CHAPTER 11: LEADERSHIP THEORIES What is leadership and how does it differ from management?

• Role of management is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly • Role of leadership is to promote adaptive or useful changes Leadership: process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared efforts • Formal leadership: exerted by persons appointed to or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations • Informal leadership: exerted by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the resource needs of others APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP • Trait and behavioral theory perspectives • Attribution and symbolic perspectives • Transformational and charismatic perspectives Trait perspectives: Assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes. Behavioral theories • Assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes • Focuses on leader behaviors rather than traits Michigan leadership studies • Employee-centered supervisors: Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare • Production-centered supervisors: Place strong emphasis on getting the work done Ohio State leadership studies • Consideration: Sensitive to people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers • Initiating structure: Concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying other aspects of the work agenda Leadership Grid • Developed by Blake and Mouton • Built on dual emphasis of consideration and initiating structure • A 9 x 9 Grid (matrix) reflecting levels of concern for people and concern for task

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory • Focuses on the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers • LMX dimensions determine followers’ membership in leader’s “in group” or “out group”

WHAT ARE SITUATIONAL CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP? • • Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies

Fiedler’s contingency model • Situational control: The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. Least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale • measure of a person’s leadership style based on a description of the person with whom respondents have been able to work least well Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory • A leader’s use of directive or nondirective behavior depends on: • The leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency • Stress • Experience • Group support of the leader Fiedler’s situational control variables • Leader-member relations (good/poor): membership support for the leader • Task structure (high/low): spelling out the leader’s task goals, procedures, and guidelines in the group • Position power (strong/weak): the leader’s task expertise and reward or punishment authority House’s path-goal theory of leadership: Assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies. Directive leadership: spells out the what and how of subordinates’ tasks. Supportive leadership: focuses on subordinate needs, well-being, and promotion of a friendly work climate. Achievement oriented leadership: emphasizes setting challenging goals, stressing excellence in performance and

and stir followers to look beyond self-interests . • Passive management by exception. Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory: Emphasizes the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers. • Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions. generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission. IS NEW LEADERSHIP ALWAYS GOOD? • Not always good • Dark-side charismatic can have negative effects on followers • Not always needed WHAT IS IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP? • Inference-based: Emphasizes leadership effectiveness as inferred by perceived group/organizational performance outcomes • Recognition-based: is leadership effectiveness based on how well a person fits characteristics of a good or effective leader WHAT ARE CHARISMATIC/TRANSFORMATIONAL PERSPECTIVES? • Charismatic leaders: Leaders who by force of their personal abilities. almost magical. qualities to leadership DIMENSIONS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP • Charisma • Inspiration • Intellectual stimulation • Individualized consideration CAN PEOPLE BE TRAINED IN THE NEW LEADERSHIP? • People can be trained to adopt new leadership approaches. • Active management by exception.showing confidence in people’s ability to achieve high standards of performance. Transformational leadership: Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests. Transactional leadership: Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers Leader-follower exchanges involve: • Use of contingent rewards. Participative leadership: focuses on consulting with subordinates and seeking and taking their suggestions into account before making decisions. are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers CONGER AND KANUNGO’S THREESTAGE CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP MODEL Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status quo Stage 2: the leader formulates and articulates future goals and a idealized future vision. Substitutes for leadership: make a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence Romance of leadership: is where people attribute romantic. Stage 3: the leader shows how the goals and vision can be achieved. • Leaders can be trained in charismatic skills. • Leaders can devise improvement programs to address their weaknesses and work with trainers to develop their leadership skills.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful