languages of the State concerned, have adequate opportunities for instruction of their mother tongue or in their mother tongue, as well as, wherever possible and necessary, for its use before public authorities, in conformity with applicable national legislation..."(CSCE,1990 taken from Skutnabb-Kangas and Phillipson 1994) Until recently the 6. April this article only covered national minorities, but this has now been changed. Article 27 in the UN Covenant on Civil and Political Right was added following comment :"Protecting all individuals on the States territory or under its jurisdiction (i.e. also immigrants and refugees),irrespective of whether they belong to the minorities specified in the article or not...(U.N. document 1994, taken from SkutnabbKangas and Phillipson, 1994)

62

9 Investigation of Three Official Danish Documents
9.1 Introducing the Three Documents
To construct a picture of the means and goals and their internal relations, the balance between the two involved languages in relation to importance and emphasis, and the possibilities of obtaining the described goals through the suggested measures, three official documents will be dealt with. Those are: the policy of the Ministry of Interior (Indenrigsministeriet) on integration of ethnic minorities in Denmark "Integration af indvandrere i Danmark", hereafter referred to as I.I.D., the guideline in mother tongue education by the Ministry of Education (Undervisningsministeriet) for bilingual pupils in comprehensive school "Modersmålsundervisning for tosprogede elever", hereafter referred to as M.T.E. and the responding report from the Immigrant Council(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab) "Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen nedsat af Indvandrernes repræsentantskab vedrørerende integration af indvandrerne" hereafter referred to as I.R. The first document the I.I.D. was chosen because it is the latest attempt to summarise the different efforts done within the area of integration and to make suggestions of change. The report was developed by a group from allocated to different ministries appointed by the Ministry of Interior. Incorporated in the analysis of this cross-ministerial report is the declaration of the education of pupils with a foreign mother tongue "Bekendtgørelse om folkeskolens undervisning af fremmedsprogede elever"(Undervisningsministeriet 1984) as this document contains the laws corresponding in topic (education of ethnic minorities) to that of the report. The second document M.T.E. was chosen because it shows a different approach to the subject as it was made by people who are more directly connected with the area concerned(integration and education of ethnic minorities). The fact that this document was developed four years later than the cross-ministerial report: I.I.D. gives an idea of the development of the use of concepts and the attitude towards the ethnic minorities through time.

63

The third document the I.R. is a reaction to the first mentioned report I.I.D. developed by a working group appointed by the Immigrant Council. The Immigrant Council contains representatives from different ethnic minority organisations and the purpose of the Council is to inform the Danish society about the minority organisations, their activities, opinions and attitudes. The Council is furthermore used as consultants and as a source of information for the different ministries in connection with matters concerning the ethnic minorities in Denmark. We found it important to investigate the opinion of the ethnic minority representatives as the policy is going to influence their present and future position in the society. It is vital to give an alternative suggestion to that of the Ministry, especially when the source of this suggestion has an angle which is motivated by being in a different situation than that of the group who developed the I.I.D. report.

64

9.2. Investigation of the Official Danish Policy on Integration and Language
9.2.1. Background
The central document in the integration policy is "Integration af indvandrere i Danmarkbeskrivelse og forslag til bedre prioritering" (Indenrigsministeriet 1990),(hereafter referred to as I.I.D.)which is why we have chosen to deal with it as the first. It is a report which was written in 1989-90, after a suggestion from the Social Democratic Party, by a Crossministerial Working Group whose members were selected by the Ministry of Interior. The purpose of this document was to describe the present integration efforts and to put forward suggestions of how to make the process more effective. In the examination of this document, the Declaration (Undervisningministeriet 1984) will be incorporated and commented on as the two documents are connected to and refer to each other.

9.2.2. The Working Group
One of the first things which strikes one while reading through the I.I.D. is the composition of the Working Group; it includes no linguists, researchers, psychologists or teachers whatsoever among its members. One would assume that such an important and complex area as integration would demand a certain professional expertise within the fields concerned, at least in the suggestion and planning process.

9.2.3. The "Co-operation" with the Immigrant Council
It is pointed out that the "Immigrant Council" (Indvandrerrådet) and possibly other immigrant representatives should be incorporated in the compilation of the I.I.D (I.I.D. p.4). This sounds very promising as more and involved opinions and ideas would then have the possibility to be brought out in the open. The original plan was to let the Immigrant Council comment on the report and make suggestions and then include a chapter in the finished

65

report containing these. But at the first meeting between the Group and the Immigrant Council, the Council expressed a wish to be directly represented in the Group. This resulted in an election of three representatives from the Council who were then connected with the Working Group. At the meeting the 5 May 1989 between the Group and "Indvandrernes repræsentantskab" the Group was criticised for not incorporating the immigrant representatives directly in the work and also for not giving the Council enough time to read and discuss the material handed in. The meeting ended without any results and a further representation in the work of the Group was postponed until autumn to give the council more time for examining the report. Then on the 22 May it was decided (at an extra ordinary meeting between the two parties) that instead of including a chapter dedicated to the proposals of the council in the report, these should be collected in a separate supplementary document. The co-operation hereafter ended and the Immigrant Council was not introduced to the final report as "they did not wish to take a stand on the present report" according to this cross-ministerial report: "ikke har ønsket at tage stilling til nærværende rapport" (I.I.D.p.6). According to the commenting report (I.R.) written by the Immigrant Council (I.R.p.7) the Council representatives were allowed to participate in some of the meetings of the Working Group but did not have any influence on the elaboration of the report (I.R.)or the possibility to comment on it before the publication. Despite several requests to participate in the elaboration of the report (I.R.) and requests to get the cross ministerial report in vain, the Council was denied both and in addition the above mentioned comment was included in the report (Indenrigsministeriet 1990). Therefore the Immigrant Council elaborated a supplement to the I.R. Very limited secretarial assistance (as the request for this was also turned down by the Ministry of Interior) and the lack of insight into the details of the I.D.D. led the Immigrant Council to feeling forced to limit its own work to only drawing up some fundamental principals and considerations as a base for an overall and well defined Danish integration policy, and also to proposing several concrete suggestions for integration programmes and how to organise them. One might believe that the co-operation between the Ministry of Interior and the Immigrant Council could have been more smooth, as it is the ethnic minorities who are going to be influenced by a reformulated immigration policy. The ethnic minorities are often blamed for not being active participants in the Danish society, but the question is whether they are 66

given any real possibilities for making choices in their lives in the Danish society or whether they feel that they are only given symbolic rights, without the power to participate in the crucial decisions of Danish immigrant and integration policy.

9.2.4 The people concerned
Moving on to the content of the report itself, we started by investigating what the group of people which this policy considers is namely the ethnic minorities or "immigrants" as they are called in this context. In the I.I.D. this specific group is defined (Indenrigsministeriet 1990, p.7): " ...udlændinge, som ikke kommer fra de nordiske lande, fællesmarkedets lande og Nordamerika, og som ikke har politisk asyl her i landet, dvs. Ikke er flygtninge." (Translation) :"...Foreigners/ foreign nationals who do not come from the Nordic countries, the EU-countries and North America and who do not have political asylum in this country i.e. are not refugees. " This group is further defined and it is argued for the definition (Indenrigsministeriet 1990, p.15) :" Vor indvandrerpolitik tager navnlig sigte på de indvandrere, der kommer fra lande med sociale, Økonomiske og kulturelle forhold, der er meget forskellige fra vores forhold, da indvandrere fra de nordiske lande, fra fællesmarkedet og fra Nordamerika stort set forventes at kunne klare sig selv." (Translation) :" Our Integration policy aims especially at the immigrants who come from countries with social, economic and cultural conditions which differ a lot from ours, as immigrants from the Nordic countries, from EU- countries and from North America are largely expected manage themselves". This way of categorising people can hardly be said to be scientific or well-considered. What the definition does is to stigmatise the immigrants. They are described as persons who cannot cope on their own and are not even given the chance to prove that they are actually able to. According to this definition, people from the mentioned countries have a culture and a domestic social structure which is closer to ours than people from the rest of the world and it is therefore less complicated for them to integrate. In practise it means that a person from a Nordic country for example from Finland is not in need of being helped to integrate i.e. he does not need any special language courses, job training, advice etc. as he comes from an EU- country. A person coming from Eastern Europe for example Estonia whose language, like that of the Finn, is non-indo-European will on the other hand be affected by this policy as her/his country is

67

not among the mentioned. Geographical borders and international unions are here deciding who is in need of special treatment and who is not. A nation is according to this definition a homogeneous group of people who have exactly the same requirements. They are being judged and measured according to their nationality and culture, which is here seen as something static (one country has one eternal culture), and not according to their individual background, needs, skills, norms and character. This is an example of ethnicism, a concept similar to racism, where people are discriminated against not because of biological differences but because of cultural indicators (Mullard 1988 from Skutnabb- Kangas 1988)

9.2.5 Goals
If this is the group which is aimed at by the policy what are then the specific goals? "Integration of Immigrants in Denmark" the report is called. As we have already seen when we defined the concepts there are several ways of understanding the concept "integration". Already on one of the first pages (p.4) in the I.I.D. we get a sense of how the Working Group behind this report have chosen to interpret this concept. By only mentioning the demands om the "immigrants" regarding the learning of Danish and the parents` responsibility for teaching their children Danish, "integration" is understood as a one way process. Only the "immigrants" are expected to contribute to reach the goal. On page 7 (I.I.D.) the concept is more directly defined: the "immigrants" should participate in the Danish society on equal terms with the Danes. At the same time it is pointed out that the individual "immigrant" should not lose her/his identical cultural traits against his will. Here the definition starts to show some coherence with our understanding of the word. The Working Group also recognises that the process should be a co-operation between the minority and the majority, but the demands which they have chosen to put forward to the two groups differ considerably. The minority is expected to engage in the integration whereas the majority only has to display understanding. The responsibility for a successful integration is then mainly placed on the minority. On page 16 the working group states that it is unrealistic to think that an "immigrant" can participate fully in the Danish society and still keep her or his culture and way of life intact. The person who has immigrated must accept certain losses to suit the norms of the Danish society. Culture is here seen as an unstable changeable concept which contradicts the former mentioned definition from page

68

15. Again it is the minority which has to participate actively while the majority only has to act with understanding for the remaining cultural traits, a passive participation. On page 15 the concept "integration" is indirectly defined in a quotation from a statement made by the Ministry of Interior, as it is explained here what the concept does not cover, or rather what has to be prevented if integration is to be fulfilled. It is to be prevented, it says, that the "immigrants" develop into a minority group, which under the worst circumstances is in opposition to the surroundings. We agree that if opposition characterises the relationship between the two groups then the co-operation has failed and so the integration. But by using the word "minority group" in a negative context, one could interpret that being aware of your belonging to an ethnic group on a social and identical level and even being proud of it, is to be prevented by means of integration. This and the earlier mentioned examples of the concept definition indicate that it is rather assimilation (see chapter 5.3) than integration which is the goal.

9.2.6 Diagnosis
To reach the goal put forward in the I.I.D. certain obstacles are to be recognised and removed. The working group makes a diagnosis according to which the poor Danish skills among immigrants has caused a lack of integration (see page 8) especially on the structural level (page 11). The lack of Danish furthermore leads to inferiority (page 48). The group also claims that the children of an ethnic minority have limited experiences in almost all areas in comparison with the Danish children when they start in school because they have been isolated in the family (page 48). From the point of view of the Group's, the "luggage" that the children carry with them in shape of cultural and practical knowledge, personal experiences and skills are worthless. The background of the child is not seen as an enrichment for the child and for the society in general but merely as a problem because it has made the learning of "more important matters" such as the Danish language and general knowledge about the Danish way of life problematic. Danish and Danishness is glorified at the expense of the original values. Exactly such a point of view is the root of the evil little weed called inferiority. It is correct

69

that the majority language is important to learn but to make it the solution to all the integration problems, is perhaps to exaggerate its meaning.

9.2.7 Measures
Several means and measures are suggested to treat the problems. On page 8, page 11, page 48 and page 18 the Working Group recommends that the children should start learning Danish already before starting school and continue throughout their education. Furthermore the exchange of information between Danes and "immigrants" should be expanded. On pages 10 and 11 it is implied that it is especially the parents, who are responsible for teaching their children Danish but that immigrant organisations should also take part in the treatment of the problem by handing out material informing about the possibilities of learning Danish in kindergartens and other pre-school institutions and by being in contact with Danish children. To encourage the children to attend pre-school institutions would not only solve the linguistic problem, it is claimed, but also the problem with isolation and the so-called lack of experience. It is also stressed that the minority children should use the institutions :"as the Danish children" ( page 11) and avoid absence for example in connection with travel to the homeland of the parents".

9.2.8 Integration ?
The suspicion about the use of the word "integration" covering the concept of "assimilation" is here further confirmed. The question which now can be posed is why there is no policy dealing with the Danish children’s absence from the same institutions in connection with for example skiing trips ? The travels to the land of the parents` origin could be of identical importance for the child - it could be to strengthen the ethnic bonds between the child and the parents - the values and the culture they stand for. However a positive statement from the Group though, is found on page 12 where it is recommend that the educationalists in the kindergartens should be bilingual, so that not only Danish but also the mother tongue would be given the opportunity to be developed.

70

9.2.9 School
When the children then start going to school the teaching of Danish should be followed up. Since 20 November 1984 children who are "foreign speaking" have the right to receive special lessons in Danish (page 38) from grade 1. The lessons can be given parallel to the normal education in so-called "reception classes" where the children can attend this special program from 6 months to 2 years or at smaller teams used as supportive education. Normally the children are placed in the grade which corresponds to their age and if possible children of the same nationalities are also gathered in the same classes. After finishing the "reception education" the children can be offered additional lessons in various subjects to bring them up to a technical level which corresponds to that of the Danish children. The children can also be given additional lessons to ensure continued progress in the development of Danish. The function of these lessons is to clarify more abstract notions in connection with the subjects of physics, biology, geography, history and Danish literature. The purpose of these supportive instruments are to make sure that the pupils achieve skills in the Danish language and that they become capable of following the lessons of the "normal" classes (Undervisningsministeriet 1984 § 7).

9.2.10 Means
To improve the learning of Danish the Working Group recommends that the number of children in the reception classes is reduced from 12 to 8 and also that more lessons are reserved for the above mentioned additional Danish education (page 47). The "foreign speaking children" should attend school one to two more hours a day to receive Danish teaching in a separate group. The themes of these lessons should be the same as those of the "normal" class lessons but relevant and abstract concepts should be deepened and illustrated. The group emphasises the communities Albertslund and Farum as good examples of how to make the first period of the children’s school days more gentle. The children are placed in groups of five to seven according to their mother tongue, and each group is connected to a

71

Danish class. After the end of grade 2 the children should be able to participate in "normal" classes but should be offered extra support in Danish. Another important point when discussing integration and the learning of Danish is, the group claims, to recognise that the children not only learn through language lessons but also through intercourse with native speaking children in situations where the school is indirectly (in breaks, on camps etc.) or not present. The group therefore prescripts that the number of "immigrant" children in each class is limited for "their own sake", to insure that they have plenty of native speakers around them. The means to obtain this is to disperse the "immigrant" children to the different schools within the borders of each community. If the dispersing cannot be accomplished voluntarily "ad frivillighedens vej" (Indenrigsministeriet 1990,page 50) quotas should be considered as means. The teachers teaching "mixed" classes should receive some education in the culture of their pupils. The group suggests courses or even teaching of the most spoken mother tongues at the seminars where the teachers are educated. This could lead to more bilingual teachers who would be needed in the "receiving classes" and groups like those mentioned in the example of Farum and Albertslund. Using quotas is not only contradicting the goal of the policy (which is to get two groups of children on equal terms) it also violates the Danish school law, saying that the goal of the teaching in general should among other things (translation)" The school should contribute to the pupils understanding of own and others cultural basis and for the co-operation between man and nature. The everyday of the school should prepare the pupils for developing independence and responsibility for common tasks; the education must therefore be based on intellectual liberty and democracy" :" Folkeskolen skal bidrage til elevernes forståelse af egne og andres kulturelle forudsætninger og for menneskets samspil med naturen. Skolens hele dagligliv skal forberede eleverne til selvstændighed og medansvar for fælles opgaver; undervisningen må derfor bygge på åndsfrihed og demokrati"(Folkeskoleloven, 1990 § 2.1. piece 3). Quotas means a limited number of minority children in a class and thereby also a limited possibility for them to influence and colour the education with their culture and opinion. There has so far been no documented experiments or experiences shoving that a certain number of an ethnic minority present in a class would ease or impede the general learning. To limit the number of minority students in a class will also mean that their influence on the education form, the choice of topics and 72

the attention for their special needs according to a democratic tradition will also be reduced. The goal of integration can then no longer be achieved as the minority will have to submit to the majority totally. Again we are talking assimilation but this time extremely organised and well planned- even in numbers.

9.2.11 BICS and CALP
As we already know from the previous chapters being surrounded by only majority speaking teachers and pupils and being taught in your second language only is not the most effective way of learning. Your BICS is quickly developed but your CALP lacks behind and that is going to give you problems in the future when more abstract methods and concepts will be used. To give the children more Danish lessons added to the normal education which is already in Danish means that their development of CALP is further slowed down as the roots to their present CALP in the mother tongue, a very useful tool, is being repressed. The child does not receive the same amount of information when taught in L2 as a native speaking child because of the breaks needed more often, the misunderstandings, the psychological isolation and stress (see chapter 6.7.). It can also be questioned how motivated the children will be to receive this education when they will have to wave good by to their class mates every day knowing that they themselves will have to stay for two more hours. Children do not tend to look ahead and see how they will benefit (maybe!) from those two more hours- for them it is time which could have been spent playing. The suggestions of the Group can therefore not be said to make the learning process more efficient or support the overall goals of the policy.

9.2.12 Mother Tongue
But what about the mother tongue of the children then, is that a totally neglected area ? § 12 in the Declaration runs as follows: "Det påhviler kommunen at tilbyde fremmedsprogede elever, der er optaget i folkeskolen som undervisningspligtige, undervisning i deres modersmål (nationalsproget), medmindre de undervises heri på anden måde."(Undervisningsministeriet 1984). The municipality has the duty to offer "foreign

73

speaking" children education in their mother tongue or the national language of their land of origin as a subject. The goal of this specific education is, according to § 13 in the above mentioned Declaration, to secure that the pupils maintain and develop their awareness of the mother tongue or the national language and of the conditions in the country. It is at the same time added by the Working Group that many linguists are of the opinion that a well developed mother tongue is the best basis for acquiring a new language (I.I.D. page 42). But who is allowed to receive this education and how is it carried out?

9.2.13 Mother Tongue Education
(Indenrigsministeriet 1990, page 43): " Berettiget til at deltage i undervisningen er

undervisningspligtige elever, der er børn af fremmedsprogede forældre, dvs. børn, der er opvokset i et hjem, hvor sproget er et andet end dansk, idet forældrene er tilflyttet fra udlandet. Betingelsen er dog også opfyldt, selv om den ene af de fremmedsprogede forældre er født og opvokset her i landet, når blot den anden af forældrene er tilflyttet fra udlandet , og når det pågældende fremmedsprog er forældrenes indbyrdes talesprog eller fælles kulturelle sprog." (Translation) :"Entitled to participate in the education are compulsory pupils who are children of foreign speaking parents i.e. children who have grown up in a home where the language used is different from Danish, as the parents have immigrated from abroad. The condition is though also fulfilled even if one of the foreign speaking parents are born and have grown up in this country as long as the other parent has immigrated from abroad and the foreign language concerned is the internal language used between the parents or their common cultural language". To limit the group like this is problematic as it excludes people who might be in need of linguistic support. Let us take an example: a Danish man marries a Polish woman. They settle down in Denmark and have a child. In the home only Polish is spoken as the mother's skills in Danish are limited or because the parents have chosen deliberately to speak the minority language to support it. This child's mother tongue will be Polish, but as the father is not "foreign speaking" this child will not be offered mother tongue education. One might suggest that the father would start speaking Danish with the child but it is experienced by many that it is not that simple

74

to carry out when the other parent does not understand this language. Even more important is that the third generation and the following generations of ethnic minorities are prevented from receiving mother tongue education as they do not fulfil the category. That means that they will never have access to their own language and culture which will therefore slowly die out, not because of a natural evolution but because of missing opportunities to get in contact with and develop the mother tongue. In the long run this loss of languages will also be a loss of resources for the majority society and for the country itself. Bilinguals are useful in a number of situations in connection with external affairs for example trading and exchange of information. The education can according to § 14 (Undervisningsministeriet 1984) apart from the language itself include the original country's history, geography and social conditions. The education is to take starting point in the child's skills in the language concerned and knowledge of the country. The Group mentions that a considerable number of the children have limited mastery of their mother tongue and a casual knowledge of homeland culture. This is due to the fact that most of them are now born in Denmark whereas previous pupils had gone to school in the original country. The mother tongue education consists of 3 to 5 lessons a week and is placed outside of the normal schedule of the child readily on a Saturday. If there are at least 12 pupils signed up for the lessons, a qualified teacher will be connected and otherwise the school is not obliged to establish the course but has the duty to refer to other municipalities within the county where it is possible to get the education (Undervisningsministeriet 1984 § 12). The Group finds it important that Danish is taught from an early age but that mother tongue education is given as a supplement. The teaching of the two languages should be closely connected in terms of content and pedagogic. The Group suggests that in the third to fourth grade the mother tongue education should end and the responsibility of teaching the language should now totally rely on the parents themselves. The reason is, the Group explains, that children of this age have reached a suitable/ sufficient linguistic level and are therefore capable of continuing the remaining part of their education in Danish. The further development of Danish will no longer be depending on a corresponding development in the mother tongue (I.I.D.page 53 ). The Group furthermore finds it unfavourable that the mother tongue education can take place in other municipalities within the county as the municipality council is to take care of the expenses connected with the transportation 75

(Folkeskoleloven, 1994 §26). The Group's suggestion is that the community should only be obliged to offer the education within the municipality border.

9.2.14 Critics of Mother Tongue Education
If the mother tongue education is stopped after grade 4 or sooner the goals of these special lessons are certainly violated, as they are said to be to maintain and develop the original language. If the child does not receive any educational support in this language it will only be poorly developed, if at all. When we reach a certain age and state of mind we need a more advanced and academic way of using our language to have it further developed. Most parents are not capable of supplying their children with these challenges and especially not if they have no formal education themselves and not enough money to pay for private lessons. Kept in mind should be that the ethnic minorities pay tax too and thereby contribute to financing the majority education. It should be only fair that they would also get a piece of the cake. To stop the mother tongue education contradicts the advise which has been given by linguists and which the Group itself has included in the report. They firstly recommend to give lessons in the mother tongue as a basis for learning other languages and later on suggest to eliminate the exactly same basis. When they further more state that most pupils need to have their mother tongue developed as they lack skills within this area, the coherence between facts and suggestions has disappeared. It is worrying that the linguistic and educational research science is not taken seriously in such an important matter. By also reducing the actual geographical area wherein the children can be offered mother tongue, the number of children who will have the possibility of reception these lessons will be further reduced. This policy will not lead to a fulfilling of the proposed goals but to a low competence in the one if not in both languages concerned and (if anything) to a linguistic assimilation into the majority language.

