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MUHAMMAD ASIM E09-334

UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB LAHORE

Aluminium based master alloys What is a master alloy?


A master alloy is a base metal such as aluminium, copper or nickel combined with a relatively high percentage of one or two other elements. An example is AlTi10% - a binary alloy consisting of 10% titanium in aluminium. A master alloy is a semi-finished product. It is manufactured for use as a raw material by the metals industry. Master alloys are produced in various shapes. Examples are: ingot, waffle plate, rod in coils, etc.

Master alloys are used worldwide. Invariably they are found in plants where metal is melted, alloyed with various elements and then cast into shapes. This can be aluminium, iron, steel or even a precious metal such as gold.

There are various reasons for adding master alloys to a melt. One of the main applications is composition adjustment, i.e. changing the composition of the liquid metal to achieve the desired chemical specification. Another important application is structure control - influencing the microstructure of a metal during casting and solidification in order to change its properties. Such properties include mechanical strength, ductility, electrical conductivity, castability or surface appearance. A master alloy is sometimes also referred to as "hardener", "grain refiner" or "modifier" depending on its application.

Reasons for using a master alloy instead of a pure metal can be economical, technical or both. Some elements show high losses - or poor yield when added in pure form. Others will not dissolve at all at the furnace temperature prevailing in a casthouse. A master alloy often provides the solution, as it dissolves much quicker at lower temperatures, saving valuable energy and production time.

The master alloy industry uses specialised equipment such as high temperature induction furnaces to produce the alloy composition suitable for use by the regular metals industry.

Master alloy fabrication is a truly specialised field.

We produce a full range of alloys for the global aluminium industry including the critical Aluminium-Titanium-Boron grain refiner alloy. These superbly made master alloys are used in aluminum wrought alloys and foundry alloys for composition adjustments and structure control.

Product range aluminium based master alloys


Aluminium-antimony 8%, 10%, 15% AlSb
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Aluminium-beryllium 2.5%, 5% Aluminium-bismuth 10% Aluminium-boron 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 8% Aluminium-cadmium 10% Aluminium-calcium 5%, 6%, 10% Aluminium-cerium (MM) 10% Aluminium-chromium 5%, 10%, 20%, 80% Aluminium-cobalt 5%, 10% Aluminium-copper 33%, 50%, 80% Aluminium-copper-phosphorus Aluminium-indium 5%, 10% Aluminium-iron 10%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 45%, 80% Aluminium-lanthanum 10% Aluminium-lithium 2%, 5% Aluminium-magnesium 20%, 25%, 50%, 65%, 75% Aluminium-magnesium-boron Aluminium-magnesium-silicon Aluminium-manganese 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 60%, 80% Aluminium-molybdenum 10% Aluminium-nickel 20%, 50% Aluminium-niobium (Columbium) 10% Aluminium-scandium 2% Aluminium-silicon 20%, 25%, 30%, 50% Aluminium-silver 10% Aluminium-strontium 3.5%, 5%, 10%, 15% Aluminium-strontium-titanium-boron Aluminium-titanium 5%, 6%, 10%, 80% Aluminium-titanium-boron 5/1, 3/1, 5/0.2, etc. Aluminium-titanium-carbon 3/0.15, 3/0.2, etc. Aluminium-yttrium 10% Aluminium-vanadium 5%, 10% Aluminium-zinc 10%, 30% Aluminium-zirconium 5%, 6%, 10%, 15% Rod feeder (variable speed)

AlBe AlBi AlB AlCd AlCa AlCe (MM) AlCr AlCo AlCu AlCuP AlIn AlFe AlLa AlLi AlMg AlMgB AlMgSi AlMn AlMo AlNi AlNb AlSc AlSi AlAg AlSr AlSrTiB AlTi AlTiB AlTiC AlY AlV AlZn AlZr DA-03

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Copper based master alloys

Copper based master alloys are produced for the copper and brass industry. The range includes alloys such as Copper-Iron, Copper-Manganese, Copper-Boron and Copper-Zirconium. These alloys have one thing in common: they dissolve better than the corresponding pure metal or metals.

