You are on page 1of 36

Vehicle Design II Vehicle Design II

Lecture 2

Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly


Automotive and Tractor Engineering Dept. College of Engineering, Minia University-61111 nouby.auto@gmail.com

Outline of Presentation
1. 2. 3. 4. INTRODUCTION ENGINE CONSTRUCTION OVERVIEW CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINES ENGINE INFORMATION

Introduction
Energy is used to produce power. The chemical energy in fuel is converted to heat by the burning of the fuel at a controlled rate. This process is called combustion. If engine combustion occurs within the power chamber, the engine is called an internal combustion engine.

ENGINE CONSTRUCTION OVERVIEW

ENGINE CONSTRUCTION OVERVIEW


A block is constructed of cast iron or aluminum and provides the foundation for most of the engine components and systems. Pistons are installed in the block and move up and down during engine operation.

ENGINE CONSTRUCTION OVERVIEW

The cylinder head also contains valves that allow air and fuel into the cylinder, called intake valves and exhaust valves Crankshafts are generally made of cast iron, forged steel, or nodular iron and machined for bearing fit and balance. Air and fuel enters the engine through an intake manifold and exits the engine through the exhaust manifold.

ENGINE CLASSIFICATION

ENGINE CLASSIFICATION
Engines are classified by several characteristics including: Cylinder arrangement Operational cycles Valve location Type of fuel Combustion Chamber Design Cooling method Application

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Cylinder arrangement


1. Reciprocating (a) Single Cylinder (b) Multi-cylinder (I) In-line (ii) V (iii) Radial (iv) Horizontally opposed (v) Opposed Piston 2. Rotary: (a) Single Rotor (b) Multi-rotor

Types of Reciprocating Engines

Automotive engine cylinder arrangements.

A horizontally opposed engine design helps to lower the vehicles center of gravity.

Rotary Piston Engine


A successful alternative engine design is the rotary engine, also called the Wankel engine after its inventor. The Mazda RX-7 and RX-8 represents the only longterm use of the rotary engine.

Rotary engine operates on the four-stroke cycle but uses a rotor instead of a piston and crankshaft to achieve intake, compression, power, and exhaust stroke.

Wankel Rotary Piston Engine

Types of Rotary Engines

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Operational Cycle


Four-Stroke Gasoline Requires two complete turns of the crankshaft to complete its cycle. Two-Stroke Gasoline Requires only one crankshaft revolution to complete its cycle. Due to the lack of a complete intake stroke the intake charge must be forced into the cylinder.

continued
Chapter 8

4-Stroke Engines

Each cycle of events requires that the engine crankshaft make two complete revolutions or 720. The greater the number of cylinders, the closer together the power strokes occur. Angle with three cylinders = 720/3 = 240 Angle with four cylinders = 720/4 = 180 Angle with five cylinders = 720/5 = 144 Angle with six cylinders = 720/6 = 120 Angle with eight cylinders = 720/8 = 90 Angle with ten cylinders = 720/10 = 72

4-Stroke Engines Operation

4-Stroke Engines Operation

4-Stroke Engines Operation

Valve timing for low and high speed four-stroke SI engine

2-StrokeEngines

intake

Reed Valve 2-stroke

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Valve Location

The I-head

The L-head

The F-head

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Valve Location

Overhead Valve (OHV) The intake and exhaust valves are mounted in the cylinder head and operated by a camshaft located in the cylinder block. This requires the use of valve lifters, pushrods and rocker arms to transfer camshaft motion to the valves.

continued
Chapter 8

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Valve Location


The I-head: (i) Over head Valve (OHV) (ii) Over head Cam (OHC)

Overhead Camshaft (OHC) or Dual/ Double Overhead camshaft (DOHC) Both intake and exhaust valves are located in the cylinder head. The valves are operated directly by the camshaft or through cam followers. Some engines use separate intake and exhaust camshafts.

Chapter 8

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Fuel


(i) Petrol 1.Conventional: (a) Crude oil derivedDiesel (ii) (b) Other sources: (i) Coal (ii) Wood (includes bio-mass) (iii)Tar Sands (iv)Shale 2. Alternate: (a) Petroleum derived (i) CNG (ii) LPG (b) Bio-mass Derived (i) Alcohols (methyl and ethyl) (ii) Vegetable oils (iii) Producer gas and biogas (iv) Hydrogen 3. Blending 4. Dual fueling

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Combustion Chamber Design


1.
Open Chamber: (i) Disc type (ii) Wedge (iii) Hemispherical (iv) Bowl-in-piston (v) Other design Divided Chamber: (For CI): (i) Swirl chamber (ii) Pre-chamber (For SI) (i) CVCC (ii) Other designs

2.

Combustion Chamber Designs

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Cooling

1. 2. Direct Air-cooling Liquid Cooling

CLASSIFICATION of ENGINES Application


1. Automotive: (i) Car (ii) Truck/Bus (iii) Off-highway Light Aircraft Marine: (i) Outboard (ii) Inboard (iii) Ship Power Generation: (i) Portable (Domestic) (ii) Fixed (Peak Power) Agricultural: (i) Tractors (ii) Pump sets Earthmoving: (i) Dumpers (ii) Tippers (iii) Mining Equipment Home Use: (i) Lawnmowers (ii) Snow blowers (iii) Tools Others

3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

Engine Information

Engine Information ENGINE DISPLACEMENT


Engine size is described as displacement.
Displacement is the cubic inch (cu. in.) or cubic centimeter (cc) volume displaced or swept by all of the pistons.

The formula to calculate the displacement of an engine is basically the formula for determining the volume of a cylinder multiplied by the number of cylinders.
Bore x bore x stroke x number of cylinders

Engine Information COMPRESSION RATIO


The compression ratio of an engine is an important consideration when rebuilding or repairing an engine. Compression ratio (CR) is the ratio of the volume in the cylinder above the piston when the piston is at the bottom of the stroke to the volume in the cylinder above the piston when the piston is at the top of the stroke.

Engine Information COMPRESSION RATIO

FIGURE 10-18 Combustion chamber volume is the volume above the piston with the piston at top dead center.

Engine Information
The stroke of an engine is the distance the piston travels from top dead center (TDC) to bottom dead center (BDC). This distance is determined by the throw of the crankshaft.

FIGURE 10-19 The distance between the centerline of the main bearing journal and the centerline of the connecting rod journal determines the stroke of the engine. This photo is a little unusual because this is from a V-6 with a splayed crankshaft used to even out the impulses on a 90, V-6 engine design.

Engine Information
Crankshaft Throw
The distance from the centre of the crankshaft main bearing journal to the centre of the crankshaft connecting rod bearing journal is called throw. The throw determines the stroke of the engine.
2 X Throw = Stroke.

continued

Engine Information
Bore to Stroke Ratio Engines that have a larger bore than stroke are called oversquare. These engines offer the opportunity to fit larger valves in the combustion chamber and use shorter crank throws and connecting rods, which means oversquare engines are capable of running at higher engine speeds. Engines with a larger stroke than bore are referred to as being undersquare. Undersquare engines have long crank throws and connecting rods that aid in the production of more power at lower engine speeds. A square engine has equal bore and stroke measurements and is a compromise between the two designs

Swept and Displaced Volumes


Swept Volume/cylinder:
Inlet Port

Vs=

d s Ap s
2 B

s x Ap

Vs = swept volume dB = bore diameter s = stroke

Note: In valve design the Volume which flows into the cylinder must equal the volume which flows through the inlet port. The velocity past the valve must then be considerably greater than the velocity in the cylinder.

Questions?