Final Exam Review Philosophy-an unanswered question Metaphysics-above and beyond physics Ethics-a system of general moral

principle and a conception of morality and its foundation, or the study of moral principles. Plato/Theory of Forms- An independently existing entity in the world of Being, which determines the nature of the particular things of this world. In Aristotle forms have no independent existence. Materialism- The metaphysical view that only physical matter and its properties exist. Such intangible entitles as numbers, minds and ideas are really properties of physical bodies. To talk about energy, for example, is, in a way, to talk about physical potential; to talk about minds is, as a kind of shorthand, to talk about behavior; to talk about ideas is, in a misleading way, to talk about the various structures and interrelationship between objects. Numbers have no existence of their own but only represent sets of sets of objects (the set of all sets of eight things is the number eight, for example). Materialism has always been a powerful worldview in modern scientific culture. It is also the most common view among the pre-Socrates philosophers. Determinism-the view that every event in the universe is dependent upon other events, which are its causes.on this view, all human actions and decisions, even those which we would normally describe as “free” and “undetermined,” are totally dependent on prior events that cause them. Dualism- in general, the distinction between mind and body as separate substances, or very different kinds of states and events with radically different properties. Hume's Theory of Self and Epistemology Self HYPERLINK "" \o "David Hume" David Hume pointed out that we tend to think that we are the same person we were five years ago. Though we have changed in many respects, the same person appears present as was present then. We might start thinking about which features can be changed without changing the underlying self. Hume, however, denies that there is a distinction between the various features of a person and the mysterious self that supposedly bears those features. When we start introspecting, "we are never intimately conscious of anything but a particular perception; man is a bundle or collection of different perceptions which succeed one another with an inconceivable rapidity and are in perpetual flux and movement". It is plain, that in the course of our thinking, and in the constant revolution of our ideas, our imagination runs easily from one idea to any other that resembles it, and that this quality alone is to the fancy a sufficient bond and association. It is likewise evident that as the senses, in changing their objects, are necessitated to change them regularly, and take them as they lie contiguous to each other, the imagination must by long custom acquire the same method of thinking, and run along the parts of space and time in conceiving its objects." On Hume's view, these perceptions do not belong to anything. Rather, Hume compares the soul to a commonwealth, which retains its identity not by virtue of some enduring core substance, but by being composed of many different, related, and yet constantly changing elements. The question of personal identity then becomes a matter of characterizing the loose cohesion of one's personal experience. No empirical basis for belief in self. Bundle theory of self, strung together by memories. Epistemology A. Hume’s Fork- Hume’s insistence that every belief be justified either as a “relation between ideas” or as a “matter of fact.”Hume starts as an empiricist and becomes a skeptic. Anything worth knowing will be confirmed or disconfirmed by the senses. Relations of Ideas- rationalism, bad, trivial, uninformative. 2+2=4. A bachelor is an unmarried man. Matters of Fact- Empiricism, Good. There are Bachelors in this room. Café on the square is at least 4 blocks away.

. never proven) C. how is this possible? Kant’s theories of mind (coming to know things. 1.Revision of Hume’s Fork-instead of relations of ideas Kant believed in Analytic. it does not deny the existence of mental events. Our senses only establish a sequence of events (pool ball hitting another) 2. What is the justification in belief of induction? (Assumed. Identity Theory (AKA Reductive Materialism). Sequence in and of itself doesn’t establish belief in cause and effect. Synthetic A Priori truth. The theory is usually presented as a form of materialism. Kant faculty of understanding was not true by definition. People see the world differently. Synthetic A Priori Knowledge-An informative Statement about reality the truth of which is known independently of experience. Utilitarianism-act in ways to make the greatest number of people as happy as possible Functionalism-the view that the mind is the product of a pattern in the brain. as in a computer. Kant's Moral Theory (AKA Kantianism)-wrong and right. do what is morally right Kant's Epistemology. Humean Skepticism-no empirical basis in the belief in cause and effect. time): space and time is only what allows you to make perceptions.phenomena). Not all knowledge claims are this but some are. A Priori. Use induction to establish the belief. Compatibilism-the thesis that both determinism (on some interpretations)and free action can be true. Fatalism. unity. Understanding (relation. Kant says you cannot figure out the world it’s different. Determinism does not rule out free action and the possibility of free action does not require that determinism be false. and Contingent. Noumena and Phenomena-there is a world and out mind won’t look at anything but perception (as they appear to us. Ethical Egoism-the thesis that people ought to act in their own interests. more accurately. A human has this ability but how we perceive it may be different.B. Hume says we cannot know about cause and effect but Kant says yes you can he is a rationalist. A causes B. Every event has a cause. parallel lines don’t intersect. plurality. And instead of matters of fact Kant believed in Synthetic. Mental events are nothing other than certain bodily events.Thesis that everything will happen no matter what. They are compatible positions. The capability of the mind knows things. 3. unlike many materialistic theories. statistical frequency. We take in the world and our mind gives it shape. space. D. rather than a product of the matter of the brain as such. show me time. totally): Hume is a strict empiricist. and Necessary. Analysis of Causation-correlation: not as strong as causation. Hume Rejected this because there was no empirical evidence. Causation: necessary for one to the other. that mental states and events are in fact certain brain and nervous system processes. not physical…Kant we impose it. It denies only that they have independent existence. but it is important to emphasize that.) C.The thesis that the mind and brain are ontologically one and the same. presupposed. Every event has a cause. or. A Posteriori. We know A Priori that things happen. Kant’s Faculties-Intuition (perception.

Self is your memories and former experiences Theodicy. then god must lack at least one of these 3 attempt to defend god from the argument from evil. Omniscience-all knowing usually said of god. This statement is plausible if we assume that states of perceiving. But consider the following passage from Locke. they express emotions Ethical Subjectivism-moral truths depend on the person Ethical Relativism. and that conscious states are states one is conscious of. such as what a person wants. taste. Contrast Theodicy-evil cannot exist without good. but free will means that such considerations never determine a person’s decision. what a person believes. Evil exists because we choose it. hear. .Omniscient(all knowing). which seems to express an omniscience claim. Problem of Evil-the dilemma that emerges from trying to reconcile te belief that god is omnipotent. Argument from Evil.Eliminative Materialism. meditate. we know that we do so. god cannot exist without evil. Is Locke really saying that all of our thoughts and sensations are accompanied by (justified.omniscient. are conscious. Free Will Theodicy-among philosophers a somewhat antiquated expression that means that a person is capable of making decisions that are not determined by antecedent conditions.moral claims are neither true by definition nor empirically verifiable.if god is omnipotent(all powerful).The thesis that increasing knowledge of neurology eventually will allow us to give up our “folk psychological” terminology of mental states. and you cannot have one without the other. When we see. and just with the suffering and evil in the world. Soul-Making Theodicy-evil exists so that we may have opportunities to make our souls.and Omnibenevolent (all good) but evil still exists.the thesis that different moralities should be considered equally correct even if they directly contradict each other. etc. usually said of God Omnibenevolence-want to get rid of evil/ all good. willing. Locke's Theory of Self. or will anything. Moral Skepticism-rejects objectivity of moral claims Moral Nihilism-no such thing as wrong and right Non-Cognitivism-aka emotivism. At most the enter into the decision. without perceiving that he does perceive. true) beliefs to the effect that we are having those thoughts and sensations? It is more likely that by “we know that we do so” Locke means that we are conscious that we do so. Omnipotence-all powerful. [It is] impossible for anyone to perceive. A morality is correct by this thesis merely if it is correct according to the particular society that accepts it. smell.The omniscience thesis seems even less plausible than the unrestricted infallibility thesis. feel.

Descartes proposed that he wanted to have certainty (suspension of belief). I cannot doubt that I am. in an effort to achieve certainty. Conspiracy theory. This clearing of his previously held beliefs then puts him at an epistemological ground-zero. Evil Genius/brain in a vat. god. so how can I be certain which are reliable or not.there is very little we can know. One question from Aesthetics lecture One question from Humor lecture .Descartes' EpistemologyA. therefore I am. 1. He eventually discovers that “I exist” is impossible to doubt and is. politicians. C. scientific theories or claims. Dreams-can seem “real”. serves to fix the certainty of everything that is clearly and distinctly understood and provides the epistemological foundation Descartes set out to find. Assume for sake of argument everything is false. From here Descartes sets out to find something that lies beyond all doubt. Ergo Sum”-I think. Doubt everything which can be doubted. 2. where I am. This. B.Absolute Skepticism-we can’t know anything(no one can be this) Philosophical Skepticism.matrix scenario. the world outside your own mind. external world) Rationalism-Knowledge through reason Empiricism-Knowledge through experiences Skepticism-Value judgments. talking to god and god talking back. Cartesian Skepticism-doubting the external world. therefore. in turn. absolutely certain. Descartes’ Rationalism-“Cogito. (Cartesian circle-self. It is possible something outside of me is making me believe. how do I know if I am dreaming or awake? 3. This “hyperbolic doubt” then serves to clear the way for what Descartes considers to be an unprejudiced search for the truth. Senses-are reliable typically visual. Hyperbolic Doubt-His basic strategy was to consider false any belief that falls prey to even the slightest doubt. I can doubt who I am. It is from this point that Descartes proceeds to demonstrate God’s existence and that God cannot be a deceiver. “false reality”.

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