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179

OF COMBUSTION

TABLES 171-183.--HEATS

T A B L E 1 7 1 . 4 O M B U S T I O N C O N S T A N T S O F S O M E SUBSTANCES 62

Substance

Heat of combustion

Reciprocal of
density
m*/100kg

Formula

Spec. gravity
air = 1.000

....

Carbon .................. C
Hydrogen ............... Hz
Oxygen ................. 0 2
Carbon monoxide ........ co

1172.
73.7
84.4

P
Btu/ft*

kg cnl/mJ

275.0

7840.*
2445.

321.8

2860.

913.1
1641.
2385.
3105.

8120.
14,600
21,200
27,600

1513.2
2186.
2869.

13,450
19,400
25,500

3601.
4284.
4980.

32,000
38,100
44,300

.9 107
4.4208
1.1052
1S890
S961

1448.
5654.
768.0
1450.5
365.1

1.1898

5%.

12,870
50,300
6830.
12,900
3245.
2210.*
5300.

6:959x 10.'
1.1053
.%72

Paraffin series : C.H,.,,


147.0
,5543
Methane ................. CH,
77.6
1.04882
Ethane .................. C2H"
1.5617
52.2
Propane ................. C.Ha
39.5
2.06654
Isobutane ................ CIHw

....
....

....

Olefin series: C.HZ.


Ethylene
Propylene
Isobutene
Benzene
Toluene
Xylene

................
...............
................

-9740
1.4504
1.9336

8.7.6

56.3
42.2

Aromatic series : C.H,.-,


30.3
2.6920
25.6
3.1760
22.2
3.6618

................. CoHo
................. CiHR
.................. GHio

Miscellaneous gases
89.5
Acetylene ............... CZH,
18.4
Naphthalene ............. CwH,
73.7
Methyl alcohol ........... C H I O H
51.3
Ethyl alcohol ............ C,H,OH
136.5
Ammonia ................ NHa
....
Sulfur .................. S
68.5
Hydrogen sulfide ......... HZS

....

....

62

Shnidman, Louis (ed.), Gaseous fuels, p. 118, Amer. Gas Assoc., 1948.
Expressed in cal/g.

T A B L E 172.-FLAME

T E M P E R A T U R E S AS M E A S U R E D B Y V A R I O U S
METHODS *

Gas

Amy1 acetate

City gas
City gas

............................

............................
.................................

+ air ...........................

Bunsen ............................
.1420
Meker (center flame) ...............1700
Meker
Bunse
Blast
"

+ 1070 0) + air .............


++20%
0) + air .............
25% 0) +,air ............
+ 40 H z ) + air ..............
+ 94 Hz)+ air ..............
..............................
+ 20 G H z ) + air .............
(15 CH, + 85 GHZ) + air .............

10% (90 CHI


16% (80 CH,
10.8% (75 CH,
22% (60 CH,
32% (26 CH,

Pittsburgh natural gas with a i r . . ..........


Butane-air ...............................
Oxy-hydrogen ...........................
Oxy-acetylene ...........................
See also Table 175.

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

Temp "C

Burner

"

"

"
"

('
"
"
"
"
"
"

............................ ,1680
...............1760

..............................
..........................
..........................

..........................
..............................
..........................
..............................
..............................
..............................
..............................
.........................
.........................
..............................

..............................

.1985

.2005
.2015
,2045
.1970
.2275
1950
2000
.2800
.3500

180
TABLE 173.--HEATS

O F COMBUSTION

OF

SOME CARBON

COMPOUNDS

Given in kg calls at constant pressure per gram-molecular weight in vacuo . When reterred
to constant volume the values should be 0.58 kg calls smaller (at about 18C) for each condensed
gaseous molecule . Combustion products are CO,. liquid H,O. etc. Benzoic acid was adopted at
Lyons as a primary standard. its heat of combustion. 6324 g cal15per gram in air. 6319 in vacuo .
This is tacitly assumed as heat of isothermal combustion at 20.C . In absolute joules. 26.466 and
26.445 respectively The following ratios may be taken as standard : Naphthalene/benzoic acid =
1.5201 (air) ; benzoic acid/sucrose = 1.6028 (air) ; naphthalene/sucrose = 2.4364 (air) .

Molecular
weight
5s
86.11
100.13
114.14
142.18
226.27
282.34
70
84.10
26.02
40
47
78.05
128.06
50.5
85.0
ll'B.5

kg calls
per
I mol
283.4
990.6
1143.6
1304.2
1610.2
2559.1
3183.1
803.4
952.6
312.0
469
496.8
782.8
1231.4
168.7
106.8
89.2
70.3

(I)
..............
Carbon-tetrachloride
( v ) ..............
Ca:mn di-su!fide (I) .

154.0

37.3

Ally1 alcohol
Formaldehyde (p.)
Acetone (b) . .I.
Camphor (s) ........
Sucrose: cane (s)
milk (s)
anhd .....
malt ( 5 )

58.05
30.02
58
152.13
342.18

44.5
394.5
246.6
442.4
134.1
435.8
1411
1349.6

''

1350.8

Compound
Isobutane ( g )
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane ...........
Decane
Hexadecane (s) .....
Eicosane ( 5 ) ........
Amylene ...........
Hexylene
Acetylene (9) .......
Allylene (9)
Trimethylene (9)
Benzene ............
Naphthalene (s) .....
MethyLchloride ( g )
Methylene-chloride (v)
Chlorqform (1)

.......
...........
..........

.............

...........
........
....

...
(v) .......
Carbon-tetrachloride
.......

......
........
c,?

...

.....

....
.

Karasch.

yp.0

MolecFor .
ular
Compound
mula
weight
Starch .............
Glvcoaen ...........
CeiIuIGse
Formic a;jd
CH?02
46.02
60.03
......... C2H102
Acetic
74.05
C?HsOz
Propionic asjd
n.butyric
....... C.HaO
88.06
n-valeric
102.08
CaHiodi
Palmitic
256.26
(5)
CiaH3eOn
Stearic
(s)
C I L H ~ O Z 284.29
90.05
Lactic
(s) .... C-HROI
Aniline . . ........... CnH7O
60.05
60.05
Krea (s) ........... C H I N ~ O
162.13
Nicotine . ........... C,.H,,N.
52.0
Cyanogen (9)
C$..
.
Trinitrotolyne (s)
C T H K N ~ O227.06
~
60.06
w row1 ( I
...... CnHEO
74.08
n-puty~
116.13
11-heptyl
130.14
Octyl
242.27
Cetyl
"
(s) . .
156.16
Menthol (s)
94.05
Phenol (s) .........
150.11
Thymol ............
46
Dimethyl
e t I y (8)
60
Methylethyl
(v)
74.08
Diethyl
(V)

...........
.........
.......

..

.........
....
....

::

.......
...
......
.....
.....
.......

1351
....
Nat . Bur . Standards Journ . Res., vol . 2. p . 359.

T A B L E 174.-HEATS

..

gmol
4178.8
4186.8
4180.8
62.8
208.2
367.2
524.3
681.6
2391
2700
326.0
151.6
151.6
1427.7
260.0
826
482.0
639.4
1104.9
1262.0
2504.5
1508.8
732.2
1353.4
347.6
503.4
660.3

"

1929.

O F COMBUSTION OF MISCELLANEOUS COMPOUNDS


Calories

Substance

Asphalt .........
.. .
Butter .........................
Carbon : amorphous ............

