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Máster Dir. Emp. Tur,
4.- Purpose in order to + infinitive, so as to + infinitive, to + infinitive, for + ing
a.- In order to + infinitive. To + infinitive. In order that + full sentence. They studied very hard (in order) to pass their English exam. They studied very hard in order not to fail their English exam. Fulanito visited Liverpool in order that he could see his British friend. b.- So as to + infinitive. So (that) + should They studied very hard so as to pass their French exam. They studied very hard so as not to fail their French exam. Fulanito visited Manchester so (that) he should see his British friend. c.-For + ing. A knife is used for cutting. A knife is not used for cutting. d.-lest (“para que no”) + SVC. I brought it lest you should think that I was lying.
5.- Reason and Cause as, because, since, because of, due to, owning to, now that
a) As, because, since: we start a clause with these connectors to give the reason for a particular situation. As he wasn’t well-dressed, they didn’t let him in. It must be break time, because I see many people in the canteen. Since you’re going to Great Britain for the whole year, you should buy an umbrella. b) Because of, due to, owing to: Although they are prepositions, they can also be used to give a reason. Because of is used before a noun or noun phrase. The difference between Due to and Owing to is that we can not use Owing to after the verb to be. There was no one in class because of the football match. [There was nobody in class because there was a football match.] We couldn’t stage the play due to budget cuts./ owing to budget cuts. The school’s success is largely due to the new director. c) For, with: For can not be used at the beginning of a sentence. “Because of”. With the meeting [being] at 14’00, I won’t have time to eat. [Because the meeting is at 14’00, I won’t have time to eat.] She couldn’t hear the teacher talking for all the noise of her classmates. [She couldn’t hear the teacher talking because of all the noise of her classmates.] d) For, in that, inasmuch as: used in literary and in formal English. We must start planning next year course, for the future may bring unexpected changes. The school is strange in that there are two directors. Pepito and Manolita have an easy life, inasmuch as neither of them has to work too hard but they earn a lot of money.
. however. even though. Sometimes “that” is left out: The lesson was so boring (that) I almost fell asleep.]. So quickly did it all happen that I didn’t see their face. It can be used at the end of a sentence considering the sentences as independent. Consequently and Therefore (‘Por lo tanto’) are transitions.. por lo tanto.. can be obtained with ‘Unlike’..Result So.Although I was having a good time. Intermediate. . despite. Remember: Though is less formal than Although. + noun + pronoun + ‘ing’ clause Here are some examples: . but is more formal. but . we have a lot of people in our College. therefore.’ + formal).While the third year students are wonderful. Last research has shown that Tourism is the main sector in the area.Whereas Peter looks rather smart. The meaning is then very similar to ‘However’.Concession / opposition Concessive sentences state a contrast between two circumstances. thus. por ello. Transition linkers nevertheless. the third year students are wonderful. . In spite of the fact that can be used instead of although. they are important for Tourism studies. Tourism is very important in this area. yet. still. I haven’t spoken to him though = I love him.. . Unit 112]. . Even if creates a subordinate clause that has both of conditional and of concessive sentences. I haven’t spoken to him yet.that. Be careful with the differences between Adverb clause linkers and Prepositions: We went out in spite of the rain = Although it was raining. Thus. I love him. While is always followed by a Subject-verb clause.. [For more examples and information go to English Grammar in Use. Tur.. consequently.He failed the exam. though it was a difficult exam.. on the other hand Preposition in spite of. Although is the subordinate equivalent of the coordinate But... while. .. hence With So. Hence. the second year ones are terrible. but followed by a noun. However.. Noun = sing noun + verb + so + adj = so + adj + a sing noun It was such a boring theatre play… = The theatre play was so boring that.Even if you don’t like languages. we went out. that we link a cause with a result. even if. 6. I left early.. Emp. A similar use.. even though he had studied a lot. Adverb clause linkers although. Thus (‘Así que.. whereas.Nobody failed. whilst + Subject-verb clauses Conjunction but any way. still. (Inversion = emphasis) Such + a + adj + sing. Unlike the second year students. . the local Council has decided to invest more money on local attractions. 7... his friend looks a bit fool.Manuel Palazón & Marian Aleson GRAMMAR Máster Dir. Whilst means the same as While. though.=It was so boring a theatre play that… Hence [‘De ahí (que).