9.2.15 Human Rights
The Group clearly expresses that the mother tongue is only to be thought of as a means to the learning of Danish and not as an independent language with values within itself and a

76

status equal to that of the Danish language. As we see this statement, it violates the Rights of the Child § 29 c) (see the introduction chapter 8.4) by not showing respect towards the child's parents, cultural identity, language and values. Furthermore the next article, § 30 is indirectly violated as the child is not denied the right to use his or her own language in society but is prevented from doing so in school (only Danish is the medium of teaching and some teachers seem to get annoyed if the children tend to speak a mother tongue different from Danish during the lessons) and by neglecting the development of their skills completely. Additionally , a violation of § 34 in the "Copenhagen Document", which was created in 1990 on a CSCE meeting concerning the Human Dimension of the organisation, is being accomplished.

9.2.16 The quality of the Mother Tongue Education
Moreover the quality of the mother tongue education can be discussed. Is 3 to 5 lessons a week enough to ensure a sufficient development of a language ? Especially if it is to be used as a basis for learning other languages and for developing your CALP ? We believe that this is not the case, the character of this form of education can only be therapeutically, just think of how many hours of education the majority children receive in the their mother tongue.

9.2.17 Official Statements
The general will to give mother tongue education has in this connection been minimal. When the Social Democratic Party first came out with the suggestion to make the policy the (3 May 1989) the concentration of the resources was put on the strengthening of the learning of Danish and the question was raised whether it is reasonable to offer mother tongue education to the minority children when they are to stay in Denmark anyway (Indenrigsministeriet 1990, page 27). The Christian Peoples Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) wanted to demand that the minority families to teach their children Danish : "Lad os tage mod til os og lægge et pres, stille nogle betingelser til indvandrerfamilierne, om at børnene i ordentlig tid skal modtage danskundervisning " (quoted in Offenberg and Widding taken

77

from Skutnabb-Kangas et.al 1993 p.130). The Liberal Party (Venstre) added :" Er det rimeligt, at skolen skal give modersmålsundervisning, når vi satser på integration, og er det den bedste måde at udnytte ressourcerne på ? Bør de i stedet ikke bruges på en "mere målrettet danskundervisning" ? ( in Offenberg and Widding taken from Skutnabb-Kangas et.al 1993)(Translation):" Is it reasonable that the school should give mother tongue education when we aim at integration, and is it the best way to use the resources ? Should they not be used on a more focused teaching of the Danish language instead ? ". Is it limited knowledge within the field of terminology which has caused the use of the word "integration" where "assimilation " is meant or is it done on purpose to deliberately mislead people ? Later on further statements were also put forward: Bertel Haarder puts forward a similar point of view by stating that instruction in the pupils' own mother-tongue should only take place if it facilitates acquisition of L2. Thor Pedersen, then Minister of Interior, suggested that the minority mother tongue should be completely removed from the Danish school system. He argues that "it is not the Government's task to strengthen immigrant culture, but a private matter" (Politiken, 16.11.90, our translation in Andersen 1992).

9.2.18 Summary
If we are to sum up the content of this policy to create a picture of it as a whole, we could start by looking at the goals. The theoretical goal of the policy is to integrate the ethnic minority in the Danish society and ensure them equal terms with the Danes. But as we have discovered, while working through the different statements and suggestions, it actually aims at assimilation not only linguistically but also culturally and structurally. The Working Group has tried to develop a report which presents the Danish Integration policy and the suggestions of changes in as reasonable and in a way which is to leave the impression that the government is really helping the minorities to manage (as they cannot manage by themselves). The Group is using a rationalisation. The problem to be solved before the goal can be achieved, the diagnosis of what problems the minorities face is, according to the Danish policy, the lacking skills in Danish among the majority groups. The mean to solve that problem, the prescription is more Danish education and fewer minority children in each

78

class to secure the predominant use of Danish. A few lessons a week in the mother tongue is given to create basis for a better learning of Danish.

9.2.19 Model
With this picture of the policy we can start measuring its quality as an educational program and compare it to other programs. This is done by comparing it with different educational models to see if it falls in one or several of them (see table in chapter 8.3.1). The first model to be used is showing the development of minority education in overdeveloped countries starting with number one as being the most primitive. We will use it to clarify the above mentioned picture of the Danish policy but also to look at the state of development in relation to minority education which the Danish policy has reached so far. By comparing the problems, measures and goals of the Danish policy with the model it is easy to see that it very clearly falls into the first deficiency phase. The recognised problem as it is stated in the Danish policy is the lack of mastery in the majority language. The mean is more teaching of the majority language and the goal is to become fluent in the majority language as fast as possible. In addition the policy sees integration as the responsibility of the minority only which is characteristic for the deficit theories. Also theory 2 contains categories in which the policy falls. The reason for the problem is here described as being a social handicap and if we compare this to the definition of immigrants in the beginning of chapter.., we will notice that this area is also mentioned here. The immigrants are claimed to come from countries where the economic and social conditions differs a lot from those of Denmark. As the immigrants, according to this specific definition, are not expected to manage themselves and as the foreigners who are expected to, all come from overdeveloped countries, it seems obvious to interpret that the immigrants, according to this report, come from countries with not only different but also a lower social and economic status than Denmark. This group is affected by the immigrant policy which means that it that they are being "helped" in different but not further specified ways. This corresponds to the measures of theory 2 which suggests help. The mean is still to make the minority fluent in the majority language.

79

In theory 3, the diagnosis is a cultural handicap, where it is the child's different cultural background (different from the majority) which gives the child problems when it has to learn the language and culture of the majority. This problem of the culture is also found in the report, as the immigrants` experiences are not accepted, or seen as an enrichment. The measures of theory 3 only fits the policy partly, as the minority children are informed about the majority culture through the normal education and about their own, in a limited scale, through mother tongue lessons. But here ends the similarity between the measures of the theory and the Danish policy as the information about the minorities and their culture is reserved for the minority children only and not widely spread among all children. Furthermore there has been no multi- or intercultural educational programmes started or planned to be started up. The additional courses for the teachers mentioned in the theory are limited in the policy to be only a vague suggestion. The goal of theory 3 is to use the minority language temporarily (one or two generations) to help and support the minority children who are in the "state in between" i.e. Not yet speaking the majority language fluently or not yet being fully assimilated. Theory 4 talks of a linguistic mother tongue-related handicap, i.e. That the children lack competence in their mother tongue and therefore also the basis for learning the majority language. The policy theoretically mentions proper skills in the first language as being essential for learning a second language, but practically this statement is contradicted later on in the report and the policy can therefore not be said to fall in the fourth theory. The goal of this theory fits though as it is the same as in theory 3 and parts of the measures can also be said to be similar to those of the policy . An example of this is that the learning of the mother tongue has no value in it self and is merely used as therapy to higher the selfconfidence of the child or to ease the learning of the majority language. The last two theories belong to the category of enrichment theories and can be excluded in connection with the Danish policy as they in means and goals aim at bilingualism and as we have seen that the policy clearly aims at the opposite namely monolingualism. What we hereby can conclude is that the development of the Danish minority education according to this model has not come far, it is still in the first phases and is still to be developed further if a good result is to be obtained. It should be added though that the Finns in Sweden are one

80

of the few groups which have reached the enrichment level and very few minorities have come to the state of number 6.

9.3 Mother Tongue Education (Undervisningsminiseteriet)
A later document for “Modersmålsundervisning folkeskole) produced for by tosprogede elever,

undervisningsvejledning

"Undervisningsministeriet,

folkeskoleafdelingen" in 1994, can be placed in another stage in the development of minority education, put into the table “Development of minority education” this document seems to fit into stage 4, (see table in chapter 8.3.1). This we will discuss later in this chapter. Even though this document is produced by another ministry, and is another type of document than the previous one, we choose to see it as an indicator of a development in the attitudes towards minority education.

9.3.1 The development of the guide
"Modermålsundervisning for tosprogede elever. Undervisningsvejledning for folkeskolen" is a teachers` guide, with suggestions for readings in mother tongue education. As it is a guide which lays no restrictions on the teachers, it is an offer, which the teachers themselves decide whether to follow or not. This makes the document seem a little problematic. On the one hand it might indicate a slight positive change of attitudes towards mother tongue education, but on the other hand being a guide, it seems to introduce cosmetic improvements on the official policy, without really effecting it. The document is developed by a group of people from the school system; teachers, head masters, and members of educational committees. These people have an insiders view on educational system, and thus the document has a more present understanding of the subject than the I.I.D. which was written by people who were not directly involved in the environment of the school. But what strikes us is that in this group, like in the group behind

81

the I.I.D., there were no linguists or other researchers: the only three consultants were a pedagogic consultant and two field consultants.

9.3.2 Terminology
The document starts out by using the positive word “bilingual” instead of foreign speaking (fremmedsproget), which is the term used in the law of the complementary school (Folkeskoleloven). This might indicate a greater understanding of bilingualism, as a gift or resource instead of a deficiency as is the case of I.I.D. (see chapter 9.2.6 in this report). This understanding is questioned in the explanation for reasons for using “bilingual” instead of foreign speaking: they state that it is the term used in complementary school at present, and moreover it brings the Danish concept up to date with the terminology of the rest of Europe (Undervisningsministeriet, 1994 p.3). This reason given, it can be questioned whether the intention behind the use of the concept bilingualism is positive progress, based on a real understanding of the concept and the difference between using the two concepts, or whether it is only an effort to update the Danish terminology. In contradiction to the I.I.D. (where the concept is not even mentioned) the document defines bilingualism as an actual existing state. This is most certainly progress. It is defined as a starting point for education and other pedagogic arrangements: "Alle børn, der i det daglige har behov for og møder to (evt. flere) sprog, betragtes som tosprogede, uanset niveauet af deres sprogfærdighed af de enkelte sprog.(ibid. p.12)". (our translation) " All children who in their everyday life have the need for and meet two(or more) languages, are seen as bilingual, regardless of the level of their skills/proficiency in each of the languages concerned". If we split up the definition, we have two main criteria for bilingualism. We will start by looking at the second one, children who encounter two languages in their everyday lives. This is a low level definition of competence(see table of bilingualism next page competence pcs. f) and includes almost everybody in the whole wide world. The fact that any level of bilingualism, even a very low one, is accepted, is shown by the end of the sentence, “regardless of the level of their skills/proficiency in each of the languages. That makes the other criterion, that of need, the limitation factor.

82

Tove model sprog, rasism

9.3.3 The factor of need
The first question this raises is: what should be understood by need. How essential has the need to be. Does e.g. a Danish child who is in a class with several Turkish children have the need to learn Turkish? To a certain extent, yes. If the Turkish children speak Turkish among themselves, the Danish child has the need to learn Turkish to participate in the conversation. If we choose to look at the definition this way, it seems out of context with the rest of the document as the word bilingual is used about the much more narrow group of children who receive education in a mother tongue different from Danish. Already on the next page we see an example of this: "Tosprogede elevers forudsætninger for at bevare og udvikle deres modersmål/nationalsprog samtidig med, at de gennemgår en udvikling i dansk som andetsprog.."(Ibid. p.13) (our translation) "Bilingual pupils prerequisites for preserving and developing their mother tongue/national language while going through a development in

83

Danish as a second language..". This excludes the possibility of being bilingual and having Danish as the mother tongue. This indicates that the word need should be understood in another way, namely as a need for Danish. The use of the word in the context of this definition is quite unfortunate, as it might be misunderstood. The definition of the group that is entitled to mother tongue education, used in this document seems much broader than the one used in I.I.D., but in reality both documents are referring to the same group, the group defined by the law of the complementary school.