Product range copper based master alloys


Copper-aluminium 10%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 75%, 80% Copper-aluminium-boron Copper-antimony 50% Copper-arsenic 20%, 30% Copper-bismuth 25% Copper-boron 2% Copper-cadmium 50% Copper-calcium 5%, 10% Copper-cerium (MM) 10% Copper-chromium 5%, 10% Copper-cobalt 10%, 15%, 20%, 50% Copper-iron 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 50% Copper-iron-aluminium Copper-lithium 2% Copper-magnesium 10%, 15%, 20%, 35%, 40%, 50% Copper-manganese 20%, 30%, 50% Copper-manganese-iron Copper-manganese-nickel Copper-manganese-phosphorus Copper-manganese-silicon Copper-nickel / Cupro nickel (various compositions) Copper-phosphorus 8%, 10%, 15% Copper-silicon 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% Copper-silver 10%, 25%, 30% Copper-tellurium 50%, 82% Copper-tin (various compositions) Copper-titanium 30%, 50% Copper-vanadium 1% Copper-zinc (various compositions) CuAl CuAlB CuSb CuAs CuBi CuB CuCd CuCa CuCe (MM) CuCr CuCo CuFe CuFeAl CuLi CuMg CuMn CuMnFe CuMnNi CuMnP CuMnSi CuNi CuP CuSi CuAg CuTe CuSn CuTi CuV CuZn
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Copper-zirconium 10%, 33%, 50% Deoxidised high phosphorus copper (anodes and nuggets)

CuZr DHP

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Nickel / Cobalt / Iron based master alloys


Nickel / Cobalt / Iron based master alloys are part of a series of sophisticated alloys developed specifically for the iron, stainless steel, special steel and superalloy industry. The comprehensive range includes Nickel-Magnesium and Ferro-Zirconium as well as Nickel-Niobium (Columbium) and CobaltBoron.
(N.B. Please find our range of nodularising alloys here.)

Product range additives for the iron, steel and superalloy industry
Aluminium-iron 10%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 45%, 80% Bismuth-manganese 20% Cobalt-boron 15% Cobalt-chromium-tungsten (Wolfram) Cobalt-molybdenum 50% Cobalt-vanadium 65% Copper-antimony 50% Copper-arsenic 20%, 30% Iron-nobium Ferro-niobium (Columbium) 65% (nuclear grade) Iron-silicon-manganese-aluminium Iron-titanium / Ferro-titanium 30% Iron-titanium-aluminium Iron-zirconium / Ferro-zirconium 80% Lead-tellurium 5% Nickel-aluminium 50% Nickel-boron 15% Nickel-calcium 6% Nickel-chromium 20%, 50% / AlFe BiMn CoB CoCrW CoMo CoV CuSb CuAs FeNb FeSiMnAl FeTi FeTiAl FeZr PbTe NiAl NiB NiCa NiCr
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Nickel-hafnium 30% Nickel-lanthanum 50% Nickel-magnesium (various alloys & compositions) Nickel-manganese 60% Nickel-molybdenum 50% Nickel-niobium (Columbium) 65% Nickel-phosphorus 20% Nickel-tantalum 50%, 60% Nickel-titanium 35%, 50% Nickel-tungsten (Wolfram) 45% Nickel-vanadium 60% Nickel-zirconium 50%, 70% Tellurium-manganese 30% Zirconium-aluminium 14% Zirconium-iron 15%

NiHf NiLa NiMg NiMn NiMo NiNb NiP NiTa NiTi NiW NiV NiZr TeMn ZrAl ZrFe

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Product range nodularising alloys for the cast iron industry


Nickel-magnesium (various alloys & compositions) Copper-magnesium 10%, 15%, 20% NiMg CuMg
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Application examples of our master alloys

e great to know all the applications of the master alloys that we produce? After decades of production experience we still find new regularly. The field is enormously diverse and the master alloy range correspondingly wide. Knowing it all is impossible and would be oo. After all, curiosity is a strong driver for alloy development. Having said that we will nevertheless attempt to give you an idea of applications of our master alloys. Here's a selection:

nium based master alloys

nium wrought and foundry alloy world, aluminium based master alloys are usually distinguished into different groups. There are those mposition adjustment to meet the final chemical specification. They are often added to strengthen the alloy and are therefore often "hardeners". Examples are AlMn, AlFe, AlCr, AlCu, AlV etc. either in the form of waffle ingot or as a powder compact, i.e. alloying quettes.

