Cavitation Notes

p 0 = uniform_stream_total_pressure V0 = uniform_stream_velocity q= 1 2
2

p 1 = pressure_at_arbitrary_point V1 = velocity_at_arbitrary_point

ref: PNA pages 181-183 handout

⋅ρ⋅V0 = dynamic_or_stagnation_or_ram_pressure 1 ⋅ρ⋅V0 = constant 2
1 2 ⋅ρ⋅V0
2 2

p0 +

Bernoulli
p 1 := constant − 1 2 ⋅ρ⋅V1
2

p 0 := constant −

for propeller immersion, measured at radius r, minimum p 0 is obtained from ... p 0 = p a + ρ⋅g⋅h − ρ⋅g⋅r p a = atmosphere
h = shaft_centerline_immersion
ρ⋅g⋅r V0 estimated as (VA^2+(ω*r)^2)0.5 define: σ L = local_cavitation_number = accounts for minimum when r vertical up if p1 => pv = vapor pressure, cavitation occurs p a + ρ⋅g⋅h − ρ⋅g⋅r − p v ρ
2 2 2 ⋅  V + ω ⋅r   2  A

and if pressure REDUCTION / q >= σL cavitation occurs

early criteria (Barnaby) suggested limiting average thrust per unit area to certain values (76.7 kN/m2 = 10.8 psi) for tip immersion of 11 in increasing by 0.35 psi (unit conversions don't match up) 76.7 kN m
2

= 11.124 psi

earlier PNA (1967) stated Barnaby suggested 11.25 psi

can calculate pressure distributions around blade so can calculate local cavitation situation early in propeller design, want blade area to avoid cavitation (more blade area, less pressure
per unit area for given thrust)
Burrill ((1943) "Developments in Propeller Design and Manufacture for Merchant Ships",
Trans. Institute of Marine Engineers, London, Vol. 55) proposed guidance as follows:
limit thrust (coefficient) to a certain value depending on cavitation number at the 0.7 radius
τ c = coefficient_expressing_mean_loading_on_blades
T = thrust AP = projected_area ρ = water_density VR = relative_velocity_of_water_at_0_7_radius AP AD = 1.067 − 0.229⋅ P D from Taylor S & P page 91 P/D from 0.6 to 2.0 elliptical bladed prop, hub = 0.2 D τc = 1 2
T AP

⋅ρ⋅VR

2

can estimate projected area from

and as usual ...

T=

PE ( 1 − t) ⋅ V

=

PD⋅ η D (1 − t) ⋅ V

PD = delivered_power PE = effective_power

RT = T⋅( 1 − t) PE = RT⋅V

η D = quasi_propulsive_coefficient = this parameter is plotted versus
3 kg

PE PD

= η H⋅η R⋅η o

ηH =

1−t 1−w

σ 0.7⋅ slug
ft
3

cavitation number at 0.7*r using relative velocity at 0.7*r and pressure at CENTERLINE

ρ := 1.0259⋅ 10

m

3

ρ = 1.99057

σ 0.7⋅ =

p 0 + ρ⋅g⋅h − p v 1 2 ⋅ρ⋅ VA + ( 0.7⋅π ⋅n ⋅D)

2

2

=

188.2 + 19.62 ⋅ h VA + 4.836 ⋅ ( n ⋅ D)
2 2

m VA = sec D=m

h=m
−1

n = sec

units in PNA (61) approximation SI pv apparently ~ 0.69 psi (90 degF)

σ 0.7⋅ =

2026 + 64.4⋅ VA + 4.836⋅( n ⋅ D)
2 2

in US units

Carmichael correlation
C :=

τ c + 0.3064 − 0.523⋅σ 0.0305⋅σ
0.2

0.2

C = cavitation % σ at 0.7 radius as above (centerline immersion)

τ c as above

− 0.0174

example numbers σ := 0.4 τ c := 0.2 C :=
0.2

τ c + 0.3064 − 0.523⋅σ 0.0305⋅σ

0.2

for C <= 25 (%) or so C = 8.88 % cavitation

− 0.0174

σ := 0.1 , 0.11 .. 2

or ...

