Total Lion

Get to Know Mac OS X 10.7


Over the last decade, Apple’s Mac OS X has evolved from a curious hybrid of the classic Mac OS and the NextStep operating system into a mainstream OS used by millions. It was a decade of continual refinement, capped by the bug-fixing, internals-tweaking release of Snow Leopard in 2009.

But the last four years have seen some dramatic changes at Apple. In that time, while Mac sales continued to grow, Apple also built an entirely new business around devices that run iOS. Combine the influx of new Mac users with the popularity of the iPhone and iPad, and you get Lion. After a long period of relative stability on the Mac, Lion is a shock to the system. It’s a radical revision, and it makes the Mac a friendlier computer. Can Apple make OS X accessible to people buying their first Macs and add familiar threads for those coming to the Mac from the iPhone, all while keeping Mac veterans happy? That would be a neat trick—and Apple has tried very hard to pull it off with Lion. Whether you’re a relatively new Mac user or someone who remembers the days before there were three colored buttons in the upper left corner of every Mac window, Lion has something new for you. In this book, we’ve assembled in-depth looks at all of Lion’s new features and adjustments, and demonstrated how you can use them to their fullest. There’s never been a better time to be a Mac user. And with Total Lion to help you get acquainted with the Mac’s latest and greatest features, you’ll be on the fast track to more fun and greater productivity.

Editorial Director, Macworld San Francisco, July 2011

—Jason Snell


PhotograPh by Peter belanger

What You Need to Know

What’s New in Lion
Learn about all of Lion’s new features, applications, and system tweaks.


Install Lion

Get Your Mac Ready How to Install Lion

Prep your computer before you make the leap to Apple’s next OS.

18 23 31 33 37 39 44

Get expert instruction on the various ways you can install Lion.

Installation Challenges

Avoid potential installation problems.

Make a Bootable Install Disc or Drive
Create a boot drive or disc for emergencies.

Do a Clean Install

The pros and cons of wiping your hard drive before installing Lion.

Install Lion over Leopard Lion Recovery

Tackle the Leopard-to-Lion upgrade path.

Learn about Lion’s new recovery mode.

Navigate Lion

Multi-Touch Gestures

Interact with Lion using new gestures built into the OS.


83 Explore the Mac App Store Download third-party applications from the Mac App Store. Customize the Dock’s indicator lights and learn about its new MultiTouch–enabled features. 57 Mission Control Launchpad The Dock Organize windows. Versions. 64 67 70 View all your applications in Lion’s new iOS-like icon view.COnTenTS The Finder Discover new ways to organize and catalog your files with Lion’s updated Finder. 85 Included Apple Apps Address Book explore the new interface and social networking enhancements in Address Book. and Resume Read about Apple’s new feature trio for automatically saving and backing up your work. Work with Apps Auto Save. 88 3 . 72 74 Screen Sharing Share your screen with others by using the Observe Only mode. and spaces using Mission Control. full-screen apps. Sharing AirDrop Learn how to use AirDrop to wirelessly transfer files on a local network. 78 Work in Full-Screen Mode Switch to full-screen mode in Lion apps for a less distracting work experience.

arrange them by thread. 127 4 . 111 QuickTime Player Safari Cut.COnTenTS FaceTime and iChat Font Book Chat with friends using FaceTime and use third-party plug-ins with iChat. flag them in multiple colors. 113 115 121 Save and read more using Safari’s Reading List feature. join. and export your video with new QuickTime tools. 124 Encrypt Your Data Keep your data safe with FileVault 2’s full-disk encryption. 103 Preview Sign documents and view them using magnification thanks to new tools in Preview. and adjust your usage data and location information. and more. iCal Schedule your appointments in Lion using the completely redesigned version of iCal. new in Lion. TextEdit Type notes and quick documents using a redesigned Textedit. 93 95 Discover Apple’s new emoji font and read about interface tweaks to Font Book. Security Set Your Security Tweak password settings. 97 Mail View your emails in three columns. add a firewall.

Mac. Macworld. sixth edition (Peachpit Press. the mouse-ratings logo. Senior editor Chris Breen offers troubleshooting advice in Macworld. iPods. Inc. Apple. Printed in the United States of America.C. or installs on a Mac or on an iOS device. Editorial Director Executive Editor Managing Editor Staff Editor Copy Editors Art Director Designers Production Director Prepress Manager Mike Kisseberth Jason Snell Dan Miller Sue Voelkel Serenity Caldwell Peggy Nauts.L. L. PriceGrabber.C. Apple TV.Contributors Senior editor Roman Loyola has covered Apple and the Macintosh since 1991. and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple. goes in. senior associate editor Dan Moren spent time immersed among actual lions. and more. Staff writer Lex Friedman loved Macs from the moment he met one. Inc. Macworld is an independent journal not affiliated with Apple.C. video and audio playback...’s Mac 911 blog and is the author of The iPhone Pocket Guide. L.L. To complete his research on this topic. and services that help Mac users in creative pursuits. the Macworld Lab.L. covering software. If it works with. the Apple logo. L.COM. HAVE COMMENTS OR SUGGESTIONS? EMAIL US AT EBOOKS@MACwORLD. connects to. Gail Nelson-Bonebrake Rob Schultz Lori Flynn. Kate VandenBerghe Nancy Jonathans Tamara Gargus Macworld is a publication of Mac Publishing. Senior editor Jonathan Seff oversees Macworld’s Playlist coverage of iTunes. hardware. Mac Publishing. 2011). All rights reserved. and used under license by Mac Publishing. Inc. senior editor Dan Frakes probably covers it. He hopes his three adorable children will feel the same way. ToTaL Lion SupeRguiDe Editor Heather Kelly President and CEO VP. Senior editor Jackie Dove runs Macworld’s Create channel. and Mac Developer Journal are registered trademarks of International Data Group. 5 . Inc. the Macworld logo. and International Data Group. Copyright ©

1 What’s New in Lion The last time Apple updated the Mac operating system—2009’s Snow Leopard release—the most noteworthy changes happened under the hood. Lion’s big changes naturally produce big questions: What’s really new in Lion? How does it work? How can you get it? We’ve spent some time going over Apple’s latest OS X update to answer all of these questions—and more. iOS. That’s not the case with Lion. the next major version of Mac OS X. influenced in large part by Apple’s mobile operating system. In this chapter. we’ll briefly discuss some of the major new features and changes coming to your system with Lion. CoNteNts What You Need to Know Page 7 6 . Apple has gradually pulled back the curtain on a pretty significant shift for the Mac OS.

check your processor: Computers with an Intel Core 2 Duo. To find out what kind of processor you have. including information about business licenses and boot disks. Core i5.Chapter 1 WHAT’S NeW IN LION What You Need to Know Before you play with Lion. how to install it on your system. Pricing and Availability If you want to lay your paws on Lion. you need to be running Snow Leopard on your Lion-compatible Mac to begin the installation process. The downloaded installer can be burned to a CD or put on a flash drive if you need to run it on other Macs. so you’ll want to make sure you’re using an Internet connection that can deal with that kind of download. Lion runs a cool 4GB. That means if your family has multiple Macs. you’ll need to get it directly from Apple’s Mac App Store (or. you have to know the basics: where to get it. To tell if your Mac can run Lion. a single $30 payment will let you install Lion on every machine. or run directly from your computer on the Mac you downloaded it to. The company’s newest operating system costs $30. in the Install Lion chapter. application changes. Core i7. or Xeon processor are all cleared for install. and new security improvements. Buying Lion from the Mac App Store is as simple as any other app transaction. As with any applications you purchase from the Mac App Store. Read more about installing Lion. you’ll be able to install Lion on any Macs that are authorized with the Apple ID you used to purchase the OS. what user interface differences and features you’ll encounter. starting in August 2011. just click the Buy button to begin your download. Core i3. click on the Apple icon in the upper left corner of your screen and select About This Mac. 7 . you can pick up the OS from Apple on a USB stick for $69).

iPhoto. removing scrollbars and muting colors to provide a cleaner. and you can swipe between apps with three or four fingers. Apple has simplified and streamlined the Finder’s appearance. and they’re configurable. and zoom in and out by pinching or double-tapping with two fingers. 8 . scrollbars have been removed throughout the OS entirely—they only reappear when you’re scrolling. though you can re-enable them in System Preferences. you can now organize and categorize your files. the Dock’s once-familiar indicator lights for open applications are disabled. WHAT’S NeW IN LION Finder In Lion. (In fact. Multi-Touch Gestures There are many gestures in Lion. scroll with two fingers. Read more about the Finder in the Navigate Lion chapter. a new All My Files section. Meanwhile. more uncluttered look. You can swipe between pages (in Safari. You can double-tap on a word with three fingers to look it up in Lion’s built-in dictionary.Chapter 1 Shiny and New  In Lion.) There are new options for search and organization. and minor improvements for Quick Look and Spotlight (see “Shiny and New”). and other apps) with left or right two-finger swipes.

Launchpad seems primarily aimed at iOS switchers. Launchpad Launchpad gives users instant access to all the applications on their Mac (see “All in a Row”). All in a Row  Launchpad displays all of your installed apps as paginated icons. and reveal the desktop by spreading your thumb and three fingers apart. 9 . bringing you closer to the top. for experienced users with oodles of applications.or four-finger swipe up.Chapter 1 WHAT’S NeW IN LION Trigger Mission Control—Lion’s new take on exposé—with a three. In Lion. Read more about Launchpad in the Navigate Lion chapter. scroll through pages. Windows users who transitioned to the Mac after falling in love with their iPhone may very well take a liking to Launchpad’s home screen–like interface. That said. arrange folders. Apple has brought this concept—referred to as natural scrolling—to the desktop: Pull down with your fingers. If you’ve ever used an iOS device. as if you’re flicking all your windows away. it may prove too unwieldy for general use. even two-finger scrolling has received an alteration. however. and rearrange apps as they see fit. you may have noticed that your content will scroll in the direction in which you push or pull it. It’s a look reminiscent of the home screen of an iPad: Users can see their entire application library laid out in icon form. Read more about Multi-Touch gestures in the Navigate Lion chapter. imitating how you’d interact with a real-world object. and the document will move downward. and those who prefer the comfort of the Finder can easily ignore it.

and Apple is counting on Mission Control being easier to use than exposé and Spaces. and even the Dashboard). and the Announcements 10 . a new picture-inpicture zoom provides an automatic scaling window for specific zoom instances. Accessibility In Apple’s quest to improve accessibility for its users. Instead of configuring what goes where via a preference pane. you use trackpad gestures (or keyboard shortcuts) to quickly view all your running apps and switch between different workspaces (which include shared spaces with multiple apps. and Dashboard widgets. full-screen apps.Chapter 1 Full Frame Mission Control displays all of your windows. Lion’s cursor now scales more gracefully and sharply when enlarged (see “enlarge Me”). In Mission Control. Read more about Mission Control in the Navigate Lion chapter. Apple has also incorporated support for more than 80 new Braille tablets in several languages. you just drag and drop apps and windows into new spaces from the Mission Control view. apps running in full-screen mode. WHAT’S NeW IN LION Mission Control Mission Control is a reinvention of exposé and Spaces. For those needing some visual assistance. OS X’s respective window-switching and virtual desktop features (see “Full Frame”). you now have Verbosity settings for both speech and Braille. spaces. Lion includes a bunch of new features for those who need more help seeing and hearing. between Mail in full screen and a view containing a Web browser and a note-taking app). The idea is that you can be more productive by switching among different views (say.

Chapter 1
Enlarge Me Your cursor now scales gracefully, rather than becoming pixelated as it did in previous OSs.


tab has a new Use Phonetics For Single Characters setting. And although the Speech feature includes fewer voices in its default list, when you choose Customize from that list you see many more voices, plus voices for other languages. You’ll find these same voices in the Text To Speech tab of the Speech preference pane. VoiceOver Utility also adds an Activities option where you can create custom VoiceOver settings for specific uses. Options include settings for Verbosity, Voices, and Hotspots.

AirDrop is a file-sharing feature designed to allow users in the same area to transfer files wirelessly. AirDrop finds other users in a 30-foot radius—even if there’s no Wi-Fi network—and allows you to exchange files with them. Select the AirDrop item in the Finder’s sidebar to see the icons of other AirDrop users on your local network. To share a file, drop it onto the icon of the person you wish to send the file to. The receiving party will see a notification asking if they would like to accept or decline the transfer. Read more about AirDrop in the Sharing chapter.


Chapter 1
Remote Login You can access a networked computer using your Apple ID rather than a user account.


Screen Sharing
Though OS X’s remote Screen Sharing feature has been around since the 2007 Leopard update, it becomes even more powerful in Lion. If your remote computer has multiple user accounts, you can now log in remotely from one account while someone else, logged into their own user account, continues to use the Mac in-house. You won’t disturb their interactions; they won’t notice yours. If you don’t have a user account for that computer, you now have the option of logging in with your Apple ID; the person on the other end can authorize you for access, and you’ll be able to connect to the remote desktop as if you were using a local user account (see “Remote Login”). If you’re working with someone else remotely and want a demonstration, you can turn on Observe Only mode, which allows you to watch any actions happening on the remote computer without interfering. Screen Sharing has a customizable toolbar as well, for easy access to switching from Observe Only to Control mode or for sending the application into full-screen mode. Read more about Screen Sharing in the Sharing chapter.


Chapter 1


Apple Applications
In Lion, you’ll find revised versions of most of Apple’s core applications. There are changes across the board in Mail, Safari, iCal, Address Book, Preview, Textedit, iChat, Photo Booth, and QuickTime Player—even Font Book has a new feature or two. Mail, one of Lion’s highlighted features, undergoes the biggest overhaul (see “Triple Threat”). The program sports a new three-column layout, a conversation view, message previews, related messages, search suggestions, inline reply and deletion controls, custom labels and flags, an archive mailbox, and exchange 2010 support. Safari, meanwhile, includes a new Reading List function (similar to Marco Arment’s Instapaper;; support for Multi-Touch gestures such as tap (or pinch) to zoom and two-finger swipe for navigation; enhanced privacy features; support for new CSS3 and JavaScript elements; and the WOFF text format. iCal and Address Book now more closely resemble their iOS cousins, while Preview gains signature annotation support, magnification tools, and support for opening iWork and Office documents. Textedit has a new top toolbar, while iChat adds a new, unified buddy list and supports third-party plug-ins that supply additional instant messaging services. Photo Booth adds several new effects, support for trimming video clips, and a full-screen mode that imitates the real photo booths of yore.

Triple Threat In Lion Mail, you can see your mailboxes, inbox, and messages all in a row.


Read more about Apple application improvements in the Included Apple Apps chapter. In addition. iMovie. and Kefa. Flickr. developers will need to update their code to use it. In addition. click the button in the upper right corner of the toolbar. and Mail. your application’s layout alters to use more of your screen real estate. To send an application into full-screen mode. the emoticon font first popularized in Japan. Most of Apple’s applications support full-screen mode.Chapter 1 WHAT’S NeW IN LION QuickTime in Lion brings back several features from its defunct sibling. so that you can still access any other windows by switching spaces via Multi-Touch gesture or Mission Control (see “Full Monty”). you’ll be pleased to see that Lion has integrated Apple’s custom color emoji font. 14 . PT Sans. and export just the audio of a clip. There are even a few new system fonts—Damascus. however. if you like emoji. Facebook. You can see the Dock in full-screen mode by moving your cursor to the side of the screen where you have Full Monty In fullscreen mode. Full-Screen Apps Full-screen applications—as the name suggests—operate by expanding the application to take up the entire width of the screen. They open in a separate desktop space. Font Book is slightly reorganized and optimized in Lion. QuickTime Pro: You can now merge and rotate clips. QuickTime will allow you to do partial screen captures (with or without cursor clicks) and offers export to Vimeo. for third-party programs.

compatible applications should—ta-da!—resume in exactly the state you last left them. Auto Save. Lion brings that to the desktop. and Versions in the Work with Apps chapter. or building code—and less time worrying about how it’s being saved and stored. Auto Save and Versions combine to help you kick your 1-S habit: Compatible apps can save your files for you as you type. If you depend on blinking Dock icons (and not audio queues) for alerts about new email messages or instant messages. and you can view and restore—as well as cut and copy from—all your past revisions in a Time Machine–esque portal. A new Privacy tab in the Security preference pane will let you opt in or out of sending any diagnostic and usage data to Apple.Chapter 1 WHAT’S NeW IN LION it anchored. it’s similar to the “freeze” state iOS 4 uses for multitasking.) Read more about full-screen apps in the Work with Apps chapter. Versions will save a copy of your file every hour. be warned that you’ll be blind to such notifications when you use an app in full-screen mode. As a result. Auto Save. you can similarly trigger the menu bar by moving the cursor to the top. If you’re accustomed to iOS. Security Roundup Lion offers several controls for limiting what information you (and your applications) choose to share and for protecting the files you currently have on your computer. Read more about Resume. (Bouncing Dock notifications will still briefly appear when you’re running a full-screen app. and it even works after you reboot your Mac. By default. you’ll add a new version “checkpoint” as well. you can also control what applications can determine and use 15 . when you quit an application with a bunch of open windows and later relaunch it. and Versions—may have the single greatest impact on your day-to-day application use. however. you can spend more time writing your document—or editing your photo. because the Dock operates as if you’ve hidden it. anytime you manually save. Resume. and Versions A trio of features—Resume. Auto Save. With Resume.

Chapter 1 Lock It Up You can encrypt your entire drive to prevent potential trouble from nefarious outsiders. In theory. these security tweaks should keep the application from affecting the entire system. in previous versions of OS X. Your application data will also be more secure in Lion. As with an iOS device. FileVault offers protection and encryption for your entire hard drive or for an external USB or FireWire drive. you’ll see a little arrow icon in your menu bar when an application uses your location. In Lion. which will limit programs’ access to files outside their purview. you could only encrypt your Home folder.) Read more about security in the Security chapter. WHAT’S NeW IN LION your current location. Apple’s encryption service (see “Lock It Up”). (iOS uses similar sandboxing techniques for its own apps. thanks to program sandboxing. 16 . you can use FileVault. To protect your files. should it be compromised in some way.

Contents Get Your Mac Ready Page 18 How to Install Lion Page 23 Installation Challenges Page 31 Make a Bootable Install Disc or Drive Page 33 Do a Clean Install Page 37 Install Lion over Leopard Page 39 Lion Recovery Page 44 17 . six.2 Install Lion With Lion. or more Macs. a single $30 payment will let you install Lion on every machine. beginning in August 2011. be able to purchase a $69 bootable USB stick. including what requirements your system needs to meet and even how you can install Lion over Leopard. Apple expects most people to purchase and download Lion for $30 from the Mac App Store. Getting a fresh operating system is exciting. five. This chapter will tell you everything you need to know for a stress-free installation. And you’ll be able to install Lion on any Macs that are authorized with the Apple ID you used to purchase the OS. Although users without the necessary Internet connection will. through the Mac App Store. That means if your family has four. but the installation process can be complicated and even intimidating. Apple is for the first time making a major new version of OS X available online—specifically.

What You Need To install Lion. as you’ll see benefits in many computing tasks. you need a Mac with a minimum of 2GB of RAM and one of the following Intel processors: Intel Core 2 Duo. But there are still a few things you can do right now to ensure that your Mac is ready for 10. and that may be true. i3. It’s also a good idea to have at least 10GB (and preferably more) of free space See Your Specs  You can check your Mac’s specs by calling up the About This Mac window.7.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn Get Your Mac Ready Apple is advertising Lion as the easiest-to-install version of OS X yet. Some third-party RAM that’s not up to Apple’s specs will cause problems when you upgrade your OS. A word of advice here: If you don’t buy your RAM directly from Apple. i7. 18 . i5. be sure you get RAM that’s specifically designed for use in Macs. or Xeon—early Intel-based Macs with Core Solo or Core Duo processors aren’t eligible. respectively (see “See Your Specs”). You can determine your Mac’s processor and the amount of installed RAM by choosing About This Mac from the Apple menu and looking at the Processor and Memory lines. The list of Lion-eligible Macs includes most models released since late 2006. so if your Mac currently has less than 4GB. However. we recommend upgrading to at least that much—and ideally even more. Macs with 4GB or more of RAM will surely run Lion better than those with only 2GB.

some of Lion’s new features mean you’ll need more “everyday” free space than you did under Snow Leopard. and you need some room for temporary files. The Lion installer itself is almost 4GB. If Disk Utility finds problems. If you’ve got your Snow Leopard install DVD or the OS X install DVD or thumbdrive that shipped with your Mac. select your startup drive. you can use that. In can help you figure out what’s filling up your drive. If you prefer a mouse or large trackball for everyday mousing. The main reason for this requirement is that Lion will be available only via the Mac App Store. If you need to free up some space.6. Preinstall Tasks While Apple portrays the process of upgrading to Lion as a simple download and install. and then click Verify (see “Drive Doctor”). If you’ve got a desktop Mac without a trackpad. which debuted in Mac OS X 10.6. Apple’s system requirements state. Perform these tasks before the upgrade and your chances of a pain-free experience will increase substantially. open Disk Utility (in /Applications/ Utilities). click the First Aid tab. before installing Lion. “Some features may have additional system requirements. very useful. Check Your Mac’s Startup Drive Health To make sure your Mac’s startup drive is in tip-top shape.” We’re assuming Apple is referring to graphics cards here. and test that backup. Apple recommends that you have the very latest version of Snow Leopard before installing Lion.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn TIP Pick Up a Trackpad Although you can use any traditional input device with Lion. Alternatively. you can create a bootable Lion installer volume—using the instructions later in this chapter—and boot from it. consider splurging on Apple’s Magic Trackpad. The better your graphics card and the more dedicated memory it has. We recommend 19 . Back Up Your Mac and Test the Backup Let’s say it again: Back up your Mac. utilities such as WhatSize and GrandPerspective (macworld. as some graphics-heavy features require more horsepower than the oldest Lion-compatible Macs provide. there’s a software requirement for installing Lion: Your Mac must be running Snow Leopard (Mac OS X as the installer includes Disk Utility. In addition. the better Lion will perform. you’ll need to boot from a different volume to perform the repairs using the Repair Disk button. you can add a Magic Trackpad to your setup just to take advantage of Lion’s gesturebased features. experienced Mac users know that a major OS update is never that simple.6) version 10.6. If you’re feeling especially cautious. Finally. so be sure to check Software Update for any available updates. you can also opt to run the Apple Hardware Test (support.6 or later. on your startup its new systemwide gesture support makes a trackpad very.

and while Apple says you can keep using the Snow Leopard implementation for previously encrypted user accounts. Disable FileVault If you’re using FileVault. Run Software Update To be sure you’re running the latest version of both Mac OS X and any other Apple software that might be affected by Lion. you should run Software Update (from the Apple menu). each of which includes fixes specifically related to upgrading to Lion. Lion uses a different (and much-improved) approach to encryption. You should also check for updated firmware for your particular Mac model (support. Lion’s approach is likely the better way to Test a Time Machine or other nonbootable backup by restoring several files to make sure the process works. we recommend disabling FileVault before upgrading to Lion. Why? For one thing. Plus.6. it’s best not to test Murphy’s Law by risking any 20 .8 update and Migration Assistant for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. OS X’s built-in accountencryption feature. Especially important are the Mac OS X 2 InSTALL LIOn Drive Doctor  Disk Utility can verify that your Mac’s drive is healthy. on any of your Mac’s accounts. use the Startup Disk preference pane to boot from the backup drive. To test a clone or other bootable backup. creating a bootable-clone backup with a program such as SuperDuper (macworld. A Time Machine backup will also work.

com/apps:table) growing list of Mac software and Lion compatibility (see “Plays nice with Lion”). add-ons that enhance Mail. you’ll be in a position to get up and running immediately. you’ll likely find that some of your third-party software needs to be updated to work with Lion. The biggest offenders—in terms of incompatibility with Lion—will be programs and system add-ons that integrate with or hack OS X at a low level.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn incompatibilities between the two versions of FileVault. Check for Lion-Compatible Updates to Third-Party Software As with any major upgrade to Mac OS X. if you’re using third-party disk encryption. rather than being frustrated by your favorite apps and add-ons not working. So be sure to check vendor websites for Lion-compatible updates for your favorite software—including third-party System Preferences panes—before upgrading to Lion. but you may also find that utilities that tweak the Finder. If it Plays Nice with Lion  RoaringApps is compiling a usercontributed list of software compatibility with Lion. you should probably disable that before installing Lion. Kernel extensions. 21 . are notorious for being incompatible with major new versions of OS X. Especially useful for this task is RoaringApps’ (roaringapps. Similarly. If you take some time to check compatibility before installing Lion. for example. and other plug-ins and “enhancers” won’t work under Lion.

and then click the Kind column header. (The latter might be a good idea if your Snow Leopard installation has been having issues. erasing your Mac’s startup drive and starting fresh means having a good. so now’s the time to start preparing. well. as well as a bootable Lion install drive. (If you’ve got any listed as Classic.) Consider Keeping an empty Drive Handy While most people will simply install Lion over Snow Leopard. tested backup. there are situations in which you might want to install onto an empty drive. whether those are modern Mac programs or. that ship sailed long ago. if possible. Specifically. select Applications (under Software in the sidebar). which sorts the list of applications by processor type. or you want to erase your Mac’s startup drive and start anew. A bigger issue for some users will be older Mac software that hasn’t been upgraded recently—you may find that it doesn’t work at all under Lion. Windows versions that you can run under Boot Camp or virtualization software such as Parallels or Fusion. if need be. 22 . Any programs listed as PowerPC will not work under Lion. Apple has taken the final step: Rosetta is officially kaput. you should find acceptable alternatives.) As we’ll cover in the next section on installing Lion. However.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn turns out that a particular bit of software isn’t compatible with Lion but doesn’t have an update available. installing it onto a secondary drive is simple. If such updates aren’t available. or if your drive is nearly full or in need of repair. So if you’ve got important PowerPC programs (for example.6). maybe you want to install Lion on a second drive to test the OS before upgrading your primary drive. uninstall or disable it until a Lioncompatible version is released. Rosetta was no longer installed by default. Apple provided software called Rosetta that allowed PowerPC code to run on Intel Macs. With Lion. How can you tell which of your applications are PowerPC programs? The easiest way is to launch System Profiler (in /Applications/Utilities). older versions of Quicken for Mac are still surprisingly popular). In Snow Leopard (OS X 10. but OS X would offer to download and install Rosetta if you tried to run a PowerPC program. PowerPC programs—software that was never updated to work on Macs with Intel processors—are dead in the water. Under previous versions of Mac OS X. For example. before upgrading to Lion. you’ll want to update those programs to Intel-processor versions.

7—better known as Lion—is available for direct download from Apple’s Mac App Store (see “Download the Cat”). 23 . Mac OS X 10. In many ways. Download the Cat To get a copy of Lion. installing the latest major version of Mac OS X meant buying a disc and slipping it into your Mac’s optical drive. you must download it from the Mac App Store. this new method of distribution is easier and more convenient.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn How to Install Lion For over a decade. no longer. But it also raises a number of questions and presents significant upgrade obstacles for some users. Here’s a look at the details of installing Apple’s first-ever download-only OS.

for no additional charge. and then click the Install button next to Lion in the list. on any Macs authorized to use your App Store account. once you’ve downloaded the Lion installer onto one computer. you’re entitled to a free copy of Lion. click the Lion banner on the store’s main page or search for Lion. click the Purchases button in the toolbar. Try these tricks: Option-click the Buy App button in the Mac App uptodate for details. you can copy it—over your local network or via a flash drive. launch the Mac App Store on that Mac. you can download the installer onto any of them—your one purchase of Lion entitles you to install it. which makes it easy to use one installer to upgrade all the Snow Leopard Macs in your home. If that doesn’t work. or click the $29. switch to the Mac App Store’s main page and then Option-click the Purchases button in the toolbar. called Install Mac OS X Lion. Specifically. You won’t be prompted to authorize the installer on each Mac. If that doesn’t work. the 4GB installer application. and you try to redownload it onto your Mac. Visit apple.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn TIP Just Bought a Mac? If you purchased a Mac on or after June 6. which is now running Lion. correctly claiming that Lion is already installed. and you don’t want to have to download it from the Mac App Store again. then click the Buy App button that appears. If you plan to use the installer on other Macs. Purchase and Download Lion If your system meets all of the requirements outlined in the previous section. getting Lion is easy—with the few caveats noted below. will be saved to the /Applications folder. However. Alternatively. presumably to free up the 4GB of drive space it occupies. or an external hard drive—from one Mac to another. the Lion installer icon will be added to the Dock. To download the Lion installer on another Mac. 2011. If you didn’t move the installer before it was deleted. as you are with other Mac App Store–distributed software—the Lion installer does not use digital-rights management (DRM). If you’ve got multiple Macs running Snow Leopard. quit the Mac App Store app and then hold 24 . copy the installer to another drive—or at least move it out of the /Applications folder—before you install. After you provide your Apple ID and password. there’s a catch: After you download the Lion installer to your Mac. a DVD. if you leave the installer in the /Applications folder and use it to install Lion on your Mac’s startup drive. You simply launch the Mac App Store app. the Mac App Store will prevent you from downloading the installer. and Lion will begin downloading.99 button at the top of the screen. the installer will disappear after installation—it’s deleted as part of the installation process. but it didn’t come with Lion

Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn TIP Wait to Install Fair warning: If you install Lion immediately after its launch. It could be fully baked and bug free. if downtime is not an option—you might consider holding off for the inevitable release of Mac OS X 10. If your Mac is mission critical—in other words. You don’t even need to boot from a different disc or volume.7. as the Lion installer runs as a standard application. here are the simple steps involved: 1. Set. click Continue (see “Ready. This makes Lion the easiest-to-install version of OS X yet. assuming that you accept the terms of the software license agreement.1. you don’t need to make any decisions until it’s time to set things up and start using your Mac. Install”). One of these three procedures should clear the Installed status for Lion and let you download it. Set. we’ll see the first update. but if previous debuts of major Mac OS X versions are any indication. containing a number of bug fixes. Then click Agree. Install Lion Whereas previous versions of OS X let you customize your installation. note that unlike all other software sold through the Mac App Store. Lion offers no such choices—other than choosing where to install. 25 . Lion will get subsequent updates via Software Update. Install  Start the installation process by clicking Continue. keep in mind that you’re installing the very first release. not through the Mac App Store’s Updates feature. down the Option key while launching the Mac App Store again. Once you’ve purchased and downloaded the Lion installer. within a few weeks. Double-click the Mac OS X Lion Installer application. in the window that appears. Ready.

5. Take Your Time The installer will show a progress bar and a time-to-completion estimate for the installation. In the next screen. only your internal startup drive is listed. you’ll get only a 30-second warning. the average prep time took just a few minutes. click the Show All Disks button and then choose the desired drive. note that the Lion installer will let you choose any drive that has Snow Leopard installed or any blank drive. and then your Mac will indeed restart on its own. By default. During those test installs on a MacBook Air. although the built-in drive on any Mac eligible to run Lion should meet these requirements.” You can continue to work in other applications during this time. You’ll see a message in the installer window saying “Your computer will restart automatically. if you have other drives connected and want to install Lion onto one of them. The destination drive must also be formatted as Mac OS Extended (Journaled) and must use a GUID Partition Table. this process took 18 to 24 minutes (see “Take Your Time”). over a number of test installations we did on a 2010 MacBook Air. 4. the actual installation occurs.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn 2. Click Install. you choose where to install Lion. 3. After your Mac restarts. The installer will spend some time preparing for installation. and then provide an admin-level username and password. but once the preparation phase is finished. 26 .

If you installed onto a blank drive. or even a PC. you can transfer the information over later using Lion’s Migration Assistant. you’ll be asked to enter your Apple ID (if you have one) and registration information. a Time Machine drive. Lion now has a Windows-specific migration feature). a Windows PC (yes. If you didn’t transfer accounts from another computer or drive or from a backup. If your Mac is a laptop. what you’ll see depends on whether you’ve installed Lion on a blank drive or on a Snow Leopard drive with existing accounts. Unless you really want to start anew. or another drive (see “Movers and Shakers”). this window explains how to use Lion’s new inverted-direction scrolling and shows a video demonstration of two-finger scrolling. you’ll see a Finishing Up screen. a Time Machine drive. and data. and your network connection. you’ll probably want to transfer everything. then be asked if you want to transfer accounts and data from another Mac. the first thing you’ll see will be the initial Lion welcome and setup screens. Finally. after choosing your time zone. If you aren’t sure. where you choose your country or region. you’ll also be asked to create an account (this includes taking or choosing an account picture). After that. your keyboard layout. settings. Scroll 27 .Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn When installation finishes. or if you’ve got a Magic Trackpad or Magic Mouse connected. You’ll Movers and Shakers Bring over data from another Mac.

but it’s less likely—OS X’s Migration Assistant generally doesn’t import kernel extensions and other startup or background processes. once you log in to your account (either automatically or via the login screen. depending on how your Mac was configured before the upgrade). In either case.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn through the text and click Start Using Mac OS X Lion—or. It’s also possible to see the incompatible-software dialog box if you performed a clean install of Lion and then imported your accounts and Finishing Touches  After the OS X installation is complete. you can go directly to the “Start Using Mac OS X Lion” For upgrade installs. If you upgrade. 28 . if you’re using a Mac without a trackpad. this is otherwise the same as the Finishing Up window just described.) You’ll usually see this message if you had kernel extensions—low-level software that patches the operating system itself—installed under Snow Leopard that Apple knows won’t work with Lion. you’ll see a Mac OS X Setup Assistant window. just click Start Using Mac OS X Lion—and your Mac will finish booting. (Apple provides more information about such software in the support article at support. and listing that software. Despite the different banner text. OS X automatically moves this incompatible software to a folder called Incompatible Software at the root level of your startup disk. you may also see a dialog box informing you that some of the software on your Mac is incompatible with Lion.

and OS X will see if drivers are available. Open the Print & Scan pane of System Preferences and click the plussign (+) button. you’re no longer faced with decisions about the type of installation. In addition. 29 . Similarly. installing Lion doesn’t give you a slew of printer drivers. But you may find. Choose one. Postinstall Tasks If you’ve upgraded from Snow Leopard. The first thing you’ll want to do is run Software Update (from the Apple menu) and install any pending updates. chances are you won’t need to do anything else—your Mac will be ready to go. instructing you to run Software Update to download the new software. despite your preinstall checks. The installation procedure is easier and quicker than ever. if you upgraded to Lion from Snow Leopard and saw the aforementioned incompatible-software dialog box. the Print & Scan preference pane may even alert you to the availability of updated drivers. next you’ll want to set up your printer(s). that some of your existing software needs updates. On a Snow Leopard Mac upgraded to Lion. help you get them. you may need to spend a bit of time setting things up. using Software Update. But. if you performed a clean install. and you’ll see a list of connected and nearby (Bonjour) printers. as well as any updates you’ll need to apply to software you install from CDs and DVDs. and then check each vendor’s website for updated versions of that software. If you’ve waited a week or more after the initial launch date to install Lion. or if you installed Lion onto a blank drive but imported all your data and settings. Lion can determine which drivers you need and either download them automatically or. if you’ve performed a clean install of Lion. like Snow Leopard.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn That’s it—unlike with previous OS X installers. now’s a good time to check the contents of the Incompatible Software folder at the root level of your startup disk. it’s time to reinstall your apps—make sure you’ve got the latest versions. there’s a good chance Apple will have released a minor update—or will do so sometime soon. or whether you’ll ever use X11 or QuickTime 7 (see “Finishing Touches”). As with Snow Leopard. which language translations or printer drivers to install. next.

Finally. 30 . now’s the time to do so. you won’t be able to enable Lion’s new full-disk FileVault feature. that folder was summarily deleted during the installation process. the /usr/include/ folder wasn’t transferred. if you installed Lion onto a blank drive and then used Lion’s Setup Assistant or Migration Assistant to transfer accounts and data from another Mac or drive. via the Security pane of System Preferences. if you’re a Unix type who had files in /usr/include/ under Snow Leopard. as the case may be) FileVault. note that if the Lion installer was not able to create a Recovery HD partition on your drive (see the “Lion Recovery” section later in this chapter).Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn If you want to enable (or reenable. Similarly. Lion has a surprise for you: When you installed Lion over Snow Leopard. If this issue will affect you—and you’ll know it if that’s the case— you should manually transfer that directory from your backup to your Lion installation.

2. And if your ISP enforces Internet-data caps. what if you own a copy of Snow Leopard for the Mac in question. While this requirement is in the license agreement you agree to when installing Lion. What if you’re one of them. Users with Slow or Limited-Bandwidth Internet Connections If your connection to the Internet is slow. Lion is much easier to obtain and install than previous major versions of Mac OS X—not to mention less expensive—but it’s not a walk in the park for everyone. But what if you believe you have the right to install Lion on that particular drive? In other words. or the office—anywhere with a fast Internet connection—and download Lion there. you could end up paying a small fortune for the privilege. the Lion installer is also a stickler about the requirement. read “Install Lion over Leopard” later in this chapter. it will take a long time—perhaps days—to download the nearly 4GB Lion installer. either over Leopard or onto a bare drive. the library. download. nor can you mount a Leopard drive on a Mac running Snow Leopard or Lion and then install Lion—the installer simply refuses to install Lion over Leopard. rather than $30. but still Lion-compatible. Users with Lion-Compatible Macs Who Haven’t Installed Snow Leopard There are sure to be people who have been merrily using Leopard (Mac OS X 10.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn Installation Challenges For many people. Consider the following groups of computer users: 1. Mac. but you don’t want to add an hour or two to the installation process by installing Snow Leopard on it first? To get around this hassle.5) on an older. a friend’s house. 31 . you can instead tote it to your favorite Apple retailer. but it won’t let you install Lion. The installer application itself will launch under Leopard. store employees will even walk you through the purchase. Apple’s official policy is to invite you to your local Apple Store so you can use the store’s Internet connection to download Lion. If you’ve got a Mac laptop. and you’ve decided you’d like to make the jump to Lion? Apple’s official policy here is that you need to purchase and install Snow Leopard and then upgrade to Lion—which brings the cost of Lion to $59. Indeed. and installation processes.

These organizations often need to roll out Lion to many Macs. or use Apple Remote that explains the options for these organizations. They can also create one or more bootable Lion install discs or drives. However. It turns out Apple will be providing one. 32 .Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn Of course. although it won’t be available immediately: Starting sometime in August. that copy can be used to install the new OS on any and all Macs covered by the contract. Schools. or if you live in an area where you can’t borrow a fast. and forcing each user to download and install Lion presents significant technical. they can create a netInstall or netRestore image. To do so. Alternatively. The gist of that document is that while organizations will use the same purchasing procedure as always to buy Mac OS X. Apple says customers can choose to copy the Lion installer to the /Applications folder on each Mac and then run the installer from there. they’ll be given one Mac App Store redemption code for Lion for each purchase contract. logistical. and support issues. and Other Organizations and Institutions That Need to Install Lion on Many Different Computers Many large organizations—schools. you’ll need to find another solution. and the like—have understandable concerns about Lion’s Mac App Store–focused distribution. 3. Apple will sell a $69 bootable flash drive containing the Lion installer. and then install Lion using those drives. Apple released a document titled “OS X Lion for Business and Education” (bit. Businesses. once one copy of the Lion installer has been downloaded. if your Mac doesn’t happen to be portable. businesses. no-data-cap Internet connection.

Recovery mode may not even be available. whether it be a DVD. but not all installations of Lion get it—and if your Mac’s drive is itself having trouble. 33 . and that installer doesn’t require a bootable installation disc. a bootable installer drive can be more convenient than downloading or copying the entire Lion installer to each computer. if your Mac is experiencing problems. Indeed. Peep Inside Controlclick (or right-click) on the Lion installer and select Show Package Contents.) Finally. if you need to reinstall Lion. Also. (Lion features a new Lion Recovery mode. Recovery mode requires you to download the entire 4GB Lion installer again. Also. or an external hard drive. as there are a good number of reasons you might want a bootable Lion installer. Apple will eventually sell a bootable Lion USB drive for $69. But it’s easy to create a bootable Lion-install volume directly from the Mac App Store version of the Lion installer. a bootable installer drive makes a handy emergency disk. Lion doesn’t ship on a bootable disc—it’s initially available only as an installer app downloadable from the Mac App Store. As noted above. if you want to install Lion on multiple Macs. For example. a thumbdrive. a bootable installer drive makes it easier to install Lion over Leopard (see “Install Lion over Leopard” for more details). this lack of physical media is perhaps the biggest complaint about Lion’s App Store–only distribution. Here’s how. Read more in the “Lion Recovery” section.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn Make a Bootable Install Disc or Drive Unlike every previous major version of Mac OS X.

4.dmg (see “In the Package”). Once you’ve purchased Lion. Drag the InstallESD. The next steps depend on whether you want to create a bootable hard drive or flash drive or a bootable DVD. 5. In the folder that appears. and choose Show Package Contents from the resulting contextual menu (see “Peep Inside”). 2.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn It’s called Install Mac OS X Lion. and it should have been downloaded to /Applications. find the Lion installer on your Mac. then open SharedSupport. 3. In the Package  This is what you’ll see when you open the SharedSupport folder. open Contents. you’ll see a disk-image file called InstallESD. Launch Disk Utility (in /Applications/Utilities). 34 .dmg disk image into Disk Utility’s sidebar on the left. Control-click (or right-click) the installer.

5. In Disk Utility. 3. if prompted. Warning: The next step will erase the destination drive. Drag the InstallESD. then click the Restore button in the main part of the window. 4. do the following to create a bootable drive (see “Restore to Thumbdrive”): 1. find this destination drive in the sidebar and then drag it into the Destination field on the right. select InstallESD. In Disk Utility. 35 .dmg icon into the Source field on the right.Chapter 2 Restore to Thumbdrive You can use Disk Utility to create a bootable thumbdrive. so make sure it doesn’t contain any valuable data. Connect to your Mac the hard drive or flash drive you want to use for your bootable Lion installer. Click Restore and.dmg in the sidebar. 2. InSTALL LIOn Create a Bootable Hard Drive or Flash Drive Once you’ve followed steps 1 through 5 above. enter an admin-level username and password.

Chapter 2


Create a Bootable DVD
If you are aiming to create a bootable DVD, do the following: 1. In Disk Utility, select InstallESD.dmg in the sidebar. 2. Click the Burn button in the toolbar. 3. When prompted, insert a blank DVD (a single-layer disc should work, although you can use a dual-layer disc instead), choose your burn options, and click Burn. You can now boot any Lion-compatible Mac from this drive or DVD and install Lion. You can also use any of the Lion installer’s special recovery and restore features—in fact, when you boot from this drive or DVD, you’ll see the same Mac OS X Utilities screen you get when you boot into Recovery mode (see “Lion Recovery” later in this chapter).


Chapter 2


Do a Clean Install
With some previous major releases of Mac OS X, upgrading over an existing OS X installation—for example, installing 10.3 over 10.2—entailed some degree of risk, as existing applications, add-ons, and support files could conflict with the new OS. For this reason, many people advocated performing a clean install: wiping your hard drive (after backing it up, of course), installing the latest version of OS X, and then either using the Setup Assistant or Migration Assistant to restore your application and personal data, or copying over your data and manually reinstalling programs. (The OS X 10.2 installer actually included an Archive And Install option, which preserved your original OS in a special folder while installing a completely new, fresh copy of 10.3. This feature was eliminated in Snow Leopard.) Given Lion’s new download-and-install procedure, some Mac users are asking two related questions: Can you perform a clean install of Lion? And should you?

Can You Perform a Clean Install of Lion?
First, the technical question: Given that the Lion installer doesn’t include an official clean-install option, is it possible to perform such an installation? The simple answer is yes. As noted previously, the Lion installer will let you install the new OS on a blank drive. So if you first back up your existing Snow Leopard installation and all your files—a bootable clone made using SuperDuper or Carbon Copy Cloner is ideal—you can then boot from a bootable Lion installer disc or drive, erase your Mac’s normal startup drive, and install Lion on it. In fact, you can use the instructions later in this chapter (see “Install Lion over Leopard”). Specifically, use the “brute-force method,” performing steps 1 through 7 and substituting Snow Leopard for Leopard—the result is a clean install. Once you’ve done this, if you want to use Setup Assistant to restore data from your backup, proceed with step 8. If you truly want a clean start, you’ll instead need to copy your personal data manually from your backup to your new Lion installation, and then reinstall all of your software. (This is one situation where the Mac App Store really shines. You just launch the Mac App Store app and click a few buttons to automatically reinstall everything you’ve purchased there.)


Chapter 2


Should You Perform a Clean Install?
OK, so you can, but should you? Prior to Snow Leopard, a clean install was a good recommendation. But the Snow Leopard installer and Setup and Migration Assistants were pretty good about not transferring over incompatible software, and Lion seems to be even better. Lion also automatically detects some incompatible programs and system add-ons the first time you log in, as explained previously. What about stuff the installer and Setup Assistant or Migration Assistant don’t catch? We installed Lion many times over a variety of existing Snow Leopard—and even Leopard—installations, and we had little trouble that could be traced directly to incompatibilities with transferred code. Based on our experience, as long as you’ve properly prepared your Mac before installing Lion, you should be just fine installing directly over Snow Leopard. There are, however, a couple situations in which you might consider a clean install. The first is if you’ve done some funky partitioning of your Mac’s startup drive that prevents the Lion installer from creating the special Recovery HD partition. Given how useful Lion’s new Recovery mode is, a clean install is likely worth the effort just so you can restore your Mac’s drive to a standard configuration; this will allow the Lion installer to create the Recovery HD partition. (If you don’t want to reinstall everything manually afterward, you can use Setup Assistant or Migration Assistant to transfer your data, applications, and the like to the new installation, as described above.) The other scenario is if you’ve been using your Mac for a while, installing and deleting lots of apps, and your hard drive has become littered with lots of unnecessary gunk: orphaned application-support and preference files, abandoned preference panes, and the like. A new major version of OS X is a great opportunity to do some spring cleaning. Of course, if you perform a clean install for this purpose, you don’t want to use Setup or Migration Assistant to bring over everything from your backup. Instead, you should manually copy your personal data and then reinstall just those apps and add-ons you actually use.


you can install Lion on it. you can’t install Lion. Having performed this two-step upgrade many times while researching our various Lion-installation articles. you should be well within your rights to install Lion on any of your computers for which you have a valid. and the Mac App Store debuted in Mac OS X 10. and you’ve got a Mac that shipped with Leopard but that you never upgraded to Snow Leopard? Assuming that Mac is compatible. use and run for personal. non-commercial use. you’ve got a family-pack license for Snow Leopard. The software license you agree to when you install Lion states that you can “download. In other words. if your Mac shipped with Snow Leopard. install. But once you’ve got your copy of Lion.6. In other words.6 or later (Mac OS X 10. Those situations are pretty clear. But what if. current Snow Leopard license—even if you don’t actually install Snow Leopard first. The main practical reason for this requirement is that Lion is available via the Mac App Store. 39 . and you’d rather not take the interim step of installing Snow Leopard just to upgrade to Lion. the spirit of the law seems to be that a particular Mac just needs a license for Snow Leopard before you can install Lion on it.” In other words. But let’s take a step back.6. along with a valid license for Snow Leopard. you can install Lion on it.6) installed. that Mac.5)? That depends. we can tell you that it’s a real hassle. If you didn’t purchase Snow Leopard.6. can you install it onto a Mac or a hard drive containing Leopard (Mac OS X 10.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn Install Lion over Leopard One of the requirements for installing Lion is that you already have Snow Leopard version 10. you need Snow Leopard to purchase and download Lion. If your Mac shipped with Leopard. the Lion license agreement says you can’t upgrade to Lion until you first install Snow Leopard.6. This is just one scenario—there are a number of situations in which you might have Leopard on a Mac or an external hard drive. but you later purchased Snow Leopard for. for example. in our view. one (1) copy of [Lion] directly on each Apple-branded computer running Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server…that you own or control. and installed it on. While the letter of the law says you need to install Snow Leopard before installing Lion.

tested backup of your drive before you begin. a 4GB or larger thumbdrive or external drive. of course. “It will install onto a blank drive? Then I’ll just copy the installer to my Leopard-equipped Mac. The Brute-Force Method What if you don’t want to install Snow Leopard first. the Lion installer will let you install Lion onto a bare drive when the installer itself is running under Snow Leopard or Lion. the Mac in question meets Lion’s system requirements—you must first install Snow Leopard and then install Lion. or maybe you’re on the road and you’ve got your Mac’s original [Leopard] disc with you as an emergency boot disc. You just erase your Mac’s drive. you can perform a bit of installer razzle-dazzle. but you don’t have your Snow Leopard upgrade disc. install onto a blank drive. it refuses to install on any drive running a version of Mac OS X below 10. or to an already downloaded copy of the Lion installer. and it gets the Apple seal of approval. Apple’s official policy is that if you want to install Lion onto a Mac or a hard drive containing Leopard—assuming. while the Lion installer will freely install Lion onto a blank drive.5).” Alas. So as long as you have a good backup. It will. and use Migration Assistant to move my files over to it. if timeconsuming. So how can you install Lion over Leopard? There are three ways: the official way. Whichever method you choose. you should—as with any OS installation—be sure to have an up-to-date. however.6. install Lion there.6.) As mentioned above. connect an empty hard drive. 40 . The Official Way As noted. This works. and the quick-but-techie way. so Lion clearly doesn’t need any of Snow Leopard’s files or settings.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn So then the question becomes whether there are any technical reasons you can’t install Lion over Leopard. the Lion installer refuses to install Lion onto a drive containing Leopard (10. the installer itself must be run from within Snow Leopard or Lion. it’s fairly easy to do. the brute-force method. or you don’t have your Snow Leopard disc handy? (We’re not being coy here—perhaps you’ve misplaced it. You may be thinking. Based on our testing. in fact. and access either to a Mac running Snow Leopard or Lion.

try restoring some important data from the backup. 2. you’ll find yourself at a screen called Mac OS X Utilities. (If you’ve already got your copy of the Lion installer. and click Erase. that’s because it’s essentially the same process. When the erase procedure finishes. choose Mac OS X Extended (Journaled) from the Format pop-up menu. (This is the same screen you’ll see if you boot your Mac in Recovery mode.) 5. Select Disk Utility and click Continue. and then import all your data from your backup. Use the Snow Leopard or Lion computer to download the Lion installer from the Mac App Store. You’ll use the third option.) Be sure to test this backup to verify that it has your latest data. with several options. boot from the clone to make sure that it boots and it contains all your data.) Here’s how: 1.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn install Lion onto it. as discussed later. To do so. In the case of a Time Machine backup. (Warning: This step erases all the data on your Mac’s hard drive. 7. Boot your Leopard Mac from that new Lion install drive. select that drive on the left. skip this step. installation finishes. which is why you absolutely had to make that backup!) 6. click Erase on the right. 8. quit Disk Utility to get back to the Mac OS X Utilities screen. Make sure you have an up-to-date backup of your Leopard Mac’s hard drive—either a Time Machine backup or a clone backup made using a utility such as SuperDuper or Carbon Copy Cloner. (If this sounds a lot like a clean install. From Time Machine Or Another Disk. we recommend a clone. After your Mac restarts. 41 . watch for the Transfer Information To This Mac screen. 4. Create a bootable Lion installer drive using the instructions in the “Make a Bootable Install Disc or Drive” section. then use Disk Utility to erase your Leopard Mac’s internal drive. When you do so. to transfer all your files from your backup to your new installation of Lion. and you proceed through the setup process. Select Reinstall Mac OS X and click Continue to launch the Lion installer and install Lion on your Mac’s internal drive. (For this purpose.) 3. in the case of a clone backup.

say.6 (or 10.7 or 10. Using a text editor that lets you enter an admin username and password to edit system-level files—such as the non–Mac App Store version of TextWrangler—open SystemVersion.6. Here’s how to do that: 1. On your Leopard-equipped Mac. The Quick-but-Techie Way If you’re comfortable diving into the OS and editing a plist file. This means that if your Mac is running Leopard.8: <key>ProductVersion</key> <string>10. 3. The Lion installer—which will still need to be run on a Mac running Snow Leopard or Lion—will then install Lion over Leopard without the slightest complaint. you’ll need to be able to boot from a Snow Leopard or Lion drive to run the installer. Change that number to 10. But how does the installer know your drive contains Leopard and not Snow Leopard? It turns out the installer simply checks a particular file—/System/Library/CoreServices/SystemVersion. For example. 42 .Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn When the transfer process is finished.6. although. just below that is a string of numbers indicating the OS version. you can edit the SystemVersion. Locate the ProductVersion key. the Lion installer refuses to install the OS on a Leopard Mac. and then shut down your Mac. 2.plist. navigate to /System/Library/ CoreServices/.5. here’s the section of the file from a Mac running OS X 10. As mentioned above.6. as with the previous method.7. 10. this is the fastest way to install Lion over Leopard. you’ll be able to log in to Lion with all your accounts and data intact.5.8</string> 4.6. and you’re feeling adventurous.8).plist file so that it claims you’re running.plist— on the destination disk to check the version of OS X currently installed on that disk. save the file (providing your admin-level username and password when prompted).

you’ll need to boot your Mac from a drive running Snow Leopard or Lion that also contains the Lion installer. and then run the Lion installer from there. and.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn 5. use the Reinstall Mac OS X option to install Lion on your Leopard drive. just boot your Mac from it. Another option. If you’ve created a bootable Lion install disc or drive. when the Mac OS X Utilities screen appears. Finally. and then run the Lion installer. 43 . is to boot the Leopard Mac into Target Disk Mode and connect it to your Snow Leopard or Lion Mac. if you’ve got two Macs with FireWire. You could instead boot your Leopard Mac from an external drive containing Snow Leopard or Lion.

browsing the Web. regularly updated backup. the recovery partition itself may be and it’s no substitute for having a reliable. you can boot from Recovery HD and perform some basic troubleshooting procedures without the need for an OS X install DVD ( However. In our testing. 650MB partition—a portion of a drive the operating system treats as a separate volume—on your startup drive. it appeared that the restore partition is created only when you install Lion onto an internal drive formatted with a GUID partition scheme (support. this partition includes a few essential utilities for fixing problems. in the case of some recent Macs. the installer creates an invisible. Recovery mode won’t save you from every problem. you can’t. or it must be a two-partition drive that was partitioned by Boot Camp Assistant and not further modified afterward. In addition. Unfortunately. Of course. the OS X install thumbdrive) or a separate bootable hard drive. restoring files. officially called Lion Recovery. because it’s a separate partition—and one that’s invisible even to Disk Utility—even if you were to erase your Mac’s hard drive. if that drive is having hardware problems or partition-map issues. because the Recovery HD volume is read-only. say. Called Recovery 2 InSTALL LIOn Lion Recovery One of the most significant new features of Lion is one you will hopefully never need to use: Recovery mode. Recovery mode would still be available at startup. and even reinstalling Lion. copy your favorite third-party disk utility onto it to make that utility available in Recovery mode. bootable. (Apple has confirmed some of these restrictions at support.) So not everyone will get this The idea behind Recovery mode is that if you ever have problems with your Mac’s startup volume. that internal drive must initially have only a single partition. 44 . In other words. because the Recovery HD partition is actually part of your Mac’s internal hard drive or SSD. It turns out that when you install Lion.

) 45 . you can use the pop-up menu at the bottom of the screen to choose a local Wi-Fi network. Restart or start up your Mac and immediately hold down the Option key. Keep holding these keys until you see the Apple logo on the screen. After a few seconds. If you want to connect to your local network (for example. try the second method. you can access Recovery mode by simply restarting or starting up the Mac and immediately holding down 1-R. although there are two ways to do so: The easy Way On newer Macs. you’ll see a window with Mac OS X Utilities in large text across the top (see “Restoration Software”). 2. bootable volumes—appears. you can wait until you’re booted into Recovery mode to choose a network. Restoration Software  Lion’s new Recovery mode contains essential tools for fixing common problems. provide the network’s password when prompted. to access backups on a Time Capsule) or to the Internet in Recovery mode (see “Use Recovery Mode” later in this section). The alternate Way On any Mac. you can access Recovery mode using OS X’s Startup Manager: 1. keep holding Option until the Startup Manager—a gray screen showing all connected. One of the volumes will be called Recovery HD. If this procedure doesn’t work for you.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn Access Recovery Mode You can access Recovery mode only when your Mac starts up. (If you prefer.

the menu bar displays OS X’s Input. If you want to connect to your network or the Internet. you can do so using the Wi-Fi menu. After a brief delay. If the problems your Mac is having are serious enough that you need to erase your startup drive (perhaps Restore Your System If you click the Restore From Time Machine Backup option in the Mac OS X Utilities window. and you haven’t already chosen a wireless network.) Regardless of which method you use to access Recovery mode. make sure the Ethernet cable or USB-to-Ethernet adapter is connected to your Mac. select one and click Continue to use it. (note that this Mac OS X Utilities is the same one you would see if you created a bootable Lion install drive or disc and then booted your Mac from it. Select Recovery HD and then click the upward-pointing arrow below it to boot from Recovery HD. and (on laptops) battery menus. you’ll see the same Mac OS X Utilities screen.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn 3. you’ll get this screen. Wi-Fi. The four main options are listed in the Mac OS X Utilities window. the tasks you can perform are limited. Alternatively. 46 . Restore from Time Machine Backup: You have a backup of your system that you want to restore. Use Recovery Mode When you are booted into Recovery mode. if you’ve got a wired connection.

To transfer files from a backup to a new Mac. to Time Machine’s exclusion list (in the Time Machine pane of System Preferences). this option lets you restore. note that to use this feature. 47 . Specifically. you won’t be able to restore your system from that backup. So if you previously added the System folder. user data. from a Time Machine backup. and settings (see “Restore Your System”). note that the Restore From Time Machine Backup feature erases the destination drive—it’s only for restoring an entire volume from a Time Machine backup to its original source (or to a replacement drive). Before proceeding. you’ll need to reinstall Lion and then use Lion’s Setup Assistant to transfer your data from your Time Machine backup. to restore individual files and folders. your entire system. you should use Migration Assistant or Setup Assistant. or if you’ve installed a new hard drive in your Mac. use Time Machine while booted into OS X. You’ve Been Warned The installation utility will prompt you with a final warning before you erase a hard drive during the restore process. read the important information on the Restore Your System screen that appears when you choose this option and click Continue. or any other OS-related files and folders.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn using Disk Utility in Recovery mode). your Time Machine backup must be a complete backup that includes all system files. including the OS and all accounts. Instead.

or any other website. then the actual data used by the installer—nearly 4GB of it—is downloaded over the Internet. then the particular backup snapshot you want to restore from. Once this process is finished—when we tested it on a MacBook Air. you’ll see a page called Recovery Information that provides brief instructions on how to perform various tasks in Recovery mode. Unfortunately. with one key exception: Once you select the drive onto which you want to install Lion. (With a solid broadband connection.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn If you’re sure you want to use the Restore From Time Machine Backup feature. and then the installer proceeds just as if you were running the Lion installer normally.” Clicking Continue sends the necessary information to Apple. get Help Online: Browse the apple Support website to find help for your Mac. it took about an hour and a half for approximately 63GB of data—your Mac will restart from the restored drive. you select your Time Machine drive.) While it’s nice to have the option to install Lion from within Recovery mode. we recommend doing so only if you don’t have a bootable Lion-installer drive. click Continue. When Safari first launches in Recovery mode. for answers to your troubleshooting problems. the download should take anywhere from half an hour to an hour and a half. You can also check and send email if your email account provides Web access. so installing Lion from within Recovery mode requires an Internet connection to download the actual OS. Reinstall Mac OS X: Set up and install a new copy of Lion. you 48 . When you click Continue on the initial installer screen. including the current Mac’s internal drive. However. Choosing this item and clicking Continue launches Safari (with default settings and bookmarks) to let you browse Apple’s Support site. You’ll see a final warning that this procedure will erase the destination drive (see “You’ve Been Warned”). your computer’s eligibility will be verified with Apple. and the utility erases the drive and begins restoring your files from your Time Machine backup. Select this option and click Return. and you’ll be able to log in normally. On the next screen. you’ll get a dialog box with the message “To download and restore Mac OS X. click Continue. because of this download-the-whole-OS drawback. you’re prompted to enter your Mac App Store Apple ID and password. then the destination drive. letting you install Lion on any supported drive or volume. and the Lion installer launches. this version of the installer doesn’t actually include all of the necessary files and data.

erase. you’ll come up empty. Apple has hidden this partition well. and use OS X’s Unix shell. although you won’t be able to repartition your Mac’s internal drive. Just remember: Look. repair. erase the drive. (You can actually see the Mac OS X Utilities window by moving Safari’s window out of the way. Other Options In addition to the four options in the Mac OS X Utilities window. Recovery HD under the Hood If you try to find the Recovery HD partition in the Finder. since you’re actually booted from it. but don’t touch. you’d start here.) Disk Utility: Repair or erase a disk using Disk Utility. which you can use to check. if your curiosity won’t be sated until you’ve been able to browse Recovery HD. and press Return. You’ll get output similar to this: 49 . Open Terminal. monitor network connections and traffic. 1. If you decide to erase your Mac’s startup drive and reinstall Lion (after making sure you’ve backed up the drive. of course). just quit Safari. Selecting this option and clicking Continue launches Disk Utility. and then use the Reinstall Mac OS X option (above) to install a new copy of Lion. 2. You’ll even be able to repair your Mac’s normal startup volume. they let you configure a firmware password. although you can access them when booted from your normal startup drive—see the “Recovery HD Under the Hood” section.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn won’t be able to print these instructions from within Recovery mode. These are the same utilities you can use when your Mac is booted normally into OS X. or partition connected drives. type diskutil list. but you won’t be able to access any of the other functions until you quit Safari. Recovery mode also offers a few options in its Utilities menu (displayed when viewing the main Mac OS X Utilities screen): Firmware Password Utility. here’s how. presumably to keep it safe from accidental (or intentional) modifications—after all. network Utility. or even by using Disk Utility. what good is an emergency disk if someone has accidentally deleted some of its vital contents? However. respectively. and Terminal. You can get back to the Mac OS X Utilities window by quitting Disk Utility. To get back to the main Mac OS X Utilities window.

apple. However. disk0s3. switch back to Terminal and type (or copy from here and paste into Terminal) ls -al /Volumes/Recovery\ HD/com.dmg 50 . drwxrwxr-x 8 root wheel 340 Jul 2 14:48 .3 GB 209..recovery.5 GB 650. 4.boot folder in the Finder. If you want to see everything that’s there. Open the -rw-r--r--@ 1 root admin 1876 Jun 29 23:55 BaseSystem. This will display the full list of the folder’s contents: DanBookAir:~ frakes$ ls -al /Volumes/Recovery\ HD/ total 930048 drwxr-xr-x 1 0 root wheel 340 Jul 2 14:48 . that identifier.boot. of course.boot/ and press Return. Inside should be a single folder. This mounts the Recovery HD partition in the Finder. and you’ll see several items.chunklist -rw-r--r--@ 1 root admin 451307798 Jun 29 23:47 BaseSystem.0 MB IDENTIFIER disk0 disk0s1 disk0s2 disk0s3 3.recovery.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn DanBookAir:~ frakes$ diskutil list /dev/disk0 #: 0: 1: 2: 3: TYPE NAME GUID_partition_scheme EFI Apple_HFS DanBookAir Apple_Boot Recovery HD SIZE *121.7 MB 120. Locate the Recovery HD partition (under name) and note its identifier—in our case. 5.recovery. named com. you aren’t seeing everything—some of the folder’s contents are invisible. -rw-r--r--@ 1 root wheel 749 Jul 2 14:48 .apple. Type diskutil mount [identifier]. where [identifier] is.

51 Once you’ve done that.plist -r--r--r-.1 root wheel 858800 Jun 29 23:04 boot.boot/BaseSystem.efi Contents/Resources/English.Boot.1 root wheel 475 Jun 29 20:42 SystemVersion.1 root wheel 361 Jul 2 14:48 com. You can mount this disk image by typing open /Volumes/ Recovery\ HD/com.plist -rw-r--r-. You can then unmount the Recovery HD volume by typing.lproj/ (all one line) and press Return.1 root wheel 23992189 Jun 29 22:41 kernelcache Of particular interest is BaseSystem. where [identifier] is the same identifier you used above.Chapter 2 InSTALL LIOn -rw-r--r-. When you’re done browsing. diskutil unmount [identifier].lproj folder. just type open /Volumes/Mac\ OS\ X\ Base\ System/ System/Installation/CDIS/Mac\ OS\ X\ Utilities.dmg and pressing Return. you can eject Mac OS X Base System as you would any removable volume.plist -rw-r--r-.1 root wheel 2245 Jun 15 18:06 in Terminal.dmg. find the RecoveryInformation.html file and double-click it to open it in your default Web browser. a disk image that contains the recovery partition’s bootable copy of OS X and all the recovery-mode utilities. you can view the Recovery Information page you see when you launch Safari from within Recovery mode. You’ll see the contents of the English.

3 Navigate Lion More than any previous release. CoNteNts Multi-Touch Gestures Page 53 The Finder Page 57 Mission Control Page 64 Launchpad Page 67 Page 70 Dock 52 . The operating system has interesting tools and changes that will please everyone. often in unexpected ways. In this chapter. we’ll walk you through the new navigation tools and have you flying around Lion in no time. Taking a cue from the popularity of the iPhone and iPad. There are all-new navigation tools like Launchpad and Mission Control. Apple has added support for Multi-Touch gestures in Lion. from novices to power users. Lion tweaks and extends the Mac OS X interface. Old standbys like the Finder and the Dock have also received slight tweaks.

They include the following: Configure the Secondary Click Instead of using a two-finger click. and the dictionary will look up the combined words instead. Now Lion offers many new and modified Multi-Touch gestures that work with your laptop’s built-in trackpad or the Magic Trackpad. synonyms. and even Wikipedia entries when appropriate (see “Define Inline”). and secondary clicking.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Multi-touch Gestures First Apple made Multi-Touch popular with the iPhone. with definitions. essentially. because that device is limited to two-finger gestures only. 53 . Most of the new gestures won’t work with the Magic Mouse. you just double-tap the trackpad with three fingers. (This is in addition to the still-supported Control-click or traditional right-click on two-button mice. rotating. Lion urges you to interact with your Mac as if it’s a giant iPad—using your easier-toreach trackpad as a proxy for the screen. highlight Steve Jobs). three-finger swiping to navigate or drag. Then the company began supporting certain Multi-Touch gestures on the Mac: two-finger scrolling.) Double-Tap for Dictionary Definitions Define Inline To look up a word in Lion. Move the cursor over any text— whether it’s editable text in a document you’re writing. screen zooming. A dictionary pop-up will appear. or displayed text on a Web page or anywhere else— and double-tap the trackpad with three fingers. pinching to open and close. The new gestures are configurable in the Trackpad pane of System Preferences. and four-finger swiping for exposé and switching between applications. you can set either the bottom left or the bottom right corner of your trackpad to trigger a secondary click. Highlight two or more words before you triple-tap (for example.

Pinch with two fingers—or double-tap with two fingers—and you’ll zoom in on the content. these new gestures will feel mighty familiar. 54 .com to a specific article on the site. such navigation now requires one finger fewer. you can switch to the Swipe With Two Or Three Fingers setting in the More gestures tab of the Trackpad preference pane. if you navigated from Macworld. you could use a three-finger swipe to the left to go back to our homepage. your Dashboard will swoop in from the left. Rather than telling your Mac to “go back. and other apps. You choose the number of fingers in the More gestures tab of the Trackpad preference pane.” imagine you’re swiping the newly loaded page off the screen. you use a two-finger swipe to the right instead. In Lion. Zooming doesn’t work systemwide. In Lion.or four-finger swipes navigate between full-screen apps. iPhoto. If you swipe your fingers to the right on your main desktop screen.) Swipe between Full-Screen Applications ILLusTraTIons by KaTe VanDenberGhe Three. Back in Snow Leopard.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Pinch to Zoom In and Out If you’ve ever zoomed in on a website with iOS. along with a mental shift. (If you prefer the old gestures. Preview. you could use the three-finger swipe to navigate within certain apps—think Safari and iPhoto. revealing the old one behind it. but you can use the gestures in Safari. Swipe with Two Fingers for In-App Navigation In Snow Leopard. Swiping your fingers left rotates between your full-screen apps and any virtual desktop spaces you’ve created.

which displays all your Mac apps in the style of the iPad’s home screens. Swipe Down to Enter App Exposé Swipe down with four fingers to enter App exposé. Spread Hand Out to Show Desktop Spreading your thumb and three fingers outward (a reverse pinch) flicks your open windows away. Pinch for Launchpad A pinch with your thumb and three fingers triggers Launchpad. See the “Launchpad” section of this chapter for more on this feature. To learn more about App exposé. Reversing the gesture exits App exposé.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Swipe Up for Mission Control A three. 55 . Repeating or reversing the gesture takes you back to where you were previously. Reverse the gesture to bring your windows back. Lion’s new take on exposé. revealing the desktop underneath. See the “Mission Control” section of this chapter for more on Mission Control. read further on in this chapter.or four-finger swipe up enters Mission Control. which reveals all the windows and open documents for the current app.

you have a couple options: Part with the $69 required to get one. The default scrolling behavior in Lion is called Natural Scrolling. 56 . you can switch between full-screen apps by holding down the Control key and pressing the left. For example.or right-arrow keys. you can disable Natural Scrolling on the Scroll & Zoom tab of the Trackpad preference pane. holding down the Control key while you use your mouse’s scroll wheel zooms in on the screen—it’s not the same as the new Multi-Touch zoom options. too. but it’s precisely the opposite of how Macs have scrolled to date. and then click on that instead of triggering it via its gesture. That’s what you’re accustomed to seeing on the iPhone or iPad. meaning that the content moves in the direction in which your fingers move as you scroll. Control–Down Arrow enters App exposé. as many of Lion’s new technologies can be triggered directly from your keyboard. And pressing Control–Up Arrow launches Mission Control. As in Snow Leopard. Alternatives to Gestures If you don’t use a laptop and haven’t purchased a Magic Trackpad yet. And you can leave the Launchpad icon in your Dock. If you hate the change.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Two-Finger Scrolling Two-finger scrolling works differently in Lion than in previous versions of OS X. you can rely on a new contextual menu option by Control-clicking on the word instead and choosing Look Up In Dictionary. but it’s something. or skip the gestures altogether. Instead of triple-tapping a word to get its definition.

New Categories When it comes to file arrangement and presentation. 57 . now users can simply hover the cursor over a category’s name and click Show or Hide to expand or collapse it. The drop-down arrows for categories in the sidebar have been removed and replaced with hover controls. Lion presents a whole new experience. more sterilized look. but with a bit of practice they will feel natural in no time (see “Introducing the Finder”). Spotlight and Quick Look. The changes may be disorienting at first. general appearance The Finder’s appearance has been simplified and streamlined—Apple has removed its scrollbars and muted colors to provide a cleaner. Organization The main Finder window has had a few subtle tweaks to make navigating your Mac easier.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION the Finder Steve Jobs may dream of a future without a file system. Apple has pruned down the sidebar categories in Lion: gone are Places (replaced by Favorites) and Introducing the Finder Lion’s version of the Finder looks simpler and cleaner than its snow Leopard cousin. Here’s a look at Lion’s changes to the Finder window and its cousins. Lion’s improvements to the Finder are a strong organizational step forward. but until that happens.

when you open a new Finder window. Date Created. you’re presented with the All My Files view. and your files will gain related section headers. Previous 30 Days. PDF Documents. Images. While All My Files defaults to showing categories labeled by kind. or Cover Flow view to see your files—but their arrangement differs dramatically. Music. This organizational structure isn’t limited to the All My Files section: Arrange By will work in any Finder window. and Developer (for HTML and Xcode files). Documents. Previous 7 Days. Date Last Opened. Kind. Column. For starters. Application. including Name. Column. every file is listed vertically. In Icon view. or scroll down through the list of categories. For instance. you can change this to display any number of other options using the new Arrange By menu (see “Organize Me”). this window showcases every user-friendly file categorized by kind. Application and Date Last Opened are both new in Lion. 58 . Date Added. The basic elements remain the same—you can still choose Icon. List. and Label. your files will be categorized under the headings Today. Size. with category titles labeled at the top of each section. Previous versions of the OS buried this functionality in submenus. Organize Me use the arrange by menu to categorize your files. Categories include events & To Dos. files are displayed three at a time in stacked categories. if you choose Date Last Opened.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Search For (excised entirely). in any folder. and a broader earlier. Movies. Arrange By offers a variety of organizational categories for your files. Yesterday. In List. Date Modified. Spreadsheets. and Cover Flow view. Choose any category but Name. As the name suggests. you can scroll horizontally through a given category’s files.

Chapter 3
Keep It All you can avoid accidentally overwriting files, thanks to Lion’s new Keep both Files option.


additional Interaction Options There are a few new options when interacting with files inside the Finder as well. When you highlight multiple files in the Finder and Control-click, you’ll be able to group them into a folder, in addition to compressing them or burning them to a disk. You can also avoid accidentally overwriting files, thanks to the new Keep Both Files option that will appear when copying a file with the same name as another file to the same folder (see “Keep It All”). If you highlight a file and click the gear icon in the Finder, you’ll see one or two new options toward the bottom of the menu, depending on the file type. All files have the New email With Attachment option, which will launch Mail with the file attached; images also have the option to Set Desktop Picture. Beginner-Friendly Features Mac experts may find a few things missing or altered in the Finder when they install Lion. For one thing, your user library is hidden by default, though your system library remains visible. Ideally, this keeps novice users from mucking about, and users who need to access something can do so by turning on hidden files, or by using the Finder’s go To Folder command. It’s also a lot harder to accidentally move an application: If you try to drag a program out of the Applications folder, it will turn into an alias by default; to actually move it, you’ll need to hold down the 1 key. Search Intelligently The Finder’s search bar has been improved under the hood to provide for intelligent queries and multiterm searches. Not
Search and Rescue  you can stack search queries to target your desired files.


Chapter 3


only will Lion suggest matches and file types for your words as you type, but it can also convert them to search tokens. For instance, type in photoshop and you’ll get an offer to look for all Photoshop files on your hard drive. Select that, and you can stack additional queries on top of it—say, if you want to look for every PSD file named hat—to get moreprecise results (see “Search and Rescue”). Once you start a query, the Finder window will convert into a search pane, asking where you’d like to search, whether you’d like to save the search, or whether you want to add more specificity. gone is Snow Leopard’s option to search the file’s contents versus its filename; in Lion, the Finder attempts to intelligently determine which you’re looking for. You can save your search as a smart folder by clicking the Save button; as in Snow Leopard, you’ll have the option to save it to a specific folder on your hard drive or to add it to the Finder sidebar. (If you do so, it will appear under Favorites.) Simplified Mac Info At first glance, the trademark Apple menu—hiding in the upper left corner of your Mac’s screen—looks like it hasn’t changed at all. It’s the same with the menu items themselves: If you click About This Mac, for example, you’ll be presented with a window that’s very similar to that in Snow Leopard. Click the More Info button, however, and you’ll find a very different window awaiting your perusal. Previously, when you went to look up more information on your computer’s innards, Finder opened a little utility called System Profiler that gave you a no-nonsense view of all your computer’s parts and external connections. In Lion, however, Apple has made that step more novice friendly. Instead of seeing the technical jargon, you’re brought to an About This Mac screen within the renamed System Information utility, simplified to present information about your Mac’s innards in a clean, clear manner. Divided into six sections—Overview, Displays, Storage, Memory, Support, and Service—it provides information such as the computer’s serial number, current software version, display type and graphics card, amount of hard disk space remaining (and what types of files are currently on the disk), and memory capacity and upgrade instructions. The last two tabs, Support and Service, also provide direct links to Apple’s Help Center, the computer’s user manual, and AppleCare support. If it’s technical jargon you seek, you can access the old System Profiler by clicking System Report in the Overview tab.


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Instant Previews  spotlight now offers full previews of your files, email messages, and images.

While Lion’s Spotlight looks superficially similar to its Snow Leopard compatriot, Mac OS X’s search and launch tool has a few neat new tricks hiding away in this iteration. For one, you can now use Quick Look on almost anything from the Spotlight search bar; hover the cursor over an item, and a preview will pop up to the left of the window, showing a full scrollable preview. You can also search Wikipedia and the Web using dedicated options available at the bottom of the Spotlight menu. While you can’t use the new search tokens in Spotlight to create multiterm searches (as you can in Finder and in Mail), you can still do things the old-fashioned way using Boolean searches and keywords. For instance, searching kind:photoshop hat returns the same results as if you used the Photoshop search token and the word hat in the Finder. Once you’ve found the file you were looking for, you have three options: You can click on it to open it directly in its default application; if you want to see where your file is located, you can click on Show All In Finder; and—new to Lion—you can drag it directly from the Spotlight menu to copy it to an email, folder, or AirDrop, Lion’s new local file-sharing feature. For more on AirDrop, see the Sharing chapter.


it expands its sphere of influence. Quick Look offered users a way to easily preview files without going to the trouble of opening applications.Chapter 3 Open Sesame If you want to edit your file. the utility is now integrated systemwide. No longer limited to the Finder. In the Finder. you can open it in the appropriate application directly from the Quick Look window. Quick Look works the same way it always has—you can tap the spacebar or use one of the many keyboard combinations to preview 62 . you could just tap the spacebar and navigate with your arrow keys to see full-size previews. and window previews in Mission Control. Quick Look didn’t change all that much in Mac OS iterations over the years—but with Lion. offering URL previews in applications like Mail and iChat. gone were the days of manually opening a thousand pictures with names like “DSC0001” to find images of last year’s beach trip. file previews in Spotlight. NAvIgATe LION Quick Look Introduced in 2007 as part of Leopard. instead.

Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION your file—though the eye icon is no longer present by default in the toolbar. PDFs. you now have the option to open the file in its currently assigned application. When previewing a file. Unlike with full-screen apps. making a Quick Look window full-screen does not create a space for it. you can view enhanced previews using Column view or Cover Flow view. and you’ll be presented with a Quick Look scrollable preview of that page. and an option to open it in Safari. 63 . for example. it takes up the full screen of your desktop. even without entering Quick Look mode. in addition to making it full-screen (see “Open Sesame”). In supported applications like Mail. Click it. now have multipage previews that you can thumb through using arrow controls that appear when you hover. instead. when you hover over a URL. you’ll see an arrow pointing down appended to the end.