ortant group is the "grain refiners", alloys that are added for structure control. A grain refiner influences the aluminium alloy during the stage. Its role is to prevent cracking, combat shrinkage porosity and increase the casting speed. Examples are Aluminium-TitaniumTiB for short. Sometimes also referred to by brand names such as Tibor or TiBAl. Another example is Aluminium-Titanium-Carbon or ort, sometimes also called Ticar or TiCAl. These alloys are predominantly used in the form of coiled rod for continuous inoculation g. A rod feeding unit (rod feeder) ensures accurate addition rates.

alloys an important alloy is the Aluminium-Strontium or AlSr "Modifier". Modifiers change the structure of the AlSi eutectic from a a globular shape thereby markedly increasing alloy ductility. Strontium modification today has largely replaced previous Naand is an essential part of modern melt treatment.

master alloys are added for specific purposes other than the ones listed above. For instance Aluminium-Boron or AlB or Boral is rease the electrical conductivity of EC grade aluminium, a procedure often referred to as boron treatment. Aluminium-Beryllium or rently also Aluminium-Calcium (AlCa) is added to minimise oxide and spinel formation in AlMg alloys and for instance Aluminiumused to increase the recrystallisation temperature of the 7000 series alloys. (More: aluminium based master alloys)

r based master alloys

rasses and bronzes one can make a similar subdivision into "hardeners", "grain refiners" and "special alloys". Copper-Manganese pper-Aluminium (CuAl) and Copper-Iron (CuFe) are added for composition adjustment. Copper-Boron (CuB), Copper-AluminiumB), Copper-Zirconium (CuZr), Copper-Titanium (CuTi) and to some extent Copper-Iron (CuFe) are used as a grain refiner for copper brasses and bronzes. Copper-Magnesium (CuMg), Copper-Lithium (CuLi), Copper-Calcium (CuCa) and Copper-Phophorus (CuP, ven deoxidisers. Finally, DHP deoxidised high phosphorous copper is used for decorative copper plating and as an undercoat in g. (More: copper based master alloys)

arising alloys for the cast iron industry

lar or SG cast iron industry we make Nickel-Magnesium, NiMg or NiMag for short. The range also includes Fe and Si containing s FeNiMg with or without Ce (MM). Their task is to provide a very consistent and reliable Mg-source for graphite nodularisation in on. The use of NiMg or FeNiMg creates less flare and gives lower Mg losses than pure Mg or FeSiMg. (More: nodularising alloys)

ves for the iron, steel and superalloy industry

ture a highly sophisticated range of master alloys that are used in the production of stainless steels, special steels and superalloys for hardening, solid solution strengthening, final deoxidation and desulphurisation, nitrogen scavenging, carbide formation etc. The range ro-Zirconium (FeZr), Ferro-Niobium (FeNb), Nickel-Molybdenum (NiMo), Nickel-Calcium (NiCa), Nickel-Niobium / Nickel(NiNb) and Nickel-Boron (NiB). These delicate alloys must usually meet extremely tight specifications for impurity levels and are

very

stringent

quality

assurance

procedures.

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nickel/cobalt/iron

based

master

alloys)

ased master alloys

well known but no less important is our remarkable range of zinc master alloys such as Zinc-Titanium (ZnTi) used for strengthening alloys. Other alloys find their way into the galvanising industry with the aim of improving zinc coating properties. (More: zinc based )

ased master alloys

master alloys for the battery makers such as Lead-Selenium (PbSe) and Lead-Calcium (PbCa) for improving the properties of grid and nd for reducing the aging effects of repeated draining/charging cycles. (More: lead based master alloys)

l alloys

ps has developed many special, non-standard binary, ternary and complex alloys in close consultation with the end users. Worth s our capability to manufacture small batches (5-50 mt) of aluminium alloy rod for the production of bolts and fasteners, aluminium and wire for special purposes such as flame spraying, sputtering and vapour deposition. An offshoot of our experience with boron loys is the production of wear resistant aluminium composites.

e encourage you to discuss your metallurgical requirements with us. Our capabilities are described in more detail on our special