. The students went wherever they could have a free meal.. = ‘Mientras estaba en GB fui a clases de inglés. Full clause Remember: There are certain important differences between When and As: As: two actions at the same time. Remember: (. While I was in the UK.Manner and comparison (exactly) as. While there. followed by noun. until. I was living in Alicante. 9. the first time. while once -ed until. I followed some English lessons.. while. it’s hot. by the time that. Once there. I followed English lessons. (so)good ones are fascinated by the library. before.. upon -ing before. when(ever). Before coming to Benidorm. (just) as Here are some examples: Please fill the gaps (exactly) as I instructed.Place They are introduced by Where or Wherever. While being in the UK. as. you were studying Tourism Don’t forget to buy your tickets as soon as you reach the train station.(inversion) (Just) as bad students are attracted by the canteen. once everyone was in the plane. Here are some examples with a full clause after the preposition (Subject + Verb clause): When I saw you. as soon as. ‘Fui a clases de inglés porque estaba en Gran Bretaña. Example I saw her while she was having a coffee at the canteen. .’ As I was in the UK. Where the sun shines. the Palm Beach is a four-star hotel. I started university. I will study Public Relations. (Just) as bad students are attracted by the canteen. 8.Time after. when Example After studying Tourism. Once finished school.. Emp. when(ever).Time and Place a. If it is followed by a situation.’ b. since.Manuel Palazón & Marian Aleson GRAMMAR Máster Dir. when. every time.) as is always followed by a Subject-verb clause. after as. once. When: One action after the other. whenever. I spoke to the manager. I had a beer. was very cheerful. it means ‘because’. so are good students by the library. As means ‘while’ when followed by an action. while as soon as.. since. To express ‘Time’ with a situation or the verb ‘To be’ use ‘While’. when(ever). the second time.. Verbless while Adverb Linkers while. I saw her as she opened the door. can be obtained with ‘like’: Like the Don Pancho. Followed by Prepositions after.. on. Tur. I went to German lessons. a similar use. once. The flight assistant. until.
it was raining. 10. Because or Because of. . It was a great holiday. 18. 10. I thought it was useful. 5. Q. At the same time S. Peter started teaching he was 23. I like Peter and Mary. She looks tired all the time. which was very low. 4. 14. 15. 1. 5. Peter . 2. the rain. I didn’t sleep well at all there was a lot of noise. 9. we stayed at home. I went to study Tourism. 4. I know a lot about hotels. we stayed at home. 1. I went home.Manuel Palazón & Marian Aleson GRAMMAR Máster Dir. he used to play football everyday. we stayed at home. 13. I managed to get asleep the noises. In spite of. I couldn’t sleep the noises. things went wrong. 5. R. it was sunny. unfortunately. isn’t it? I didn’t expect it to be horrible day. We had good time. 11. we stayed at home. 7. 6. John was a kid. As I was sleepy. She left the job her salary was very good. 20. 5. late. He wears nice clothes. The car slowed down it approached the traffic light. Everything is cheap here. which was very high. things went very well. 16. I left school. I studied Tourism its importance in the area. 9. many things went wrong. As I study Tourism. 3. 2. I studied Tourism 19. The weather is terrible. 7. As we climbed the mountain. isn’t it? 6. nice people. She left the job the salary. 12.-Put in As or When conveying ‘TIME’ (Sometimes both are correct). I only ate vegetables. I was surprised that he looked well after his long illness. John dropped the beer he was coming towards the table. 3. I think she works too many hours. 1. She left the job the salary. we got more and more tired. As I don’t like meat. I couldn’t sleep there was no noise at all. He’s difficult to understand. 3. Tur. 17. their careful plans. hit the motorbike behind as he was parking. She left the job her salary was very low.-What is the meaning of As in these sentences? Because 1. because he speaks quickly. 4. the sun. They are 3.-Put in So. their careful plans. Emp. everything had been planned carefully. It was boring theatre play that I went home before the end. or Such a:. I’m studying Tourism I don’t really like it. 2. everything went smoothly. 8.-Fill the gaps with Although. everything had been planned carefully. I didn’t study Tourism its importance in the area. I didn’t realised it was 8. P. 2. I must hurry up. 4. Such. He always looks smart.