Apple bills Mission Control as “Mac command central”—a place where you can get a quick and organized overview of everything your computer is doing right now. As in many of Apple’s prior major releases. each application stack has a badge with the name of the app and its icon. spaces. or assign Mission Control to another keyboard shortcut. there was a time before Mac OS X’s exposé feature—a dark time. There are a number of ways to activate it.) Mission: Controllable In Lion. or hot corner via the Mission Control pane of System Preferences. you can click the Mission Control icon in the Dock. exposé. When you trigger Mission Control. use the exposé key on your Mac’s keyboard. exposé has gotten a face-lift in Lion—this time it has become part of a feature Apple calls Mission Control. (Note that windows you’ve minimized do not show up in Mission Control. organized in stacks by application (see “Mission: Controllable”). and Dashboard have been united into Mission Control. mouse button. You can even cycle through all apps on the keyboard using 1-tilde (~). you’ll get an exposé-like bird’s-eye view of your open windows. but Apple clearly hopes you’ll use the three-finger upward swipe gesture on your Multi-Touch–enabled trackpad. but you can also click an individual window to bring that one—and only that one—to the front.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Mission Control Hard as it may be to believe. 64 . clicking an icon will bring that app and all of its windows to the foreground. a new tool that gives you a bird’s-eye view of what’s happening on your Mac. Otherwise.

nor can you rearrange or rename your spaces. A new picture of your desktop. and drag and drop the items you want to move onto another space. overlaid with a plus sign (+). drop your dragged item anywhere at the top of the screen to create a new desktop with just that item in it (see “Additional Desktops”). Above your windows is a list of your open spaces. you have a few options. you can control a couple of aspects of space organization. and they will appear as thumbnails along the top of the Mission Control screen. Automatically Rearrange Spaces Based On Most Recent Use is 65 . Clicking any desktop in Mission Control will take you right to the full-screen version of that space. any windows or apps left in that space will jump back to your primary desktop. Moving windows and apps between spaces is also a breeze: Just switch to a space in Mission Control. A three-finger swipe. By default you have two spaces: Dashboard and your desktop (though you can convert Dashboard back to its Snow Leopard–style overlay in the Mission Control preference pane). but Apple once again seems to be pushing gestures. will appear in the upper right corner. you’ll need to go into the space and toggle the app back to windowed mode. hover over it in Mission Control until an X icon appears in the upper left corner. You can also put a windowed app into a new space by triggering Mission Control and dragging a window or app toward the top of the screen. or into a new space. To swap back and forth between spaces. And. thanks to two options in the Mission Control preference pane.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Additional Desktops  you can have multiple desktops. However. You can’t do that with spaces that are full-screen apps. Unlike previous versions of OS X. Lion doesn’t let you add spaces “below” or “above” your desktops. or virtual desktops. You can add another space in several ways. either in Mission Control or from your desktop. You can’t drag them out of a space thumbnail. unlike previous versions of OS X that included the Spaces feature. Lion doesn’t provide any way to entirely disable the Spaces feature. most simply by putting any of your apps into full-screen mode. By default. To delete a space. will take you to the next space. you can only add them in a horizontal spectrum. though—to collapse one of these. however.

Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION active. or you can use MultiTouch gestures. that applies to Dashboard widgets as well. you can assign hot corners. but you can’t move items between displays while in Mission Control. you’ll need to perform a four-finger spread—a reverse pinch. keyboard shortcuts.) Keep in mind that this option will result in a constantly changing space order. you can uncheck it in the Mission Control preference pane as well. along with a horizontal list of that app’s documents (if any) that you can swipe through. Fans of exposé’s other features—the option to show all windows in an application and show your desktop—needn’t fret. it will create a linked desktop on the other display (assuming you’re operating in extended display mode). or mouse clicks to those functions. If you have multiple displays. If you’d like to deactivate that option.) To show your desktop. As with Mission Control. Swiping through spaces on either display switches them on both. Mission Control will show you the apps and windows on each display. just deselect this checkbox. If you create a new space on either display. the capabilities are still there. 66 . (Swiping down while hovering over any app’s icon in the Dock will reveal all windows and documents for that application. Lion will shift you to a space where there are already windows for that app. Also by default. meaning that the last-used space will always appear to the right of your primary space. (It’s a bit like the way 1-Tab always shows the most recent application directly to the right of the current app. A three-finger downward swipe will reveal all windows in the current application. so if you’d rather keep your spaces static. when you click on a Dock icon for an open application.

You can also use the Launchpad icon in the Applications folder—thankfully. click on the Hot Corners button in the Desktop tab. which you can rearrange to your heart’s content—by default.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION Launchpad If you’re looking for iOS influences on Lion. you couldn’t ask for a better example than Launchpad. and multiple home screens that you see on iOS devices now appear right on your desktop. if you’ve enabled it in the Trackpad preference pane’s More gestures tab. you can do so via the Desktop & Screen Saver preference pane. It’s as if Apple picked up an iPhone and tipped its Springboard interface directly onto the nearest Mac: The same app icon layout. it behaves a lot like Dashboard did pre-Lion. which you’ll see fuzzed out in the background. When triggered. with third-party apps relegated to any subsequent screens (see “Ready for Launch”). folders.or four-finger pinch gesture. all of OS X’s included applications are on the first screen. You access Launchpad either from its Dock icon (a brushed-metal picture of a spaceship) or via a three. 67 . If you’d like to set up a hot corner. You can quickly switch between screens with a Ready for Launch  users of apple’s ios should find Launchpad’s grid of icons a familiar sight. Launchpad does not appear within Launchpad. in that way. Your applications are neatly laid out in a grid of icons. Launchpad zooms in as a layer over all your existing stuff.

68 . Lion doesn’t allow creation of a folder with a single app in it—the folder will disappear as soon as there’s just one app inside it. but you can if you prefer. As in iOS. Also. Welcome to the Fold Folders can contain up to 32 apps. moving that icon back to the main Launchpad level (see “Welcome to the Fold”). but you can’t drop one folder inside another. if you want to delete an app—and bear in mind that you can’t delete any of Apple’s own apps—you will have to do the click-and-hold dance. Launchpad does sport iOS-style folders—by default. OS X will automatically name the folder based on its contents. either by using the left. you’ll have to move each app in or out of a folder individually—there’s no way to move them en masse. as do ones that you drag into the Applications folder. all of the apps in your Mac’s /Applications/Utilities folder appear in a separate Utilities folder inside Launchpad. but. and you can rename them with whatever name you want. New programs downloaded from the Mac App Store go directly into Launchpad. You can have up to 32 apps in a single folder. Creating additional folders is as easy as dragging one icon and dropping it on top of another.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION two-finger swipe. You can quickly rearrange apps by dragging them around—unlike on iOS devices. or by clicking the little dots that represent your home screens. However. launching an app is as easy as clicking on it. You can then rearrange folders just like app icons. as with iOS. you don’t need to click and hold on them and make them jiggle around. but you can change it to whatever you like. and then tap the X that appears in the upper left corner.and right-arrow keys on the keyboard. unlike iOS.

There’s one notable exception: deleting an app. it appears only on your primary monitor. 69 . those apps will even retain your data. So if you move an app into or out of a subfolder in Launchpad. and you can download anything you’ve purchased from the store again for free. and vice versa. In many cases. Though the hierarchy of Launchpad initially reflects the hierarchy of your Applications folder (Launchpad’s Utilities folder has the same contents as /Applications/Utilities). the only apps you can delete in Launchpad are those you’ve downloaded from the Mac App Store.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION There’s no way to keep apps arranged in any other way besides where you put them. baby. it doesn’t even show up in the Trash. the two are not synonymous. If you remove an app from Launchpad. gone. You also can’t use a secondary display with Launchpad. it’s gone from your Applications folder—and we mean gone. the same change doesn’t happen in the Applications folder. However.

reveals a list of documents associated with the selected program. the Dock in Apple’s latest OS X update is pretty much the same one Apple has included in OS X for years. The major change isn’t some new piece of functionality. Dock-uments The app exposé feature. which is triggered when you do a three-finger swipe down over any icon in the Dock.Chapter 3 NAvIgATe LION the Dock Lights Out by default. Here’s a nice tweak: Apps newly downloaded from the Mac App Store no longer jump into your Dock. the Dock no longer shows indicator lights underneath running programs. go to the Dock pane. Open up System Preferences. Don’t worry. but rather something that’s gone away: the little blue indicator lights underneath programs that indicate they’re running. Clicking one of them will open that document in the application. you can do a three.or four-finger swipe down while hovering over any app icon to show just the windows associated with that app (see “Dock-uments”). though—if you miss the lights. With a few exceptions. but rather appear in Launchpad. they’re just a few clicks away. for example—you’ll also get a Cover Flow–like list of files you’ve worked with in that app. and click the checkbox next to Show Indicator Lights For Open Applications (see “Lights Out”). but you can restore them in system Preferences. In apps that work with documents—Textedit and Preview. Another change to the Dock is more subtle: If you’ve activated the App exposé feature in the Trackpad preference pane’s More gestures tab. 70 .

Mac users who are on the same Wi-Fi network and in close proximity to each other can share files by dragging and dropping. The screen-sharing tool has also been upgraded to make controlling and viewing other screens from afar easier. With the new AirDrop feature.7.4 Sharing Sharing files and screens is easier in Mac OS X 10. ContentS AirDrop Page 72 Screen Sharing Page 74 71 .

their icon may still appear in your AirDrop window. To use it. you’ll eventually see a message that reads “The transfer failed. logged into the same wireless network and located within about 30 feet of each other. Please try again. note that if someone else’s AirDrop window was open but has since been closed. i’m trying to send you that file—open AirDrop!” Lion’s Share AirDrop is a great new feature in Lion that makes it simple to connect to other Macs running Lion within a 30-foot radius. your Mac is identified by the icon associated with your user’s account or. When you attempt to send a file to that computer. if you’re listed as a contact in that person’s copy of Address Book.” This gives you the opportunity to yell across the room. Get Started To use AirDrop.Chapter 4 ShAring AirDrop AirDrop is Apple’s alternative to sneakernet—a way to easily transfer files between Macs without setting up a complicated network. Mary. you can choose AirDrop from the Finder’s go menu or press 1-Shift-r. When the window is open. “hey. all you need are at least two Macs running Lion. open a Finder window on your Mac and select the AirDrop entry in the sidebar.) Your Mac will now appear as an AirDrop destination for any other Mac that also has its AirDrop window open. the image associated with your contact. (Alternatively. Close this window. 72 . and your Mac is no longer available for AirDrop transfers.

(Decline.” You can choose Save And Open. The file is copied over if you choose Save And Open or Save. you see a warning that reads “There is no application set to open the document nameoffile. and you’re ready to open the file.” You can click Cancel if you like. On the other Mac. or Save options.) Obtain Missing Apps if you choose Save And Open and you don’t have an application that supports the copied file. and Search App Store buttons. a dialog box appears. just drop it on that Mac’s icon in the AirDrop window. 73 . Cancel. You’ll see a small window that reads “Do you want to send nameoffile to otherMac?” This will be accompanied by Cancel and Send buttons. naturally. For example.Chapter 4 ShAring To transfer a file to another Mac. and you see “Waiting for otherMac to accept. Decline. The App Store will display garageBand for the Mac. Click Send. reading “FirstMac wants to send you nameoffile. click the Search App Store button. if someone sends you a garageBand file and you don’t have a copy of garageBand installed. Purchase and download the application. rejects the invitation to accept the file.” This is accompanied by Choose Application.

if she clicks Ask To Share The Display. you can connect to a hardware display or a virtual display. a message appears on the other Mac. even when someone else is using it with another account. and enter her username and password in the resulting dialog box. indicating that Jane would like to share the screen. From another Mac. For example. let’s say a remote Mac has two user accounts: Joe and Jane. When she clicks the Connect button. but also share the screen for any account you have access to on that Mac. Jane can see what’s on Joe’s screen as well as control his account. She can. for Let the Sharing Begin With Screen Sharing in Lion. if instead she clicks Connect To A Virtual Display.Chapter 4 ShAring Screen Sharing One of our favorite ways to troubleshoot problems with Macs of friends and family members is to use the Screen Sharing feature—a way to remotely control another person’s Mac on a local network. Screen Sharing under Lion has been significantly enhanced. she can choose to view and control any account she has access to on the other Mac. Jane can select that Mac under the Shared heading in a Finder window. with two options: Ask To Share The Display and Connect To A Virtual Display. Joe is currently working on that Mac in his account. click Share Screen. a Select Display window appears. 74 . Access Multiple Accounts it’s now possible for you to not only view the display of another Mac. if Joe clicks Share Screen.

As you control the other Mac. This is useful for watching a presentation on another Mac. regardless of the mode you choose for Screen Sharing. hardware is the display mode we’re accustomed to. You have the option of switching from one mode to another by choosing a mode from the View menu (see “Extra Options”). There’s also a new Observe mode (available in the View menu). More Display Modes Screen Sharing now offers you two display modes—hardware and Virtual Display. The only indication Joe will have that this is happening is the appearance of the Screen Sharing icon in the menu bar. provided that the user is logged in to the account you’re working with. select the Jane account and enter her password. you can see what’s happening on the remote Mac. the person sitting in front of it can see what you’re doing. you see the remote Mac’s screen but the display on the remote Mac switches to the gray log-in screen. For the person at the remote Mac to regain control of it. the other Mac’s display image appears on your Mac and on the Mac you’re connected to. in this mode. The first time you connect to another Mac you’ll be offered the choice to choose one or the other (see “Let the Sharing Begin”). Jane can then work with the Mac remotely while Joe is also using it. he or she must log in with a password.Chapter 4 ShAring example. her account will launch in the background on the remote Mac. When you’ve connected to another Mac via Screen Sharing. you have control over the remote Mac. Extra Options Lion’s Screen Sharing mode has a new toolbar. When you choose Virtual Display. 75 . but you can’t control it.

take a screen shot (also found in the Connection menu. and get the contents of the remote Mac’s Clipboard.Chapter 4 ShAring Toolbar Tweaks Finally. Screen Sharing includes a new toolbar that appears when you run Screen Sharing in full-screen mode. this command takes a screen shot of everything on the remote Mac’s display). You can use it to switch between Control and Observe Only modes. trigger the Fit Screen in Window command. 76 . as well as send the Clipboard contents from the Mac you’re working with to the remote Mac.

Apple has introduced several new techniques for interacting with your apps and their files. With Lion. You’ll also be able to find new third-party apps more easily via the Mac App Store.5 Work with Apps The operating system may be the Mac’s backbone. and Resume Page 78 Work in Full-Screen Mode Page 83 Explore the Mac App Store Page 85 77 . Contents Auto Save. Versions. but your applications are what you use to get things done.

resume. but it’s always right where you left it. but thanks to three new features in Lion (and improvements to Time Machine). Anybody who’s lost data knows how painful the experience can be—especially when you know it was preventable. Versions. Versions. Auto Save and Versions We’ve all heard the mantra: Save your work.Chapter 5 Work WiTh AppS Auto save. That’s it: You don’t need to do anything. that step becomes unnecessary: Your work will automatically be saved when you make changes. With Lion. losing your information may soon be a thing of the past. two new features in the oS. Auto Save. Auto Save does pretty much what its name suggests—it automatically saves your work when you make changes. and Resume Coming to grips with data loss can be hard. however. 78 . as it Like a Version You can access Version’s commands from a new drop-down menu in the title bar of your document. and Time Machine combine to make sure that not only does your data reliably get saved. thanks to Auto Save and Versions. Auto Save won’t be available in every app by default.

you can just choose Browse All Versions. or use the Time and Time Again Versions’ Time Machine–style interface lets you restore to an older copy of a document or just copy and paste text from an old version to a new one. it works hand in hand with Lion’s Auto Save and Time Machine to make sure your edits are always saved. First. Since Versions saves only the history of your changes rather than a full copy of every additional version. it works similarly to Apple’s Time Machine. save. Apps should also save Versions snapshots when you open. Versions takes that into account. however. Whenever you make significant changes. lock. you can always revert to either the last saved or the last opened version from the File menu or the Versions menu—you can access the latter via a downward-pointing triangle that appears when you hover the cursor over a document’s title bar (see “Like a Version”). As for Versions. if you choose to view the older versions of a document. it uses only a fraction of the space it otherwise might. you’ll be moved into a Time Machine–style interface showing two documents: the current version on the left. duplicate. a dialog sheet will give you the choice of reverting to the last opened or saved version or browsing older versions. click any older version’s title bar to bring it to the foreground. if you use the File menu.Chapter 5 Work WiTh AppS requires some work for third-party developers to integrate into their applications. 79 . There are a few ways to access Versions. or revert to a previous version of a document. it’ll all happen in the background—no need to worry about pressing 1-S. except on a per-document basis. To navigate. rename. for compatible apps. and a stack of previous versions stretching back into time on the right (see “Time and Time Again”). from the Versions menu.

if you deleted that iffy sentence but decide you want to restore it without touching other alterations you’ve made. older versions are interactive. reorganize all your windows. While you can’t delete or alter their text. restore will use the selected older version to replace your current version. select Lock from the Versions drop-down menu. found in the title bar’s drop-down menu. open all your documents. Shut Down. it puts you right back where you were when you left off. arduous process: relaunch the app. instead. you can copy text from them into the current version. To freeze your document so that no other changes can be made. Apple aims to make that task a thing of the past by implementing an ioS-influenced feature: resume. Like Auto Save. resume applies not only to quitting an app. in fact. or Log out from the Apple menu. With Lion. but also to restarting your Mac. when you select restart. and gray “Locked” text will appear in the title bar. When you launch an application. There has been one casualty in the transition to Versions and Auto Save: the Save As option. Done will take you out of the Versions interface and back into your application without making any changes.Chapter 5 Work WiTh AppS history slider on the right to isolate a version by a particular time and date. Underneath the older version. you’ll need to use the Duplicate feature. you can do so. A pair of buttons appears at the bottom of the screen: Done and restore. You can also disable resume entirely from the General pane of System preferences by 80 . if you try to make any changes to a locked file. it’s also worth noting that in this interface. you’ll see a checkbox that lets you specify whether you’d like windows reopened when you log back in. and so forth. You then face a long. including opening the same documents and windows (see “As You Were”). you’ll be prompted either to unlock it or to duplicate it (which you can also do via the Versions menu or File menu). A little padlock will appear on the document icon in the title bar and in the Finder. resume is a feature that requires essentially no action on the user’s part. you’ll see when that iteration was saved. Resume We’ve all done it—accidentally quit an application when we only meant to close a window.

First. the ability to encrypt your backup disk and support for local snapshots. Leopard. those snapshots will move to your backup drive. consolidating all your data into a single. When you set up a new Time Machine drive. you’ll be prompted to enter the password. you can decide whether to relaunch your programs and reopen all their windows. Time Machine offers greater security for your backed-up data by allowing you to fully encrypt your backup disk (see “Encrypt keeper”). Time Machine Though Time Machine was first introduced as part of Mac oS X 10. Laptop users will also be happy about another new Time Machine ability: local snapshots. Whenever you connect your Time Machine drive. so if you’re on a trip and accidentally delete a photo. hold down the Shift key during launch. easy-to-browse location. When you plug your Time Machine drive back into your Mac. people without the password who try to plug the drive into their own computer won’t be able to access the data. if you want to avoid opening old windows when restarting a specific application. the system will keep local backups of deleted files as space permits. all you need to do is check the box marked Encrypt Backup Disk and then enter a password.5. in Lion. you may still be able to retrieve it by going into the Time Machine interface. Work WiTh AppS unchecking the box marked restore Windows When Quitting And re-opening Apps.Chapter 5 As You Were When shutting down or restarting your Mac. it picks up a couple of new features in Lion—namely. 81 . for instance.

