for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday.

com 847-401-3970
Abstract for reviewers: The University of Wisconsin-Green Bay is unique in the history of U.S. higher education and a 1960s case study of the enduring conflict between U.S. religion and science. UWGB’s founding plan suffered an early abortion at the hands of the region’s conservative business and religious elite, supported by a popular revulsion to the prospects of change. It is Wisconsin history. It is United States history. For Wisconsin, the story is the playing out of cultural conflicts starting in Wisconsin’s early days of statehood and continuing yet today. The story in brief: UWGB was first authorized by Wisconsin government in 1965 as an expansion campus of the world-famous University of Wisconsin at Madison. Supporters of the Oshkosh State University, a campus of the Wisconsin State University (WSU) system, argued that state funds would be better spent in upgrading their 90year old campus rather than building a new one near Green Bay. When UW leaders rejected the idea of adopting WSU-Oshkosh into the University of Wisconsin System, a counterattack was made, starting openly in 1968 to de-fund or otherwise halt UWGB’s development. While the present UWGB campus (the Shorewood campus) was under construction in 1968, a multi-campus UWGB operated through UW-Center campuses in Green Bay, Marinette, Menasha and Manitowoc. In 1969-70, the first academic year of current UWGB campus, an attempt to absorb to absorb UWGB into the WSU system, that proposal being promoted by a business coalition headed by the recently retired CEO or the Kimberly-Clark Corporation (Kellett.) In 1971, newly-elected Democratic Governor Patrick Lucey forced a merger of the WSU and UW into a single organization governed by a combination of the two former boards of regents. However, the emotional battle continued, with covert challenges marring the UW-O and UWGB relationship for at least two decades. The story of this conflict is important because it involved many state and national political, business and academic leaders yet in power today. In addition, emotional struggle likely affects the relationships of individuals, political parties and religious organizations who fought on either side of what might be called “an ethnic conflict” had it occurred in a distant nation.

UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future

................... UWGB‟s early accomplishments were equally humble.................................. A new optimism spread like a summer cold: “If we can put a man on the moon............ sent 15 feet through cable at the University of California-Los Angeles............ to reveal................ 12 Competition in the public sector ............ as it marched toward a future that most Americans believed would be a future of bounty...... 13 Old Rivalry Becomes New Culture War .................” – Max Freedman subhead: With great expectations........ 2 The First Earth Day ............................................. at the time.... in July 1969............................................................................................... the first humans stepped foot on the moon—a feat that many of the elder generations doubted would ever happen despite the serious striving of their youngsters.................. then certainly we can….........” That fill-in-the-blank syllogism was familiar to everyone of the era............. the meaning of “moon” had changed................ both UWGB and the Internet were newborns...................... Wisconsin on September 2....... In 1969..... 1969......... Just six weeks before UWGB‟s opening day......... according to the National Geographic........... it was an expansion campus of the prestigious University of Wisconsin based in Madison............... 6 A large and noble American vision .......................... It gave emotional confidence to UWGB‟s first enthusiastic students....... though the Internet pulled status as a national military secret--considered treasonous................... UW-Green Bay shared its birthday with the first Internet message................................................................... Table of Contents The Birth of the University of the Future 847-401-3970 =================================================================== Opening quote: “It is the first mark of a mature institution to know its history.................... contestable claims............ 15 The Birth of the University of the Future The University of the Future came out of the womb in Green Bay....11 It‟s Who You Know .... Both institutions were small steps for humankind.......................... UWGB: A History of Wisconsin’s University of the Future................ While the topic of the moon was not new to human discussion.. Expectations were distorted by the mood of the times.... 3 The Brilliant Chancellor...................................for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday.. the newborn UWGB entered Day One in Fall 1969.................... Officially................................................................................. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future .................

In a discomforting moment of revelation. the mark of an indelible myth. It was impulsive because the astronauts had the camera to scout landing locations on the moon‟s surface for the first manned landing in 1969.500 students attended UWGB feeder campuses. As buildings took shape in the early 1970s. humanity woke up to discover planet Earth next to them in the bed. 1970. in the Spring 1970 semester.” and it‟s likely that a majority participating in the first Earth Day couldn‟t identify who Nelson was if told his name. but rather one of a large mass of middle-aged 1 2 Star Trek was “off the air” in 1969.” the boosters smiled to themselves. There was no prior thought of making photos looking back at Earth. Senator Nelson was not on the social fringe. but many were among the 847-401-3970 An unexpected and unforgettable image appeared had in color magazines. renowned anthropologist Margaret Mead shouted the awakening to a crowd like she was reading a poem: “This is new! We‟ve never been in a situation like this before! We‟ve never known the whole planet before! We‟ve never known the whole human race before! We‟ve never seen this planet. though his undergraduate education was at San Jose State University in California. a little blue tuft swirling in space. The Starship Enterprise had landed in Wisconsin's north woods: “We are the rescue ship to a doomed planet Earth. At irregular intervals along the tunnels.” “Earthrise” was the name given to the snapshot. windows revealed that those walking inside were cocooned from the outdoors. Manitowoc and Menasha. on April 22. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future .” The First Earth Day The first Earth Day took place during UWGB‟s first school year. the environment. not everyone was paying attention. but it has made many resurrections since then. in front of the iconic United Nations building. The students were not unlike astronauts peering out portals.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. These were 40-60 miles away in the small cities of Marinette. alert students and faculty realized they were “inside” wanting to save the “outside”. Appropriately. During UWGB‟s first academic year.2 It looked like a coincidence.S. Gaylord Nelson earned a law degree from the UW-Madison law school. a tiny little blue blob. Nelson was not vested with any given authority to create “Earth Day. a Wisconsinite is credited with originating this national day of concern for the environment.300 students attending classes on UWGB‟s Green Bay campus that fall semester. visitors commented that the campus felt like the Starship Enterprise—the spacecraft of the TV show “Star Trek” which was first broadcast on TV in 1967. aka.U. the first Earth Day was marked. And among the 2. He was a former Wisconsin governor and a strong supporter of the University of Wisconsin-. After a wild night of dancing to a full moon. subterranean hallways linking the buildings. 1969. In Manhattan.1 Most striking was the experience of walking long.” To be realistic. taken impulsively by an astronaut from a point near the Moon. People passed the picture around with genuine exclamations of “wow. “How ironic. Senator Gaylord Nelson.

A teach-in like the Vietnam War protesters were conducting. Editors welcomed a “good news” campus story for middle class readers troubled as their youngsters left for college campuses teeming with angry. which were a symbol of old and wealthy powerful. demanding students. but unfortunate.” This was the American atmosphere before the environment was recognized as a vital concern. Nelson‟s speech became more attractive. then a new and considered a “highly experimental drug” in white American culture. Working through his Democratic Party connections. no matter how often pedestrian politicians dismissed these as unworthy concerns. worried about the birds and the butterflies. Nelson gave a routine conservation speech. 5 UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . Nelson had focused on getting other legislators to accept that average voters and taxpayers were concerned about Nature and the quality of their environment. students would gather on campus but outside of classes. that average Wisconsinites were indeed concerned about “such silly things” as bluebirds and sturgeon. 1964. he tossed in a new idea: a teach-in focused on the environment. it was a stretch for most of the public to draw a connection between nuclear bombs and the environment. Nelson kept trying variations on his stump speech. Hair styles and dress were a mix of conservative and hippie.5 3 Perhaps in a characteristic poke of mockery. Nelson would say. in a semi-organized quasi-educational meeting. there was always cigarette and pipe smoking. In part through the association of environmental and antiwar teach-ins. Since joining the Senate in 1963. Impulsively. Nelson and JFK found the news media uninterested in reporting on “nature. Extremely rare was the public smoking of marijuana. They would view films. this time in Seattle.” It just wasn‟t “hard news. and reported on by TV network news. The plan was to visit natural areas and parks. The nonverbal message was clear: “There he goes again. Teach-in‟s were a popular new event form on campuses. holding press conferences in places of expansive beauty.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. That said. However.4 Federal scientists were shocked by radioactive fallout migrating up the food chain.” Barry Commoner would document that on multiple levels. The account of a single wire service reporter was reprinted in newspapers across the 847-401-3970 conservationists (in 1970 he was 53) concerned about the environment. almost never cigars. the stars aligned with the polestar. In 1969.” There commonly were black/white posters advertising national protest events (color printing then being cost-prohibitive for all but rock concert promoters. Nelson instigated a 1962 national media tour for President John F. The Closing Circle. Nelson knew. Too often when he spoke. Bush. 4 5 Barry Commoner.. causing journalists to ignore that story angle. Remarkable today. Inspired by Thomas Edison trying a thousand different filaments for his light bulb. other elected officials shook their heads dismissively. in 2001 the technique of policy announcements at national conservation sites was copied for environmental policy announcements by President George W. discuss books and received handouts in the form of crude mimeograph booklets and “alternative newspapers. the tour was a firecracker that fizzled without a boom.” The response was understandable. causing greater damage than the scientists ever imagined. From Nelson‟s perspective.) A bullhorn with crackly sound characteristics would sometimes carry commentary by a member of the audience.3 Flying across major media markets in September 1962 for a national tour. from years seeking re-election to the Wisconsin legislature. The topic that stole headlines was the first US-Soviet treaty to halt atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. At a typical teach-in. Kennedy. perhaps. “nuclear testing fallout” was indeed central to the creation of America‟s “environmental awakening.

and of epidemics. UWGB's founding chancellor.S. Dale Van Atta. University of Wisconsin Press.8 Nixon hurriedly created the cabinet-level U. distinguished anthropologist. former Nixon-era federal administrator. We’ve never been in a situation like this before. today an annual international event with much greater participation.the United Nations Earth Day in June and John McConnell‟s Earth Day on the Spring equinox. we were totally unprepared for the tidal wave of public opinion in favor of cleaning the nation's environment that was about to engulf us. the new environmental notion gained the legs of a sprinter. Never before have we faced together what is happening in the whole world. In the weeks before that first event. 847-401-3970 In 1970. … “This is new. 1970—an “environmental awareness day” later renamed “Earth Day”. first. We’ve never seen this planet. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . the fact that this (Earth Day) is an absolutely unprecedented event in the history of the world. Men have been frightened before. Peace and Politics. If Hubert Humphrey had become President.7 President Nixon‟s staff was said to be frightened by the tremendous turnout of average Americans in events akin to protests.July/August 1988.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. a tiny little blue blob. a little blue tuft swirling in space.” From “Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When The Movement Took Off” by John C. Whitaker. We’ve never known the whole planet before. Emeritus Professors Bud Harris (wetland ecology) and Bob Wenger (mathematical modeling) report that in Spring 1970. Simultaneously. The fear was not fear of violence. President Nixon convened the National Security Council for a meeting at the White House to decide how and when to invade Cambodia (With Honor: Melvin Laird in War.6 More than 10 million Americans took part in activities of the inaugural Earth Day. Weidner. it was fear of losing power in Congress and in state governments.) 8 “When President Nixon and his staff walked into the White House on January 20. delivered an impassioned speech in New York City to a large crowd gathered for the first Earth Day rally: “I want to stress. was asked to testify at a House Congressional hearing in March 1970 about the need for a national program of environmental education. “no one on campus” imagined that the event would accomplish what it did—which was to mark cultural history with the revelation that a majority of Americans were now seriously concerned about “the environment. The EPA was formally created in December 1970. They’ve died in wars before. Environmental Protection Agency. They’ve had plagues before. EPA Journal . 7 Also on 22 April 1970. 2008. a corps of Ivy League college students working with Nelson--led by Harvard Law student Denis Hayes--was advising hundreds of organizers of community actions scheduled for April 22. the result would have been the same. We’ve never known the whole human race before.” Margaret Mead. 6 Two dates in addition to April 22nd are today designated as Earth Day. UWGB faculty conducted eco-learning sessions in small towns across the state from Neillsville to Rosendale. Edward W.