9.3.4 Bilingualism as a goal
On page 12 another definition of bilingualism occurs. Bilingualism is here not seen (as previously) as a starting point but rather as a goal for education. It is stated that the group of young people who are entitled to mother tongue education i.e. “bilingual” according to the previous definition, should have access to education that helps develop two languages to a level, where they can achieve knowledge and qualifications and develop identity, which enables them to live as minorities in Denmark.

9.3.5 Theories of Deficiency
Still in the field of terminology, the document differs from the I.I.D., by defining mother tongue as: "Modersmål: Det eller de sprog, barnet lærer af sine forældre. Stor følelsesmæssig og identitetsmæssig betydning. I forbindelse med dansktilegnelsen udgør modermålet en vidensresurse, som barnet kan trække på (Ibid. p.11)." (our translation) "Mother tongue: The language or languages the child learns from its parents. Has great emotional and identity significance. In the learning of Danish, the mother tongue is a knowledge resource, that the child can use". This shows an acknowledgement of the importance of the mother tongue as a mean of developing ones identity, and indicates an understanding of the connection between a healthy mother tongue and the learning of other languages, this is an improvement. Still, the development of the mother tongue is not seen as a human right. It is only seen as having importance from an emotional point of view, and

84

its cognitive value lies only in its instrumental task in supporting the learning of Danish, i.e. this clearly places the ideology in the early part of the deficiency phase in the table. Some of the goals for education in the document seem at first even more positive as we show in the following sections - but the overall evaluation will have to wait until we have compared the goals with the means suggested to reach the goals.

9.3.6 The importance of mother tongue
It is difficult to compare the goals of this document to the goals of the I.I.D., as these are two different types of documents, addressing different readers, but we can, however, compare the overall attitude the goals reflect. The goal of this document is defined in the introduction (Ibid. p.5) as serving as a guide for teachers of bilingual children. Furthermore the following section: "Formålet med modersmålsundervisning", shows the working groups` attitude towards mother tongue education. It defines the purpose of mother tongue education as: “Undervisningen skal fremme den enkelte elevs personlige og sproglige udvikling og forståelse af samspillet mellem elevens oprindelige kultur og den danske kultur og dermed styrke elevens grundlag for at lære dansk, for at få udbytte af skolens undervisning og for at tage stilling og handle i det danske samfund. Stk.3 Undervisningen skal styrke elevernes følelse af selvværd og identitet ved at udvikle deres sproglige og kulturelle forudsætninger for samhørighed med familien og øge deres forståelse af deres egen baggrund.”(ibid. p.6). (our translation):” Supporting the pupils development of oral and written mother tongue proficiency, and to increase their knowledge of their culture of origin. Pcs.2 The education is to support the linguistic and personal growth and understanding of the coherence between the culture of origin and the Danish culture, and thus strengthen the pupils basis for learning Danish to profit from the school’s education and to take a stand and function in the Danish society. Pcs.3 The education is to strengthen the pupils self-esteem and identity by developing their linguistic and cultural premises for coherence with the family, and to enhance their understanding of their own background. In the section "Modersmålsundervisningens centrale kundskabs- og færdighedsområder", we see yet another example of this view, "Gennem arbejde med modersmålets struktur og funktion udvikles elevernes sproglige viden og bevisthed"(ibid. p.7). (our translation)

85

"Through work with the structure and functions of the mother tongue, the pupils linguistic knowledge and awareness is developed". The last example we have chosen to use is from the section "Generelle synspunkter", speaking of the process of learning the mother tongue: "Vigtigheden af denne proces er alment anerkendt og kan ikke gentages senere i livet"(ibid. p.8). (our translation) "The importance of this process is commonly acknowledged, and cannot be repeated later in life". These quotations all show an understanding of the importance of mother tongue and knowledge of the culture of origin as crucial factors for the development of the child’s identity, and the learning of a second language. This is certainly a positive development from the I.I.D. report, where the acknowledgement of ones` belonging to an ethnic group and awareness of ones` ethnicity, are seen as something negative(see chapter 9.2). But the overall goal expressed in the I.I.D., is to enable the minority children to function in the Danish society, which means becoming as fluent in Danish as possible. Even though the understanding of functioning in the Danish society is quite different, the overall goals seem to be similar.

9.3.7 Seemingly more positive goals
The point of view raised in the I.I.D. about children of an ethnic minority having limited experience in almost all areas, in comparison with the Danish children(See chapter 9.2.), is relativised in this document in the section "Specialundervisning og modersmålsundervisning": " De tosprogede børn beskrives som regel udelukkende ved deres, ofte iøjnefaldende, kvantitative mangler set i forhold til danske elever. Der savnes beskrivelsesmodeller, som tager hensyn til de kvalitative forskelle, der er i sprog og tænkning mellem en individualistisk dansk kultur og en kollektiv(fx mellemøstlig) kultur, der er representativ for mange af vore tosprogede elever"(Undervisningsministeriet, 1994, p33). (our translation) " The bilingual children are usually described solely by their often conspicuous, quantitative deficiencies seen in relation to the Danish pupils. There is a lack of models of description, that consider the qualitative differences, linguistic and in thought between an individualistic Danish culture and a collective(e.g. middle eastern) culture, which is representative for many of our bilingual pupils". Despite the stereotypes involved, the overall goals seem more positive than in the earlier document.

9.3.8 Comparing the means

86

The means suggested in this document to reach the goals, are very much different from the means of the I.I.D., as here a better mother tongue education is seen as the best way of reaching the goal. Most of the document consists of descriptions of how mother tongue teaching can best be carried out, to support the creation of an ethnic identity, and to enable minority children to function in the Danish society, and in the learning of Danish. Looking at the linguistic side we see examples like: "Jo bedre modersmål - jo større succes i andetsprogstilegnelsen."(ibid., p.9). (our translation) "The better the mother tongue, the greater the success in the learning of a second language", "Hvis ikke der gennem hele skolefoløbet er undervisning i modersmålet, er der yderlige fare for at det stagnerer... Rodløsheden bliver fremherskende og forsinker en god integration."(Ibid., p.10). (our translation) "If there is not teaching of mother tongue as a subject all the way through school, there is a further danger of it stagnating.......The rootlessness becomes prevalent and delays a good integration". These are just two examples of how important the working group sees teaching in mother tongue as a subject being, in supporting the child’s possibilities of functioning in the Danish society. If we refer this last statement to the second definition of bilingualism: “bilingualism as a goal for education”, we can furthermore see bilingualism as a mean of integration. Looking at the measures for supporting the ability to function in the Danish society, the I.I.D. speaks of more education in the Danish language, and mentions extra Danish lessons with the purpose of clarifying more abstract notions in different subjects (See this report chapter 9.2.10). This document suggests among other things allowing bilingual pupils to sometimes speak the mother tongue among themselves in the regular classes: "..., at tosprogede elever undertiden får lov til at snakke sammen på deres modersmål også i den almindelige undervisning i klassen"(Undervisningsministeriet, 1994, p.23). The difference of course spring from the different goals of the documents. Comparing this suggestion with the Linguistic Human Rights, it may seem awkward to mention it at all. It should be taken for granted that the children have the right to use their mother tongue in official situations. But that it apparently needs to be expressed explicitly, shows the gravity of the actual situation. The document furthermore disagrees with the dispersal policy of I.I.D., as it contradicts it by claiming that the best premises for education are provided by having homogeneous groups . On this point too this document seems to indicate an improvement in the attitude. 87

9.3.9 CALP and BICS
Even though the document speaks of the learning of mother tongue as a support in the learning of the second language (Danish), it does not get into the field of CALP and BICS (see our report chapter 6.3). On the contrary, in the section "Eleverne og deres forudsætninger", it says: "Andre er sprogligt velfungerende. Børnene leger med andre børn, både de nye og de gamle danskere. De har tilbragt tid i vuggestue og børnehave og er sprogligt modnede til at fortsætte i skolen. Disse børn vokser op til reelt at beherske to sprog. Der er virkelig tale om børn med en ekstra resurse." (Undervisningsministeriet, 1994 p.14). (our translation) "Others are linguistically well functioning. The children play with other children, both new and old Danes. They have spent time in nurseries and kindergartens and are linguistically mature to continue in school. These children grow up to actually managing two languages. They are really children with an extra resource.". We are not told whether it is only the BICS that has matured, or if the CALP is developed too, but we suspect that the working group has fallen into the trap of misreading the linguistic proficiency of the children by only looking at the BICS which might be at a high level, even if the CALP of the child’s language might be quite underdeveloped.

9.3.10 Sum up of the goals
If we try to place the type of education suggested in this document in to the table of stages in the development of minority education, we see that it to a large extent fits in to the Deficit phase, the early stages. It does not include teaching of the elementary subjects through the mother tongue, but rather gives support only to the subject mother tongue. Using the scheme, we see that the view presented does not aim at integration as a relation where both the majority group and the minority are to adapt. It rather sees integration as a one way process, the minority adapting to the rest of society.

88

We therefore conclude that even if there seems to have been a change in the views on minority education, this change is not serious or far reaching enough, as Denmark does not fulfil the criteria’s for the enrichment theories. One of the reasons for this otherwise quite positive document not really making any major changes, is also the type of document it is, being a teachers` guide, which in reality is bound by the restrictions of the law of the complementary school thus only being able to work within these restrictions. One wonders why an official document like this one is released, seemingly showing change in the official Danish attitude towards minority education, but in reality without any possibility of changing anything of great importance.

9.4 Investigation of the report from the working group appointed by

Indvandrernes

Repræsentantskab

(

The

Immigrant

Council)

concerning integration of the ethnic minorities.
In the following we are going to investigate an official document: "Report from the working group appointed by Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab concerning integration of ethnic minorities " (I.R.) . We are only going to investigate the chapters that are relevant to our topic, i.e. mainly those concerning education of children. The document is the respond to the report made by the Ministry of Interior and was developed by the Immigrant Council.

9.4.1 The Six Basic Principles
The aim of writing this report (I.R), which was published November 13. 1990, has been to ensure a well defined and coherent immigrant policy. The suggestions in the I.R. have been worked out on the basis of statements from experts in the field of language and integration and Indsams and Mellemfolkeligt Samvirkes suggestions to integration programmes. It has been done in a way so that the Immigrant those suggested done in the I.R. (p. 9): Our translation: Council could affiliate with them. The suggestions are based on six crucial principles. The efforts mentioned in the principles are

89

"1) The aim with the effort is to create actual equality between Danes and immigrants- with the point of departure in the individuals linguistic cultural background as well as wishes and qualifications. 2) The individual should be enabled to decide the form, the content and the tempo of integration, this includes which parts of the culture of origin and mother tongue that are desired to be maintained. 3) It is necessary to start special arrangements in order to attain real equality. 4) There shouldn't be introduced any restrictions on immigrants in relation to Danes, for instance through the introduction of special quotas, sanctions or restrictions in the right to bring together the nuclear family(spouse or small children and old parents) 5) The immigrants have a right to have an education in and through their mother tongue, if they wish so. This regards both children, youngsters and grown- ups. 6) The effort should be co-ordinated , so there is a coherence between the individual arrangements regardless of their organised placement. "Det er vigtigt at understrege, at vi ikke ser nogen modsætning mellem ønsker om at bevare eget sprog og væsentlige dele af oprindelseskultur, og indsatsen for at kunne deltage i det danske samfund på lige fod med danskerne. Vi opfatter det tværtimod som en styrke for integrationsarbejdet" "It is important to stress that we do not see any contradiction between the wish to preserve own language and important parts of the culture of origin, and the effort to take part in the Danish society at the same level as the Danes. We perceive it on the contrary as a strength for the integration work" (Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 10, definition of integration). This utterance shows their defensive position as they are defending their right to maintain their culture and language. This is a human right and therefore it should not be necessary to use energy emphasising it (see our report chapter 8.4.2.)