Finally. For example. the Time Machine interface now highlights the date of your last backup in the timeline. you can now also restore your data via Lion’s recovery mode. 82 . Work WiTh AppS The Time Machine preference pane has received a few minor tweaks of its own. when you click options within the pane. while you’ve long been able to move your data quickly and easily from a Time Machine backup to a new computer using Apple’s Migration Assistant.Chapter 5 Encrypt Keeper  You can choose to encrypt your Time Machine disk when you specify a drive. one month. two weeks. keeping your backups safe from prying eyes. or one year after their last edit. this means those documents cannot accidentally be edited. one week. coloring it and any backups before that in purple so you can easily distinguish between them (later backups appear in white). you can lock documents (in apps that support Auto Save and Versions) either one day. in addition.

you can work and switch between it and your other apps using a Multi-Touch gesture. from here. GarageBand. Move your cursor to where the menu bar or Dock should be. Terminal. cordoned off so that you could appropriately multitask. third-party developers will need to update their software before their apps can take advantage of the feature. thanks to code made available by Apple.or Under the Lens In full-screen mode. Your full-screen app is technically running in its own space. the Dock and menu bar zip off the screen. Safari. your application moves to a new Mission Control space and enlarges to fill the whole screen. your applications have lived in resizable windows. you can home in on the document you’re working on. your apps have a new option: full-screen mode (see “Under the Lens”). When you enable this. and the iLife and iWork suites—support full-screen mode. your app is now running on a standalone screen. and they’ll temporarily reappear. iTunes. however—Mail. Most of Apple’s applications. click on the small diagonal-arrow icon at the upper right corner of the window’s title bar. or by pressing the left. While any software can implement Lion’s full-screen mode.Chapter 5 Work WiTh AppS Work in Full-screen Mode Since the very first Mac oS. Essentially. You can switch to your main desktop—or to other full-screen apps—by swiping left or right with three fingers. When you send an app into full-screen mode. To enter full-screen mode. in Lion. 83 . but don’t fret if you’ve never used or understood Spaces before.

flashing Dock badges—such as the ones that Adium ( employs to alert you to new instant messages—don’t appear while you’re in full-screen mode. it reappears when you move your cursor to where the bar should be. for example. though. Move the cursor where the Dock should be.Chapter 5 Work WiTh AppS right-arrow keys while holding Control. or enter Mission Control with a four-finger swipe up. for instance—are obviously invisible when the Dock itself isn’t on the screen. 84 . An app’s interface may change in various subtle ways when you enter full-screen mode.) When you’re in full-screen mode. photo Booth becomes a red-curtained. and it appears. iChat full-screen calls continue even if you switch to another space. And you can take your window out of full-screen mode at any time with either of two approaches: Generally. But you can always depend on the menu bar option: Move your cursor to the upper right corner of your screen so that the menu bar appears. FaceTime. While you’re in a full-screen app. however. you might miss out on certain Dock alerts. The app fills up your main screen. and all other displays show a scratchy gray background (though you can drag a full-screen app from one display to another. you can also switch to other apps using familiar methods. and then click the blue full-screen toggle. whenever you’re in full-screen mode. will pause your call if you’re running it full-screen and then switch to another space. for example. any connected monitors other than your primary display are essentially dead space. Lion’s full-screen support for dual-monitor setups is minimal. Full-screen Safari windows. Similarly. if you grab the window’s very top edge). (Surprisingly. Dashboard lets you drag widgets to either screen. The experience matches how some ioS apps (like Mail) change their look when you rotate between portrait and landscape. if you run FaceTime as a regular app and you switch away from it. you can then click into another app. ditch the Bookmarks bar. You can also rely on 1-Tab to switch applications. however. wood-paneled theater in fullscreen mode. too. and Lion automatically takes you to the appropriate space. Some apps behave differently in full-screen mode. Dock icon badges—for your unread messages. pressing Escape will exit full-screen mode (unless there’s a dialog box on the screen that you’d cancel or close by pressing Escape). your call continues. otherwise.

and support are under the three small marquee spots. to the right of that are three smaller marquee spots. C Categories. The top marquee spot features a rotation of various apps. Quick Links for your account. file size. a b c d E 85 . screenshots. and so on. and customer ratings. The list is basic. Click the purchases button at the top of the Mac App Store window to see a list of the apps you’ve bought through the store. you can go to the Mac App Store The Mac App Store contains all the apps personally vetted by Apple. and so forth. and middle buttons for A Featured. links to the developer’s website. App product pages are much like the ones you’d find in the iTunes Store. requirements. and its installation status. D purchases. B Top Charts. the date on which you purchased it. showing the app. playlists. product pages feature a description. redeeming gift cards. because it’s designed much like the iTunes Store. Across the top of the Mac App Store window are back and forward buttons on the left. and E Updates (see “Mac App Store”). To get more details about your purchase. one exception: There’s no sidebar listing your media library. an information box with version number.Chapter 5 Work WiTh AppS explore the Mac App store Navigating the Mac App Store will be a familiar process to iTunes Store shoppers.

After the application finishes downloading. there. see the “Launchpad” section in the Navigate Lion chapter). and item details. you’ll be able to download free updates from the Mac App Store via the Updates tab. you’ll log in with the same Apple iD and password you use to purchase things in the ioS App Store or iTunes. if you have to remove yourself from internet access at any point.Chapter 5 Work WiTh AppS iTunes Store and click purchase history in your iTunes account. order iD. you’ll see a detailed description of your Mac App Store purchase. you can click the icon in Launchpad to temporarily pause or resume your download. you can view its progress by opening up Launchpad (for more on Launchpad. just click the price button below its icon. date and time. including the amount you paid. To purchase an app. once your application starts to download. 86 .

These are the apps you use every day. to communicate (iChat. or to hop onto the Internet (Safari). This chapter looks at the programs with the most notable new interfaces and features. to be productive (TextEdit. FaceTime. iCal. Address Book). Mail). Contents Address Book Page 88 FaceTime and iChat Page 93 Font Book Page 95 Page 97 iCal Page 103 Mail Preview Page 111 QuickTime Player Page 113 Page 115 Safari TextEdit Page 121 87 .6 Included Apple Apps Most of the programs that Apple bundles with OS X have changed.

stacked atop the edges of a beige book.6. Click Share to open a new email message in Mail with that 88 . or choose a single-page view that shows one card at a time. view all your different lists on the left and your contacts on the right.) When viewing a contact. and Card columns—or in a single Card view. with pages folding out from the binding (complete with subtle shadowing). Apple’s Address Book contact application has seen a radical redesign—it was clearly rebuilt to mimic the look and feel of the Contacts app on the ipad. it’s almost exactly like the Contacts app on the ipad—and very different from the version in Snow leopard. In OS X 10. Address Book either displayed as a three-paned interface— with Group. you can double-click a card name to open it up in a new window. In this way. New Look The new Address Book is designed to look much more like a traditional address book. there’s now a Share button next to the Edit button.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Address Book In lion. you can view your selected contacts on the left and selected card on the right. (As you could previously. name. In lion.

Faces If you like having pictures to go along with your contacts. As with other lion apps. Address Book doesn’t offer a full-screen mode. to help you pick a recent pic if you want—with the current contact photo in the middle (if there isn’t one. respectively. and click the Import Face From iphoto button in the lower left corner. you can also adjust just the height or width of the window. complete with date. or the left or right. double-click the picture box on a card. you can resize Address Book by clicking and dragging on any corner. unlike some other built-in lion apps. the new Address Book can now pull from your iphoto faces (see “Tap into iphoto”). (It will be grayed out if you haven’t tagged any faces with the name of that contact.) You’ll then be presented with a grid showing up to eight faces associated with that name in iphoto—in reverse chronological order.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS contact’s vCard attached. you could only drag a card from Address Book directly into a Mail message to do the same thing. but if you click the top or bottom of Address Book. 89 . In the past. Tap into iPhoto You can now choose an image from your iPhoto library to go with an Address Book contact. the Current square will be blank).

linkedIn offers View profile. say. you’re not out of luck. you can use arrows at the bottom of the photo pop-up window to select additional pages of photos. But keep in mind that custom profiles don’t do anything when you click their names. There’s also a Custom option when picking which service to use. Apple has added two new fields to Address Book. note that if you use Aperture. click Send Tweet.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS If there are more than eight photos for a contact’s face. and you can then click the word Twitter to bring up a pop-up menu with View profile and Send Tweet options. and then choose it with a click of the Set button. the feature will still work. In fact. and Address Book will launch the official Twitter Mac app (if you have it installed) and take you to that person’s profile. or MySpace user (as well as Twitter). so you could enter. and Twitter opens with a new message to that contact. If you have the Twitter app installed. linkedIn. Add a contact’s Twitter account name (Address Book takes care of the @ symbol automatically). Although Apple touts the features as being for iphoto users. New Fields As a nod to the importance of social networking. For Flickr accounts. and you’re presented with the standard picture window. Find a picture you like and click it. Click View profile. the pop-up gives you a single View photostream option that opens in a browser. in which you can pan and zoom the image. View profile takes you to the user’s profile page in Safari. which takes you to a person’s profile. Flickr. The second new field is called profile. 90 . if you use both iphoto and Aperture and have Faces enabled in each. and you can click the word Facebook to get View profile and View photos pop-up options. It gives you the option to enter a profile name for a Facebook. View photos takes you to that person’s photo page. And MySpace offers a similar View profile choice. pick Facebook from the pop-up menu and add a Facebook account (the custom name that appears at the end of the uRl when you visit someone’s profile page). someone’s ping account name. Address Book will show you all faces for a particular person when you click to view your options. if you’ve tagged faces in Aperture. The first is Twitter. and the button specifically name-checks iphoto.

Other Changes Apple says Address Book offers improved syncing with Yahoo contacts (see “do You Yahoo?”). which is first on the list. say) in Edit mode. Changes made to contacts are immediately reflected in both Address Book and your Yahoo address book. Address Book adds another of them (Twitter. As you begin to add an address for a chosen service (linkedIn. But when you do add a year. but you can choose any service).Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Do You Yahoo? In Lion. the upcoming age now shows up in your iCal Birthday calendars. and you can view just your Yahoo contacts by selecting Yahoo from Address Book’s Groups page. Address Book has added support for Yahoo accounts. 91 . Another lion change is that you can now add birthdays to contacts without having to include the year (useful for those people who don’t like to share their ages). so you can enter as many social networking profiles as you want without having to manually add the field multiple times.

from which you could formerly choose Small. rather than as a $1 Mac App Store download. the vCard tab (where you pick vCard format and export settings) is the same as in Snow leopard. in which you set the format for phone numbers in Address Book. hasn’t changed.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS You can start a FaceTime call from Address Book by clicking the label (Home. is mostly the same as before but no longer has a Font Size pop-up menu. Except for the new field options discussed earlier. If you choose to add a new account in the Accounts sidebar. It doesn’t appear that you can change the font size in lion. You can do the same thing currently in Snow leopard. Work. and the Exchange 2007 option has been renamed simply Exchange. The Accounts tab. so all lion users will have the ability to use it. Improved Preferences The General tab. which is where you add and manage address accounts. Similarly. the only other changes are cosmetic—new plus-sign (+) and minus-sign (–) buttons. The Template tab is where you set the fields you do and don’t want to show up in contact records. The Sharing section changes slightly. there’s now an option to add a Yahoo account. Medium. The phone tab. Account Information is exactly the same. has two sections. down to the Synchronize With MobileMe option. 92 . and so on) next to an email address and choosing FaceTime from the pop-up menu. but Apple is probably calling this feature out as “new” because FaceTime comes as part of lion. where you choose sort order and address format. or large. adding an Address Book Subscriptions area above the Share Your Address Book area that was there before.

so now you can give yourself bugged-out eyeballs while you chat. too. You can add one or more Yahoo accounts. there is a full-screen option when you’re video chatting. You can press Escape or Control plus an arrow key. iChat in lion allows you to combine your separate accounts into a single. In keeping with lion’s handling of full-screen apps—and in contrast to previous versions of iChat—full-screen video calls now go into their own space. new in iChat is the ability to log into Yahoo instant messaging accounts (see “iChatterbox”). And you can use unified status. If you can’t find the buddy you want to IM. the app retains its support for AOl Instant Messenger (AIM). and start typing a buddy’s and mac. they remain fully separate apps in lion. iChat also supports third-party plug-ins for new chat services in dvunhy. you can use the software to connect to Facebook chat by using the Jabber option. iChat will filter your list to show only matching entries.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Facetime and iChat Though iChat and FaceTime have a lot in common.) To add a Yahoo account—or any other—go to iChat -> preferences and click the Accounts tab. and the Jabber protocol. And while iChat generally doesn’t support lion’s full-screen app functionality. unified buddy list window. Then click the plus-sign (+) button to add your accounts. You can leverage all of photo Booth’s new effects while video chatting. or use a three-finger swipe to 93 . You can toggle that setting in the General tab of iChat’s preferences—it’s called Show All My Accounts In One list. iChat scored a slew of updates in lion. as discussed at macw. me. meaning that you update your status message once and it affects all of the services you’re signed into with iChat. and merge them into new windows. press 1-F (or choose Edit -> Find). Videoconferencing in iChat gets a couple of lion updates. You can click and drag on tabs to rearrange them. no such plug-ins were available to test at press time. just a couple. pull them out into their own window. Google Talk. (As with previous incarnations of iChat. FaceTime.

94 . InCludEd ApplE AppS switch to other spaces. works differently.Chapter 6 iChatterbox You can now add Yahoo chat accounts in iChat. the call is immediately paused—you can’t hear or see your contact. FaceTime remains essentially unchanged from its most recent Snow leopard version. Beyond its new lion full-screen support. your video chat continues. either. If you switch away to another space while video-chatting in full-screen mode. Apple’s video-chatting app for communicating between Macs and iOS devices also supports full-screen calling in lion. and full-screen calls get their own space. however. But if you switch away from your FaceTime full-screen window. and your contact can’t hear or see you. FaceTime.

copy protected. under the File menu. You can click to see a sample menu. installed location. and Kefa—to Font Book. If you choose that.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Font Book Apple’s new lion OS has expanded the features in Font Book. too. you’ll then see a new Fonts (Removed) folder next to the Fonts folder. Apple already supported emoticons in the iOS for Japanese input. family. it’s now included in lion. copyright. As for the fonts themselves. kind. style. and displays full typeface metadata. and its 728 TrueType glyphs can be viewed in Font Book. Font Book’s interface has changed. each individual glyph. Typically used for emoticons. The buttons are Sample. Custom. a dialog box appears that allows you to go back to the standard system font configuration that shipped with your OS. there’s a new Restore Standard Fonts option. version. but including the Emoji font in lion (available in the Character Viewer) makes emoticons universal. unique name. or the information panel. glyph count. pT Sans. and whether it is enabled. these improvements are nonetheless welcome (see “Font look”). 95 . embeddable. Repertoire. The information panel lists the chosen font’s postScript name and full name. lion also adds international language fonts—including damascus. there’s a cool new one called Apple Color Emoji. shows all font glyphs.0 offers more versatility in character displays. text of your own choosing. and Information. or the duplicate of another installed font. While it’s still not an industrial-strength font manager capable of replacing those on the commercial market. There’s an updated four-button menu in the toolbar that replaces the gear-icon drop-down menu. Font Book 3.

InCludEd ApplE AppS 96 .Chapter 6 Font Look Apple’s Font Book has a few minor but welcome updates in Lion.

is now hidden by default and only appears as a pop-up menu when you click the new Calendars button.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS iCal iCal. iCal gets a makeover. 97 . Apple’s built-in calendar application. and if you look closely. including an old-school title bar that looks like leather. you can hide groups of calendars from the list by clicking the Hide text that appears when you hover your cursor over a heading. just the list of calendars under that heading—to hide the events. The list of calendars. the leather boasts realistic stitching. with a focus on giving you more room to actually see your appointments. Updated Look In lion. The first thing you’ll notice is that the boring gray title bar of old has been replaced by a leather-like pattern reminiscent of an old desktop calendar. With Apple’s typical attention to detail. This doesn’t hide the events from those calendars. Many of the visual tweaks are borrowed from the Calendar iOS app on the ipad. as if they’d been torn off the calendar (see “Class Act”). with a new look and more. just as before. you uncheck the box in front of each calendar’s name. which in the past was a sidebar you could show or hide. you’ll even see the remaining bits of pages. Because the Calendar list is generally Class Act Apple has given iCal a classy new look. As you can in iTunes and Mail. gets some big changes in lion.

iCal’s new day view includes a list of that day’s events on the left side. on the upcoming Saturday. all-day events and timed events in a chrono- 98 . one week.m. you won’t see the spinning gears next to each calendar to indicate that it’s refreshing. which has moved from the upper left to the upper right of the window. Click it and up pops a Create Quick Event window that lets you add events to your calendars by typing regular-language phrases (see “Sudden plans”).m. you’ll have to create the event and then open the event’s editor.m. New Views lion’s iCal looks more like the Calendar app on the ipad than the previous version of iCal on the Mac. Or change “at 7pM” to “from 7pM to 9pM” and “Saturday” to “June 25” to create an event that lasts two hours starting at 7 p. depending on what view you’re in. Instead. and is on that specific date. the word Updating appears in gray next to the word iCal in the title bar. A revamped Today button. simply becomes 6 p. say. To create a repeating event or add an alert. is now flanked by arrow buttons.m. the process works quite well. one month. enter Dinner at the White House at 7PM on Saturday and iCal creates an event in your default calendar (although you can pick a different calendar before you click done) with the name “dinner at the White House” from 7 p. To the right of the Calendars button is a plus-sign (+) button. For relatively simple events. or one year. InCludEd ApplE AppS out of the way. For example.Chapter 6 Sudden Plans Click the plus sign to quickly add an event to your calendar using common phrases.m. to 8 p. those arrows take you back or forward by one day. Another small change: Apple has dropped the colon and double zeros from events that begin on the hour—6:00 p.

The new day view is much more user-friendly and provides more information than the one you’ll find in Snow leopard.) previously. (On the minus side.6. In the past. The Week view is very similar to that in 10. and year (June 12–18. You still see all-day events in a section at the top of each day. 99 . 2011) at the top of that week’s calendar. week. when you scroll down. June 16). lion now shows a large month. and you can scroll up and down to see all the events. The All-day area at the top of the Week view is now a fixed size. however. and other events displayed in their respective time slots. But rather than full days listed atop each day of the week (Thursday. you can no longer see the date and day of the week. and the page simply slides over to reveal the previous or next week. which meant a lot of white space for some of the other days. you’ll see the date followed by the day of the week (16 Thursday). The Month view hasn’t changed that much. To move between days in iCal. that area would expand enough to fit every all-day event for the longest day in that week. which basically is just an expansion of a single day from the Week view. And where iCal used to have the year (2011) listed in the same font size to the left of the days. but it does fix some annoying aspects of the previous version. you can swipe with two fingers or tap a day on the monthly calendar on the left side. You can scroll between weeks with a two-finger gesture.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS logical format appear on the right.6. the number of events you’d see each day was limited by the size of your iCal window and your display—in 10. you’d see few items in Month view on a MacBook pro One Year at a Time Apple has added a new Year view to iCal that shows the next 12 months all at once.

As you might expect from the name. are highlighted with a strong blue background that helps you easily see where in the year you are now. to the day-only listing for every other day. as with other views. But there’s also another use of color in the Year view: a heat map that uses color to show how busy each day is. iCal can now run as a fullscreen app. for example) display with a gray background (but show up correctly color-coded in the month in which they belong). and the OS X menu bar drops down. With lion. it shows mini-calendars for each of the 12 months in a particular year. clicking the arrows next to the Today button) switches between years with the same page-turning effect as in Month view. A two-finger swipe in either direction switches the month with a page-lifting effect. double-click the number and you’re taken to the day view for that day. The top of the current month. and the color goes from yellow to orange to red (with different degrees of shading) to indicate more and more events planned. and iCal expands to fill your entire screen. but at least it lets you know how many other items there are that you’re not seeing—13 more. Finally. Two-finger swiping (or. complete with an icon similar to the page-expanding one (this time it’s two white arrows pointing toward each other in a blue box). Click the two arrows pointing away from each other in the upper right corner of iCal (just above the search box). say. Apple has added a new Year view to iCal in lion (see “One Year at a Time”). It adds the name of the month. as well as the current day. also in blue. Move your cursor up to the title bar. Each month shows six full weeks in order to show enough days for every month and to maintain consistent size. the new iCal adds the word Today in bold blue text. 100 . and days that aren’t part of a particular month (the last few days of July in the August calendar. Another improvement is that instead of using rather subtle background shading to indicate the current day in the month. you’re still limited by screen real estate. days with little or no activity have white backgrounds. for example. Click this to revert to normal window size and operation. Full-Screen Mode like many of the built-in apps in lion.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS than on an iMac.

If you don’t enter the year of birth for a contact—information the lion version of Address Book now allows you to omit in the birthday field—you’ll see the birthday without an age.) Another subtle change is that for any Address Book contact with a birthday entry.6 had a Synchronize iCal With Other Computers And devices using MobileMe option. you can now use the keyboard shortcuts 1-plus (+) and 1-minus (–) to increase or decrease the text size. you’ll need to go to preferences -> General and select the Show Birthday Calendar option. To get birthdays to show up in iCal.6.6. now. 101 . With lion. OS X 10. previously. including the year of birth. as before. although you can click and hold the Create Quick Event button and then select the calendar to which you want to add the new event. and you’ll see that the new To do item in 10. (note that the setting has no effect in Year view or day view. In OS X 10. double-clicking creates the event on your default calendar.7 version of iCal (not a big surprise considering that Apple is phasing out MobileMe because of iCloud). picking a calendar and selecting File -> new Event or double-clicking in iCal to create an event would do so on that selected calendar. that birthday will now show up in your calendar with the person’s current age. That’s because Apple has renamed To do. One feature that’s gone missing is the ability to click a calendar in the Calendars list and then create a new event in that calendar. the text size in iCal was set automatically.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Other Changes Click the File menu. Preferences iCal’s preferences pane has three tabs. but it seems the change is in name only—reminders appear to function just as to-dos did in the past. which has been removed from the 10. General hasn’t changed much from Snow leopard to lion. lion adds one option not present in the previous version: a default Calendar pop-up menu that lets you choose which calendar (if you have multiple ones) to add new events to by default (see “Generally Speaking”). respectively.6 has changed to new Reminder in lion. And the wording changed slightly on another option: Show Event Times In Month View has become simply Show Event Times. whichever calendar was first in your list became the default. In OS X 10.

iCal). Contacts & Calendars preference pane. the Account Information tab of iCal’s Accounts pane was where you’d see a description. and calendar refresh options for each account. password. but there’s also an Enable This Account checkbox like the one you’d find in Mail. and the delegation tab functions exactly the way it did in 10. The Advanced tab in lion is almost identical to its predecessor: The one change is that the Automatically Retrieve Invitations From Mail option is now Automatically Retrieve CaldAV Invitations From Mail. where you can turn various selections on or off for each account (Mail. Much of that info is still there in lion. where you add and manage accounts. has changed somewhat due to the way lion now handles mail. In the past. user name. InCludEd ApplE AppS The Accounts tab.Chapter 6 Generally Speaking  There is a new Default Calendar pop-up menu in iCal’s preferences. 102 . iChat. contacts. The Server Settings tab is no longer.6. and calendars via a new system preference. A new Edit Account button takes you to the Mail.

each of which moved Mail’s message preview pane to the right of the message list—a head-slappingly obvious layout when using Mail on today’s widescreen displays. the message list adapts to its much narrower width by giving each message a multiline preview. you see the sender (or. with the preview pane below the message list. the first time you launch the new version of Mail.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Mail Mac OS X’s email client. you’ll be prompted to update your existing email data. So it’s welcome news that in lion. it’s long been missing both basic and advanced features— there’s a thriving market of Mail add-ons that aim to fill those holes and otherwise enhance the program. among the most popular Mail add-ons were letterbox and WideMail. it’s the default layout. or if you’ve got a fresh installation of lion and you import data from an older version of Mail. by checking the use Classic layout box in the Viewing screen of Mail’s preferences window. Mail has received perhaps its most significant update yet. A More Expansive Layout prior to lion. In lion. and it integrates (mostly) flawlessly with other OS X apps and technologies. (You can revert to the older view. Mail finally has such an option built-in. very similar to the one you’d see in iOS Mail’s message list. the window is very similar in appearance to iOS Mail on an ipad in landscape orientation. Here’s a look at what has changed and how it works. At the same time. (In fact. in fact. the process should take no more than a few minutes. does many things exceptionally well. Mail. when viewing Sent 103 . luckily.) When using this new layout. This is because lion’s version of Mail uses a different format for its message database than older versions— you’ll have to allow the upgrade to occur before you can work with Mail. Do a Quick Upgrade If you upgrade to lion from Snow leopard. even if you’ve got tens of thousands of messages.) For each message. if you hide OS X Mail’s mailbox sidebar by choosing View -> Hide Mailbox list.

letterbox lets you maintain single-line message lists and allows you to choose which columns appear in the list. including your own replies. This feature offers some nice touches. you can choose the size of the preview (zero to five lines). the subject. each message that isn’t in the currently viewed mailbox displays its parent folder right in the header area. Gmail users who access their email on the Gmail website are probably thinking. More than a few Mail users will be hoping that the developers of these plug-ins will update them to work with lion’s Mail (see “Add-ons need updating” later in this chapter). all messages in the thread. in a nice. if you do choose to show the image. and whether to show the sender’s (or recipient’s) Address Book image. (A checkbox in Mail’s Viewing preferences makes Show Related Messages the default behavior for all conversations. although it doesn’t quite match the options provided by third-party plug-ins. lion’s Mail still includes this feature but adds a new option. Click this button in the toolbar. In Mail’s preferences. Switch to Conversation View Apart from the new window layout.) In other words. the recipient). easy-to-read list (see “Smoother Conversations”). One is that when viewing an entire conversation. in the message window or pane. For example.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS mailboxes. this change is simply huge. whether to show a To/CC label (which indicates whether you are the primary or a Cc’d recipient). “So what?” but for Mail users. that image reduces the amount of preview text. you see the entire message thread. that feature simply grouped all the messages in the current mailbox or message view that had the same subject. Show Related Messages. the biggest—and likely the most popular—change in Mail is the new conversation view. so you never have to actually click the button. including sent and deleted messages. and Mail displays. so you can view more messages in the list at once and see more information about each message without having to view it in the preview pane. (You can also enable alternating row colors for the message list. This new layout is a welcome improvement. While Snow leopard Mail offered a rudimentary Organize By Thread option. Another is 104 .) And letterbox lets you quickly toggle the location of the preview pane—between the bottom and the right—without making a trip to the preferences window. in the same mailbox or spread across multiple mailboxes. and a preview of the message’s contents. regardless of where those messages currently reside—locally or on the email server.

and date. color. 105 . clicking details gives you the traditional header view. these numbers appear only on messages in the currently viewed mailbox. subject. The header area itself has also gotten a keep-it-simple makeover—it shows just the message’s sender (the recipient for sent mail). making the feature much less useful than if every message got a number. so you know where you are in the thread while browsing it. replying to. such as inline buttons—which appear just below a message’s header area when the cursor moves over it—for deleting. and indentation for the message or currently selected text. and style. to make it easier to read discussions that include lots of quoting. and monochrome sidebar icons like those in lion’s Finder. alignment. font size.) Finally.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS that Mail numbers each message in a thread and displays that number in the message’s header area. When composing a message. just click the See More link at the bottom of a message. list format. complete with new toolbar buttons. Mail automatically hides quoted text that’s already been displayed. You’ll also find a new Favorites bar just below the toolbar—see the next section for more on that. the message window now offers a separate formatting bar (accessed by clicking the Format button in the toolbar) that lets you quickly choose the font. Mail also gains a more lion-like appearance. minimalist scrollbars. Explore New Interface Elements Speaking of interface changes. if you want to view the hidden text. or forwarding that message. (However. Smoother Conversations Mail takes a cue from Gmail and adds a slick conversation view. But there are also practical changes.

folders. 1-1 through 1-9 are automatically assigned to the first nine items. the Favorites bar lets you hide Mail’s sidebar to give the message list and preview panes more room. well. and smart folders. drafts. drag the item off the bar to remove it. 1-Control-1 for the first item on the left. from left to right.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Favorites Bar perhaps inspired by a similar feature in Microsoft’s Outlook. the keyboard shortcuts 1-1 through 1-8 were reserved for Inbox. Click any button in the Favorites bar to switch to that mailbox or view. respectively. it does offer some advantages. press 1-1. The even bigger deal here is that by adding the Control key to those shortcuts—for example. for example. lion Mail sports a new Favorites bar just below the traditional toolbar. Although the Favorites bar might initially seem redundant. OS X Mail finally lets you quickly file messages using the keyboard. in lion Mail. While it’s initially stocked with buttons for Inbox. The second is that if you’ve got dozens (or hundreds) of mailboxes. Junk. clicking the button’s downward-pointing arrow displays a pop-up menu listing those contents—choose one to view it. you can customize the Favorites bar to contain pretty much any item— mailbox.) In other words. drafts. Outbox. Whereas in Snow leopard Mail. in the Favorites bar. The first is that if you’ve got a small screen. For users who file messages in many different folders. the Favorites bar works well for providing quick access to. and so on—that appears in Mail’s left sidebar. given that you already have quick access to the same items via Mail’s sidebar. the Favorite bar’s biggest advantage is that it enables some brand-new keyboard-shortcut features. If the item has subfolders or submailboxes. 106 . 1-Control-2 for the second item from the left. your favorites. (You can also access these actions from the View menu. smart folder. and To do. folder. it’s a welcome improvement. and so on—you can move selected messages to that folder or mailbox. to view the first item on the left (Inbox by default). Trash. Just drag one of these items to the Favorites bar to add it as a new button. notes. Each item in the Favorites bar also displays the number of unread items it contains. or you can drag a message from the message list to a Favorites bar item. notes. Sent. and Flagged. But for keyboard jockeys. Sent.

and the menu bar disappears. we haven’t been able to do so. Full-Screen Mode As with Safari and many other stock lion apps. subjects. Click the full-screen button in the upper right corner of the Mail window (or press 1-Control-F). Mail takes better advantage of Spotlight’s index to make message searching smarter. the token also contains a pop-up menu for choosing whether you want to search From or To fields or entire messages. So if you type Joe. making it easier to find. this version of the menu bar includes a button to exit full-screen mode. Mail also gains a fullscreen mode. a message from your friend Jane that contains the phrase lunch. so you can switch between it and other apps using lion’s threefinger sideways-swipe gesture. recipients. But in lion. and senders of existing messages in Mail. including Spotlight’s liveupdated content index. the Mail window stretches to fill the entire screen. although in our testing. the text you entered changes from a string of text into what Apple calls a search token—a blue bubble that contains the search term. you can search in the subject field or the entire message. For Mail. whenever you begin to type a search string in Mail’s search field. and the window’s title bar fades away. to help you find particular messages. Mail displays suggestions based on the contents. If your token is a person. the top suggestion is Message contains. For starters. for particular flags. you can choose to search the current mailbox or all mailboxes. and for the name or contents of attachments—or even whether a message has an attachment. If you choose one of the suggested search terms. for example. the main benefit of full-screen mode is that it gets rid of a bit of on-screen clutter (the menu bar and Mail-window title bar) while you 107 . (This full-screen Mail window actually resides in a new workspace. giving you as much viewable Mail-window area as possible. For other types of tokens. say. but now you can also use the Favorites bar to quickly focus the search on any of your favorite folders or items. Apple says you can also search the contents of attachments. but just below that is a list of people with “Joe” in their name.) Move the cursor to the top of the screen and the menu bar slides into view.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Better Searching Mail uses OS X’s Spotlight search feature. You can even combine multiple tokens. As with previous versions of Mail.

MobileMe. and you can now set your Exchange vacation message from within the Info window for your Exchange account (right-click or Control-click on your Exchange-account Inbox and then choose Get Account Info). For starters. Contacts & Calendar accounts pane of System preferences—clearly inspired by the identically named screen in the iOS Settings app—lets you set up and configure Exchange. for many of us. Mail (along with iCal and Address Book) also now supports Exchange 2010 accounts. and then provide the necessary account information as prompted. ldAp. chat. as well as generic email. This new preference pane uses a setup wizard similar to the one in iOS: Just select the Add Account item on the left. lion Mail includes a number of simpler changes that nevertheless offer improvements in productivity. Still. Once you’ve set up an account. you can now preview 108 . Safari. and so on.) Speaking of accounts.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS work with your email. Yahoo. in the list that appears to the right. In lion. a new Mail. CarddAV. or when you open a new message-composition window. One-Stop Account Management In Snow leopard. however: When you open a received message in its own window. and so on) or to view its details. chat accounts within iChat. you can select it in the Accounts list to quickly enable or disable it or any of its component services (email. say. chat.. Gmail. (This information is also still available in the Accounts view of Mail’s own preferences window. calendars. Miscellaneous Mail Changes Besides the big changes mentioned above. email is something we deal with in chunks throughout the day—and frequently while switching between Mail and other programs and the Finder—so frequently transitioning to full-screen mode and back again may be more distracting than it’s worth. contacts-server accounts within Address Book. Mail does go a step further than. calendar accounts within iCal. background Mail windows are dimmed to let you better focus on the message window. you set up email accounts within Mail. CaldAV. and Mac OS X Server accounts. and AOl accounts. click the type of account you’ll be setting up. Quick look support has been expanded: In addition to being able to quickly preview email attachments.

You can also now archive selected messages by clicking the new Archive toolbar button (or choosing Message -> Archive. and those flags are synced between Mail on all your Macs running lion and all your iOS devices running iOS 5. prior to lion. those would be automatically moved from ~/library/Mail/Bundles to ~/ library/Mail/Bundles (disabled). But lion goes a step further by moving the entire Bundles folder from ~/ library/Mail to ~/library/Mail/Mail lost+Found. you’ll likely find that they stop working when you upgrade to lion. This feature is more or less Mail’s version of Gmail’s “keep these messages around but out of sight” feature. But instead of using special labels or views.) If the uRl seems suspicious.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS the websites of many uRls in incoming email messages by clicking the tiny downward-pointing arrow icon at the end of the uRl. when you launched Mail after an upgrade. 109 . although the logic behind which do and which don’t isn’t entirely clear. the Flagged item in Mail’s sidebar automatically adds sublists for each color. Another nifty feature is that you can now flag messages using any of seven colors. The main appeal of the archive feature is that it lets you perform this housecleaning with a simple click. OS X will refuse to preview it. effectively disabling any add-ons inside that folder. The idea here was that it was better to have Mail disable plug-ins in every new version than to risk losing data if one of them turned out to be disastrously incompatible with that Mail version. (not all uRls get this preview button. Mail simply creates a mailbox called Archive for each of your accounts and then moves messages to these mailboxes (keeping each message in the account in which it was received). and once you start using flag colors other than the standard red. this was because Mail plug-ins were specifically coded in a way that lets new versions of Mail disable them automatically. instead displaying a warning. Add-ons Need Updating As with every major new version of Mail. if you’ve got any third-party Mail add-ons installed ( even if they would likely work fine—the theory being that it’s better to have Mail disable plug-ins with every new version than to risk losing data if one of them turns out to be disastrously incompatible. under previous versions of Mail. or right-clicking one of the messages and choosing Archive from the resulting contextual menu). you’d see a message indicating which add-ons were incompatible. You can customize the names of these flag colors.

and it worked for some but not all. The second. This ensures that the plug-in has been vetted for lion compatibility. We performed this procedure with several plug-ins. But if you’ve got must-have Mail plug-ins that have been disabled in lion. is to quit Mail and move the Bundles folder from youruserfolder/library/Mail lost+Found back to youruserfolder/library/Mail. and safest. The first. is to simply wait until the developer of each plug-in updates it for lion for the detailed instructions.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS You may find that some plug-ins and add-ons you used in Snow leopard aren’t as necessary in lion. which isn’t guaranteed to work. thanks to Mail’s new features. Read our article on updating Mail bundles (macw. and then move the plug-in back to youruserfolder/library/Mail/Bundles and relaunch Mail. the gist of the process is that you need to edit a preference file inside each plug-in so that it lists the current version of Mail as compatible. The next time you launch Mail. and you’ll see a dialog box noting which plug-ins are specifically incompatible and have been moved to youruserfolder/library/Mail/Bundles (disabled). it will perform the traditional compatibility check. you have three options for getting them working again. but isn’t guaranteed to be so. the final option. is to update each plug-in yourself. If Mail deems one of your must-have add-ons incompatible here. which should be safe. 110 .

choose preview -> preferences. hold in front of your Mac’s iSight camera a piece of white paper on which you’ve scrawled your signature in black ink. A Signature Capture window appears.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Preview From the outside. Align it with the blue line that appears on screen. the lion version of Apple’s pdF and graphics viewing and annotation application isn’t significantly different from the previous version—some menu commands have been shuffled and toolbars rejiggered. 111 . Sign Here Adding your signature is now possible in Preview. At this point. it’s helpful when you need to sign your John Hancock to an electronic form before returning it. A preview of your signature will appear to the right of the camera screen. select the Signatures tab. but the interface is similar. Use Signatures Within preview you have the option to capture and append a picture of your written signature to a pdF file. To do this. click the Annotations tool in preview’s toolbar and from the Signatures pop-up menu below select your signature and click and drag in the document where you want the signature to appear. To use a signature you’ve created. The most significant new feature is Signatures. Click Accept to capture your signature. in some places) as a true digital signature. You can resize and move the signature if you like. While this is not as secure (or acceptable. and click the Create Signature button (see “Sign Here”).

Other Additions preview adds a couple of less notable features. You can also call up a magnifier (Tools -> Show Magnifier) to impose a rectangular magnifying glass over a document. and thought bubble (found under Tools -> Annotate). speech bubble. This is a useful way to zoom in on a particular bit of text without having to zoom the entire document. 112 . boxed text. including outlined text.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS New Preview Look  A few interface elements have been moved in Preview. Also. You now have a wider variety of annotation styles available to you. this version of preview includes an Annotations list that details every annotation that’s been added to a file (this is located in the last tab of the Inspector window).

you can choose Edit -> Split Clip (1-Y) to create two clips in the clip 113 . if you’re hoping to choose Export and see the same wealth of export options that’s available in QuickTime player pro 7. 220 kbits/s maximum data rate). Regrettably. a version of the application that stripped out the many editing features found in QuickTime player pro 7. With lion’s version of QuickTime player. by way of a bonus. lion’s QuickTime provides just a handful of templated options—420p.264. lion’s version of QuickTime player (10. When you choose one of these options (except for Mail). 5 Mbits/s maximum data rate). Apple introduced QuickTime player X. for example. not only can you export to iTunes. Export options in the Share menu have been expanded. New Editing Features lion’s QuickTime player is very clip-centric. New Export Commands Specifically. and a clip viewer appears at the bottom of the movie window. and ipad. iphone 4 & Apple TV. Cellular (H. Flickr. Facebook.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Quicktime Player With Snow leopard. you’ll be asked to enter your login information and password for the service. Once you’ve planted your playhead. Apple has restored some of those export and editing features and.264. ipod touch & iphone 3GS. choose View -> Show Clips (1-E). and YouTube as you could with the previous version of QuickTime player X. you’ll be disappointed. The Export For Web command provides three options—Wi-Fi (H. This is a bit more convenient than dragging the old-style playhead in a timeline and scrubbing the window’s video.1) provides two new Export commands in the File menu—Export and Export For Web. 1Mbit/s maximum data rate). For instance. made them easier to use. Here you can drag the playhead to wherever you like in the movie to move to that spot. and Broadband (H.264. MobileMe Galleries (good until Apple pulls the plug on MobileMe in June 2012). but now you also have the choice of Vimeo. and Mail. much like movies on an iOS device. 720p.

Regrettably. for example. You can then select one of these clips and drag it to a new location—prior to the previous clip. To trim the clip. that file will be added as a separate audio clip. by default QuickTime player doesn’t allow you to capture the Mac’s internal audio. however.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS viewer. Finally. select audio clips and trim them just as you can video clips. there appears to be no way to adjust the volume of the audio clip or the movie clip. or between clips. and the dragged movie is appended to the end of the QuickTime player movie as an additional clip. and you can place it at the beginning or end. drag two fingers to the right to scrub forward. Regrettably. do so. drag it instead into the clip viewer. drag it into the viewing portion of the movie window. you can choose to record either the Mac’s entire screen or just a portion of it by dragging a selection on the desktop. If you drag an audio file into a movie window. and a very iOS-like yellow trim bar appears. now when you choose File -> new Screen Recording and click the Record button in the resulting window. respectively. two fingers to the left to scrub back. 114 . either by choosing Edit -> Add Clip To End or by selecting a movie in the Finder and dragging it into an open QuickTime movie. You can also choose to show clicks—each of which appears as a circle surrounding the cursor as long as the mouse button or finger on your trackpad is held down. you use these same gestures to fast-forward and rewind. this version of QuickTime player supports Multi-Touch gestures. You can also trim a selected clip by choosing Edit -> Trim (1-T). While a movie is playing. just drag one end or the other to where you’d like to trim the video and click the Trim button. You can also add clips to an existing movie. You can. Screen Recording and Gestures lion’s QuickTime player also adds more-flexible screen recording. beneath the video clip. When the movie isn’t playing.

and a two-line preview of the article’s content. 115 .Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS safari Thanks to its new Reading list feature. Start Reading Safari’s new Reading List feature makes it easy to manage all the things you want to read.1) is Reading list. You can view your Reading list at any time—it appears as a sidebar on the left side of the Safari window—by choosing View -> Show Reading list. which lets you “save” interesting articles for later reading. When you come across an article on the Web that you just don’t have time to read immediately. the host site’s favicon (Web icon). you simply choose Bookmarks: Add To Reading list (or press 1-Shift-d). each displaying the article title. Your saved articles are listed here. Click any article in the list to view it in the main part of the Safari window (see “Start Reading”). and that article is added to your list. But OS X’s Web browser gets many other changes and improvements as well. Reading List The flagship feature of lion Safari (also known as Safari 5. Safari has gotten a lot of attention in Apple’s lion pR. Here’s a look at what’s new and different in the latest version of Safari. or by pressing 1-Shift-l. or that you want to keep around for later reference. by clicking the Reading list icon (it looks like a pair of eyeglasses) in Safari’s Bookmarks bar.

the article will be waiting in Safari on your Mac. In many ways. not just Safari. For example. Instapaper. your Reading list. But Reading list lacks many of the features that make these services so popular. and when you get back to your desk. and scores of Mac and iOS apps let you add articles to your Instapaper list without making you first open those articles in Safari. and download articles in formats optimized for different devices. Reading list is similar in principle to popular services such as Instapaper (instapaper. Add an article to your list on your iphone. Similarly. share your lists of articles with friends. Instapaper works in any and Read It later (readitlaterlist. of course. Reading List doesn’t store your articles for offline viewing. will be synchronized between all those devices. your computer must be connected to the Internet (see “Online Only”). 116 . and you’ve set up your iCloud account on all your Macs and iOS devices. as an example. Reading list is just a prettified list of bookmarks.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Once Apple’s new iCloud service is up and running. while Safari’s Reader feature lets you view an article in a format optimized for reading—free of ads and messy formatting. also lets you organize saved articles into folders. Online Only Unlike Instapaper. In contrast. similar to the Readability Web service or Instapaper’s own Mobilizer—you can’t save this more readable version to your reading list. just like your Safari bookmarks. add articles to your list via Reading list doesn’t store articles for offline viewing—when accessing a saved article in the reading list. The Instapaper iOS apps even track your current reading position when you switch between devices. And.

double-tap again to zoom back out. the entire page slides off the screen. or to the right to go to the next page in that history. respectively. Oddly. 117 . this method focuses the zoom on whatever is directly beneath the cursor.) Move the cursor to the top of the screen. and the menu bar and dock disappear. it’s likely that services such as Instapaper and Read It later will actually gain users thanks to Reading list. (This full-screen view is actually a new workspace. Safari will zoom in on that column or paragraph. and the menu bar and Bookmarks bar slide into view. unfortunately. if you double-tap on a block of text with two fingers (rather than only one. easy-to-use “read later” feature that will satisfy a good number of people but will leave advanced users wanting more. You can also use a two-finger swipe to the left to go back one page in the current tab’s history. Indeed. iOS-Inspired Gestures As with much of lion. so you can switch between it and other apps using lion’s three-finger sideways-swipe gesture. Safari 5. which makes it appear as though you’re switching between tabs. as more people see the utility of Reading list but. look for better options. as in iOS). For example. unlike clicking Safari’s zoom in/zoom out buttons or pressing 1–minus sign (–) and 1–plus sign (+). and the window’s title bar and Bookmarks bar fade away. Magic Mouse.1 adopts a number of touch-based gestures for users with compatible input devices. Click the full-screen button in the upper right corner of the Safari window (or press 1-Control-F). such as Apple’s Magic Trackpad. giving you as much viewable browser-window area as possible. And pinching in and out with your thumb and index finger zooms out and in. on the entire webpage—cleverly. as with support for RSS feeds (added in Safari 3). Apple has chosen to include a bare-bones. there doesn’t seem to be a gesture for that action. and recent MacBook trackpads. the current Safari window stretches to fill the entire screen. frustrated with its limitations.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS In other words. Full-Screen Mode Safari also adopts another of lion’s flagship features: full-screen mode.

on such sites Safari’s window ends up with lots of empty space on each side.1 displays.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Full-screen mode can be useful on smaller screens. Safari 5. and contents of each cookie.) You also get more control over location information. But whereas earlier versions of Safari showed only cookies. now phrased as when Safari should block cookies—and where you view. Security and Privacy Changes Though they won’t garner big headlines. But the most telling change is that Safari’s preferences window gains a new privacy screen that consolidates most privacy-related settings (removing them from the Security screen).0. databases. and other local storage. and the size limit for those databases. caches. Finally. a number of changes in Safari 5. which showed you the name. This action even deletes Flash plug-in data. expiration date. if you’ve got more than one Safari window open when you activate full-screen mode. path. exactly what data Safari has stored for that site: cookies. by site. You can even choose the specific information you want to autofill. (unfortunately. that’s all the detail you get—missing is the detailed view of Safari 5. For starters. it’s difficult to switch between those windows. the new private AutoFill feature doesn’t automatically enter your personal information into Web forms until you give the OK. (The setting for whether sites can store databases on your Mac to begin with. the cookies already stored by Safari. to be prompted once each day for each site (which gives perpetual access to those sites you approve).) You can also now delete all stored data—either for a particular site or for all sites—with a click. security status. or to be prompted once for each site each day. This is where you now choose when Safari should accept cookies—interestingly. Apple claims Safari includes better sandboxing—a technique that isolates each website and Web app in its own memory space so it doesn’t have access to data from any other site or Web app (or to data 118 .1 offer significant improvements when it comes to security and keeping your personal information private. Safari 5 debuted a setting (in Security) to allow or deny access to your physical location when a website requested it. for each site. Similarly.1. your options (now in the privacy screen) are to deny access completely. In Safari 5. has been moved to the Advanced screen of Safari’s preferences. but because most modern websites use a layout with a maximum width.

One change that will be helpful for people who are new to the Mac (as well as anyone setting up a new Mac) is Safari 5. This is a popular feature of Canisbos linkThing (canisbos.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS on your computer). Yahoo Mail. and you see an iOS-like pop-over listing all downloads. Miscellaneous Improvements Safari 5. Click this button. 119 .com/linkthing). you viewed this list as a separate window.” New Downloads Manager One of the features that’s gotten the biggest aesthetic makeover is Safari’s downloads list. so users of that extension will appreciate the inclusion of that behavior in Safari. and you can’t choose to keep the pop-over visible—once you click anywhere else in Safari. “If a website contains malicious code intended to capture personal data or tamper with your computer. the new tab opens directly to the right of the current tab. and iChat.1 also includes a slew of improvements that aren’t advertised or necessarily obvious. sandboxing provides a built-in blocker that restricts the code from doing harm. As Apple puts it.1’s tighter account integration with other OS X apps. rather than at the far-right end of the tab bar. OS X will offer to automatically set up that account (and. In older versions of Safari. For example. or AOl email account from within Safari. information syncing) in Mail. Address Book. While the button’s tiny progress bar is useful for monitoring the progress of a single download without having a separate window open. you can’t monitor simultaneous downloads without activating the pop-over. When you first log in to a Gmail. it’s hidden behind a new downloads button located (by default) at the right edge of Safari’s toolbar.1. The new downloads list does provide one oft-requested feature: You can now move a downloaded file from your downloads folder by simply dragging it from the list to the desired location in the Finder—you no longer have to reveal it in your downloads folder first. the pop-over disappears. thus. when you 1-click a link on a Web page to open it in a new tab. You also can’t view the list as a separate window as you could under previous versions of Safari. with the newest at the top. in Safari 5. iCal.

120 . Of course. HTMl5 media caching for offline viewing and better low-bandwidth performance. You can even log in to Web-based email systems to read and send messages.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS Finally. One More Thing There’s one more Safari trick hidden away in lion. Conveniently.1 is the setting to get a confirmation dialog box when you try to close a window with multiple tabs. so you can browse Apple’s support website and other sites while booted from the emergency partition. On the other hand. better hardware-graphics performance. make it easy to recover from such mishaps. or when you try to quit Safari with multiple windows open. under-the-hood changes include improved multiprocessor support. without requiring a separate drive or disc. in the Edit menu. When you install lion onto an internal hard drive. this is still a welcome and exceptionally convenient feature. but many people are unaware those commands exist—the confirmation dialog box was a useful feature to prevent accidental closures in the first place. bootable restore partition that lets you repair your Mac’s startup drive. and the capability to search for text that either starts with or contains your search string. or even reinstall lion and restore files using Time Machine. the Reopen last Closed Windows and Reopen All Windows From last Session commands. and additional CSS features. the installer typically partitions your startup drive to create a hidden. and the undo Close Tab command. support for MathMl. And Apple now allows extensions that provide their own toolbar to present iOS-like pop-overs with HTMl content. the Web Open Font Format (WOFF). that restore partition provides network connectivity and includes a version of Safari. Although being able to access the Web from your Mac while you’re troubleshooting the very same Mac isn’t as big a deal these days as it used to be. one option that’s missing from Safari 5. thanks to the proliferation of Web-browsing phones and tablets. in the History menu.

You can select fonts and highlight text right from the toolbar without consulting the Fonts dialog box. elegant treatment that was long overdue. font size. It is a nice. and list bullets and numbering. Too bad the toolbar is still not configurable. previously. One of the handiest improvements is that it’s easier than ever to insert accented characters. with controls for paragraph styles. has been upgraded with a new interface and better support for Asian languages. you could add an e or an œ by using Full Bar A number of new options have been added to TextEdit’s toolbar. text and text background color. The toolbar is now reminiscent of a fullyfeatured word processing program. font family. font style.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS textedit TextEdit. Mac OS X’s basic text editor. typeface. 121 . line and paragraph spacing. alignment.

Oriya. Sinhala. there is a new command to Export As pdF. and urdu. you can browse previous versions of your document and either revert to a previous version or cut and paste from it. and Tamil languages. 122 . Another big text-related improvement in lion is system-wide auto-correction.Chapter 6 InCludEd ApplE AppS shortcut keys or the Character Viewer. The new version also adds support for vertical text layouts for Asian languages. In lion. Gurmukhi. nepali. and Tamil scripts used to write the Gujarati. you just hold down the letter you want to add an accent to. And speaking of international fonts. lion will display suggested alternatives in a little bubble below misspelled words. Myanmar. Malayalam. Kannada. With Versions support. and a dialog box pops up listing its accented alternatives. To accept the suggestion. panjabi. you can press the spacebar. The program’s search function has been refined so that the search window appears underneath the ruler and highlights every instance of the found item simultaneously. to reject it. TextEdit makes use of the new automatic file-saving Auto Save and Versions technologies in lion. The nanum font family supports the Korean language. Marathi. Hindi. Gujarati. You can select Find and Replace right from the Edit menu. lao. new font families augment support for the devanagari. Telugu. Khmer. As you type. you can click on the little X in the suggestion bubble or press Escape. new fonts and keyboards support Bengali. lion supports the major languages of South and Southeast Asia. under the File menu. You can click on a character or press the number underneath it to insert it. which replace the app’s simple autosave feature (previously set to save a backup copy every 30 seconds).

ContentS Set Your Security Page 124 Encrypt Your Data Page 127 123 .7 Security When it comes to your Mac. we’ll discuss each of these methods and the new security features present in Lion. In this chapter. and disk encryption can help you in your quest to keep your files safe and sound. FileVault. Updates to Mac OS X’s security settings (now in the Security & Privacy system preference). you want the best protection possible against nefarious outside forces.

there are four sections to Security & Privacy. and Lion has several security features built in to guard your privacy. automatically update your safe downloads list to avoid accidentally downloading any software Apple has marked as malware. login. require an administrator password when accessing preferences. Lion’s security settings are found in the new Security & Privacy system preference. and (if applicable) disable the infrared receiver. General the settings in the General tab cover a variety of user access settings (see “the Basics”). and infrared controls. there are several other account settings. The Basics The General tab covers password. you can decide whether to require a password when waking from sleep or after your screensaver has activated.Chapter 7 SecUrIty Set Your Security It’s important to protect your computer from prying eyes. you can disable automatic login. log out after a specified period of inactivity. in addition. Here. show a message when the screen is locked. 124 .

you must first unlock the padlock in the lower right corner (an administrator password is required). you can fine-tune your firewall settings by clicking the Advanced button.Chapter 7 The Great Wall Your computer’s built-in firewall can protect your computer from any unwanted incoming connections. to turn on the firewall. you can choose to block all incoming connections. 125 . to enable music sharing. From there. then click the Start button. you can allow connections from itunes. or you can create a list of specific applications allowed to pass over the firewall. for instance. SecUrIty Firewall Lion has a built-in firewall to protect your computer from incoming connections (see “the Great Wall”).

you can enable or disable Location Services globally. If you’d rather Apple not have this information. SecUrIty Privacy Added to the Security pane in Lion. and what third-party software. which means there’s no way for Apple to identify you personally. the section on the right allows you to enable Location Services for your applications. and usage statistics (how you use your computer. hardware. leave the box unchecked. it will appear in this section of the Privacy tab. or kernel panics. if an application is able to. 126 . the first section allows you to choose whether you’d like to send diagnostic and usage data about your system to Apple. and services you use). the Privacy tab has two sections (see “Split Down the Middle”). new in Lion. events that happen on your computer (for instance. allows users to choose whether they’d like to send any diagnostic data to Apple and whether they’d like to enable Location Services for apps. Some applications can find your location using Wi-Fi triangulation. freezes. or pick and choose specific applications.Chapter 7 Split Down the Middle The Privacy tab. this data includes information about crashes. whether it wakes from sleep properly). All of this data is anonymously recorded and sent.

should they fall into the wrong hands. Locked Up With FileVault enabled. As long as your files are saved to the internal drive.Chapter 7 SecUrIty encrypt Your Data By creating a user account and password. they’ll be safe. At its core. File Vault 2 Lion includes FileVault 2. Not only does this make your hard drive more secure. you automatically enable an initial layer of security on your Mac. FileVault is designed to encrypt your hard drive. the latest version of Apple’s method of file protection (see “Locked Up”). When you encrypt your drive. there are still further precautions you can take to prevent unsavory types from getting a peek at your data. you can encrypt your hard drive to prevent people without the decryption key from accessing your files and folders. If you want to be extra cautious. even so. you essentially make it impossible to read for anybody without the key to decrypt it. consider using encryption: this keeps your files secure. there’s also no need to fuss with third-party security tools. 127 .

to start the process. or onto multiple partitions using Boot camp Assistant.Chapter 7 SecUrIty Password Me To encrypt your drive. After doing this. (See the Install Lion chapter for more details.) to access FileVault 2. you’ll see a gray screen with icons for each bootable volume your Mac recognizes. you’ll need to make sure you have Lion’s recovery HD partition—otherwise the process won’t work. enter these passwords. you’ll need to click the padlock in the lower left corner and enter an administrator password. to encrypt your computer. recovery HD should be one of them. you’ll be given a recovery key. as it’s the only way to decrypt your drive if you forget your password. which you should record and keep in a safe place. go to your System Preferences and double-click the Security & Privacy pane. If you’re worried that you may not have the recovery HD partition. then click the FileVault tab. erase and repartition your drive. If you’ve done a default install of the OS onto an internal drive with a single partition. and you’ll be asked for the password of each user who has an account on the Mac (see “Password Me”). then click continue. you can verify this by booting your Mac with the Option key held down. you can also 128 . you’ll first have to enter the passwords of the user accounts currently on your computer. you’ll need to back up your data. click the turn On FileVault button. you should be good to go. If you don’t have the recovery HD partition and still want to encrypt your computer. and then reinstall Lion.

7.or disk-intensive while Lion is encrypting your drive. Disk Utility needs to reformat it. (For example. your external drives should follow. you’ll have to provide the answers to three preset questions. Lion will automatically decrypt any files you need to use and encrypt any new files you create. to retrieve it. Mac OS extended (casesensitive. After you restart your Mac. an application found in /Applications/Utilities. to encrypt your external drive. connect it to your Mac and launch Disk Utility. in addition to the standard Mac OS extended (Journaled).Chapter 7 SecUrIty have Apple store the recovery key for you. stating that the drive requires OS X 10. MS-DOS (FAt). you’re all set. to encrypt an external drive. and exFAt. to do this.numbers and 2011taxes. you’ll need Disk Utility. two files with the names 2011taxes. you’ll see two new formats available. you’ll see a left column that lists the storage devices on your Mac.Numbers can coexist in the 129 . the other encrypted Mac format lets you give files the same names but with different letter-case treatment. you should pick Mac OS extended (Journaled. since the process will adversely affect system and application performance. Unfortunately. it can also encrypt external drives. In the Format menu. then click the erase tab in the section to the right. you need to back it up and then copy it back to the drive after reformatting. so you can continue working. encrypted). When you connect a drive encrypted using Lion’s Disk Utility to a Mac running Snow Leopard. it’s better to avoid anything processor. One major caveat to encrypting an external drive using Lion: encrypted hard drives can be used only on other Macs running Lion. encrypted). Journaled. the first device is your internal drive. this can take several hours. that said. encrypted). a message appears. In most cases. the encryption process occurs in the background. Once the initial encryption is done. the two new formats are Mac OS extended (Journaled. Journaled). it will begin the process of encrypting your drive. Disk Utility FileVault 2 not only encrypts your Mac’s internal drive. If you want to keep the data. not on those with older versions of OS X. which means any data on the drive will be erased. and Mac OS extended (case-sensitive. Select the drive you want to encrypt. fortunately.

) you’ll also need to provide a name.Chapter 7 Encrypt Keeper To create an external encrypted volume. your files will be automatically decrypted and reencrypted on the fly. click erase to begin the formatting process. you must add a password to the disk. confirming that you want to create an encrypted volume (see “encrypt Keeper”). If so. which will take several minutes. At the password-entry window. If you dismount the drive. you have the option to save your password in your keychain. SecUrIty same folder. 130 . Once the drive is formatted. A window will appear. this will start the formatting process. you’ll have to enter the password to access that drive. which doesn’t have your keychain info. so be sure to memorize it or record it someplace secure. If you enter the wrong password or don’t enter one at all. you must enter your password to access it. you’ll have to enter it any time you mount the drive. you can’t access the data. Once you enter and confirm the password. If you try to attach the encrypted drive to. you need to enter a password. click erase. Record it somewhere safe: You’ll need it whenever you mount the drive. you’ll need to enter the password when you try to mount it again on your desktop. your friend’s Mac. this will allow your drive to mount without requiring your password for the particular Mac that’s storing your keychain. say.

and download great Mac applications. or an e-book. 131 . Our popular Superguide series offers useful insights and step-by-step instructions for the latest Apple hardware and software. a printed book. of Apple products or a seasoned Go to pro. we’ll show you /superguide to how to master Enter the code order or preview troubleshooting MWREADER6 any of the problems. a hi-res PDF on CD. cover tips and on your next order. Each book is available in a variety of formats. learn about your new iPhone or iPod touch. and troubleshooting advice from Macworld’s team of experts.Also from the editors of Macworld iPhone and iPod Touch TH EDITION Superguide FOR iPhone  AND ios  D UPDATE Mac GeMs 240+ Software Bargains Get more insider tips. Choose from a downWhether you’re new to the world loadable PDF. set up a new Mac. tricks. tricks about your operating system. disto get a discount Superguides.

Avoid ever having to manually save documents again with Lion’s new Auto Save. and Launchpad. In this book. share files in AirDrop.Nobody spends more time with Apple’s computers and software than the writers and editors at Macworld. Once you’ve got Lion up and running. Let Macworld show you how to get the most out of Lion and your Mac. Protect yourself from would-be data thieves by using Apple’s FileVault 2 encryption service. iOS. Lion blends Multi-Touch gestures. discover how to navigate the new interface by using Multi-Touch gestures. Mac OS X 10.        . the world’s foremost Mac authority. and Resume features. and learn how to set up a boot disc or drive. And finally. full-screen views. We help you install Lion. Versions. improved navigation. Now. Rebuilt to incorporate many of the lessons learned from Apple’s mobile operating system. and control other screens via Screen Sharing. and redesigned apps with the same Mac OS you know and love. let Macworld’s team of experts take you on a tour of Apple’s newest operating system. find out about tons of new features.7. we walk you through everything you need to know about Lion. that Apple has added to the OS’s included applications. Mission Control. aka Lion. troubleshoot any installation woes. large and small. starting with a comprehensive rundown of all the new features present in this version of Mac OS X.

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