τ c( C , σ ) := C⋅ 0.0305⋅σ
T

(

0.2

− 0.0174 + 0.523⋅σ

)

0.2

− 0.3064

see plot below

this can be carried further into ...

τc =

AP

1 2

⋅ρ⋅VR

2

= C⋅ 0.0305⋅σ 

(

0.2

− 0.0174 + 0.523⋅σ

)

0.2

− 0.3064 

AP = 1

⋅ρ⋅VR ⋅ C⋅ 0.0305⋅σ  2
2

(

T
0.2

− 0.0174 + 0.523⋅σ

)

0.2

− 0.3064 

Ap = minimum_area_for_specified_cavitation

1

τ c(30, σ) τ c(20, σ) τ c(10, σ) τ c(5, σ) τ c(2, σ)

0.1 0.1 σ

1

Carmichael correlation valid only for C <= 25 %. 30 % shown to indicate over estimates compared with fig 45 page 182 of PNA for example from prop_design_notes T := 278000lbf n := 218rpm D := 15ft P_over_D := 0.8 p 0 + ρ⋅g⋅h − p v 1 2 σ := ⋅ρ⋅ VA + ( 0.7⋅π⋅n⋅D) 188.2 + 19.62 ⋅ h VA + 4.836⋅(n ⋅ D)
2 2

derived above p 0 = 14.696 psi p v = 0.694 psi

rpm := min

−1

kt := 1.688

ft s

VA := 14kt

h := 10ft

σ 0.7⋅ r =

2

2

=

m VA = sec

D=m

h=m

n = sec

−1

p 0 + ρ⋅g⋅h − p v
2 2 ⋅ρ⋅ VA + ( 0.7⋅π⋅n⋅D)    2

m VA = 7.203 D = 4.572 m s 188.2 + 19.62 ⋅ 3.048 7.203 + 4.836⋅( 3.633 ⋅ 4.572)
2 2

h = 3.048 m n = 3.633

1 s

1

σ = 0.179

= 0.179 using SI approximation
2 0.5

consider % cavitation in steps of 5%

C := 5 , 10 .. 25

VR := VA + ( 0.7πn ⋅ D) 
2

m VR = 37.234 s

AP( C) := 1 2

0.2 0.2 ⋅ρ⋅VR ⋅ C⋅ 0.0305⋅σ − 0.0174 + 0.523⋅σ − 0.3064   2

(

T

)

AP AD

= 1.067 − 0.229⋅

P D

assume AD ~ AE

AP( C) AE( C) := 1.067 − 0.229 ⋅ P_over_D cavitation % C =
5 10 15 20 25

AP( C) =
20.367 16.333 13.632 11.698 10.245

m

2

estimated minimum EAR to avoid AE( C)
AE( C) = =
2 D 23.045 2 m π⋅ 4 18.48
15.425 13.236 11.592 1.404 1.126 0.94 0.806 0.706

supercavitating τc σ to the left. σ very low cavitation % is 100 h = 3.048 m D = 4.572 m m VA = 7.203 s m VA := 10 s σ 0.7⋅ r = p 0 + ρ⋅g⋅h − p v
2 2 ⋅ρ⋅ VA + ( 0.7⋅π⋅n⋅D)    2

n = 218

1 min 0.7⋅π⋅n⋅D = 36.531 0.7⋅π⋅n⋅D = 167.573

m s m s

n := 1000rpm

1

σ :=

p 0 + ρ⋅g⋅h − p v 1 2 ⋅ρ⋅ VA + ( 0.7⋅π⋅n⋅D)

2

2

σ = 8.8 × 10

−3

to avoid 25% cavitation τ c( C , σ ) := C⋅ 0.0305⋅σ

C := 25 − 0.0174 + 0.523⋅σ

(

0.2

)

0.2

− 0.3064

τ c( C , σ ) = −0.243

off the scale hence supercavitating propellers correlation not valid but trend is ok

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