# section 3.

4 Resistance & Propulsion
3.4.1 Hull Resistance
R := c1 ⋅v s
2

source: Woud Chapter 3

physics PE = effective_power
3

(3.1) defined (3.2) (3.3)

PE := R v s R⋅ PE → c1 ⋅v s

substitution physics essentially time and operations (3.4) (3.5)

c1 := y ⋅ c0 v s

( )

y = f( fouling , displacement_variations , sea_state, water_depth)

speed dependency of c1 .... nondimensional resistance coefficient
CT := R 1 ⋅ρ⋅As⋅v s
2

2

CT = non_dimensional_total_resistance

defined

(3.6)

As (ship surface area) not readily available, so use volume proportionality ... CE := PE
2

As ~ Vol^2/3 (3.7)

CE = specific_resistance
3

defined ∆ ρ CE:= PE
1 3 2 3 3

ρ⋅Vol ⋅v s PE
2

3

since

∆ = ρ⋅Vol

Vol := PE
2

CE :=

CE →
3

(3.8)

ρ⋅Vol ⋅v s Vol

3

ρ⋅ 

 ∆  ⋅v 3 s ρ 

3

ρ ⋅∆ ⋅v s

CE = f( Re , Fr , Ro, Hull_form, external_factors) Re := ρ ⋅v s⋅Len η Fr := Ro := vs g ⋅ Le k Len Re = reynolds_number

dimensional analysis, physics

(3.9)

(3.10)

Fr = froude_number defined

(3.11)

Ro = non_dimensional_roughness

(3.12)

CE = f v s , ∆ , fouling , Hull_form, sea_state, water_depth PE := R v s R⋅
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(

)
c1 :=
1

PE → c1 ⋅v s

3

PE vs
3

1

2 3 3

1

2 3

and from (3.8)

PE := ρ ⋅∆ ⋅v s ⋅CE C
1 3 2 3 3

3

c1 :=

PE vs
3

c1 → ρ ⋅∆ ⋅CE

3

(3.13)

PE := ρ ⋅∆ ⋅v s ⋅CE C

shows dependency of P E on speed and displacement

e.g. if CE and v s are assumed constant ... a change in ∆ from nominal changes effective power
2 3

 ∆  ⋅P PE :=  E_nom  ∆ nom  3.4.2 Propulsion
need to deliver thrust T to overcome resistance R at speed vs PE := R v s R⋅ (3.2)

(3.14) N.B. I am assuming one propeller. Woud uses k p = number of propellers. (3.15)

power delivered by propeller in water moving at v A PT := T⋅v A v PT = thrust_power defined

Thrust deduction factor
required thrust T normally exceeds resistance R for two main reasons: propulsor draws water along the hull and creates added resistance conversely, the advance velocity is generally lower that the ship's speed, due to operating in the wake t = thrust_reduction_factor = difference_between_thrust_and_resistance_relative_to_thrust t := T−R T => R := (1 − t) ⋅ T T := R 1−t (3.16) defined

"The term thrust deduction was chosen because only part of the thrust produced by the propellers is used to overcome the pure towing resistance of the ship, the remaining part has to overcome the added resistance: so going from thrust T to resistance R there is a deduction. The term is somewhat misleading since starting from restance R the actual thrust T is increased." page 55

Wake fraction
propeller generally in boundary layer of ship where velocity is reduced; v A is then < vs w := vs − vA v s
w = wake_fraction defined (3.17)

"(Note that as a result of the suction of the propeller, the actual water velocity at the propeller entrance is much higher than the ship's speed: the advance velocity, however is equal to the water velocity at the propeller disc area if the propeller would not be present In other words it is the far field velocity that is felt by the propeller located in the boundary layer of the hull.)" page 56 thus ... v A := (1 − w) ⋅ v s

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2

Hull efficiency

with these two factors the thrust power does not equal
the effective power. The ratio of effective power to thrust power is defined as the hull efficiency. R R v A := (1 − w) ⋅ v s η H := R vs R⋅ T⋅ v A

η H := ηH →

PE
E PT 1−t 1−w

(3.18)

redefine T :=

1−t

(3.19)

Propeller efficiency
Po := Q⋅ω p since ... η o := PT Po o

to deliver the required thrust at a certain ship's speed, power must be delivered to
the propeller as torque Q and rotational speed ωp.
defined Po = open_water_power Po := Q⋅ω p ω η o = open_water_efficiency Po → 2 ⋅ Q⋅ π ⋅ n p ηo → 1 2 ⋅T⋅ vA Q⋅π⋅n p (3.21) (3.20)

ω p := 2⋅π⋅n p n defined

"In reality, i.e. behind the ship, the torque Mp and thus the power delivered Pp actually delivered to the propeller
are slightly different as a result of the non-uniform velocity field in front of the propeller." page 58
PNA vol II page 135 says: " Behind the hull, at the same effective speed of advance V A, the thrust T and revolutions T VA T⋅
(34)
n will be associated with some different torque Q, and the efficiency behind the hull will be η B := 2⋅π⋅n⋅Q
The ratio of behind to open efficiencies under these conditions is called the relative rotative efficiency, being given
by
η B := T VA T⋅ 2⋅π⋅n⋅Q η o := T T⋅ VA 2⋅π⋅n⋅Qo η R := ηB ηo ηR → ⋅Q Q
o 1
(35)

Thus we define P p as power delivered. (per propeller) Pp := M p ⋅ω p ω Pp → 2 ⋅ M p ⋅π⋅n p (3.22)

and ... the ratio between open water power and actually delivered power is Po o Q η R := ηR → Pp Mp

(3.23)

Propulsive efficiency
PE PD

combining all these effects .. looking forward to design/evaluation at model
(open water) scale
ηD = effective_power power_delivered = PE Pp for kp = 1

η D :=

defined

(3.24)

rewriting ... η D
=

PE PT Po PE PT Po
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ Pp PT Po PT Po Pp

using definitions of efficiency from above ... ηH = PE PT = 1 − t 1−w η o := PT Po η R := Po Pp η D := η H⋅η o ⋅η R (3.25) η D := ⋅η ⋅η 1 − w
o R
(3.26) 1−t

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