90

ad.1:If we look at the first principle the aim is the same as in I.I.D (.see our report chapter 9.2). But when it comes to taking point of departure in the individuals linguistic cultural background and qualifications, the I.I.D. only mentions that this should be the case with the mother tongue education. ad.2: When it comes to the matter of choice concerning education neither form nor content or tempo of the integration process is available for the individual. Further on The Council expands this on p. 44 where they mention that the parents should have the possibility to choose between a mono- and a multicultural and -lingual education.The first one implemented by the traditional Danish way of teaching and the second one in the shape of an education using multicultural measures. ad 3: The Council elaborates this on p. 22, where they mention that it is necessary to have positive special measurements for different groups based on the fact that they have difficult points of departure in the Danish society in order for them to qualify themselves on equal terms with the Danish groups in the society. ad 4: The Working Group (I.I.D, 50) suggests that quotas should be made if the pupils cannot be dispersed voluntarily. This is strongly contradicting the principle here concerned. ad 5:The immigrants do not have the right to have an education in and through the medium of their mother tongue. The Working Group (I.I.D, 53) clearly expresses that the mother tongue is only to be thought of as a means to the learning of Danish and not as an independent language with values within itself and a status equal to that of the Danish language. The mother tongue education consists of only 3 to 5 lessons a week and is placed outside of the normal school schedule of the child readily on a Saturday. This can hardly be considered to be an education, but merely therapeutic. The working group suggests that this education should be stopped after grade 4. The Working Group also suggests that the municipality should only be obliged to offer the education within the municipality border.(I.I.D, 53) ad 6: The word effort could be referring to all different arrangements, which are to be organised to ensure an effective integration. An arrangement could be mother tongue

91

education, bilingual education etc. In the I.I.D. the mother tongue education as mentioned in ad.5, is not incorporated in the rest of the education. The six ads show that the Council does not find the I.I.D. in coherence with their interpretation of an effective integration policy. Instead they suggest an alternative Integration program which is presented below.

9.4.2 An Alternative Integration Program for Children
Integration program for children: (our translation) "The point of departure for the integration of the immigrant children is, that schools and day-care centres ensure an everyday life, that incorporates experiences and background of all children, regardless of language, ethnic origin or nationality. This implies, that children have a right to conserve and develop their mother tongue, no matter if it is Danish or another language. The mother tongue is defined as the language, that the parents speak to the child in the first years. (See our definition chapter 5.6). If this language is not Danish, Danish has to be regarded as the first foreign language, that needs to be developed specially. Besides this the principles that are mentioned in the beginning count. To ensure this we want to emphasise the following suggestions: the day-care institutions and schools have to ensure, that the mother tongue and cultural background can be developed as the fundament for /simultaneously with introduction to the Danish language, the mother tongue education is placed as a part of the normal school schedule and is made transferable. better possibilities for mother tongue education in small language groups are created, possibility is given to start bilingual institutions/classes or other form of organisations, where children with the same mother tongue can have close contact with each other and with Danish children- included the development of a guideline for such forms of education,

92

better possibilities should be created for the education of bilingual co-workers and (post) education in cross-cultural work, guideline, information and parents co-operation has to be strengthened. We dissociate ourselves from the involuntary dispersal of immigrant children, that we believe counteracts multicultural integration. The discussion of quotas ,i.e. a numerical balance in the relationship between Danish children and minority children must go on in relation to the educational aim." (Indvandrernes repræsentantskab 1990, 11) We believe its important to point out this integration program for children, as it is a basis for discussing the suggestions in the I.R.

9.4.3 The Danish Integration Policy According to I.R..
The Immigrant Council points out in its report (I.R.), that one of the greatest problems in the discussion of integration is that the Danish society does not have a clear cut concept of the basis for choosing values. If the basis is seen as Denmark being a culturally homogeneous national state, then the cultural values to be aimed for would be purely unitary Danish. In order to maintain this state the means to use would be assimilation. If on the contrary the basis would be a multicultural society, then the cultural values would be much more diverse and integration would be the means. If the basis for choosing values is unclear formulated in the I:I.D then it is on the contrary clarified in the I.R., as it is stated that Denmark is to be regarded as multicultural and explained through the way they define integration and further on claim that it is the mean to be used. It is said that a process of integration is one of the most difficult processes that a human being has to go through. "Vi anser det derfor for vigtigt, at denne proces kommer til at finde sted med så høj grad af værdighed som overhovedet muligt" (Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 20),(our translation) "We regard it as very important that this process can go on with as much degree of dignity, voluntaries, and co-operation as possible."

93

A defensive tone is included in this quotation, one gets the impression that the integration as it is carried out now is carried out in an involuntary and non co-operative manner and is furthermore a source of humiliation. This leads to it is said: "...at integrationpolitikken indebærer accepten af et flerkulturelt samfund, og at flerkulturel integration skal ses som en vedvarende proces, hvor begge parter udvikler sig sammen og lærer af hinanden "(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, .20) (our translation)"...that the policy of integration implies the acceptance of a multicultural society, and that multicultural integration must be regarded as an ongoing process, where both sides develop together and learn from each other.", "Det er nødvendigt, at basere indvandrerpolitikken på en opfattelse af, at Danmark nu har nye fastboende etniske minoriteter"(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, .21) (our translation). "It is necessary to base the policy of integration on the understanding that Denmark now has permanently living ethnic minorities" Therefore it is also pointed out that its important to change the policy of integration from a common policy of integration to a multicultural minority policy, as the ethnic minorities now are permanent residents of Denmark.(I.R, 21). “Konsolideringen af flerkulturel minoritetspolitik medfører at integrationpolitikken kan tage udgangspunkt i et lighedsbegreb, der bygger på ligestilling af etniske grupper i et flerkulturelt samfund" (Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 22), (our translation)"The consolidation of a multicultural minority policy implies that the policy of integration can take point of departure in an concept of equality, that is based on equality of ethnic groups in a multicultural society" On this point the Ministry of Interior claims that if Integration is to be fulfilled then it is to be prevented that the ethnic minorities develop into a minority group, which under the worst circumstances is in opposition to the surroundings. (I.I.D, 5) We can conclude that the Immigrant Council's claims fall together with our conclusions of the investigation of the Official Danish Policy on Integration and language. The Danish tradition has been, consciously or subconsciously to have an assimilation policy. If you read our investigation of the Official Danish Policy on Integration and Language ( Chapter 9.2) you can see from our interpretation of the concept definition of integration that it is rather assimilation than integration which is the goal for the Danish policy. This implies that the individual member of an ethnic minority solely has the visible and heavy responsibility for the process of integration 94

The Immigrant Council is criticising the Danish policy of integration for not being clear about their goals. As a consequence the civil servants, who are in contact with the groups are working blindly, without any aim and without guidelines, which they can relate their work to. (I.R, 21) The only relation that is possible is whether the immigrants "have problems or not". (I.R, 21.).

9.4.4 The Role of The Danish Language in the Integration Policy
In the official discussion of integration it is very often pointed out by some that the ability to speak Danish should clear the path for integration in the Danish society. Others warn against the exaggerated importance of the language and some even believe that the concern for the mastery in language can work as a justification for an assimilation process. "Ofte formuleres det som et valg mellem de to sprog (dansk og modersmålet), mens det fra anden side understreges, at tosprogede er et gode for den enkelte og for landet" (Indvandrer Repræsentantskabet 1990, .25),(our translation) "Often it is formulated as a choice between the two languages (Danish and mother tongue), whereas on the other hand it is stressed that bilingualism is a gain for the individual and for the country" On page 26 the Immigrant Council is expressing its concern about the stress that is put on language in connection with the ethnic minorities. "Integration af kulturelt meget forskellige grupper og løsning af de sociale konflikter, der kan følge med kulturmødet klares ikke alene gennem sprogstimulerende foranstaltninger"(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 26) (our translation) "The integration of culturally very different groups and the solution to the social conflicts, that can be a result of the cultural meeting, cannot be mend only through language stimulating arrangements" Later on the same page :"Opprioriteringen af de sproglige forhold generelt og af indvandrernes danskkundskaber i særdeleshed genfindes i udkastet til embedsmændenesredegørelse" "The prioritisation of the linguistic conditions in general and specially of the Danish skills of the ethnic minorities is recovered in the draft of the civil servants' description. Therefore

95

we anticipate, that the final description is going to be too one-sided in its scope of and in the suggestions to improvements". (our translation) The Immigrant Council is worried when it points out that the Danish language is glorified whereas the "real" problems are ignored. (See our Chapter 9.2.6) . In this quotation it is clear that an attempt to fight the glorification is made.

9.4.5 The Integration of Ethnic Minority Children in the age 0-6 years and in the School Age
In the same area of topic the Immigrant Council has a chapter in its report (I.R.) called: "The Integration of children from the ethnic minorities in the age 0-6 years and the school age". According to the Council the integration of ethnic minority children is debated especially in connection with their schooling. The lack of success in the schooling is primarily reasoned by the lacking skills in the Danish language. There is a large agreement that the solution to this problem would be to make the children from the ethnic minorities "ovenready" for the Danish school by ensuring that their Danish language is at the same level as the language of the Danish children at school start. The Council continues that this problem limitation turns its attention to the Danish language development of ethnic minority children as early as to the pre-school age, but neglects at the same time the remaining development of the child and the co-operation between home, child and the institution. There is a certain disagreement about the financial sharing of costs between state and local authorities, but it is a widespread understanding that to obtain development in the pre-school age it would be efficient: • that the children from the ethnic minorities go through an early code switching so that Danish becomes their new mother tongue, • that because of this these children ought to be put in Danish day care centres with Danish staff, the Danish language

96

• that ethnic minority children are spread out to sufficient number of day care centres/schools so they do not use their mother tongue, but are forced to speak Danish. (our translation) The Council continues that this attitude is often put forward with a limited understanding of the significance of the mother tongue. It is claimed, that the development of the mother tongue is without importance to the acquisition of Danish and only a matter for the parents and that the disregard of the mother tongue in the end is an advantage for the children from the ethnic minorities, as their future lies in Denmark.(I.R, 39)

9.4.6 The Mother Tongue and the Second Language
The Council stresses that proposals for solutions of this character are seriously in conflict with the fundamental attitudes deeply rooted in the human rights understanding and the democratic perception of equality. This attitude is also in conflict with what is known about language development, the importance of the mother tongue and the acquisition of a second language. (See Chapter 6). Almost All language researchers- regardless of other disagreements- believe today that the mother tongue is an aid in the acquisition of a second language (I.R., 40): In the following quotation the Immigrant Council is defining the relationship between mother tongue and Danish: "In general it is important to remember that Danish is a second language for those, who start learning it after the first language acquisition in the family. If small children are exposed to two languages they will develop a mother tongue relationship to both languages ( if they besides thrive and are actively involved in the communication in both languages). After the age of three however the child will develop a mother tongue and a second language, and this division will not change with time and with the later language development. This is important for the learning abilities of the children in the two languages and for the sort and scope of the Danish education they are going to get"(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 33).(our translation) The Immigrant Council points out:

97

"Vi vil gerne understrege behovet for at afdække dette område grundigt, før man går i gang med en planlægning og en udvikling af integrationtilbud til børn fra etniske minoriteter. Dette kræver et bredere forståelsesgrundlag end det foreliggende."(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 40) "We want to emphasise the need for uncovering this field thoroughly, before you start planning and developing integration offers for children from the ethnic minorities. This demands a larger foundation of understanding than the present one". (our translation)