9530
9200
8080
8100
7860
graphite ..............
7900
590
Copper (to CuO) ................
Dynamite. 7570 . . . . . . . . . .
1290
Egg. white of . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5700
Egg. yolk of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8100
Fats. animal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9500
Hemoglobin . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5900
Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33900
Iron (to Fe203). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1582
Magnesium (to MgO) ........... 6080
Oils : cotton-seed ............... 9500
lard .....................
9300
olive .....................
9400

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

kg calls
per

Calories
Substance

Oils :
petroleum :
crude ......................
light .......................
heavy ......................
rape .........................
sperm ........................
Paraffin (to CO.. Ha0 I) .........
Paraffin (to CO.. Hz0 g ) .........
Pitch ..........................
Sulfur. rhombic .................
Sulfur. monoclinic ..............
Tallow .........................
Woods: beech. 13% H'O ........
birch. 1Wo H, 0 ........
oak. 13% H, 0 ..........
pine. 12% H, 0 .........

11500
10000
10200
9500
10000
11140
10340
8400
2200
2240
9500
4170
4210
3990
4420

T A B L E 175.-HEAT

VALUES AND ANALYSES O F VARIOUS FUELS

181

P a r t 1.-Coals

Coal

Low grade ....


Lignite
High grade ...
Low grade ....
Sub:bituHigh grade ...
minous
Low grade ....
Bituminous [High grade ...
Sem.i-bitu- Low grade ....
High grade ...
minous
Semi-anthr
...........
AnthraLow grade ....
cite
High grade ...
Oven
Low grade ....
coke
High grade ...

38.81
33.38
22.71
15.54
11.44
3.42
2.7
3.26
2.07
2.76
3.33
1.92
1.14

25.48
27.44
34.78
33.03
33.93
34.36
14.5
14.57
9.81
2.48
3.27
1.58
.04

27.29 8.42 .97 7.09 37.45 .so


29.62 9.56 .94 6.77 41.31 .67
36.60 5.91 .29 6.14 52.54 1.03
46.06 5.37 .58 5.89 60.08 1.05
43.92 10.71 4.94 5.39 60.06 1.02
58.83 3.39 .58 5.25 77.98 1.29
.99 4.58 80.65 1.82
75.5
7.3
78.20 3.97 .54 4.76 84.62 1.02
78.82 9.30 1.74 3.62 80.28 1.47
82.67 12.69 .54 2.23 79.22 .68
84.28 9.12 .60 3.08 81.35 .79
_ _
88.87 8.99 1.18 - 94.66 3.57 .69 -

Part 2.-Peats
Vol.

Ash

Peats :
Franklin County, N. Y . . . 67.10 28.99 3.91
Sawyer County, W i s . . .. 56.54 27.92 15.54

.37
.29
.37

Part 3.-Liquid
Fuel

\
M

45.57
40.75
34.09
27.03
17.88
11.51
4.66
5.09
3.59
4.64
5.06
-

3526
3994
5115
5865
6088
7852
7845
8166
7612
6987
7417
7946
8006

6347
7189
9207
10557
10958
14134
14121
14699
13702
12577
13351
14300
14410

and Woods (air dried)

hydro- Fixed
carbon carbon

Woods :
Oak, dry ................
Birch, dry ..............
Pine, dry ...............

c:

Btu
Sul- HydroNitro- Oxy- Calories per
fur
gen Carbon gen
gen
perg
pound

.15

.29
-

57.17
51.00

1.48 31.36 5726 10307


1.92 26.54 4867 8761

6.02 50.16
6.06 48.88
6.20 50.31

.09 43.36 4620


.10 44.67 4771
.04 43.08 5085

8316
8588
9153

fuels *

Gravity API t

...................... 68
Motor gasoline .........................
58
Kerosene ..............................
42
Domestic fuel oil ........................
32
Diesel fuel oil ..........................
28
Medium industrial fuel oil. ............... 18
Heavy industrial fuel oil ................ 11
Petroleum ether ........................
.68$

Aviation gasoline

Alcohol, fuel or denatured with 7-Wo water


and denaturing material. ...............

5.93
4.71

.82$

Btu per pound

Btu per gallon

20,420

120,700

20,120

125,800

19,810

134,700

19,450
19,350

141,200
143,100

18,930

149,400

18,590

153,900

22,000

12,2209

11,600

6,4501

Prepared by E. W. Dean, Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey.


t A P I (American Petroleum
Industry) unit = sp.g.60',600
'.'41
- 131.5.
$ Spec. gravity 15C.
0 Calories per gram.

(continued)

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

T A B L E 175.-HEAT

VALUES AND ANALYSES


(concluded)
P a r t 4.-Gases

Substance

Natural gas

.......................

OF V A R I O U S F U E L S

**

Spec. gravity
Air = 1.000

Heat of combustion !lame temperature


C (no excess air)
kg cal/ma

.60- 1.29

8040-17. 400

Propane (commercial) natural gas ... 1.55

20.950

Propane (commercial) refinery gas .. 1:77

20. 600

Butane (commercial) natural gas .... 2.04

26. 350

Butane (commercial) refinery gas .... 2.00

26. I00

1965
2015
.

2005
.

........................
Oil gas ............................
Coal gas ...........................

1.16

4590.

37

4535.

2000

47

4320.

1980

.......................

86

1182.

1655

...........................

57

2330.

Butane-air

Producer gas
Blue gas

** For reference. see footnote 52. p . 179.

Part 5.-Gross

calorific values of crude petroleum

Density
Area

Density
Area

Btu/lb

......... 898

CaVg

19.370

10.760

California

............863

18.800

10.490

Ohio

Japan

20. 670

11.480

Oklahoma

. . . . . . .886

19.420

10.790

Poland

20.010

11.120

Pennsylvania

19.780

10.990

18.920

10.510

Texas

. . . . .828
. . . ........943

18.950

10.520

19.420

10.790

Argentina

. . . . . . .989

18.540

10.300

18.180

10.100

Patagonia

........948

18.970

10.540

18.360

10.200

20"/4"C

Borneo
India

...........925
.......... 299
Rumania .........936
Canada ..........855
Mexico ..........966
Trinidad .........941

20"/4"C Btu/lb

CaVg

. . . . . . . .960

18.590

10.330

........... 338

19.710

10.950

Science of Petroleum. vol . 2 .

P a r t 6.-Sugars
Sugar

kg cal/mol

8-d-Levulose

................

671.70

a-d-Galactose

................

666.76

a-d-Glucose

8-Maltose monohydrate
a-Lactose monohydrate

......

a-Monopalmitin

............. 2788.30
Ascorbic acid ................ 560.60
a-D-Glucose pentaacetate ..... 1718.62

1360.50
1349.00

8-D-Glucose pentaacetate

by G. Stegeman. University of Pittsburgh

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

.......... 666.73
............. 2778.78

@-Monopalmitin

....... 1354.66

....................

1 Prepared

kg cal/mol

................. 669.58

a-d-Glucose hydrate

.................. 1345.47

B-Lactose

Sucrose

Sugar

................... 670.30

I-Sorbose

.....

1722.63

T A B L E 176.-NONFLAMMABLE

LIQUIDS

183

FOR CRYOSTATS

Liquid ..........
CClr
CHCla
4" CzH5Br
32
39*
No.40
Freezing point .... "C
-23
-63
-81
-119
-139
-145
-150+
Compositions : * No. 4 ; CCI,, 49.4% ; CHCL, 50.6%.
No. 32; CHCls, 19.7%; CzHaBr, 44.9%; C2HzCL, 13.8% ; CZHCIS,
21.6%.
No. 39; CHCL, 14.5%; CzH5Br, 33.4%; CZHZCIZ, 10.4%; CzHC13,
16.4% ; CH,CL, 25.3%.
No. 40 ; CHCls, 17.9% ; CzH,Cl, 9.3% ; CzHaBr,40.7% ; CzH2CIz,12.5% ;
CzHCla, 19.6%.

C2H5Br .... 1.81


No. 32 . . . . . . . .
No. 34 ..... 1.97
No. 40 . . . . . . . .

Viscositiesin
centipoises:

2.25
3.03
2.57
2.88

2.89
4.57
3.69
3.89

3.86
7.4
5.6
5.9

.........

5.6
13.7
10
10.2

29.3
22.3
22.5

81
85
71

242 1480
170 631

Because of volatility and oxidation of some, these liquids should be kept in well-stoppered bottles
when not in use.

T A B L E 177.-DATA

ON EXPLOSIVES
Calculated
temperatire

Val. gas
Explosive

per g in
cma
=V

Calories
per
g=Q

280
741
923
871
888
817
877

738
1652
931
1242
1031
1349
810

Gunpowder ...............................
Nitrodvcerine
............................
-u
Nitrocellulose, 13% Nz. ....................
Cordite, Mk.I. (NG, 57; NC, 38; Vaseline, 5).
Cordite, MD (NG, 30; NC, 65 ; Vaseline, 5). .
Ballistite (NG. 50: NC. 50: Stabilizer., 5).
...
,
Picric acid (Lyddite). ......................
d

Coeffi- Coefficient
cient
GP
= QV
- 1
t 1000

207
1224
859
1082
915
1102
710

1
6
4.3
5.2
4.4
5.3
3.4

Q/C

C, sp. ht.
gases

- .24
2240" C
6880
3876
5175
4225
5621
3375

Shattering power of explosive = vol. gas per g x cals/g x V, x density where V, is the velocity of
detonation.
Trinitrotoluene: V, = 7000 m/sec. Shattering effect = .87 picric acid.
trinitrotoluene, T N T ) : V, = 4500 m/sec.
Amatol (ammonium nitrate
Ammonal (ammonium nitrate, T N T , Al) : 1578 cal/g; 682 cma gas; V, = 4000 m/sec.
Sabulite (ammonium nitrate, 78, T N T 8, Ca silicide 14) : about same as ammonal.

T A B L E 178.-TIME
Temperature
Time

"C

Black powder .........


Smokeless powder A . . ..
Smokeless powder B . . ..
Celluloid pyroxylin ....
Collodion cotton .......
Celluloid* ............
Safety matches ........
Parlor matches ........
Cotton wool ...........

OF H E A T I N G FOR EXPLOSIVE DECOMPOSITION


170

180

190

200

220

sec

sec

sec

sec

sec

n
195
130
60
165
100
340
n

n
130
67
60
240

n
45
90
21
56
50
150

600
190
170
870
160
n
n
-

n
-

590

23
25
9
18
30
60

480
-

Ignition temperature
"C t
"C t

440
(300
300
590

450

900

n failure to explode in twenty minutes.


*'The decomposition of nitrocellulose in cellulojd com,mences at about 100: C ; above that the heat of
decomposition may raise the mass to the ignition point if loss of heat is prevented. Above 170,
decom asition occurs with explosive violence as with nitrocellulose. Kate of combustion is 5, to 10 times
t Measured by contact wlth porcelain
that o f poplar, pine, or paper of the same size and conditions.
$ Measured by contact with molten lead. Average.
tube of given temperature, Average.

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

184
TABLE 179.-CHEMICAL

AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES O F F I V E D I F F E R E N T


CLASSES O F EXPLOSIVES

kg/cm*

m/sec

m/sec

In.

In.

88.4
79.7
14.5

25

(A) Forty percent nitroglycerin dynamite. 1.22 1221.4

(B) FFF black blasting

..........

8235

227*

4688

.358

24.63

12

1.25

789.4

4817

374t
458*

469.4z 925.

54.32

- 154.4
126.9
4.1 1I

(C) Permissible explosive ; nitroglycerin


class ............ 1.10

760.5

5912

301*

3008

.471

27.79

explosive ; ammonium
.97
nitrate class

4 103.9
65.1
15.4

992.8

7300

279*

34386 .483

25.68

89.8
27.5
75.5

(E) Permissible explosive;hydratedclass. 1.54

610.6

6597

434*

2479

17.49

86.1 Over
56.0 1000
33.0

powder

(D) Permissible

......

.338

25

1000

800

Chemical analyses

(A) Moisture ......................


.91
Nitroglycerin ................. 39.68
Sodium nitrate ................ 42.46
Wood pulp ....................
13.58
Calcium carbonate ............. 3.37

............. .23
............. 83.10
............. .46
............. 2.61
.............

(B) Moisture ........


Charcoal ......................
Sulfur ........................

17.74
10.89

(C) Moisture .....................


7.89
Nitroglycerin .................. 24.02
Sodium nitrate ................ 36.25
Wood pulp and crude fiber from
9.20
grains ......................
Starch ........................
21.31
Calcium carbonate ............. .97
Magnesium ''
............. .36

SMITHSOMIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

1.89
2.54
2.64
6.53

.....................

2.34

(E) Moisture

" O n e pound of clay tamping used.


t Two pounds of
1%in. diam.
I1 For 300 grams.

8 Cartridges

Poisonous matter .........


Manganese peroxide ......
Sand .........................

Nitroglycerin .................. 30.85


Ammonium nitrate ............ 9.94
Sand .........................
1.75
Coal ..........................
11.98
Clay .........................
7.64
Ammonium sulfate ............ 8.96
Zinc sulfate (7HO). ........... 6.89
Potassium sulfate .............. 19.65
clay tamping used.

$ R a t e of burning.

T A B L E 180.-THERMOCHEMISTRY.

185

C H E M I C A L ENERGY DATA

The total heat generated in a chemical reaction is independent of the steps from initial to final
state . Heats of formation may therefore be calculated from steps chemically impracticable .
Chemical symbols now represent the chemical energy in a gram-molecule or mol(e); treat reaction equations like algebraic equations : CO + 0 = CO. 68 k g cal ; subtract C 2 0 = C o t
97 kg ca!. then C 0 = CO 29 kg cal . W e may substitute the negative values of the formation heats in an energy equation and solve MgCL 2 Na = 2 NaCl Mg x kg cal ; - 151 =
- 196 + x ; x = 45 kg cat . Heats of formation of organic compounds can be found from the
heats of combustion since burned to H, 0 and COz. When changes are at constant volume. energy
of external work is negligible ; also generally for solid or liquid changes in volume . When a gas
forms a solid or liquid at constant pressure. or vice versa. it must be allowed for . For N mols of
gas formed (disappearing) at T K O the energy of the substance is decreased (increased) by
0.002.N.T~ kg cal Hz 0 = HzO 67.5 kg cal at 18C at constant volume; 1(2 HZ 0, 2 HZO = 135.0 0.002 x 3 x 291 = 136.7) = 68.4 kg cal .
The heat of solution is the heat. + or
liberated by the solution of 1 mol of substance in so
much water that the addition of more water will produce no additional heat effects . Aq signifies
this amount of water; HzO. one mot ; N H + Aq = N H 4 0 H . A q 8 kg cal .

Part 1.-Heats

-.

of formation from elements in kilogram-calories

At ordinary temperatures

Compound

Heat of
formation

ALOs ..... 380.


AgZO . I . ..
6.5
BaO ...... 126.
BaOz ..... 142.
Bi203 ..... 138.
COam .... 29.0
COdi ..... 26.1
COzam ... 97.0
COzgr .... 94.8
COzdi .... 94.3
CaO ...... 152.
CeOz ..... 225.
C1zOg .... -16.5
CoOam ... 50.5
CoOcr ... 57.5
CorOi ..... 193.4
C r 0 3 ..... 140.
CSZO ..... 91.3
Cu.0 ..... 42.3
CuO ...... 37.2
FeO ...... 65.7
Fez03 ..... 196.5
Fe304 . . . . . 270.8
HzOggl . . 68.4
HzOzggl .. 46.8
HgzO . . . . . 22.2
H g O ..... 21.4
KzO ...... 91.
La203 ..... 447.
Lion ...... 141.6
MgO ..... 143.6
MnO ..... 90.8
MnOz ... . 123.
Mn304 . . . . 325.
MoOz ..... 143.
MOO3 ..... 174.
NzOggg .. -18.2
N O ggg . . . -21.6
8.1
NO, .......
NazOI .....
2.6

Compound

Heat of
formation

Compound

CuCl ..... 34.1


FeCL ..... 82.1
FeCL . . . . . 96.0
HCIggl ... 22.
HgCl ..... 31.3
HgClz .... 53.3
di = diamond: c r = crystal;

Compound

Heat of
formation

Li2S0, .......... 334.2


KCI ....... 105.7
(NH4)zSOi ...... 283.
LiCl ....... 93.8
Na2SOr ......... 328.3
MgClz ...... 151.0
MgSOi .......... 301.6
MnClz ...... 112.3
PbSO. .......... 216.2
NaCl ...... 97.8
NdCL ...... 250.
TlzSOi .......... 221.0
NHiCl ..... 76.3
ZnS04 .......... 229.6
NiCL ...... 74.5
CaC03 .......... 270.
PbClz ...... 83.4
c u c o 3 .......... 143.
PdClz ...... 40.5
FeC03 .......... 179.
PtCL ...... 60.4
KzCOI .......... 280.
SnCL ...... 80.8
MgC03 ......... 267.
NazC0 . . . . . . . . . . 272.
SnCL ...... 128.
SrCL ...... 185.
ZnCOl .......... 194.
ThClr ...... 300.
AgN03 ......... 28.7
TIC1 ....... 48.6
Ca (NO3). ....... 209.
RbCl ....... 105.9
C~(N03)z6HzO . 92.9
ZnCL ...... 97.3
NHOI gggl ...... 41.6
H B r g l g .... 8.6
KNO. ........... 119.2
NHIBr ..... 66.
IdNO, .......... 112.
H I gsg .... .- 6.2
NH.NO. ........ 88.3
H F g g g .... 38.
NaN03 ......... 111.0
AR,S ....... 3.3
TINO. .......... 58.2
CS, sgg ... .-2 6.0
CH4 sgg ......... 20.
CaS ....... 90.8
CzH. Sgg ........ 25.
(NH,), S ... 66.2
CzHz S ~ B ........ -53.
C u S ....... 18.3
H C N di gsgg .... -30.5
CuS ....... 11.6
N H x g ~ g . . . . . . . . 12.0
HzSgsg .... 2.73 C a ( 0 H L ........ 230.
ILS ....... 103.4
NH. O H ........ 88.8
MgS ....... 79.4
NaOH .......... 102.
NazS ....... 89.3
Na*H,O.Aq-H . 44.*
PbS ....... 19.3
+(2 Na.O.HzO) . 68.*
f(Na,O.HpO-Aq).
30.*
CaSO. . . . . . 262.
CuSOi ..... 111.5
K O H ........... 103.5
HzSO4Sggg . 193.
K-HzO' Aq-H ... 45.*
-SOx*HzO* . 21.3
$(2 K*O*HzO) . . 69.*
HgzSO4 .... 175.
f(KzO.HzO.Aq) . . 35.5*
HgSOi ..... 165.
K2SO. . . . . . 344.3
g = gas; gr = graphite; I = liquid; rh = rhombic (sulfur);

am = amorphous:
s = solid; y = yellow (gold) .
Heats of formation not from elements but as indicated

(contintled)
SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

Heat of
formation

186
T A B L E 180.-TH

E R MOC H EMISTRY. C H EMI CA L E N E R G Y D A T A (concluded)


of formation of ions i n kilogram-calories

P a rt 2.-Heats

and - signs indicate signs of ions and the number of these signs the valency. For the ionization of each gram-molecule of an element divide the numbers in the table by the valency, e. g.,
9.00 g AI = 9.00 g AI'
40.3 kg cal. When a solution is of such dilution that further dilution does not increase its conductivity, then the heats of formation of substances in such solutions
may be found as follows : FeCI2Aq= 22.2 2 X 39.1 = 100.4 kg cal. CuSOaAq = - 15.8
214.0 = 198.2 kg cal.

+++ +

Ag
A1
Co+
Ca+
Cd+

Cu+

+
+

+
+

+ 16.0
+108.8
50.2
4.0
+625.0

++ +
+ +
SSrn +
+ +++
$11;:
TI +
+ 1.7
Zn+ +
+ 35.0

- 9.3
0.0
- 19.8
61.8
62.8

+
+

+ 32.7
+ + 37.5
+ 57.3

Mn
Pb+
Rb+

F
He++ + +
Hg
K+
Li

NH4+
NH40
Na+

+121.0
+170.0
+133.?
18.4
- 16.0
- 15.87
22.2

++

cu
Fe+

- 25.3

ASOi--BrBr0,CO,-C1CIOCIOaclo4~~~~~

HP0,- HP04-HS N0z NOa -

I-

T A B L E 18l.-lGNl1TlON

+
+

10,-

+
+

szoa--

+215.0
28.2
11.2
+160.8
39.1
26.0
23.4
38.7
+163.0
+143.9
+229.6
+304.8
1.2
+ 27.0
48.9
13.1

+
55.8
+ 46.5
+ 54.4

1 0 4 -

OHPo,---

+298.0
+1386
+2782
+260.8
+151.0
+214.0
- 35.6
+119.6
+144.8
- 34.8
77.0
98.4
- 12.6

SzOe-S,Oe--

+
-

SOa- -

SO,--

Se-Se0,-SeO,-Te- TeOs- TeO, - S--

+
+

+
+

T E M P E R A T U R E S O F GASEOUS M I X T U R E S

Ignition temperature taken as temperature necessary for hot body immersed in gas to
cause ignition; slow combination may take place at lower temperatures. Gases were
mixed with air. Practically same temperatures as with 0,.
Benzene and air.. ............. 1062" C
Coal gas and air.. ............. 878
CO and air ....................
931

T A B L E 182.-HEATS

Ether and air.. ................ 1033" C


Ethylene and air ............... 1000
Hydrogen and a i r . . ............ 747

O F N E U T R A L I Z A T I O N IN K I L O G R A M C A L O R I E S

The heat generated by the neutralization of an acid by a base is equal, for each gram-molecule
of water formed, to 13.7 kg cal plus the heat produced by the amount of un-ionized salt formed,
plus the sum of the heats produced in the completion of the ionizations of the acid and the base.
Base

KOH.aq .........
NaOH.aq ........
N H 4 0 H . a q .......
f Ca(OH)z.aq . . . . .
1 Zn(OHI2.aq .....
3 Cu(OH),.aq .....

HC1.aq

HNOa,aq

H2S04.aq

HCN%q

CH3COOH-aq

HnCOraq

13.7
13.7
12.4
14.0
9.9
7.5

13.8
13.7
12.5
13.9
9.9
7.5

15.7
15.7
14.5
15.6
11.7
9.2

2.9
2.9
1.3
3.2
8.1

13.3
13.3
12.0
13.4
8.9
6.2

10.1
10.2
8.
9.5
5.5

T A B L E 183.-HEATS

O F D I L U T I O N O F H,SO,

I n kilogram-calories by the dilution of 1 gram-molecule of sulfuric acid by m gram molecules


of water.
m ....... 1
kg cal ... 6.38

9.42

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

3
11.14

5
13.11

19
16.26

49
16.68

99
16.86

199
17.06

399
1599
17.86
17.31