well.11 A new university in Canada‟s Alberta province sent a delegation to UWGB. it was heard as a restrained and hushed voice shouting. New York Times reporter David Bird reported on the new UWGB “where environment was the only subject. the academic plan he laid out for subordinates to follow. Weidner was in constant contact with top scientists.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. that solving environmental problems was critical for human survival. Long before the general public. At least that was Weidner‟s vision. 12 The nuclear bombings in 1945 Japan were forceful symbols of environmental concern beyond war and peace concerns. science was shouting.” June 14.” identifying the campus as an “activist concept of the university. from introductory English literature to analytic chemistry— all were supposed to be taught with some connection with the environmental crisis. middle-class American households got most of their common understanding about events around the nation through large-circulation magazines like Parade and Readers Digest. In fact. In 1974 Weidner was named the sole U. post-doctoral “United Nations University” headquartered in Japan. Look and Life. 10 UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . The campus was tagged “Eco-U” by Newsweek. rep on the governing council of the new. Trapped in its own world.” Like a new Hollywood 847-401-3970 “Don’t let people fool you by saying there were environmental crises in the past. later transferring some UWGB concepts to a region that would develop Canada‟s tar sands as the next-generation oil replacement. the environment became a cover girl for magazines. by David Bird. they were aware of the scary things that top scientists around the world were saying in stuffy small-circulation journals and at unnoticed technical meetings. fifty-plus national publications would publish stories about UWGB. Several of these conduits informed America‟s broad middle class about UWGB. 9 December 1970. sotto voce.” 10 Before cable TV. asking for UWGB faculty to visit and consult. Seeming to walk backward onto the stage.12 In his rarefied life. we’ve had epidemics in the past and we’ve survived…Don’t let people quote the past in trying to make the future. International academics at conferences learned about UWGB‟s new space-age terminology for undergraduate education. Don’t let people fool you by saying. Intellectuals read in Harper's magazine that UWGB was the “Survival U” prophesied in the official Earth Day handbook. The Shah‟s Iran bought UWGB‟s entire educational approach for a new university in Tehran. In its first few years.S. he had only one job outside 9 Newsweek labels UWGB as “Ecology U. 1111 The Iranian government‟s interest in UWGB ended with Iran‟s conversion to theocracy in 1979.9 In reporting on the nation‟s first environmental education conference.” Everything from theater to business management. 1971 “Ecology is only academic problem for students at new Wisconsin campus. Outside.” New York Times. academics and news media. “the first university in the world to relate all studies to the environment. UWGB was blinded by the spotlight and the unseeable audience applauding. The Brilliant Chancellor Ed Weidner had been studying “the university” all his adult life. The announcer proclaimed.

commander of Allied Forces in World War II‟s D-Day. 14 William Straus and Neil Howe. 1584-2069. the NML was definitely outside academe. While the pro-JFK statement is not known to be authored by Weidner. Wealthy individuals refused to consider gifts. p.then considered a national newspaper of record-. protest folk singer Pete Seeger.17 Noteworthy is that Weidner was the only academic quoted at length in the Times report on a national conference of 60 leading Constitutional scholars and political scientists. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . Ed Weidner was born in Minnesota in 1921.W. While Weidner was building UWGB. Beat poet Allen Ginsburg. Weidner‟s transplant to northeast Wisconsin was notable by the initial rejection of Wisconsin‟s wealthy and powerful political conservatives. and Wisconsin Senators Joseph McCarthy. The elite gathering was called by the Ivy League Columbia University to discuss Eisenhower‟s approach to federalism. Though not business. Wallace drew a strong showing in Wisconsin voting in 1968. the same arguments were being made by American Independent Party Presidential candidate George Wallace. this should not have been a surprise. Kennedy.”15 As it happened. regardless of left-right orientation. Kennedy. Jimmy Carter and George H. and that was a one-year position with the National Municipal League. UWGB was in the heartland of the late Senator Joe McCarthy. Buckley16—founder of the conservative National Review magazine-.14 The latter part of this generation included diverse but action-oriented individuals like Presidents John F. New York City Mayor John Lindsay. 847-401-3970 academe.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. by age 24 he had a Ph.listing for “Edward Weidner” from an internet search of the Times archives. It was a generation described as holding “an implicit belief in progress and in the central role of great men.18 Weidner also signed a bipartisan New York Times endorsement of 1960 presidential candidate John F.and Republican President Dwight Eisenhower. in political science from the University of Minnesota. Even an adult ballroom dancing club refused admission to he and his wife.13 By 31 he was already a full professor and department chair of political science at Michigan State University in Lansing. Perhaps. Generations: The History of America‟s Future. He was not a leading figure in constitutional law. 263. Weidner was part of the GI generation—those born between 1901 and 1924 who are considered civicminded by social historians. William Morrow. the 33-year old Weidner was first quoted in the New York Times on the topic of federalism. Weidner specialized in state and local governments of the United States. 16 Buckley spawned many high-vocabulary emulators including George Will.D. adviser to both Presidents Bush 17 January 1954 is the earliest New York Times-. As a political scientist. a condemning and of the John Birch Society—a shrill Republican fringe group who frightened both columnist William F. Gaylord Nelson and William Proxmire. a non-profit association led by academics and government careerists. yet on January 14. Weidner reveals his interpretation of “states rights”—the current claim by Southern conservatives that each state in the United States is “sovereign” and has jurisdiction in composing its own peculiar laws on issues like racial discrimination and pollution control. the prose includes a 13 Other noted Americans born in the early 1920s include Presidents George HW Bush and Jimmy Carter. As quoted in the Times. 18 The “states rights” argument was then being used by South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond and his pro-segregation Dixiecrats to support resistance to federal civil rights legislation. 15 Straus and Howe. Bush. 1991.

Killingsworth (economics)—along with James H. and recommended that the project should be immediately undertaken. The New Press. but they are undoubtedly significant linkages. Senator John Kerry. The article gave major impetus to leftist efforts at UW-Madison to force removal of the Army Mathematics Research Center in Sterling Hall. age 22. A Bomb In Every Issue: How the Short. Weidner could have been presented very differently. p. 1960.” Committee for a Strong Foreign Policy. Nixon has attempted to suppress meaningful debate on these paramount issues of foreign policy in his repeated urgings that Senator Kennedy cease discussing the world dangers that face us. the quartet reported in October 1954 that a state of emergency existed in Vietnam. crime control.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. Army infantryman James Wozniak.19 “Mr. Stanley Sheinbaum. Later Weidner would insist on “another culture” experience for every UWGB student.”20 These common-sense statements were not popular with Green Bay‟s conservative elite. New York Times display ad. Arthur F. “This We Believe. 1969. Sheinbaum learned that some of the CIA officers on his project staff were torturing prisoners during interrogation in the MSU quarters. There is also the curious coincidence that September 1. a former MSU political scientist of Weidner‟s reports: “When the request for assistance came through U. He sent a small evaluation contingent to Vietnam. We believe that his is a disastrous prescription. He would have the American people abdicate their responsibility for critical judgment. Brandstatter (police administration).wikipedia. he resigned when informed that he would be included in a conspiracy to assassinate a Vietnamese person. This is not the time to suspend the exercise of reason. Soon after. NY.22 Sheinbaum explained to Scheer that part of his duties was working with CIA employees to recruit trainers for a new police force in South Vietnam.” 24 Ho Chi Minh died on September 2. 2006. October 21. After a brief. 1969--Day One of UWGB—was also the day that news of Vietnamese rebel leader Ho Chi Minh died. 22 Peter Richardson. government channels. 1969. Corporal Wozniak (no relation) listed his hometown as Armstrong Creek. Syracuse University Press. Unexpectedly. roughly 50 miles northwest of UWGB. Wisconsin.S. 23 http://en. 21 But then. Weidner (political science). consisting of three department chairmen who would be involved—Edward W. head of university public relations and Hannah's administrative assistant. Sheinbaum cooperated with Scheer in preparation of an expose in the April 1967 Ramparts. a time for facing and meeting the demands of a new historical epoch. he might have been a student at the new UWGB. according to U. Dennison. it was actually September 3 in Vietnam.24 19 20 Panic:A Cultural History. the staunchly anticommunist Hannah was deeply interested in pursuing the contract. 24 UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . etc. with foreign travel if the student could afford it. but because of the international date zone difference.21 In the late 847-401-3970 biting attack on Republican attempts to squelch discussion of the dangers of the nuclear arms race and the futility of “duck-and-cover” strategies for civilian defense. was killed by friendly fire in South Vietnam. 22. Weidner moved within MSU to the federallyfunded Vietnam Advisory Group (VAG) organized by MSU political science professor Wesley Fishel.S. Unruly Life of Ramparts Magazine Changed America.23 The extent of Vietnam‟s impact on Weidner and UWGB are not known. the day before UWGB‟s Day One. datekeeping. Traffic control. Jacqueline Orr. It is a time for imagination. 2009.S. According to the 2009 book. Then there is the curious coincidence that September 2. investigative reporter Robert Scheer stumbled upon news of the VAG-MSU project in 1966. With skilled PR advisers. and Charles C. two-week visit. A Bomb in Every Issue. In another circumstance. He had “boots on the ground” credentials with America‟s expanding empire. so did Vietnam combat veteran and U. He contacted former VAG co-director.

Vince Lombardi‟s team physician for the Green Bay Packers. The Quiet American by Graham Greene. thus escalating conflict. for the Weidners were in Vietnam-. Twin Cities natives in their early thirties. However. not a pleasant selfappraisal. Nellen lived 25 Before video and cable TV.” said second-wife Marge recounting what she'd heard from the Chancellor. Weidner‟s destiny became linked to Wisconsin after he was closely observed by Harrington.” but with behavior promoting disorder and random violence. Weidner was secretary of the American Council of Education (ACE). Also on the platform wishing well to graduates was Regent James Nellen.a nation unknown to most Americans— precisely when two unflattering descriptions of “Americans in Vietnam” hit American pop culture. Lester Brown and Paul Ehrlich. Harrington told the 1970 assembly that UWGB represented a new wave of educational thought and was destined to become a truly great university. The Third World population explosion was just starting to be discussed in the American news media. Were the Weidners “ugly Americans” or “quiet Americans”? Such labels originated in best-selling novels later made into films. Weidner had resigned from the University of Kentucky. The Weidner‟s were one of the first American families to live among the post-colonial Vietnamese. whose discourse had long been USA-centric. But that position didn‟t appear.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. Clearly. a political novel by Eugene Burdick and William Lederer tells a story predicting that the United States eventually loses its Southeast Asian campaign against Communism because of American arrogance and failure to understand the local culture. organizing national conferences on the future of higher education. then at the University of Kentucky running a statewide economic development project. Weidner preserved his employment by accepting Harrington‟s insistent offer—leading the 45-year old to become major architect of the new University of Wisconsin. tells the story of misguided Americans secretly smuggling bombs and weapons into then-demilitarized Vietnam. In the early 1960s. the new nation was temporary home to Ed and Jean Weidner. When a 1966 search committee for UWGB's first chancellor did not give Harrington a candidate he felt confident about. Harrington said his habit had been: “If a person was not on the make in those days. I tended to be rather suspicious of him. Weidner was playing musical chairs when the melody stopped. One of Harrington‟s last speeches as UW president was to UWGB‟s June 1970 commencement. novels were much more powerful in what we call “pop culture.” In a 1980s oral history.” The Ugly American. Gaining attention were demographers and ecologists like Barry 847-401-3970 Before “Vietnam” became a household name. Harrington phoned Ed Weidner.25 Common to both stories was a picture of Americans visiting Vietnam with declarations of “we‟re here to help. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . quantitative scientists who were accurately forecasting a future that would be more problematic in the decades ahead. “There just wasn't enough preliminary work done (on the university). then president of the ACE. A Catholic. previously known to Westerners as “Indochinese. and then got promises the UK would find a grander position for him. 1958. 1955. the Americans were deluded.” The timing was historic. after consulting with Jean and eldest son Gary.” Weidner at first refused the UWGB assignment. and also new president of the famed University of Wisconsin. tentatively located near the city of Green Bay. Observing him once again was Harrington. Harrington once said he sought staff members with “a great deal of push.

other important events were happening beyond television‟s gaze. local nature teacher Clara Hussong28 wrote a letter to the Green Bay Press-Gazette saying how happy she was that Earth Day fell on her own birthday. Speaking to a Labor Day picnic for Massey workers in 2009. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . such participation appears consistent with his later views of the 1970s. with a veteran‟s pride that those demonstrators had been wrong. Constitution. In late 2011. but the author doesn‟t know whether Nellen participated. 27 Stang and similar John Birch Society authors. They predicted dire consequences if Congress approved proposed worker safety rules or proposed controls on air and water pollution.) The public memory of the Sixties focuses on images from chasing ghetto street riots. One of the largest coal producers in the United States. (It is not known with certainty whether Nellen was personally involved in the incident. CEO Blankenship proclaimed to a cheering workers: “No one in the federal government cares more about miner safety than me. 29 A similar attitude is seen in modern times by the president/owner of Massey Energy. a coal mining company. throwing them in Lake Mendota and warning them to not return. they argued that their views were based on foundational American principles: Said simply: Business leaders should have the complete freedom and liberty to decide when pollution controls should be 847-401-3970 along the smelly Fox River near De Pere. wounded soldiers on Vietnamese battlefields.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. Assuming a moral superiority.29 26 UW football players from unidentified frat houses played vigilante with demonstrators of the time. However. 28 The Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary has a nature trail named after Clara Hussong. if at all. Nellen could trace his position as regent to the 1939 takeover of the regents by ultraconservative Republicans. and today‟s Vietnam War protesters must be wrong.” Eight months later. regulation at the state level might be acceptable. by the federal Office of Mine Safety. “States rights” aside. too. In the 1930s. To the more moderate of this faction.26 A military surgeon during World War II. Massey was charged with 450 procedural rules the year before the collapse. There‟s nothing new that the federal government can bring to me to improve miner safety. who wrote a weekly column about nature in the Green Bay Press-Gazette for 25 years. In response. Vladimir Lenin. they characterized any government-required pollution control as evil----antithetical to the free enterprise system as well as a violation of the U. Fearful of damage to their economic interests.” One rumor spread and reported in the newspapers was that the Earth Day was a secret tribute to the deceased Soviet leader. business owners proclaimed that they knew what was dangerous and what was not. Nellen could conclude. Nellen was also a World War II Navy commander and a Catholic with strong right-leaning political views. Some of the anti-Earth Day activists lived and worked in northeast Wisconsin‟s paper mill valley— known as the Fox Valley. In the 1930s Nellen was a UW Badger football player of note in a period that saw Badger football players assaulting anti-militarist picketers.S. Little noticed by the general public were newspaper ads and meetings of industrialists who sounded terror-stricken. However. and the Beatles on the Ed Sullivan TV Show. an explosion in a West Virginia Massey mine killed 27 and injured others. and that they were intrinsically more concerned about their workers and the well-being of the general population than were government regulators. pacifist and liberal students debated and demonstrated to restrict possible military involvement overseas by the United States. Massey personnel were found guilty of deliberate safety violations.27 Some Wisconsin business people hired PR people to advance the notion that proposed federal worker safety rules were part of “a communist plot. Nellen had been a fraternity member at UW-Madison in a period when socialist.

”30 Sargent was already advising the federal government on air pollution solutions. New York and Oxford. a landmark 1966 book by evolutionary biologist George C. It is an interdisciplinary science. I‟d already been married to two „Ed‟s‟ who were dog lovers. young Professor Weidner was in South Vietnam for several years advising the first post-colonial government in Saigon. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future .32 After all. While nominally on the faculty at Michigan State University. rational. and environmental physiology. Despite that critique as “too civilian. Ed Weidner asked Marjorie for rides to health care appointments. Weidner helped an MSU professor of police science set up the National Police Training Academy to train leadership for a civilian police serving rural villages that had not known service of that type.) -=-=-= A large and noble American vision When Ed Weidner accepted the task of creating UW-Green Bay in October 1966. should new laws being proposed. “Well. Hippocratic Heritage: A History of Ideas About Weather and Human Health. so he offered to help Fox Valley businesses develop local air pollution control plans. offered to help Fox Valley businesses and Chambers of Commerce. While Weidner founded the world‟s first “environmental university.S. according to widow Marge Weidner. In the mid-1950s. who suggested the MSU professional police were feeble and undermilitarized. (This was before Congressional passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Water Act of 1972. 31 Marjorie Fermanich Weidner had been Chancellor Weidner‟s administrative assistant since 1967.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. Instead. but instead a liberal arts undergraduate institution. Michigan for nine months of standard MSU coursework. CIA leader Edward Lansdale. After Jean Weidner‟s death and Chancellor Weidner‟s retirement. he was only 46 years old. Such plans could prepare them to meet “potential new rules” at either the state or federal level. the new South Vietnamese police brought sarcastic comments from local U. so it seemed predestined. Pergamon Press. It was a job so large that he seriously hesitated to accept it. Vietnamese students would visit Lansing. Maybe this would be just another trophy as he continued an evolutionary competition to make a future in which his progeny could 847-401-3970 S. for Ed Weidner was a political scientist specializing in public administration. it was likely public order and a fair. Weidner wasn‟t training youngsters from Kalamazoo. democratic government was the end. he had spent at least two months brooding over acceptance of the challenge. If his formal record suggested anything. II. Fred Sargent II.” Weidner‟s 30 Biometeorology investigates how living organisms respond to weather. and was one of the founders of a new science called “biometeorology. he was advising Vietnamese in procedures to train public administrators and civilian police. Frederick Sargent. a scientist of truly national reputation and UWGB‟s original environmental science dean. whistles and night sticks. physiological ecology. Weidner took pains to repeat that UWGB was not strictly a science university. representing an amalgam of other disciplines: phenology. 1982.” 32 An allusion to Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought. Williams. The book‟s concepts were embodied in UWGB‟s cutting-edge education.” there's nothing in his resume suggesting that he envisioned a campus with heavy emphasis on physical or biological sciences. Sargent had both MD and PhD degrees. Armed with little more than revolvers. sometimes using the popularization of The Selfish Gene by Stephen Dawkins. Marjorie joked.31 But Ed Weidner's bio listed a string of challenging jobs.

Someone gifted him a videotape set of the 1983 PBS series. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . [See Ramparts 1967] 34 Between 1 November 1963 and 21 June 1965. 1898-1968. very articulate. Fox. “He (Diem) was a very nice person. Ed Weidner appears twice in the final production.” recounted Mrs. all involving various factions of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces. Previously appointed. 1979. Marjorie.” she recalls.S.36 Harrington surprised Weidner with the grandest job offer that anyone in higher education could receive: Design your own university. treating skeptically any selfreport by government of its motives. from UW-Madison in 1969 and says Harrington as a historian was a political liberal.[interview with Rads author Tom Bates. he never watched any of the series again. To her knowledge. students produced “The Wisconsin School of Diplomatic History. surrounded by peasants clothed in rags. military leaders because its scholars have chronicled the misuse of many overseas military operations for private and corporate financial gain. “It was a hard time. and launch it as part of the University of Wisconsin—one of the top brand names in education. make it 33 When some of the 50 visiting MSU staff published candid accounts of troubles they saw in South Vietnam.” according to his widow. “Vietnam: The Documentary History. which terminated in June 1959. hire its top leaders.D. Harrington‟s academic specialty was U. academe. and together they started to watch the first episode. 1993. The man was Ngo Dinh Diem. the Chancellor turned the TV. except in the context of his young family‟s positive adventures living there. the way you think it should be. Build it. although he was seen as a conservative on matters of governing the campus. the U. co-author of Behind the Throne: Servants of Power to Imperial Presidents. and his influential Ph.” The shocking visual contrast can be seen in the PBS video. Partway through the first tape. there were eight successful or abortive coups d‟etat.S. It’s Who You Know According to UW‟s official history. UW President Harrington was a tall. Harrington later reflected that he was” blamed” for a couple of his Ph. and there was lots of corruption. She recalls that her husband never talked about Vietnam.S. Office of Air Force History.] The coup ending Diem‟s life was the first. She recalls the retired Ed Weidner getting the videotapes in as a gift. and very forceful man whose sharp intelligence and recall of facts that sometimes intimidated.35 As a scholar. USAF.” recounts Mrs.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. He didn't say why. Weidner of what she was told.D. students who later became radical activists. 36 A high-profile student of Harrington is Cornell University‟s Walter LeFeber. It‟s a school not popular with U. Roger P.33 Something about Vietnam deeply troubled Weidner. Diem was seeking the peoples‟ election. [Air Base Defense in the Republic of Vietnam. foreign relations. sponsored leader of South Vietnam and later a victim of an assassination by a broad conspiracy of South Vietnamese military leaders. and Marjorie sensed not to probe his internal turmoil.” The Wisconsin School is characterized by searches for economic motives in government strategy. but he was very inept.34 “Diem was the premier. However. Weidner as she recalls what her husband told her.D. “I tried to get him to watch them. 35 UWGB's Craig Lockard got his Ph. once standing next to a short Vietnamese man in the coat-and-tie of Western business attire. UWPress. 1961-1973. taking place a few weeks before President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963. Diem expelled the entire 847-401-3970 role would be seen as “too military” by some in U. and Diem would visit impoverished villages wearing a European white three-piece suit.S. 1988.

and expand the horizons of Wisconsin's future leaders. 38 “Future studies” and futurism flourished in the academic lexicon during the 1960s. set at 11. since it was the first time in over 100 years that there has been an opportunity to start a new University from the beginning. It needed to address where trends were taking the planet. "Regent Greenquist stated that it seemed to him that the Regents were afforded a tremendous opportunity in this situation. 1966.000 students at the end of the first decade. Non-academics may think the pattern for a university is established. The cost of undergraduate education was skyrocketing. (While mainstream today. 1969. Stevens Point State.Harrington needed the campus up and running by fall 1969. found in a cookbook of some sort. in the 1960s. Milwaukee Sentinel.38 According to original plans. Another Regent focus was cost. It would help the state's trade and cultural relations with Canada. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . was putting more responsibility on the student to educate themselves. July 13. However. Could an offer out of the blue be more outlandish? The time line was unheard of in the academic world of that or this era. not just for northeast Wisconsin." Greenquist was named chair of the "Special Regent Committee on Development of New Third and Fourth Year Campuses in Northeastern and Southeastern Wisconsin. Vol.” March 27." Minutes of UW Regents. studying abroad was unheard of in the United States outside the Ivy League. UW President Harrington suggested planning the two new universities was something that the Regents might want to be involved.37 The catch was-. Future-oriented education was another pillar in UWGB‟s original academic plan.” The largest concern was undergraduate education.39 UWGB would address unmet social and economic development needs.000 were UWGB. Alienation was apparent before the raucous turmoil of mass protests. Weidner would have to start from scratch—without even knowing firmly where in the two candidate counties the campus would be built. It would be a major new 4-year university with more than 10. The “university of the future” needed to address problems making themselves evident across the USA and the rest of the Westernized world.” Wisconsin tax-supported colleges feel the competition of the 37 ”Ceilings on campuses set by CCHE. UWGB would provide something unique for the entire state. Students would be encouraged to study abroad for a brief time with UWGB faculty as guides. a major manufacturing region with dozens of paper mills. For most colleges. Competition in the public sector Despite being “government. and fundamental restructuring was needed. that notion has some truth. 33. machine makers and dairy processing 847-401-3970 unique—not duplicating the all-purpose model of Madison. UWGB was to be very. according to the Regents minutes. The option of choice. The Madison campus had grown so large that students and faculty were feeling lost in a crowd. The university would be in northeast Wisconsin's Fox River Valley. 39 At the July 1966 UW regents meeting.) The Regents of the University of Wisconsin had previously authorized conceptual studies on “the university of the future. very different.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. UW-Parkside.

one of Wisconsin‟s largest corporations and a major paper company with financial interest in fighting pollution abatement regulation. Besides.000 while undergraduate students actually paid state government a tiny profit through tuition. Because students can switch campuses any semester. politicians in neighboring Outagamie County publicly blasted plans for UWGB's site location in Green Bay. Joining Rogers in anti-UWGB activity was Rep. WSU paid faculty a certain rate. on undergraduate education Wisconsin turns a profit. State Assemblyman William Rogers (D-Kaukauna) argued that the new UW campus would be closer to large populations in Kaukauna. Rogers filed a lawsuit and the case went to the Wisconsin Supreme Court. the WSU system competed with the UW system for legislative funding. At that time. each campus had to work to please its constituency—students. Campus payments rise or ebbs with enrollment numbers. and often egotistical faculty who were weak when wooed by money or better facilities elsewhere. but the UW had world-class talent. WSU faculty and staff were paid lower rates than UW's. K-C CEO William Kellett—in his role as a government commission chair--proposed that UWGB be given to WSU. Political campaigning was starting for the fall 1970 elections. which rejected the lawsuit in 1969. Martin worked full time for Kimberly-Clark. in August of 1970. From UWGB‟s Weidner. Other K-C operatives joined the fray. there was competition for legislative allocations between systems for faculty and staff. voices began to raise questions about K-C‟s role in setting Wisconsin policy. and UWGB was told to focus on undergraduate education. David Martin (R-Neenah) who voted to stall or eliminate budget provisions for UWGB. making it a daughter campus to WSUOshkosh. In addition. their tuition-paying parents. Is it right for industry to regulate itself? The loud voice asking the disturbing UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . a flood of Baby Boom Wisconsinites wound up on comfortable WSU campuses. attracting out-of-state was a viable backup. In 1970. In every biennial budget. The UW felt higher compensation justified to compete for highly-mobile. for UWGB. After 1951. fall 1969. from business to nursing to liberal arts. with two college systems. The 15 campuses compete for students. California and Michigan among others and it carried the weight of Wisconsin's 847-401-3970 marketplace. It was a few months after the first Earth Day. Harrington needed growing student counts to make the budget argument. The WSU had excellent talent. In a surprise move. Madison was competing with New York. the teacher colleges of the WSU became “state colleges” and expanded programs to many fields. while UW paid a higher rate. On average. In the 1960s. and if the local region continued resistant to higher education. State Senator Robert Warren (R-Green Bay) reported that UW graduate students in 1967-68 received an annual state subsidy of nearly $2.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. a small city just north of Appleton. At the same time. which were less threatening than the elite UW at Madison and often closer to the small towns they found comfortable. This happened during first semester. Martin was a candidate for Lieutenant Governor. Legislators bought the UW argument that it was especially important for Madison to have top-quality professors and administrators. and for undergraduates in the Sixties. The idea of a UWGB graduate program was put on hold.

Unaware of the conservative communications network around them. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . birth control devices were on a government list of “indecent articles. the Association for Voluntary Sterilization. All were surprised and said they‟d never heard a comment.e.” It took five biennial sessions—10 years—for Risser‟s bill to pass. Although not an official arm of the Catholic Church. decriminalizing the open sale of birth control devices in Wisconsin in 1976. the Chancellor‟s secretary from 1967 until 1986.41 40 In 2009-10. said she did not recall anyone contacting the Chancellor in complaint about such matters. the Association for the Study of Abortion. abortion and family planning. The second annual Population Growth Symposium at UWGB was announced for January 8-9. In 847-401-3970 question was a former GOP state senator named Gordon Bubolz. In 1968. In 1970 senior citizen Bubolz was also CEO of a prosperous Appleton insurance company and a long-time “conservationist” associated with nature education and the hunting/fishing crowd. Bubolz had some enemies in his own Appleton-Oshkosh area and in the Republican Party. even in liberal Madison. UWGB professors were local chapter leaders of a new national organization called Zero Population Growth (ZPG). 71. traveled across Wisconsin speaking loudly against pregnancy contraception and the Legislature‟s immoral turning. Bubolz had invested himself in UWGB. These were contentious times.40 UWGB was actively advancing public discussion of contraception. hosting a national conference of experts met held at UWGB in January 1970 and again in January 1971.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday. asking whether the Catholic Church or social conservatives had ever raised the issue of UWGB‟s discussing birth control issues. faculty and top administrators of the 1969-72 era. New was Kenneth Merkel. and the Population Planning Program. 41 1970 conference was titled: “Population Growth: Crisis and Challenge” and it featured speakers from Planned Parenthood. Sex Information and Education Council. Marge Weidner. a newly elected assemblyman from suburban Milwaukee. Unfortunately. State Senator Fred Risser recalls that a UW Madison professor was arrested for displaying a contraceptive device in a class. Merkel added abortion to his speeches. Old Rivalry Becomes New Culture War Critical to all higher education in Wisconsin is the State Building Commission. Supreme Court legalized abortion in a 1973 ruling. the State Building Commission must approve any construction requests that Joint Finance reviews. Merkel was father of several youngsters. much less protest in that era or later. the Building Commission had received new legislative members through the agency of Appleton House Speaker Harold Froehlich. Voicing the same conflict-of-interest charges was Democratic gubernatorial candidate Patrick Lucey.. he chaired the citizens and expert advisory committee convened to design the environmental science curriculum for the future UWGB. He was also a conservative Roman Catholic in an archdiocese that was openly fighting state legalization of the sale of birth control like diaphragms to unmarried females. contraception) and also government distribution of information about family planning. While the Joint Finance Committee of Senate and Assembly leaders theoretically hold final authority. In the late 1960s. the John Birch Society at its January 1969 national convention announced a new political campaign aimed at stopping “artificial” birth prevention (i. After the U. Merkel was a young engineer and outspoken John Birch Society member— the only Wisconsin legislator to publicly identify his membership with the Birch Society. the author interviewed more than 15 staff.S.

. Harrington felt blindsided. The four were Gelatt. a significant web of opposition developed south of Green Bay. Ziegler.. with visible conflict on campus and a determined conservative activist faction anxious to stop the racial integration of LBJ‟s Great Society. The regents rejected Renk‟s proposal. Lack of media attention plus lack of dormitories ended UWGB's early success attracting students from population centers on East and West coasts. after all. 31 December 1969. Gelatt was a moderate Republican who had shown nothing but support prior to this first hint of concern shown to the regents. had seen dorm students as making up a large proportion of the total enrollment. Weidner had first been given assurances in 1966. its dreams were being aborted by unseen forces. Harrington said. was dropping federal support for higher education 42 Letter from EWW to Wallace Lemons. Harrington knew Nellen was out to oust Harrington. appeared to be threatened by the absence of dorms. Joining them was Regent Renk.. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . Pelishek and Nellen. who wanted to set a tone for UW campuses by confining all female students to female-only dorms after 5 p.The very integrity of the academic plan. Regent Nellen was elected president of the Regents board. UW Central Administration. Everything was a “go.. Also a factor. Weidner's Director of Development was Paul S. Davis who left a memoir based on his daily journal of UWGB's early years: “In the UWGB building program. For a world economy globalizing and a state hungry for economic growth and reputation. Insiders in Madison suggest that Gelatt and Harrington developed a personal feud over Gelatt‟s dating a “faculty wife. as Weidner had written it.” In two short years. baffling Weidner's staff. it was a plausible scenario. suddenly expressed hesitation about something in UWGB's budget plans. feeling a loss of influence among the regents and legislature.000 beds. According to an oral history recording made 15 years later.” While UWGB was just starting up. although not much seems to have been said about it.” Harrington was described by his housekeeper as a moralist whose book collection included hundreds of books about Jesus Christ. when Fred Harvey Harrington was influential the Regents. Harrington noted that Gelatt's apparent shift did not amount to complete withdrawal of support. Whether it was led by WSU-Oshkosh or a more general network of Oshkosh-Appleton boosters. the failure to get any dormitory space authorized for the first phase was a serious setback. Gelatt later divorced his wife and married in Madison in 1972.. At a meeting of the Board of UW Regents in 1968. at least to Weidner..m. UWGB didn‟t have the votes.42 With out-of-state recruitment. A foursome had developed on the Board of Regents with the intent of toppling 847-401-3970 When it came time for the state Building Commission to consider Chancellor Weidner‟s request for building funds. Sr. Regent Bernard “Bernie” Ziegler of Plymouth suddenly [check time Davis MSS] challenged some expense already approved by the Legislature.Virtually every projection. Harrington quickly became inconsequential. Regent Roger Gelatt. In 1970. these beds could be filled to help Wisconsin increase its reputation as a higher education center. and Harrington says that he had made a private decision to resign in late 1969. Legislature and public. The ultimate housing goal in UWGB‟s Regent-approved Comprehensive Development Plan was 12.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday.

1970. and random arson in campus buildings. this due to the Johnson Administration‟s inability to raise taxes to fight the growing Southeast Asian war. Harrington disclosed his intention to resign privately to the regents who opposed him about February 1970. UWGB: A History of Wisconsin‟s University of the Future . M.” He wound up in Texas at a well-funded public university. September 3. Harrington‟s public declaration of resignation came the first week of May.M. Weidner and other UW officials did not issue a public explanation while Weidner‟s top recruits fled a ship they saw as sinking. Before Harrington‟s resignation was made public. which they attempted with a truck bomb exploded 3:42 A. 45 New York Times obituary for Dwight Armstrong. The first dean of the environmental science part of UWGB. Some Madison observers speculated that the bombing was either set up or “permitted to proceed” by J. according to Harrington‟s recollection in an interview many years later.44 Using the classic calculus of “tit for tat. The Daily Cardinal. UWGB‟s new deans were dissatisfied with Weidner‟s communication and decisionmaking style. staff and community members. 44 Gallup polls in May 1970 report that ¾ of American adults felt the unarmed students—several of whom were simply walking to class-. their resignations came simultaneously with the abdication of UW President Harrington.deserved to be shot. students being clubbed and tear gassed. so it is difficult to determine the loss of his support versus Weidner‟s difficulties. However.. S. Edgar Hoover‟s Cointelpro forces who were placed on campus to monitor anti-war protest.. Monday. In what became known on campus as “the deans revolt. Madison‟s AMRC was known to do research done specifically to more efficiently kill Vietnamese insurgents. military troops on campus. Fred Sargent II. In addition. Among the leavers was UWGB‟s most celebrated science faculty member. just after the Kent State University killings of four students by Ohio National Guardsmen. Sargent resigned “to pursue other opportunities. Ph.45 As published in the student newspaper.43 The resignations were a mystery to most faculty.D.D.” most of the new deans resigned. fires apparently set by war protestors. 2010. windowsmashing riots on State Street. there was the emotional strife of a campus in turmoil. August 24. END/END/END 43 According to an unpublished memoir by Weidner‟s development director Paul Davis.for Voyageur word count excl footnotes: 10Nov2011 paul@beyondearthday.” two local Madison youth felt the Kent State homicides gave them justification to oust the Army Mathematics Research Center from the University of Wisconsin. UWGB what became labeled “the“Dean‟s revolt” 847-401-3970 initiatives. This was the kind of treatment that Regent Nellen—and the majority of Americans—thought appropriate for campus protesters in 1970.

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