9.4.7 The linguistic conditions in the integration process.
Realising these conditions the Council has produced an independent chapter about linguistic conditions in the process of integration. The chapter was based on discussion with experts in the linguistic field and the principal source is the research-group at Danmarks Lærerhøjskole. We are going to quote out some of the main points in this chapter which we think are important. "I debatten foreslås det ofte, at mindretalsforældre skifter til dansk i hjemmet, for at børnene kan lære dansk fra starten.En sådan løsning må på det bestemteste afvises, dels fordi den krænker familiens ret til selv at bestemme, og dels fordi det for langt de fleste børn vil indebære et utilstrækkeligt og sprogligt opvækstmiljø." (Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 30) (our translation) "In the debate it is often suggested, that the ethnic minority parents shift to Danish in the home, in order for the children to learn Danish from the start. Such a solution must definitely be refused, partly because it violates the right of the family to decide for itself, and partly because it will imply an insufficient and linguistic adolescence environment" A defensive position is here taken by the Council as they see the solution as threatening their foundation of existence as minorities. "The minority pupils in a part of other western countries have the right to mother tongue education, but in Denmark the proportion of this education is strongly limited, and it is often given independently from the Danish school" (Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 31). "According to international experiences we can see that the immigrant children who

98

are in school or on their way to start can only function as bilingual grown-ups on a high level, if the mother tongue education is strengthened in scope and integrated in the full schooling of the children". Three lines further down on the same page: "But even though you do not want to produce bilingual adults of the immigrant children, you should know the importance of the mother tongue in their technical and social development, and this condition can be utilised with advantage in the education." (Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 31). The Immigrant Council is trying to be very moderate in its utterances, they do not dare to come up with their own clear cut demands to what they really want namely: that the position of the mother tongue should be strengthen is recognised . "Børn, der ikke modtager undervisning på deres modersmål, vil formentlig ikke kunne udvikle en voksen kompetence på sproget. De vil f. eks. have svært ved at låse og skrive og mangler alle de ord, der hører til skolen"(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 34) (our translation) "Children who do not receive education in their mother tongue are probably not going to develop an adult competence in the language it will for instance be difficult for them to read and write and they are going to lack all the words that belong to the school". Again the Council is taking a defensive position delivering arguments directed to the majority, as it is also in their interest to avoid limited literacy, for the teaching of mother tongue. "Mange danskere har svært ved at forestille sig, at børn kan vokse op på rimelig vis med to sprog- de frygter, at børnene bliver overbelastede intellektuelt, og at de ikke har kapacitet til samtidig at udvikle sig optimalt" (Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 35) (our translation) "Many Danes have difficulties imagining that children can grow up reasonably with two languages- they fear that the children are intellectually overloaded, and that they do not have capacity to develop simultaneously in an optimal way. Foreign and Danish investigations of bilingual families and bilingual societies however show that there is no reason for these anxieties" The defence of mother tongue is here proceeded: “Der er imidlertid en tredie mulighed, idet sprogene sagtens kan eksistere side om side og udvikles parallelt til de formål, de nu har for sprogbrugerne. Et sådant valg er i fuld overensstemmelse med sprogforskningen, som i de sidste 15-20 år har vist, modersmålet er en hjælp ved tilegnelsen af et andetsprog, og at støtte til det ene sprog samtidig er med til at udvikle det andet sprog."(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 35) (our translation)"There is also a third possibility, the languages can easily exist side by side and 99

be developed in parallel for the purpose they now have for the language users. Such a choice is fully in coherence with the language research in the last 15-20 years which has shown that the mother tongue is an aid in the acquisition of a second language, and that support for one language is at the same time helping to develop the other language. (The professional disagreements are not to be found in this area, but with the question whether the minority language should be regarded as a resource or a right.) The Council is trying to give its point of view and suggestions in a careful way. Even though able to base their argumentation on professional research they maintain these vague formulations. "Det har ofte været fremført, at et stort antal indvandrerbørn er en belastning;

indlæringseffektiviteten i skolen falder, børnene taler sammen på deres modersmål og bruger ikke dansk osv. Vi vil gerne fremhæve, at der ikke findes hverken sprogvidenskabelige, sociologiske eller pædagogiske teorier, der ligger sig fast på et givent kvoteforhold, det være sig 10, 33 eller 50 pct. Det er ikke den fysiske tilstedeværelse i sig selv, der skaber integrationen."(Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab 1990, 48) (our translation) "It has often been put forward that a large number of immigrant children are a strain, the learning effectiveness in the school decreases, the children talk together in their mother tongue and do not use Danish etc. We want to stress, that there are neither language scientific nor sociological or pedagogical theories , that point out any given quota relationships, be they 10,33 or 50 pct.. It is not the physical presence in itself which creates the integration." Again the Council is in a defensive position where it omits to emphasise that the quotas are of illegal character (see our report chapter 9.2.10), but only uses the professional aid.

9.4.8 Conclusion
What is noticed through the report (I.R) is that the critics of the policy is presented in a very defensive and moderated way. The reason for this could be that the Council is trying to rationalise i.e. they assume that Denmark cannot be changed considerably and therefore only the moderated suggestions are presented. The Council probably believe that what they

100

have put forward are the absolute maximums of what can be achieved in the present society. To make what would appear to be unrealistic proposals could violate their reliability. But by using a defensive angle, the opportunity to be constructive and offensive is wasted. To summarise the goals, means and reasons for problems and make a clarified picture of this document is not especially easy as most of these concepts are invisible or only indirectly defined. If we take point of departure in the goals, we will notice that the highest mentioned linguistic state is bilingualism, it is furthermore described positively and attempts to make efforts aiming at bilingualism are suggested, such as bilingual staff in institutions and the possibility to start bilingual classes, these function as measures also. The basic goal though is found in principle 1 as it states that equality between Danes and immigrants should be created, and that the efforts should take point of departure in the individuals linguistic, cultural background as well as wishes and qualifications. Furthermore principle 5 states that the immigrants should have the right to have an education in and through the medium of their mother tongue, this supports the idea of bilingualism as being a goal and furthermore functions as a measure to obtain it. The languages could further more be taught in a way which would create the possibility of them developing parallel to each other. But in addition to this is mentioned that mother tongue education is also functioning as a mean to learn Danish. The problem recognised in this educational proposal is the low skills in mother tongue which when properly developed can lead to bilingualism.

9.4.9 The Placement of the Educational Programme in the Model of “The Development of Minority Education”.
Using this model we can place the educational program in stage four. First of all by looking at the first category, it states that the problem is, that the child does not know her/his mother tongue properly which leads to also poor skills for the learning of the majority language. Moving on to the measures we are presented to the idea of having your mother tongue taught as a subject or as a medium for learning the majority language. This corresponds to the idea presented by the Council as it suggests bilingual classes as a voluntary opportunity together with more bilingual teachers educated. It on the contrary

101

does not say for how long this teaching in the mother tongue should continue but suggests that it should be possible to take the exams in comprehensive school in your mother tongue. This model is only of therapeutic value and provides better co-operation with home. The goals according to this stage are to ensure the survival of the minority language for a shorter period of time (1-2 generations). The minority children need help to appreciate their mother tongue and culture of origin until they become majority language speaking. Again the problem of time is present as we cannot say if the education is only going to be temporary. This stage does not mention bilingualism as a desirable stage and can therefore not be said to describe the education program fully. The goal is perhaps more similar to that described in stage five, as bilingualism is aimed at here. What we can conclude from this is that the proposals from the Council are describing a program which is balancing in between stage four and five and therefore is a progress compared to I.I.D. But as the program is not thoroughly explained it is hard to make any firm and final conclusions.

102

9.5 Investigation of how the Danish policy falls into one or more of Baker's Models

When working with Baker's ten types of models of bilingual education and the I.I.D. it is of course relevant to see which model this policy fits into. We will do that by looking at Baker's table with the ten models. (see chapter 8.2.1 )

9.5.1 Typical Type of Child
If we look at the table the first vertical column describes the "Typical Type of Child". We are in this project of course interested in the language minorities and so we can see that there are only seven of the ten types of education that deal with the language minority groups and therefore we can disregard the "Mainstream with Foreign Language Teaching", "Immersion" and "Mainstream Bilingual" education as these models are for language majorities learning a foreign language.

9.5.2 Language of the Classroom
The next vertical column in the table is "Language of the Classroom". The I.I.D. does not at any time question whether or not Danish should be the medium of teaching. It seems that it is taken for granted that Danish is being used as the medium in all lessons and mother tongue education is separated from "the real school" and reduced to a few hours outside normal school hours, readily on Saturdays ( Indenrigsministeriet 1990 page 43 subchapter 2.2.2.). Looking at the second column it becomes clear that it is only the first two models which uses the majority language only, so the I.I.D seems to be the submersion education possibly with withdrawal classes.

9.5.3 Danish policy - Submersion Education

103

When we look at the analysis of the Policy the picture it gives actually corresponds very well with that of the submersion education. The minority child is being placed in mainstream education along with fluent Danish speakers. All subjects are being taught through the medium of Danish and the teachers are monolingual Danish speakers. Several places in the report (e.g. page 49 and 50) spreading out the minorities to different schools are even being discussed saying that this action will help the minority children to learn better Danish. "Voluntary" dispersal of the children is already being carried out and if enough parents do not volunteer to it the I.I.D suggests a quota system for the communities. (Indenrigsministeriet 1990 page 50) (see also this report chapter 9.2.10). This means that the report finds that there should be done an effort to isolate the minority child even more, so that she/he will often be the only one speaking her/his mother tongue in the Danish class.

9.5.4 Submersion Education with withdrawal Classes
The I.I.D. in some cases suggests that the minority children who start in school should be put in "reception classes" based on a law from "Undervisningsministeriet" (I.I.D., page 38) (see also our report chapter 9.2.9). These reception classes normally last for a maximum of two years but can be followed by continuous supplementary teaching to "continue language development in Danish" (I.I.D., page 39 our translation). This teaching is also conducted in Danish only and seem to correspond roughly to withdrawal classes. We can thus see that the I.I.D. is what Colin Baker describes as Submersion education - in some cases combined with withdrawal classes.

9.5.5 Societal and Educational Aim
When we look at the third vertical column in the table we can see what Baker and other researchers see as the societal and educational aims of the types of education. Against the submersion education in this column we can see that the aim is assimilation. This does not correspond with what the Danish government say is their aim, as they say in the report that "the overall goal with the Danish immigrant policy is to insure integration of the

104

immigrants into the Danish society." (our translation, Indenrigsministeriet 1990 page 15). However, that the societal and educational aim in reality is assimilation does correspond with our analysis of the report (our report chapter 9.2), where we found several examples of that what the report calls integration in fact is often assimilation according to our definition of the concept (our report chapter 5.4). The way that the report suggests that minorities should integrate better, is that they should change; the children should start learning Danish already in pre-schools (e.g. page 32), they should learn Danish better in school (e.g. page 12), the number of ethnic minorities in each class should be reduced (e.g. page 49 and 50) and the parents should teach their children Danish already before they start in school (page 11), at the same time the Danes should just be more accepting. It is hard to see that the report aims at anything but assimilation when listing these suggestions.

9.5.6 Aim in Language Outcome
The last column in Baker's table is the aim in language outcome and that aim in the submersion policy is according to Baker monolingualism. The policy says that developing the mother tongue is a good basis for learning Danish. However they do not as mentioned before teach neither through nor in the mother tongue in complementary school, but offer a few hours of mother tongue education outside normal school hours. So the report recognises the need for the minority children to be taught their mother tongue, but first of all they do not offer proper facilities to do so, and secondly the only reason for developing the mother tongue to a certain stage according to the report is in order for the minority children to learn better Danish. The mother tongue of the children whom the report defines as immigrants does not have any status in the Danish society and the little teaching they are offered in their mother tongues is only there as it is said to help the children to learn better Danish. As mentioned in chapter 9.2.17 in our report some of the political parties in Denmark even wanted to take away what is now being offered of mother tongue lessons. When we look at what possibilities that kind of mother tongue education gives the minorities to develop their mother tongue to a high level, there is no doubt that it is limited.

105

It will be very few who on the basis of that can develop a high degree of oral and literate competence. The minority children will be taught through the medium of Danish all day in school, if they are affected by the dispersal policy they will be surrounded by Danish speaking children only at least during school hours, most of the input they get in the society from television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements etc. will be in Danish and they will have almost no possibilities of using their mother tongue in any official situations. So when Baker says that the submersion education will lead to monolingualism or at least very strong dominance in the majority language it seems to be a very fair conclusion. However, the minorities besides not developing a high competence in their mother tongue often do not develop a sufficiently high level in Danish either. In chapter 6 we have tried to explain why.

9.5.7 Summary
Looking at Bakers model we found that the I.I.D. on minority education is a submersion program. In some cases we in Denmark have what Baker calls withdrawal classes - in the I.I.D. they are called "reception classes" and later supplementary teaching. Both the ordinary school hours, the receiving classes and the supplementary teaching is in Danish only. I.I.D. claims to aim at integration of the minorities but as we have seen in chapter 9.2.8 there are several examples of how the report when saying integration in reality means assimilation. The main goal is for the minority children to learn better Danish and the way to obtain it is that the children should learn Danish at an earlier age and be exposed to more Danish in school. The little teaching there is in the mother tongue is only offered as a basis for the children to improve their Danish and the minority languages have got no status in the Danish society. with this form of education there is a big risk that the minority children will become monolinguals or at least have a very strong dominance in the majority language - Danish. But still a lot of the minorities in Denmark do not develop their Danish to a sufficiently high level, do not get long education and well paid jobs. If we look at chapter 6 we can find some of the reasons why the minorities often fail to develop their Danish to a high stage. First of all they might be misjudged to know to master the new language completely when in fact they have only developed the BICS and not the CALP in Danish. Therefore they might have difficulties participating in cognitively demanding

106

situations in the classroom. It will be harder for them to draw the meaning of what the teacher says or of what they read and therefore they will have to concentrate more than the Danish pupils. This means that they will need more breaks and that they will be more stressed. When they have difficulties in school and can only compare themselves with fluent Danish speakers their self confidence will be damaged and again this will make it harder for them to solve even more demanding tasks. As mentioned in chapter 6.7 this is a bad circle that prevents the minority child from benefiting from the education. It thus seems obvious for us that the way for the minority children to learn better Danish is NOT to give them more Danish or to introduce them to Danish at a very early age.

107

10. Conclusions
When working through the report we touched on several areas, raising questions, elaborating on them, looking at theories, investigating policies and treaties, linking, working with models, quoting and describing. Even though we were not able to cover all the areas that we wished to, we will try to put the areas we covered in perspective. Through investigating theories on learning of language, we became aware of the importance of maintaining and developing the mother tongue, as this is the best basis for acquiring high proficiency in a second language. We, moreover, saw that bilingualism should be seen as an extra resource, which can lead to greater competence in divergent thinking, higher cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness. This made us conclude that bilingualism should be a desirable goal for all children. With this in mind, we discovered the negative consequences it can have for a minority child to be educated solely through the medium of his/her second language - the majority language - as this would restrain bilingualism. The first document we looked at, the “Integration af indvandrere i Danmark” (I.I.D.) surprisingly showed that bilingualism which we had concluded to be an absolute benefit for all parties, was not the goal of the Danish policy of integration. On the contrary we found it quite clear that the goals were assimilation and monolingualism. This was further confirmed when placing the I.I.D. into the models chosen. It clearly showed that the policy suggested belonged to the deficiency phases in the model of the development of minority education. Looking at the second document - the teachers guide: "Modermålsundervisning for tosprogede elever i folkeskolen" (M.E.F.), we noticed a slight development from the I.I.D. in the direction of the enrichment phases but without reaching them. Furthermore, the document was only a guide that had no real possibilities of influencing the actual policy. The third document “Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen nedsat af Indvandrernes

Repræsentantskab vedrørende integration af indvandrere” (I.R.) from the Immigrant Council is a response to the I.I.D.. It contains alternative suggestions to how the educational policy should be formulated. Their suggestions are closer to the enrichment phases than the

108

other two documents, but do not fulfil the criteria of actually reaching an enrichment phase either. With what we concluded, we have the basis for answering our cardinal question: To what extent does the official Danish policy support the linguistic development of second generation ethnic minorities, and how does this effect the integration process? The official Danish policy leads to assimilation and monolingualism, and as we see bilingualism as the optimum linguistic development as goal, it is obvious that the Danish policy does not support this. As for the integration process the policy by aiming at assimilation eliminates such a process. As it is clear that the official Danish policy does not support the linguistic development, and prevents integration, we feel that the policy should be changed. We would instead recommend the Maintenance Bilingual Education as we feel this is the ideal education for minorities in a majority society.

11. Process of Group Work
When our group first started out, it was a coalition between two groups, with the topics of “Refugees from Ex-Yugoslavia” and “2nd generation immigrants”. Due to lack of members the groups were forced to melt together, leading to some of the members leaving for other groups as their project proposals had changed. The remaining members formed a permanent group working with the subject: “The Integration of 2nd Generation Pakistanis”. Our group consisted at this point of five members, with various ethnic backgrounds: Two Danes representing the majority in Denmark, and three members representing different ethnic minorities from Pakistan, from the Philippines and the Faroe Islands, the last one also representing a gender minority. After starting to read about the subject chosen we soon realised that this topic was much to broad, and that our first cardinal question: “Are the 2nd generation Pakistanis in Denmark integrated, segregated or assimilated?” would be quite hard to answer. We therefore went

109

into a process of limitation. In narrowing the topic down, we touched up on several different areas on the way to our contemporary. Our different backgrounds, experiences and present situations demanded great understanding from all the members, an understanding that was not always present, thus sometimes resulting in minor clashes. However we enjoyed each others company, and functioned utterly well on the social level. The clashes were only occurring on the professional level, as we had different approaches to the group work and varying conceptions of working discipline. None of us had previously tried to work in groups to such an extend, and we all found it difficult in one way or the other, as we suddenly were dependent on four other persons, to whom we also had a responsibility. We can now see that some of the difficulties that we faced in this our first project could have been avoided, had we known a little more about how to approach writing a project. In the beginning we used to much time discussing things that only played a very small part in our further work, but on the other hand we still do not feel that the importance of discussion should be neglected. We put too much emphasis on developing an adequate cardinal question in the beginning, not realising that the exact formulation of this could be done later when we had a more clear perception of what we wanted to work with. We also used a lot of time trying to define the concepts as we felt that we could not really start to work before we had clarified them. This has meant together with our long process of limitation, that the time frame of the actual writing was too short. We feel that we have learned from our mistakes although there without doubt will be some that we will repeat in the future. One of the things that we will hopefully do differently next time is to structure the project work. This would enable us to make a more in dept investigation and to make the different parts of the project more coherent. We should have had more relevant communication within the group so that we would have been more aware of what the other members were producing. As an overall picture of our group work we feel that we have had problems, but most of them could be categorised as initial difficulties, that we will use and benefit from in our further education. 110

Finally we would like to thank the people, who in one way or another have helped us in our work; Kirsten for providing us with useful material, Robert for lending us technical equipment, Lars for spoiling us, Nick for helping us with the computers, Tove for guidance and Inger for being a darling!

111

12. Danish Summary
Resume af vores report
Sprog, identitet, integration og uddannelse er hovedbestandelene i vores undersøgelse af anden generation af etniske minoriteter i Danmark. Baggrunden for vores emnevalg hang nøje sammen med den etniske sammensætning af vores gruppe, idet vi benyttede vores repræsentanter for forskellige minoritetsgrupper som levende vidensressourcer og til at opnå en anden synsvinkel på projektet. Vores begrænsning af emneområdet var straks mere kompliceret, idet vi udfra begreberne identitet og integration udarbejdede en model visende de faktorer, som indgår i udviklingen af disse processer, heraf valgte vi så at fokusere på uddannelse ( nærmere betegnet folkeskolen) og sprog. Skolen blev valgt, fordi den påvirker individet i en lang tidsperiode og derudover i en alder, hvor børnene er lette at påvirke. Sproget blev valgt, fordi det er en gruppes mest magtfulde udtryksmåde hvorigennem værdier, traditioner, historie og sammenhold kan kommunikeres. Det vi ønskede at kigge nærmere på var b.l.a.: sprogets rolle i udviklingen af en etnisk identitet og i integrereringen af de etniske minoriteter, hvordan sprog læres og hvilken rolle skolen spiller i denne sammenhæng, hvad er målene med den danske iintegrationspolitik og hvilke midler bruges der til at opnå dem, og endelig hvordan denne politik ser ud i forhold til teoretiske modeller og internationale dokumenter. Vores kardinalspørgsmål kom således til at lyde som følger: Til hvilken grænse støtter den officielle, danske integrationspolitik den sproglige udvikling af anden generations etniske minoriteter og hvordan influerer dette integrationsprocessen ? Det første emne, skal gennemgås er sprogindlæring i skolen. Vi har taget udgangspunkt i Baker 1993, Skutnabb-Kangas 1990 og Cummins 1984, og deres forklaringer af sprogindlæring.

112

Indtil midt i tresserne i Vesten blev tosprogethed anset som en ulempe for individet, idet tilstanden blev associaseret med fattigdom og ringe evner i majoritetessproget. Fra tresserne blev synet på tosprogethed ændret idet tosprogede elever viste bedre resultater i tests, der målte divergent tænkning, kognitiv flexibilitet o.s.v. Jim Cummins forklarer sprogindlæring ved hjælp af begreberne BICS og CALP, BICS som værende evnen til at tale et sprog flydende og CALP som værende tankeværktøjet, der ligger bag. I sammenhæng med tosprogethed kan disse begreber forklares som et isbjerg med to toppe. Hver top repræsenterer et sprog( BICS'en)og den fælles del som ligger under vandet repræsenterer CALP'en, dette billede viser, at sprogene har en fælles del og derfor også afhænger af hinanden i udvikling. Den etniske identitet vælger vi her at definere i en sproglig sammenhæng af hensyn til sammenhængen med emnet, de ses da defineret som det at være et- to- eller flersproget og herunder tages hensyn til kriterier såsom identifikation, kompetence og funktion. Sproget i denne sammenhæng spiller rollen som formidler på: 1) internt plan, 2) gruppeplan og 3) som systematisk lagring af en gruppes historie og traditioner. Indenrigsministeriets rapport om integration på skoleområdet bliver herefter undersøgt for at belyse forholdet mellem skole, sprog og integration. Rapporten lægger op til en integrationsproces, men eftersom modersmålet for de tosprogede elever kun støttes i ringe grad, og dansk sprog og kultur glorificers må det konkluderes at politikken beskrevet i denne rapport sigter mod assimilation. Derefter har vi fundet det vigtigt at sammenligne med to andre dokumenter, det ene udsendt af Undervisningsministeriet i 1994 og det andet udarbejdet af Immigranternes repræsentantskab i 1990 som en direkte reaktion på den først nævnte rapport( I.I.D ) for at vise alternativer til den egentlige politik. Dokumenterne sammenlignes v.h.a. en model udarbejdet af Skutnabb-Kangas, der viser udviklingen af skolingsprogrammer for minoriteter. Det viser sig herefter, at alle tre dokumenter ligger på et forholdsvis lavt udviklingsniveau, skønt der dog er forskel på niveauerne rapporterne imellem. Derefter sættes den første rapport (I.I.D.) ind i Bakers model over tosproget undervisning for yderliggere at få klarlagt mål og midler indenfor netop det undervisningsprogram. Det viser sig endnu engang at etsprogethed og assimilation er målet. Vi kan derfor runde af med at konkludere at tosprogethed, som er en eftertragtet 113

status blandt især minoriteter ifølge vor undersøgelse, ikke støttes af den danske integrationspolitik. Ydermere at ses det at politikken leder til assimilation og ikke integration.