Oxford Practice Grammar: Advanced.. & MARTINET..P. Oxford: O.. A. We met a lot of people the congress.. T. . J. Yule.U. 10.. Eastwood.. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (1980): Morfosintaxis inglesa para Hispanohablantes.. (1989): Understanding and Using English Grammar.U. I saw John 4.. (20061). we stayed in a very comfortable B&B. we were in London. . (1998): English Grammar in Use... Exercises 1 and 2.V.. Emp.. Please don’t talk the Principal’s speech. V. we visited the Prado.. 2.. L. 9. & Pina. E. (19991): Oxford Practice Grammar: Intermediate. 7. We met a lot of people we were in Madrid. Lillo. Greembaum & Quirk (1990): Student’s Grammar of the English Language.Longman.. (2002): Grammar in Gobbets. Cambridge: C. shut up I am speaking. M. Thomson. Oxford: O.. Hewings. (1999): Advanced Grammar in Use. & Murphy. A....U.P. A. 5.Manuel Palazón & Marian Aleson GRAMMAR Máster Dir. Alcoy: Marfil Campos. B.. 1. 8. the Thyssen and the Reina Sofía.P.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. I was having a walk with my dog. J. G. (1996): Oxford Guide to English Grammar.P. The phone rang several times we were having coffee.: A Practical English Grammar. Schrampfer Azar. Swan. Supplementary Exercises...U..M. R.-Fill the gaps with During or While.U. Please. The phone rang three times the meeting. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents. & Moody..U. Hashemi. Can you lay the table I get the dinner ready? Bibliography: Alcaraz. B.. J.....P. Oxford: O.: Practical English Usage. Madrid: Aguaclara Eastwood. our stay in Madrid. Oxford: O. M. 6. Tur....: A Practical English Grammar. M. 3. Oxford: O.P.
With non-defining relative clauses.-e. D. E.-Such as. 3. To separate the adverb from the sentence.’) To quote direct speech.g. He ate chicken.. F..IV. (exempli gratia) On the one hand. Semicolon (. On the other hand.Correcting oneself: I mean Or rather B. My friend’s father is a teacher. Nevertheless. Besides. Tur. before the conjunction.....Contradicting: On the contrary G.Discourse markers A. unfortunately..Manuel Palazón & Marian Aleson GRAMMAR Máster Dir. However. Quotation marks (‘. ‘What are you doing?’ To highlight a word in a sentence. To separate the introductory verb from direct speech. We’re students. H. failed his English exam. if the subordinate clause comes before the main one. In addition..Dismissing: Anyway .. Question mark and Exclamation mark: (?) (!) Used only at the end of the sentence. and rice.Contrasting: Still. Peter.) With coordinates.Rephrasing: In other words. Furthermore.Changing the subject: By the way C.-For instance. Comma (. Emp. 4. 2.. Colon (:) To give an explanation or to list.) Two independent clauses. With apposition.Continuing the same idea Transition linkers Moreover..Punctuation: Full stop [Am.. The take-off is at 17’30. No full stop required after them.. don’t do that. With subordinates (except purpose with ‘to’). Prepositions In addition. (We Are) For the possessive genitive. III.) To separate two independent sentences linked in meaning. All the same... Apostrophe (‘) For missing parts of a word. . Dash (-) Informal.Giving examples 1.. instead of a colon or semicolon. Fulanito.-For example. In lists. ‘Period’] (. vegetables. What does ‘quote’ mean’ Hyphen (-) For compound nouns. He asked.
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