114

Bibliography
Andersen, S. 1992. Ethnic Minority Children and Education in Denmark. København: Danmarks lærerhøjskole Bacal, Azril 1989. Research Reports from the Department of Sociology Uppsala University - Ethnicity in Social Sciences - (A view and a review of the literature on ethnicity). Uppsala: Uppsala University Baker, Colin 1993. Foundation of bilingual education. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Banks, J.A. 1981. Multiethnic Education: Theory and Practice. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon Inc. Bennet, Christine I. 1986. Comprehensive Multicultural Education - Theory and practice. Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon Brock, Colin & Tulasiewicz, Witold 1985, (eds.) Cultural Identity and Educational Policy. Kent: Croom Helm Ltd. Buch, Hanne 1991. (ed.) Folkeskoleloven - med kommentarer. Vejle: Kroghs Forlag A/S Byram, Michael & Leman, Johan 1989. Bicultural and Trilingual Education: The Foyer Model in Brussels. Clevedon - Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Byram, Michael S. 1986. Minority Education and Ethnic Survival: Case Study of a German School in Denmark. Clevedon, Avon.: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Byram, Michael S. 1986, Minority Education and Ethnic Survival: Case Study of a German School in Denmark. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Carter, Ronald 1995. Keywords in language and literacy. London: Routledge

115

Centre for Educational Research. 1989 One School, Many Cultures. Paris: CERI Clausen, Inger M. 1986. Den flerkulturelle skole - om interkulturel, antiracistisk undervisning. København: Nordisk Forlag A.S. Clausen, Inger; Engel, Merete & Kristjansdottir, Bergthora 1995. Dansk er et sjovt sprog - Dansk som andetsprog. København: Dansk flygtningehjælp Corner, Trevor 1984. Education in Multicultural Societies. Kent: Croom Helm Ltd. Cummins, Jim 1989. Empowering Minority Students. California: California association for bilingual education. Cummins, Jim 1984. Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters Ltd Davis, G.A. 1983. Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. United States of America. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Dehmir, Ahmet 1995. De etniske børn og unge i institutioner, personalet har brug for mere viden om:. Samspil 6, oct. 1995 Det Danske Center for Menneskerettigheder1994.Udtalelser om menneskeretsspørgsmål 2. samling. København: Det Danske Center for Menneskerettigheder Du Toit, Brian M. & Safa, Helen I 1975. Migration and urbanization - Models and Adaptive Strategies. The Hague: Mouton Publishers Ellegaard, Mette. En bombe under integrationsprogrammet . EXIL nr.2/1993 p.18-21 García, Ofelia & Baker, Colin 1995. (eds.) Policy and practice in bilingual education. Extending the foundations. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.

116

Gavalias, Yannis 1994. Ethnicia,.51, 1994

Immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers - Who’s Who?.

Gillborn, David 1990. “Race”, ethnicity and Education teaching and learning in multiethnic schools. London: Unwin Hyman Gorter, D. et. al. 1990.(eds.) Fourth International Conference on Minority Languages. Vol. 1:General Papers. Clevedon, Avon. Multilingual Matters Ltd. Gupta, Rajinder M. & Coxhead, Peter 1988. (eds.) Cultural Diversity and Learning Efficiency - Recent Developments in Assessment.New York: St. Martins Press Hammer, Ole. Den kulturelle udfordring - at arbejde med invandrere og flygtninge . København: Socialpolitisk Forlag Hammer, Ole & Schomacher, G. 1979. Indvandrere- en bog om udenlandske arbejdere i Danmark, deres børn og familieliv - Skive: Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke Hannerz, Ulf et. Al. 1986. Ethnos - Anthropology of immigration in Sweden. Stockholm: Etnografiska Museet HIB1, various authors 1995. Savage Sami. Roskilde: RUC

Horst, Christian 1995. Etniske ghettoer - en fantastifuld skabelse: København: Danmarks Lærerhøjskole Holmen, Anne & Jørgensen, J. Normann 1993. Tosprogede børn i Danmark - en grundbog. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag A/S Hjarnø, Jan (ed.) 1994. Multiculturalism in the Nordic Societies. København: Tema Nord

117

Husén, Torsten & Opper, Susan 1982. (eds.) Multicultural and Multilingual Education i n immigrant Cuntries, Proceedings of International Symposium held at the Wenner-Gren Center, Stockholm August 2 and 3, 1982. Oxford: Pergamom Press. Indenrigsministeriet 1990. Integration af indvandrere i Danmark. Beskrivelse og forslag til bedre prioritering. København: Indenrigsministeriet. Indsam 1990.Udkast til integrationsprogram. København: Indsam Indvandrernes Repræsentantskab. Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen nedsat af Indvandrernes Representantskab vedrørende integration af indvandrere. København: Inderigsministeriet Jeppesen, Kirsten Just 1995. Etniske minoriteter. Ved vi nok .København: Arbejdsnotat Jeppesen, Kirsten Just 1993. Skolen en nøgle til integration - De fremmede i Danmark 3. SOCIAL FORSKNINGS INSTITUTTET Jeppesen, Kirsten Just 1989. Unge indvandrere. København: Socialforskningsinstituttet Jørgensen, J. Normann 1985, Tosproget undervisning. København: Danmarks Lærerhøjskole Körmendi, E 1986. Os og de andre - Danskernes holdninger til indvandrere og flygtninge. København: Socialforskningsinstituttet Kjems, Bo 1994. (ed) Folkeskoleloven - med kommentarer 2.udg.. Vejle: Kroghs Forlag A/S Larsen, Michael Søgaard 1982. Skolegang, Etnicitet, Klasse og Familiebaggrund- en survey undersøgelse om indvandrerelever på vej ud af folkeskolen i Københavns kommune.København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Bibliotek.

118

Liebkind, Karmela 1976. Etniska minoriteters identitetskris i assimilationsprocessen - En konstruktionsteoretisk modell. Psychology Liebkind, Karmela 1984. Minority Identity and Identification Processes: A Social Psychological Study. Helsinki, Finland. Spcietas Scientiarum Fennica Liebkind, Karmela 1979. The Social Psychology of Minority Identity: A case study of inter group identification. Theoretical refinement and methodological experimentation. Helsinki, Finland. Liep, John & Olwig, Karen Fog 1994. Komplekse liv, kulturel mangfoldighed i Danmark. København: Akademisk Forlag Melchior, Marianne; Hjarnø, Jan. 1992. Flygtninge og Indvandrere. København: Socialforskningsinstituttet & Sydjysk Unicenter rapport 92/15 Necef, Mehmet Ümit 1994. Jeg vil ikke være en simpel fremmedarbejder som min far. Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag 1994 Peura, Markku & Skutnabb-Kangas 1994. Man kan vara tvälandare också.... Sverigefinnarnas väg från tystnad till kamp. (town): Sverigefinländarnas arkiv Phillipson, Robert & Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove 1995. Rolig Papir - Papers in European language policy. Roskilde: Roskilde UniversitetsCenter Ligvistgruppen Røgild, Flemming 1995. Stemmer i et grænseland , en bro mellem unge indvandrere og danskere. København: Politisk Revy Schierup, Carl Ulrik. 1988. Integration, indvandrere, kultur og samfund . København :Billesø og Baltzer Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove 1990a. Language, Literacy & Minorities - a minority rights group report - London. MRG 119 Helsinki: University of Helsinki Department of Social

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove 1990b. Minoritet, sprog og racisme, Tiden Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove 1995. Minority Education: International Standards and Domestic practices. Roskilde: Handout from: Expert consultation, the Hague 1995 Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Cummins, Jim 1988.(eds.) Minority education: From Shame to Struggle: Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove.; Holmen, Anne & Phillipson, Robert 1993. (eds.) Uddannelse af minoriteter. København: Danmarks Lærerhøjskole Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Petersen, Birgitte Rahbek1983. God, bedre, dansk -om indvandrerbørn integration i Danmark . København: Forlaget børn og unge Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Phillipson, Robert 1986. Linguicism Rules in Education Part 2. Roskilde: Paper presented at the 11th World Congress of Sociology - New Dehli, India, August 18-22, 1986 Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Phillipson, Robert 1994. Linguistic Human Rights Overcoming liguistic discrimination. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Phillipson, Robert 1985. Rolig Papir - Educational Strategies in Multilingual Contexts. Roskilde: Roskilde Universitetscenter Lingvistgruppen Slavensky, Klaus 1993. (eds.) Børns rettigheder i Danmark. København: Det Danske Center for Menneskerettigheder. SOS , 1995. Copenhagen: SOS Racisme og Global Generation Spolsky, Bernard 1972. (ed.) The Language Education of Minority Children. Massachusetts: Newbury House Publisher Inc.

120

Steinberg, Stephen 1981, The Ethnic Myth - Race, Ethnicity, and Class in America. Boston: Bacon Press Sørensen, Jørgen Würtz 1990. Fruer eller Fremmede?: Debatten om arbejdskraftsmangel og anvendelse af udenlandsk arbejdskraft i midten af 60´erne . Århus: Center for kulturforskning v/Århus Universitet Sørensen, Jørgen Würtz 1990. Kulturmøde/Kulturkonfrontation, Tendenser i 80´ernes debat om danskerne og de fremmede .Århus: Center for kulturforskning v/Århus Universitet Sørensen, Jørgen Würtz 1989. Assimilation/Integration - Begreber ideologi, politik. Center for kulturforskning v/Århus Universitet Tajfel, Henri 1982. The Social Psychology af Minorities. London: The Minority Rights Group Temponeras, Takis 1986. Indvandrere og offentlig service . København: Komiteen for Sunhedsoplysning Tingbjørn, Gunnar 1990. Børn, forældre og sprog. Købehavn: Børne og

Ungdomspædagogernes Landsforbund Toit, Brian M. du & Safa, Helen I. 1975.(eds.) Migration and Urbanization - Models and adptive strategies. The Hague: Mouton Publisher Undersøgelses udvalget om racisme og fremmedhad 1991. Beretning om resultaterne af udvalgets undersøgelser. Bruxelles: Undersøgelses udvalget om racisme og fremmedhad Undervisningsministeriet 1994. Modermålsundervisning for tosprogede elever,

undervisningsvejledning for folkeskole. København: Undervisningsministeriet. Undervisningsministeriet 1984, Undervisning af fremmedsprogede elever i folkeskolen, en håndbog. København: Undervisningsministeriet. 121

Undervisningsministeriet 1984.

Undervisningsministeriets bekendtgørelse af 20. nov.

1984 nr.583. København: Undervisningsministeriet Wagner, Ulla(ed.), Hannerz, Ulf (ed.) 1986. Ethnos- Anthropology of immigration in Sweden. Stockholm: Etnografiska Museet Wenstrup, Lotte & Petersen, Hans Fredrik 1985. Tosprogethed - Teori og Praksis. København: Dansk psykologisk Forlag Widding, Elllen 1994. 25 år med tosprogede elever i folkeskolen. Ethnicia 51, Dec. 1994 Østergaard, Marianne. Integreret men ikke dansk . EXIL 2/1993

122

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful