EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR THE SAFETY OF AIR NAVIGATION

OVERALL ATM/CNS TARGET ARCHITECTURE
EUROCONTROL

STUDY REPORT ON AVIONICS SYSTEMS FOR THE TIME FRAME 2007, 2011 AND 2020

Document Identifier: Edition Number: Edition Date: Status: Intended for:

OATA-P2-D4.2.11-03-01 2.1 23 Nov 2004 Proposed Issue TRG Members

DOCUMENT CHARACTERISTICS
TITLE

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020
EATMP Infocentre Reference: Document Identifier: OATA-P2-D4.2.11-03-01 Abstract Edition Number: Edition Date: 2. 23 Nov 2004

The OATA Avionics Study considers the evolution of the role of the aircraft as a component of the CNS/ATM system over three epochs – 2007, 2011 and 2020 representing the nearterm, mid-term and long-term scenario defined in the Executive Summary of this document. These epochs are aligned with those of the EUROCONTROL OCD. The study also describes the overall strategy for modernising ATM and then introduces how the evolution is achieved by describing the concepts relevant to each epoch.
Keywords

Prepared by: Issued by:

Contact Person(s) Boeing R&T Europe and Helios Technology Edward Bailey – Workpackage Manager

Tel

Unit

STATUS, AUDIENCE AND ACCESSIBILITY
Status In progress Internal Draft Working Draft Proposed Issue Released Issue Intended for General Public EATMP Stakeholders Restricted Audience Intranet Extranet Configuration Manager Accessible via

Printed & electronic copies of the document can be obtained from the EATMP Infocentre (see page ii)

ELECTRONIC SOURCE
File Name: Host System: Windows XP OATA-P2-D4.2.11-03-01 Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020.doc Software Application Size

Microsoft Word 10.0

748 Kb

Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture

Proposed Issue

Page i

infocentre@EUROCONTROL.int Open on 08:00 . Any disclosure to third parties shall be subject to prior written permission of EUROCONTROL". DOCUMENT APPROVAL The following table identifies all management authorities that have successively approved the present issue of this document. Page ii Proposed Issue Edition: 2.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 EATMP Infocentre EUROCONTROL Headquarters 96 Rue de la Fusée B-1130 BRUSSELS Tel: +32 (0)2 729 51 51 Fax: +32 (0)2 729 99 84 E-mail: eatmp. "Member States of the Organisation are entitled to use and reproduce this document for internal and non-commercial purpose under their vested tasks. AUTHORITY OATA Quality Assurance Manger NAME AND SIGNATURE DATE David Webb 23 Nov 2004 OATA Project Manager Alessandro PRISTER 23 Nov 2004 DOCUMENT CONTROL Copyright notice © 2005 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL). incl.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .15:00 UTC from Monday to Thursday. All rights reserved.

Version for TRG.A 0.C 0.F 1. Final corrections Editorial Corrections. Insertion of comments from Airbus Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page iii .2 1.E 0. Executive Summary and movement of Section 7 to Annex.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 DOCUMENT CHANGE RECORD The following table records the complete history of the successive editions of the present document.0 2. Edition Nº Edition date 0.1 16/03/04 11/05/04 28/05/04 06/07/04 07/07/04 27/07/04 01/08/04 22/09/04 27/09/04 29/10/04 31/10/04 01/11/04 23/11/04 Author(s) Boeing Helios Boeing Boeing Helios Helios Helios Boeing Helios Boeing Helios Helios Helios Initial Draft Reason or status Editorial corrections Final draft Comments from EUROCONTROL & Helios Editorial corrections Update to reflect EUROCONTROL comments Issue for Public Consultation Comments from Airbus Minor editorial corrections Addition of IRB comments.D 0.B 0.1 1.4 2.0 1.3 1.

....................................... 35 Operational context .......7 3......................................... 73 Identified functions................................................................................................ 7 The future operational concept ................................3 3..................................................................................................... 5 Current European situation ............................. 10 Current and next-future paradigms....................1 5...................................................................................................................................opportunities.................. 15 Fleet adaptation ..................................................................................................................................................... 55 Impact on avionics... 7 avionics architecture eVOLUTION..................................................................... 5 Document Overview .............................................2 5........................ 73 Identified data ..........1 4....................... 63 Context ...............2 2 2..6 3........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 A three step approach ........2 6....................................................................3 Objective................................................ 73 A............ 13 Features................................. 15 Operational context ................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture ................................limitations .......... 17 Impact on avionics............................................................................. 62 Avionics summary ....... 5 1.................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Key elements of IMA architecture...................................................................... 1 1 Introduction....... 37 Pilot role.............................................................................. 80 Page iv Proposed Issue Edition: 2..............................................................................................................................2 3................1 3................2 A................................................................................................. 14 Advantages.................................................................................................................................................................2 4....2 2...................................................................4 7 8 A Objectives and Scope................................... 14 Special consideration areas ............................................................................................................. 55 References ............................................................................. 68 Functional Decomposition for 2011 ............... 32 Avionics summary .....................4 3..3 6.....3 4........................................................................................ 53 Operational concept ....................... 20 Pilot role.................3 6 6........................................................................................................................................ 37 Avionics architecture for 2020 ..........................................................................................3 3 3........................ 65 GLOSSARY......................... 56 Pilot role.................................................................................... 17 Avionics architecture for 2011 ................................... 52 Avionics summary ...................................................................... 12 Avionics Architecture for 2007 ..........................................................................................................5 3.............................................1 A..........................................................................................................................................................1 6..Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 TABLE OF CONTENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................... 13 IMA supporters ......................................................................................1 2........................................................................................................................................ 13 IMA development drivers...................4 5 5.............................................................1 1........................8 4 4...............................................................................................

2020 – Representing the long-term scenario in which trajectory negotiation is used to enable an advanced form of flight planning based on a common understanding between the avionics and ground systems of the aircrafts trajectory for the entire flight. In this sense. This will incorporate enhanced air-to-air surveillance functions with longer look-ahead capabilities that will increase the situational awareness of the flight crews. The trajectory negotiation process will be supported by a greater flexibility of airspace use that will make better use of the advanced capabilities of modern aircraft. a certain degree of migration of separation assurance to the flight deck will take place with the introduction of Airborne Separation Assistance Systems (ASAS). that could allow more predictable air traffic management. Boeing and ATA) are all directed to a more co-operative system that will use an intensive sharing of real-time information to achieve accurate gate-to-gate flight management. In addition. By the end of the time frame considered (2020). Overall Strategy Current ATM system present serious difficulties in meeting the expected increase in demand over the coming years. 2011 – Representing the mid-term scenario in which a more progressive form of flight planning is enabled by greater integration of airborne data with the ground systems (including the provision of intent information). the integration of ground and air systems will play a major role and will act as a platform that enables development of further operational solutions as needs arise.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Purpose The OATA Avionics Study has considered the evolution of the role of the aircraft as a component of the CNS/ATM system over three epochs: • 2007 – Representing the near-term scenario of essentially today’s control paradigm based on existing avionics plus the addition of initial datalink and air-ground ADS-B applications. are limited by the lack of information sharing between the various stakeholders. This is mainly due to the existing sector-based air traffic control concept that highly depends on tactical interventions to manage traffic conflicts. ICAO. A performancebased approach will simplify airspace procedures and structures and will enable an efficient planning of airborne equipage. enhancements in flight planning (and re-planning) capabilities. This enables ground based planning to minimise conflicts and enable user-preferred trajectories. FAA. Edition: 2. In the foreseen evolution. • • These epochs are aligned with those of the EUROCONTROL OCD. ASAS applications may support spacing and separation applications in which limited separation assurance is delegated to the flight deck. The strategic planning capabilities do not preclude the need for tactical actions. more ambitious plans to enable self-separation (autonomous operations) are also envisaged in non-core areas. Currently proposed solutions (EUROCONTROL. The study briefly describes the overall strategy for modernising ATM and then introduces how the evolution is achieved by describing the concepts relevant to each epoch. this will provide a more strategic oriented air traffic management based on trajectory exchange and negotiation between all involved stakeholders. the use of advanced RNP-RNAV systems to facilitate greater flexibility in the use of airspace and increased collaborative decision making enabling more efficient flights.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 1 .

In that sense. the operational scenario for 2007 will not differ significantly from that in operation today. the downlink of airborne parameters will improve the quality of the information displayed to the controller. the implementation of an intermediate concept based on increased flight planning and exchange of surveillance information will take place in this timeframe. The process outlined above will require a more flexible airspace design . the downlink of pilot preferences (PPD) will enhance the efficiency of the system by permitting the ATCO. Concepts for 2007 Following the smooth transition outlined above.this will be enabled by the introduction of RNP-RNAV concepts. Initial applications will make specific information available to the controller such as airspeed. In conjunction with the availability of more independent and flexible routing structures. efforts that are currently underway to accelerate the transition to a performance based system should bring major capacity and efficiency benefits by 2011 timeframe. position and identity of all vehicles in the manoeuvring area. In terminal areas. such as dynamic route availability (DYNAV) and flight plan consistency (FLIPCY / FLIPINT) will be available and provide increased synchronisation between the airborne and ground systems. to anticipate actions in response to pilot needs.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . will improve the safety of the operations. check its consistency with the correspondent filed flight plan and to propose route changes that will be accepted or rejected by the pilots. basic forms of automated route exchange. etc. The enhanced surveillance function will assist the controller by completing his visual observation with reliable information about the airport layout. heading and selected flight level. Introduction of data link services for non time-critical communications in continental en-route and terminal areas will make possible a reduction in routine voice communications between the flight deck and the air traffic controllers (ATCOs). In the surveillance area. The process will be carried out automatically between ground and airborne computers and will enable ground ATSUs to access route data contained in the FMS. In particular. In addition. the automation of services that are currently provided by voice. ATIS). In addition. Page 2 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. the progressive evolution to an advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS) will enhance the traffic situation awareness in all weather conditions. In this epoch the initial forms of A-SMGCS surveillance and control functions will be implemented (level I and II). the introduction of new applications and services will provide increasing levels of automation. a wide use of B-RNAV for en-route and P-RNAV for busy terminal airspace is envisaged. As a result. However. additional implementation of RNAV procedures will take place in this epoch. who in addition will have better knowledge of the traffic evolution. This will be supported by the initial use of air-ground datalink and ADS-B. In that sense. Concepts for 2011 The progressive path to a more strategic oriented ATM system will continue during the 2011 epoch.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 In the airport surface. this will support user preferred routes and dynamic re-routings. Regarding airspace organization. This will contribute to minimize the occurrence of runway incursions and taxi conflicts and thus. such as DOTIS (METAR. position and identity of all aircrafts in the movement area. will also contribute to a reduction in pilot’s workload. better trajectory prediction and tracking capabilities and enhanced safety nets will be enabled by the use of additional airborne data by ground systems.

different views exist on the need of such a transfer of separation responsibility to the flight crew. that will process the surface routing information and then display it to the pilot. The benefits associated with this concept are considered to be very important in terms of capacity and flight efficiency. However. initial applications (as Enhanced Visual Acquisition) will support the flight crew to perform their collision avoidance tasks. a distribution of responsibilities for separation assurance between the air and the ground ATM elements is envisaged in the following years. This target ATM paradigm will be supported by trajectory exchange and optimisation that will facilitate the earlier resolution of conflicts between traffic. In the airport Surface. the introduction of airborne surveillance applications will improve the situational awareness of the pilots. the download of aircraft derived data supported by enhanced surveillance has the potential to enable a variety of ATM ground applications (such as better trajectory prediction and conformance monitoring tools). Their implementation will require equipping the aircraft with a full ADS-B package consisting at least of an ADS-B receiver. In fact. In addition.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 3 . Concepts for 2020 The transition to a more strategic ATM system is likely to reach a mature state during the 2020 timeframe. since the transfer of separation will impose important role changes for the human in the system and will require a significant investment in very reliable avionics with higher integrity and availability. These applications could potentially facilitate the use of free-routes and user preferred trajectories and could contribute to a more efficient use of the airspace by a potential achievement of a reducing spacing. the pilot will be presented with full picture of the surrounding operational environment. These investments will be required for a concept that still has unproven operational benefits. the safety related aspects still need to be analysed in depth. In parallel. they will constitute a good means to achieve the required level of confidence for more advanced applications. a higher degree of predictability in the evolution of the flight will support more accurate planning. flight crews will need new aircraft functions in order to perform these new tasks. via a point-to-point datalink. including the airport map. Ground and airborne computers will interchange flight intent information by means of a common formal language.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Surveillance data links will be explored and as the need for additional airborne parameters will continue growing. weather and other information will be available to facilitate the trajectory based planning. More complex spacing applications (such as sequencing & merging and cross & passing) may appear later in this timeframe. Taxi instructions will be delivered directly. the transition to A-SMGCS will bring in the 2011 epoch the implementation of enhanced route planning and control functions. In these basic forms. Basic spacing applications (Final Approach Spacing) may appear during this timeframe. Benefits associated with them will highly depend on the number of aircraft equipped. where real-time flight data. The use of a common information management system by all actors will enable an active collaborative decision making environment. This will permit the unambiguous description and sharing of flight Edition: 2. ASAS processor and CDTI. to the onboard computers. taxi information and other traffic and vehicles circulating on the manoeuvring area. these applications also include an evolution to a more extensive transfer of responsibility to the pilot. However. In addition. In addition. As stated in the EUROCONTROL OCD. related safety studies are less complex since no change in the distribution of responsibilities between pilot and controller is needed to support these applications. In conjunction with the information provided by the surface enhanced visual acquisition applications (Surface EVA). In conjunction with the information provided by air traffic controllers and other airplanes.

Advanced datalink services (such as COTRAC / GRECO) will provide a common framework to establish and agree trajectory contracts between aircrew and controllers in real time. Finally. The trajectory management concept outlined above. under the control of the air traffic controller and aircrew. if shown to be safe and cost effective. Page 4 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. By using this common description. on the ground a comprehensive paradigm of the A-SMGCS functions will materialize in complex airports with heavy traffic. The OATA Avionics Cluster The Avionics Study report describes the avionics required to support these concepts for each epoch. autonomous operations based on ASAS enabled selfseparation (ADS Package 2 and 3) could be also in place for the 2020 epoch. will still need a certain degree of tactical separation monitoring and.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . Once a mutually acceptable plan of action is reached. to some extent. Airline operations managers will play a major role in this process. agreed changes in flight trajectory will be communicated directly to the onboard FMS by means of secure data links. In non-core areas. The description for 2011 has been used as the basis for the Avionics Cluster of the OATA model. ground and airborne systems could compute their own version of the predicted trajectory according to their particular requirements. The use of a structured negotiation method will facilitate an effective coordination between all the actors needed for the safe development of these applications. limited separation assurance will be transferred to the flight deck.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 instructions to be performed by the aircraft in order to meet the intended trajectory.

Although OATA reflects the EUROCONTROL OCD. Sections 4 through 6 describe the expected situation in the 2007. and 2020 timeframes. This view leads to a less aggressive view of timescales and a reduced role of self-separation applications (especially in support of autonomous operations). all under the umbrella of the appearance of new air traffic management concepts. Section 2 presents a brief introduction of the limitations of the current ATM system and the ways in which it is expected to evolve to provide the necessary additional capacity and flexibility whilst maintaining (or improving) the current level of safety. It should be noted however that further work is required to evaluate the size of such benefits and the associated costs including those required to overcome implementation difficulties. 2011 and 2020. The text introduces the potential benefits of such services. improving the efficiency. This report therefore includes future avionics requirements to support global interoperability. the purpose of the current report is to document these advances for three different epochs: 2007. industrial. Two complementary views of the evolution of ATM are included in this document. The report therefore effectively encapsulates a vision for the future development of ATM services and the subsequent impact on the services provided by the aircraft. which is presented as the predominant view. and rationalizing the certification requirements of avionics equipment.2 • • Document Overview Section 1 contains the document objective and overview. As the OATA Model is based on the EUROCONTROL Operational Concept Document (OCD) and its related Concept of Operations for 2011 this study took the EUROCONTROL documents as its starting point. it is not intended to subtract value from the former.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 1 1. Only the 2011 epoch will be modelled. 2011. In particular. 1. and 2020 timeframes. The second. It sets the context for the evolution of avionics described in the main part of the report.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . The second view takes account of the implementation issues seen from an industrial perspective. facilitating the upgrades. Boeing Research & Technology Europe (BR&TE) and Helios Technology Limited produced this document for the EUROCONTROL Agency under contract A0/59/HQ/DK/03 with the purpose of developing the Avionics Cluster for the OATA Model. The first view is based on EUROCONTROL documents and is driven by operational needs. This report has been written with the objective of explaining the future evolution of flight deck avionics functionalities in parallel with the ongoing revolution in the architecture implementing those functionalities.1 INTRODUCTION Objectives and Scope This document contains a review of the avionics architectures expected to be implemented by the 2007. The avionics cluster is to be developed using a bottom-up approach that takes into account the expected advances in avionics that will occur over the coming years. but only to present industrial concerns regarding implementation feasibility or schedules. 2011. the two views agree on the need for an evolution of the ATM system in the coming years and support main changes foreseen for the core area. Each timeframe is divided into the following subsections: Proposed Issue Page 5 The document is divided into the following sections: • • Edition: 2. Section 3 contains a description of the new avionics architecture that is progressively being implemented in the aircraft with the objective of reducing the costs. view is included as a commentary of the first view. it is important that future avionics architectures consider the global developments in this field. However.

Airport Surface. The navigation section presents the situation of this field in the particular timeframe. Integrity Monitoring. The associated changes in the pilot role that the operational concepts in place by this epoch will require. BR&TE and Helios have developed this material as a context for describing avionics developments. References to these issues are provided in the communications. o The communications section presents the situation of this field in the particular timeframe. giving an idea of the operational environment for the described avionics systems. A table. The surveillance section presents the situation of this field in the particular timeframe. Atmosphere.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 o The operational context section describes in more detail the concepts noted in section 2. the concepts described here have implications not only in avionics. respectively. They usually require the participation of several different technologies to become operational. Guidance. and Security Threats. A table which contains a summary of the aircraft equipage that are considered representative of the fleet mix in European CORE and NON-CORE areas in the correspondent epoch. Therefore. Page 6 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. and Flight Management functions. However. which includes a comparison between fully equipped aircraft and aircraft with an avionics package that can be considered as a baseline for the epoch. Aircraft Performance Management. navigation and surveillance sections of each timeframe. It is noted that this document is not intended to describe the operational concepts. Flight Control. Terrain.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . but also in all fields of the air traffic management structure. Collision Avoidance. This section acts as a bridge between this document and the avionics cluster developed for the OATA model. Annex A contains an identification of functions and their relationships for the 2011 timeframe. In that sense. o o o o o • • Sections 7 and 8 contain a reference list and a glossary of acronyms. Flight Planning. subdivided into Traffic. These concepts are derived from the need to cope with expected demand in air traffic in the coming years. subdivided into the Position-Velocity-Time (PVT). which is the responsibility of the OCD Drafting Group and Use Case Development teams. some implementation issues could delay the benefits associated to a particular concept. subdivided into voice and data communications. the scenarios constitute a desirable environment where demand for capacity is met with the same or even increased safety levels as those of today.

The dependency on ground aids restricts the availability of new routes and hence the flexibility of the airspace system. This contributes to improved levels of safety. 1 2 It is noted that some RNP RNAV advantages. vertical performances. Europe’s initial answer to this problem was the introduction of Basic BRAV (BRNAV) in 1998. holding. which permit more precise navigation with even less dependency on fixed routes via the application of RNP RNAV1. As a result. these data do not include the intention of the flight crew and so the air traffic controller needs to predict the position of the aircraft in the future. new sectors require new radio frequencies for voice communication. With current radars. since the airways are tied to the ground beacons and thus offer only a limited number of paths in the airspace. the availability of such frequencies in congested areas is limited already. the introduction of radar systems allowed the change from a procedural based Air Traffic Management (ATM) system to a radar-based one. However. Therefore. However. such as improved predictability and reduction in delays leading to increased efficiency of the overall system. However. increased utilization of these functions2 will also produce operational benefits. effectively reducing the reliability of the prediction to a only few minutes.1 CONTEXT Current European situation . and thus to a drastic increase of co-ordinations and aircraft handoffs between adjacent control sectors. which delivered significant capacity and flexibility benefits en-route.. have satisfied the existing demand. These capabilities. etc. This current system offers limited possibilities of expansion. the controller possesses basic information about the aircraft with relative accuracy. still need to be confirmed by studies. This enabled new route structure. which are available today in modern aircraft. such as identification. each under the responsibility of a different air traffic controller. position and altitude. radio voice communications and air routes based on ground navigation aids. as route spacing gains. In addition. New functions as RF legs. This is because the high proliferation of sectors leads to a reduction of the airspace volume assigned to each one of them. In the surveillance area.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 2 2. The solution is the use of area navigation (RNAV) in which routes are constructed from virtual waypoints independent of the terrestrial navigation aids.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 7 . The airspace structure is the direct result of these elements and includes a large number of control sectors. permit a better tracking of the ATC cleared route and thus reduce the likelihood of unwanted deviations from it. the current and foreseen traffic figures cannot be supported using this solution. Europe is currently introducing terminal area navigation procedures based on Precision RNAV (PRNAV). the current radar based air traffic control is considered mainly a tactical system. Its main elements are radar tracking. the only way to reduce the controller workload as traffic increases is to further subdivide the control sectors into smaller units. ground based navigation aids have supported for years a vast network of airways that. this concept imposes constraints to further expansion. Whilst this has worked for years. but in any case the limited availability of accurate information concerning airborne intent and the performance characteristics of the aircraft impedes anything in excess of short term extrapolations. The precision of this estimation has evolved from a manual calculation to a computer based one. In addition. Edition: 2. prediction of aircraft positions with enough accuracy to provide separation is only possible for short period with current tools. to a large extent. airlines are still not able to fully exploit the advanced onboard capabilities. Considering the techniques currently used and the saturation of the radio spectrum. will also bring large operational benefits.limitations Today’s Air Traffic Control (ATC) system relies on the same techniques as 50 years ago. On the other hand.

In addition. the current airspace organization does not offer sufficient flexibility to match users’ needs. This causes severe inconveniences to the airlines and by extension reduces the efficiency of the whole system. the availability of user-preferred routes is usually very limited.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 However. traffic surveillance on the airport surface is performed by the flight crews based primarily on the “see and be seen” principle to maintain safe separation. and so the existing initiatives at both sides of the Atlantic are directed to increasing integration between ground and airborne systems. In the surface operations area. In any case. the current increasing levels of automation in ground systems and the availability of advanced computer systems onboard cannot be used to their full capabilities. mainly due to the lack of integration between them. Finally. these constraints have not impeded that such a service. Strictly speaking. controllers can also use the taxiway lighting system and the stop bars5 to provide some kind of basic visual guidance to the aircraft. all aircraft. The lack of alternative routes offering an economic solution reduces the flow management function to the protection of the system from excessive demand by keeping the aircraft on the ground. the need for tactical resolution of conflicts dramatically reduces the capacity of the whole system and causes unacceptable delays in congested areas. FANS1/A. although A-SMGCS is gaining acceptance especially in major airports in ECAC. there are also some limitations that preclude the use of that information such as the compatibility of aircraft flight plan and trajectory information with ground based ATC tools. and control or regulation of. most airports still rely on the basic SMGCS concept. the inherent constraints associated with the current system design do not permit all the benefits expected from a more strategic airspace planning tool to be accrued. 4 Since the introduction of B-RNAV. Even with the introduction in the system of more strategic oriented elements such as the flow management unit. The SMGCS concept. signs and fixed lighting to navigate in the surface with the valuable help of traditional paper charts. The provision of this separation is performed by the ground controller who uses primarily visual cues to give 3 In addition to the availability of data. As a result. With all the above features. from the ground system perspective. In addition. consists of the provision of guidance to. problems associated with the guidance function are even increased when night or low visibility operations are in place. This situation should be solved in the coming years. ground vehicles and personnel on the movement area of an aerodrome. 5 Page 8 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. In addition. It does nothing to increase capacity and so is not sufficient to cope with the expected increase in air traffic demand over the coming years. This is due to the sector-based and fixed routes airspace architecture that does not offer enough alternatives to perform a real strategic airspace de-confliction task4. The guidance function is basically performed by air traffic controllers that give instructions to pilots to follow a cleared taxi route. and either the controller or the pilot has difficulty to see. which has been in operation for several years in oceanic areas with a basic but nevertheless useful configuration. future work is required do specify datalink applications to transfer sufficient data for a common understanding between ground and air systems of the required trajectory with sufficient accuracy to enable the negotiation of conflict free trajectories.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . In addition. the required information is currently available onboard and used by the flight crew through the flight management computers. as defined by ICAO. The pilot uses these aids and airfield markings. in airports with more complex layouts. The transmission of this information to the ground system depends only on the existence of an adequate data link communication service (and integration with the FMC and other avionics3). As an example. stop bars are not guidance elements although they delimit critical parts of the airports where aircraft cannot enter (stop & no entry indication) without an explicit instruction from the ATCO. the route structure has been optimised several times contributing in the recent years to a significant reduction in bottlenecks.

In addition. The adherence to operational procedures in conjunction with the basic surveillance function outlined before provide the means available for ATCOs and pilots in order to prevent collisions. Edition: 2. expeditious and efficient movement on the ground (control function). when fully exploited. [9].opportunities As explained in the previous section. This has been initially showed with the introduction of the B-RNAV route structure in en-route airspace and can be further exploited with the use of more advanced area navigation capabilities that will also benefit terminal areas. although the progressive increasing introduction of RNAV routes has begun to overcome this problem. ICAO. up-todate and accurate information [8].1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 9 . FAA. By the end of the time frame considered (2020). will allow decisions to be made by those most effected on the basis of a more comprehensive. The participation of all the actors in trajectory negotiation will permit an optimum solution among their particular interests and therefore to maximize the efficiency of the overall system. low visibility procedures based on current paradigms impose serious restrictions to airport throughput (reducing in worst cases airport movements to 1-2 per hour). 2. the reliance on ground navigational aids adds restrictions to the airspace structure. The process will follow collaborative decision making (CDM) principles and thus. Boeing and ATA) are all directed to a more co-operative system that will use intensive sharing of real-time information to achieve an accurate flight management from gate to gate. represent two thirds of the worldwide number of accidents. This basic SMGCS has demonstrated to be insufficient to cope with the growing number of runway incursions. The interchange of information regarding flight intent between air and ground units will enable better and more accurate flight planning capabilities in the strategic phase. The area navigation concept. In fact. This has lead to major incidents and accidents in Europe and the US in recent years. especially in complex airports layouts with high levels of traffic. has the potential to offer great flexibility in the use of the airspace resources. in terms of taxi capacity. this will enable improved ways of managing air traffic based on trajectory exchange and negotiation between all the actors. runway incursions and to ensure safe. Currently proposed solutions to the overall problem (EUROCONTROL. which have occurred during the taxi phase of the operation. Both pilots and controllers use radio communications to confirm positions of relevant traffic.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 instructions to the pilots. according to the SRC. Hence the current scenario is foreseen to adapt in the coming years in an evolutionary manner that provides the additional capacity and efficiency levels whilst safety is maintained or improved. Also.2 The future operational concept . the current ATM system presents serious difficulties in meeting the increase in demand expected in the coming years – this is due to the capacity constraints imposed by the current sector-based air traffic control concept which highly depends on tactical interventions to manage traffic conflicts. The AOC is in a position to make decisions based on fleet-wide objectives and advanced information made available via new ground based information systems as envisaged by the System Wide Information Management (SWIM) concept. Enhancements in flight planning (and re-planning) capabilities. are currently limited by the lack of information sharing between the different units involved. the number of accidents in these two locations. This will include a greater involvement of the Airline Operational Centre (AOC) in flight management activities. which could allow more predictable air traffic management. the integration of ground and air systems will play a major role and will act as a platform that enables development of further operational solutions as needs arise. This will facilitate the earlier resolution of conflicts between traffic and the higher degree of predictability in the evolution of the flight will support more accurate planning. In this evolution.

This will incorporate enhanced air-to-air surveillance functions with longer look-ahead capabilities that will increase the situational awareness of the flight crews. The document tries to maintain temporal coherence for the concepts and technologies.g. Stockholm Arlanda. The strategic planning capabilities that have been briefly summarized above do not preclude the need for tactical actions. the evolution of avionics required to support the transition from the current concept to this advanced concept is discussed in three steps: • • • 2007 – The current paradigm supported by the initial use of air-ground datalink applications and air-ground ADS-B. The need for an advanced concept of surface movement guidance and control system (ASMGCS) is also highlighted in the ATM 2000+ Strategy7 [8]. more ambitious plans to enable selfseparation (autonomous operations) are also envisaged in non-core areas. The industrial view is that these dates are optimistic. The dates are those used in the EUROCONTROL OCD. etc. 9 Introduction of more ambitious ASAS applications will require an agreement on the operational need. 2011-2019. 2011 – An intermediate concept based on increased flight planning and exchange of surveillance information including the introduction of early ASAS applications9. This will require a common understanding of trajectory between aircraft and ground systems and may require the definition of new datalink services. will improve the safety of the operations. In this sense. e. [9]. 7 Level I and II. still need to be addressed. New designs should enable the use of different types of routes as User Preferred Trajectories (UPT) and potentially autonomous operations in non-core areas by 2020. a dynamic use of the airspace resources will maximize the throughput of the system while enabling the achievement of users’ priorities. Paris CDG. 2. However.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 The trajectory negotiation will be supported by a greater flexibility of airspace use. In the airport surface. a certain degree of migration of separation assurance to the flight deck will take place with the introduction of Airborne Separation Assistance Systems (ASAS). Advanced Flight Management System (FMS) capabilities will constitute a main enabler for trajectory negotiation by the provision of the precise 4D trajectory. In addition. including industrial costs and operational safety. 6 Page 10 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. 5 and 6. This will contribute to minimize the occurrence of runway incursions and taxi conflicts and thus. and that the three dates should be considered as a range.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . the progressive evolution to an advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS) will enhance the traffic situation awareness in all weather conditions.3 A three step approach In sections 4. but with different operational concepts and approaches (Frankfurt. ASAS applications may support spacing and separation applications in which limited separation assurance is delegated to the flight deck6. 20072010. although several initiatives have been launched8 to derive an operational concept supporting these needs. The degree of separation transfer still needs to be determined and potential compatibility issues between ASAS and 4D trajectory concepts need to be addressed. A performance-based approach will simplify airspace procedures and structures and will enable efficient planning of airborne equipage installation. in that the contents of each epoch have roughly the same In certain areas or during a particular parts of the flight. 2020 – The target concept based on 4D trajectory negotiation (core area) and potentially autonomous operations in non-core area. Several issues. 8 Some European airports are implementing advanced surface systems based on current technological capabilities.). standardization work is still underway and a final solution has yet to be agreed. 2020+. The airspace optimisation will make better use of the advanced capabilities of modern aircraft.

10 11 12 Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) are not envisaged to be widespread in the timeframes considered. The text indicates where. Edition: 2. procedure.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 11 . a “non-normal” means of navigation. Section 3 discusses the evolution of physical architectures for avionics. The failure of a “Primary Means” of navigation may result in.GPWS 2007 VDL Mode 2 – AOA VOR/DME INS/GNSS/ABAS ILS/MLS/ GBAS-CAT I10 SBAS on some smaller & legacy aircraft11 DME/INS GNSS/ABAS ILS/MLS/GBAS-CAT II/III SBAS on many smaller & legacy aircraft Improved GPS/Galileo on some larger aircraft Mode S Elementary & Enhanced TAWS – PWS Package I ADS-B Out Mode S “Ext.33 kHz ACARS . This considers existing equipped aircraft but no retrofitting. from an industrial viewpoint. which satisfies the necessary levels of accuracy and integrity for a particular area. Each section considers the systems and services expected to be available on a new aircraft. or operation. It is noted that at any particular time the ATMs system may need to be capable of supporting aircraft from more than one epoch. route. Squitter” Package I ADS-B In (TIS-B) VDL Mode 2/ATN on some aircraft 2011 VDL Mode 2 / ATN VDL Mode 3 (USA / Decision pending) 2020 New Comm. System DME/INS/ILS GNSS/ABAS primary means Improved GPS/Galileo primary means12 GBAS-CAT III primary means (TIS-B) Package II ADS-B Out/In ISS with CDTI Long range conflict detection based on 4D trajectory management Table 1: Available technologies in each epoch in Core Area Before these sections.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 implementation date. or an alternate level of RNP. the inclusion of a concept or technology in a particular epoch is considered to be too optimistic. COMMUNICATION Current 8.FANS 1/A NAVIGATION NDB/VOR/DME INS/GNSS/ABAS ILS/MLS SURVEILLANCE PSR – SSR A/C ACAS II . the percentage of aircraft available with new functionality will be a key driver in benefit assessments. or require reversion to. Primary means defined as a means of navigation. The following table briefly summarises the key technologies available in each epoch.

IMA has many potential benefits including simplifying software upgrades. reliability and certification. sensors and actuators may be interfaced to buses.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 3 AVIONICS ARCHITECTURE EVOLUTION 3. at a high level. The use of IMA changes systems in a number of ways. an instance of a software implementation for IMA architecture. there may be no physical boundaries between applications. OEMs and commercial vendors alike. IMA is a distributed real-time computer network aboard an aircraft. functionality. and IMA architectures and standards are still evolving. extensibility and maintainability of the physical architecture. The aim of IMA is to bring the flexibility of distributed architectures to aircraft applications. For example. making it feasible to add new applications without changing the hardware. availability. but reconfiguration allows applications to employ different processors. and that the significant numbers of aircraft with existing architectures will remain in the fleet for up to 30 years. communicating via services provided by an operating system. A large trans-oceanic airplane may have about 50 systems and around 100 computers. and communications to use different buses to respond to system load or failures. It should also be noted that existing aircraft will not be retrofitted with IMA systems. These limitations. maintenance and operating costs. Furthermore. The avionics industry has witnessed a major shift toward IMA in recent years. a given number of functions or applications run on a processor. which presents significant challenges for standards organizations. The ACR specification addresses architectural considerations. With such a concept. the Avionics Computer Resource (ACR) defined in RTCA DO-255 [41] and ARINC Specification 653 [42] has the widest adoption in the avionics community. At any time. These federated systems are expensive to develop and certify. This architecture improves the reliability. Page 12 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. a function will be allocated to a particular processor.1 Current and next-future paradigms The avionics systems of commercial aircraft have become increasingly complex and sophisticated in order to meet the ever increasing performance and reliability requirements. ARINC Report 651 [43] establishes the overall philosophy of this new distributed paradigm and states the design guidelines. amongst others. but a desire to improve the cost. have led to research into an alternative approach known as Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA). This current philosophy of one box per function is close to reaching its limits in terms of cost.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . and give relatively poor resource utilization. Although a number of IMA architectures and standards have emerged. rather than linked directly to the hardware unit where they are used. whereas ARINC Specification 653 defines. It should be noted that this shift towards IMA was not driven by an evolution of the logical architecture or indeed operational concepts. ARINC Report 660 [44] recommends specific architectures for CNS/ATM avionics. and assisting in meeting requirements for maintenance free operating periods. this approach will also provide the potential for reducing the acquisition. survivability and extensibility of the overall system. They are also relatively inflexible.

deterministic scheduling regime. 3. The kernel controls scheduling of partitions through a defined. certification. acquisition. airframe manufactures and avionics developers. lowlevel I/O services. etc. and ACR-level health management services.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 3. Its purpose is to ensure that: • • • The execution of different applications does not interfere with the execution of any other application. guarantees the future of IMA. The operating system kernel services and the ACR itself must be qualified at or above the level of the most critical application allowed to reside on the ACR. Standardized interfaces to applications are provided. including development. would rely on the decisions taken onboard by the avionics and pilots instead of relying on the ATC as it is now. The consensus. 14 In areas where no external source of separation provision is present. In any case some basic rules will need to be follow and a minimum knowledge of the other participants will exist. An ACR will be configurable and will apply to a wide range of aircraft types. and maintenance costs. an unprecedented level of avionics reliability and availability is imposed. many of the proposed new functions. studies still need to demonstrate the benefits associated with this concept.2 Key elements of IMA architecture The Avionics Computer Resource (ACR) is an embedded generic computing platform that is able to host multiple applications (avionics functions). The partitioning mechanism underlies all aspects of the kernel.3 IMA supporters This standard for the next generation of avionics architecture is established as a consensus of the airline representatives. It also provides a means to detect and annunciate any attempts to violate separation. This is the case of the proposed airborne separation assistance functions (ASAS) that would migrate to some extent separation responsibility to the flight crew13. is the reduction of the total life cycle costs. safety. 3. schedule. The platform provides logical separation of applications present on the same ACR. human factors. first because of the potential new autonomous decisions and information gathering14. especially on the surveillance domain. and second because of the higher traffic density expected. along with the success of the first real implementations. which after all for new ATM/CNS systems. provides space (memory) and time (scheduling) protection for the applications as well as interrupts routing from a single source to the multiple applications.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 13 . controls communications between partitions and provides consistent time management services. This means that for implementing the new services required by the proposed ATM/CNS environment. Dedicated computer resources allocated to applications do not conflict or lead to memory. The operating system is a fundamental part of the ACR platform. or interrupt clashes. The reasons are twofold. from the operating point of view. 13 Extensive cost-effectiveness. This consensus is displayed by the above mentioned standards. In the future ATM/CNS environment. technical feasibility. Edition: 2. A key attribute of the ACR kernel is the requirement for a robust partition management mechanism.4 IMA development drivers The IMA development driver.

5 Features The main features of the new IMA architecture are: • • • Layered architecture using standard programming interface layers to hide hardware and applications from one another. Flexible scheduling to meet the deadlines of all the applications. This is called partitioning. Code re-use and portability. software and data communications for at least the next twenty years. Page 14 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. assisting the portability of applications between different platforms and also enabling the introduction of new hardware to replace obsolete architectures. This isolates the application not only from the underlying bus architecture but also from the underlying hardware architecture. modules and I/O devices. The standards support the expected evolution of the technology in the future. The definition of IMA considers the latest advances on reliable. IMA will be able to take advantage of this higher processor capacity. or application. They will be able to absorb advances in electronics.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . the concept of incremental certification can be used to considerably reduce the certification costs. Physical integration of networks. Protection mechanisms to allow resources like memory to be shared by multiple criticality level applications. which leaves space for future expansion. including the interactions between complex applications such as headup displays. These units may be interconnected. The back plane data bus as defined by the ARINC standard 659 [45] is not speed limited so it will adapt to higher future speeds. in-flight reconfiguration is not allowable for certification reasons). The expected evolution of the electronics is for physically smaller units due to advances in microelectronics and higher levels of processing power. These architectures take advantage for its implementation from the evolution of the electronics and software. New software advances will also be integrated in the IMA architecture.6 Advantages The IMA approach results in a reduced number of subsystems. facilitating a reduction in the number of deployed subsystems that are not fully utilized and providing a more efficient use of system resources. reduced weight and platform redundancy. Design for growth and change. Conventional aircraft systems are federated. Reconfiguration of applications in the modules on the ground (whilst the aircraft is not in use. with each major function. in a separate hardware unit. map display systems and weather radar displays. and also the latest structures for reaching the highest fault tolerance. but each is considered independently from the point of view of certification. This allows multiple applications to share and reuse the same computing resources. and to allow applications to be inserted/altered without impact on the rest of the system. Common processing subsystems. Software abstraction. for each viable configuration and when the system is upgraded. high throughput data communication architectures. but above everything else. IMA also facilitates support for applications that have ever-increasing levels of functionality. • • • • • • • 3.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 3.

and reusability built into the architecture. The AIMS consists of dual integrated cabinets that contain all of the central processing and input/output hardware to perform the following functions: • • • • • Flight Management Displays Navigation Central Maintenance Airplane Condition Monitoring Proposed Issue Page 15 Edition: 2. 3. Spatial Partitioning defines the isolation requirements for multiple applications running concurrently on the same computing platform. only the new added features need to be certified.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 The most important certification advantage is the incremental certification. Also in the military field the latest platforms are implementing versions of the IMA architecture with some differences mainly on the type of communication busses. extendibility.7 Special consideration areas For true systems integration. compatibility. they still reflect the “one system at a time” approach to certification. However they do not explicitly deal with issues such as IMA and.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . and reusing parts of the systems. Temporal Partitioning or scheduling is the assignment of defined time slots to each application in a way that no application can monopolise the processor longer than planned so other applications cannot meet their demands. the certification costs are drastically reduced. implicitly. the "brains" of the Boeing 777. As a consequence of these developments. In this model. which are enforced by the processor’s Memory Management Unit (MMU). 3. applications running in an IMA partition must not be able to deprive each other of shared application resources or those that are provided by the RTOS kernel. The Airplane Information Management System (AIMS) architecture implements the IMA concept with ARINC 629 data bus. Accepted practices in the aerospace industry are to assess systems independently for the purpose of certification. The ACR Specification defines two important concepts that are widely used in IMA: these are Spatial Partitioning and Temporal Partitioning. is actually the centrepiece of an advanced avionics system designed to meet the very high requirements for functionality. it is also starting to be implemented in a few small business aircraft. This is usually achieved through the use of different virtual memory contexts. This architecture. a new culture is required based on open systems with a set of inherent quality features such as conformance. in this way.8 Fleet adaptation The IMA architecture is being implemented in new major transport aircraft developed by Boeing and Airbus. The acceptance of incremental certification is the key to IMAs ability to deliver lower costs of ownership. Recent international standards such as ARP-4754 (SAE 1996) and the accompanying ARP-4761 are intended to deal with “complex and integrated systems” for commercial aircraft. and a stack for the application’s processes (the ARINC 653 term for a context of execution). robustness. maintainability and reliability required for a modern airliner. These contexts are referred to as partitions in ARINC 653 [42] and contain an application with its own heap for dynamic memory allocation. If a new application is introduced in the IMA system.

Page 16 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. operating system. The developments made for the 777 and subsequent versions of the B737 are also being reused for the C-130 Avionics Modernization Program and 767 Tanker. over a period of maybe 30 years. utility software. input/output ports and built-in test. VIA system will be also incorporated onto the C-5M and will host the flight management system. Versatile Integrated Avionics (VIA) is a spin-off of from AIMS that has been used in the 737600/700/800 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-90/95. chassis.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 • • • • • Flight Deck Communications Thrust Management Digital Flight Data Engine Data Interface Data Conversion Gateway By eliminating the need for separate LRUs for each subsystem. during which the percentage of the world fleet equipped with IMA will grow. The new Airbus 380 has an extended IMA concept based on open standards using ARINC 600 modules interconnected by an AFDX (Avionics Full Duplex Ethernet) network and using standard Application Programming Interface (API) allowing the integration of applications from different vendors on the same hardware. The system will also provide growth potential for the aircraft to meet future GATM requirements by allowing the military to take advantage of commercial upgrades. AIMS also exploits advanced design technologies: dual lock-step high-speed processing. the AIMS concept saves significant weight. The concept is also starting to be implemented in small aircraft. However. flight controls. thus allowing the integration of more system functions in a single logical processor channel while creating a system with extremely high reliability and fault tolerance. robust software partitioning and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The reality is therefore that IMA is not an enabler for the OATA architecture based around 2011. On the A380 the IMA includes applications in the following domains: Cockpit Energy Cabin Utilities It is expected that all new large transport aircraft developed from now on will adhere to IMA.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . space and power consumption on board the airplane while improving overall system reliability and maintainability. and the future air navigation system (FANS-1) communication management software. processor. each with its own power supply. until almost all the transport airplanes are IMA compliant. meaning that the IMA concept is spreading and confirming that the whole industry supports this architecture. but its importance will grow for logical architectures for 2020 and beyond. mission software. there is going to be a long period in which the new IMA architecture will coexist with the classic federated architecture. The IMA concept is also being ported to military platforms like the JSF and the Grippen.

This issue. Currently. Creation of larger control sectors may not be feasible in high complexity control areas. ACL. ATIS). would allow a potential reduction in the demand of voice frequencies. [5]. which will occur in the following years. This will decrease controllers R/T workload and thus will bring immediate safety benefits. 4. The use of printers and/or datalink displays will help the flight crew to recall the information at any time [12]. if not resolved before. These facts could eventually permit the creation of larger control sectors in some areas16 and thus. The progressive implementation of concepts based mainly on current aircraft equipage will materialize. In addition. However. Edition: 2. ATCOs will be provided with capabilities to perform routine tasks such as issuing of clearances and provision of information. [2]. which is obliging the airlines to choose between them. This reduction will be possible since the use of digital information eliminates the need for writing down the data. Congestion of the frequencies used for voice communications will also be diminished. [9]. will also contribute to a reduction in pilot’s workload.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 17 . this data link system is seen as a main enabler for a wider interchange of information between air and ground units. Through this epoch. data link configuration foreseen for continental areas in the 2007 epoch could experience some interoperability problems with that used in oceanic areas. it is expected that a progressive harmonization and simplification of airspace structure will occur. [3]. existing initiatives in Europe and the United States will begin to show results by this time. [8]. The controller will concentrate his effort on managing traffic rather than spending time in routine RT communications with the pilot. making possible a reduction in routine voice communications between the flight deck and the air traffic controllers (ATCOs). ACM. Effort is required to facilitate the integration of both configurations by this time. 15 16 DSC supports Core / Oceanic transition. DCL. In terminal areas. there is no interoperability in air or on ground between the oceanic system. will probably slow the materialization of the expected benefits. FANS. while further levels of automation will be reached in ground systems [1]. the automation of services that are currently provided by voice. In any case. introduction of a more dynamic airspace allocation through adaptation of sectors to variations in traffic flows (in both en-route and TMA) will take place [69]. without resorting to R/T communications. providing more efficient SIDs and STARs and optimised sectorisation. and DSC15) will support an increased level of automation in routine controller to pilot tasks. such as DOTIS (METAR. In addition. will contribute to a safer operation.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 4 AVIONICS ARCHITECTURE FOR 2007 4.1 Communications The path towards a more strategic ATM system will be facilitated by the introduction of a data link for non time-critical communications in continental en-route and terminal areas.1. It seems obvious that airlines would be reluctant to install two different data link equipments to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. the use of automation in the delivery of routine messages will also reduce the likelihood of misunderstandings between the pilot and the controller and thus. one for continental areas and another for the oceanic airspace. The airspace organization will be more adapted to aircraft performance capabilities. The introduction of basic datalink services (DLIC.1 Operational context The operational scenario for 2007 will not differ significantly from that in operation today. [4]. However. and ATN systems.

The introduction of data link communications will not eliminate the need for voice communications. by permitting an important growth in air traffic movements without penalizing safety levels. the creation of new control sectors in highly congested areas. the lack of integration of data link systems with other airborne equipments will not allow for the exploitation of all the benefits expected from it. 19 18 No performance requirements are available yet. The benefits in capacity and efficiency will be increased with the introduction of new route alternatives based on this concept. Initiatives to increase the number of VHF channels available could potentially enable. and a great step forward could be achieved if these operational advantages are exploited. Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) has been mandatory for en-route airspace since 1998 while Precision RNAV (P-RNAV) is already in use in some terminal airspace. depending upon the business case and in particular transition costs interim steps to 4D-RNAV may be skipped. This will be achieved by using a more precise air navigation. in turn. The high level RNAV performance requirements are summarised in Table 2 [60]. since both B-RNAV and P-RNAV have relaxed integrity requirements over RNP RNAV. For instance. Mandatory equipage orders are in place today in Europe and so most aircraft will be fitted to fly over these areas [3]. However. in the 2007 epoch.2 Navigation In relation to the airspace organization. Existing plans [14] include the replacement of B-RNAV and P-RNAV by RNPRNAV for en-route and terminal areas respectively. Function 95% containment 99. some current modern aircraft capabilities exceed the requirements needed for this concept. in particular the types of function support may change but the values specified in this table may need to be tightened if RNP-RNAV was to be supported by a single system. 6 seconds is a common estimate but requires validation. The introduction of 4D RNAV is not foreseen until 2020. the loading of flight plan-related data into the FMC will be only enabled in an integrated solution. Page 18 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. [36]. in particular P-RNAV can enable the restructuring of terminal airspace to take account of environmental concerns [14].1. [37]. 4.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . additional implementation of RNAV procedures will take place by 2007. 17 The requirements for RNP-RNAV are subject to change. conventional procedures will still be in place (based on conventional navaids) for contingency and emergency situations. However this will not be achieved until at least 2011+ epoch (likely circa 2015) and therefore. This could also assist in making the airlines more supportive of the introduction of new ATM concepts.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 In addition. which will have to wait until the integration becomes real in the following years.9% containment System integrity (per Flight Hour) Continuity of Function (failure per flight Hour) Required Time of Arrival B-RNAV 5 NM 10-4 P-RNAV 1 NM 10-5 RNP-RNAV17 RNP 2xRNP 10-5 10-5 En-route (30 sec) 4D RNAV18 RNP 2xRNP TBD TBD Terminal TBD19) (6 Table 2: RNAV System Functional Performance – Minimum Requirements Safety benefits associated with RNAV concept will also materialize in this epoch. which in addition. [4]. will also improve the effectiveness of conflict detection and resolution tools. In fact. a wide use of BRNAV for en-route and P-RNAV for busy terminal airspace is envisaged. [15].

In fact. As a result of an increasing number of aircraft capable of broadcasting airborne information. via datalink. The tactical system will continue to be in place in 2007. where no radar coverage exists. the foreseen evolution will improve traditional services with the introduction of more advanced radars on the ground [6]. a significant proportion of the fleet should be equipped to realize this benefit [11]. etc. will enable improved accuracy of trajectory predictions which will also need a better knowledge of the meteorological conditions (wind component. The downlink of airborne parameters (DAPs) will improve the quality of the information displayed to the controller. [30]. by aircraft flying the same route. but also other interesting data such as meteorological information. monitoring tools and safety nets (AMAN. As a long-term effect. [13]. [27]. In addition to the information available for the controller. although benefits associated with widespread equipage (with required functionalities) are not expected until 2011 and may require a mandate. According to current forecasts. In summary. The forecast report will then be used by ground ATC systems and could even be uploaded to other airborne aircraft using uplink information services. However. full benefits of the enhanced surveillance are expected to be realized in future timeframes.1. temperature. magnetic heading. These applications will make use of ADS surveillance in conjunction with existing radar information to provide multiple coverage in selected areas. a better knowledge of aircraft intentions will enhance ground alert functions. STCA. waypoints selection. This information will be used as an initial enhancement to the existing ATC surveillance functions. This information will include not only aircraft position and intent. surveillance is expected to be provided as of now. vertical rate and wind vector. this could lead to a reduction in infrastructure cost but prior to this. [13]. Downlink of other DAPs may bring additional benefit but may also overload the controller [10]. MTCD). bringing greater capacity and efficiency benefits and facilitating the transition to a performance based system that is widely recognized as the preferred means to avoid the inflexibility and slow changeability of equipment mandates for airspace operation. Initial applications (CAP services) will make specific flight information available to the controller: airspeed. the availability of data such as aircraft type. but will provide increasing levels of automation. there may be a ground-based database of aircraft parameters (SAP) to be used by several different ground functions. terminal and airport areas (ADSB-ACC/ TMA/ APT).3 Surveillance In the surveillance area. additional surveillance coverage will be offered in en-route. [10]. and turbulence) of the environment where the aircraft will be flown.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 19 . Edition: 2. [7]. Advanced meteorological models can provide these data with great accuracy but need recent observations to update the previous results. reducing the rate of false alarms and providing warnings with greater anticipation [11]. 4. by using periodic transmission of aircraft position from the flight deck to ATC via voice and FANS ADS-C applications. an important percentage of the fleet (12-15% w/o retrofit) [66] is expected to be RNP-capable by 2007. selected flight level. On the other hand.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Efforts are currently underway to accelerate the introduction of more advanced RNP-RNAV concepts. weight. new applications and services will not dramatically change the way that ATM is performed today. the download of airborne parameters will provide additional data to enhance ground system functions (ADS-B-ADD application) such as trajectory prediction. For instance. These data can be provided. Over remote and oceanic areas. but with better trajectory prediction and tracking capabilities and enhanced safety nets available for the controller.

As a function enabled by this enhanced surveillance. Initially it is not expected that the whole movement area (including aprons) will be covered. Thus. [48]. This will constitute a compromise between technical performances offered by the technology implemented in this epoch and the need for safer airport surface operations. a reliable detection of runway incursions and other dangerous situations will be available. Page 20 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. as it is not only necessary to design and certify the new LRU with its connections. according to the ICAO definition. enabled through GNSS. a smooth transition to a more advanced SMGCS will take place during this epoch20. This system. guidance. surveillance and control to aircraft and affected vehicles in order to maintain movement rates under all local weather conditions within the Aerodrome Visibility Operational Level (AVOL). position and identity of all vehicles in the manoeuvring area. A-SMGCS will provide pilots. but only those that can be considered as the more hazardous (runway incursions). This will reduce the contribution of runway incursions to aviation accidents and thus.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 4. improve the safety level of the operations22. but this may be achieved later by Level III systems. especially those that happen in low visibility conditions. but also to physically replace all the other LRUs that need to provide additional data to the new equipment. will significantly improve safety levels of the overall system. controllers and ground vehicles drivers with enhanced surface traffic awareness. As envisioned for this epoch the control function will be performed by ATCOs and thus main requirements will be placed in the ground system. In this epoch the initial forms of A-SMGCS surveillance and control functions will be implemented (level I and II). etc. 23 22 The taxi route planning function shall determine the best route to users. These systems will contribute to enhanced situational awareness of pilots while navigating on the airport surface. Also related to the reduction of runway incursions is the introduction of new means of guidance onboard such as those provided by the use of moving maps with depiction of ownship position over an airport layout representation. whilst maintaining the required level of safety [47]. 4. On the other hand. [50]. ground rules and potential conflict with other mobiles. The enhanced surveillance function will assist the controller by complimenting his visual observation with reliable information about the airport layout. 20 21 Implementation is likely to be driven by local airport issues and will need to be supported by a sufficient business case. [49].1. The system will be capable of alerting the controllers in due time and should present a reduced number of false alerts. No improvements on the taxi route planning function23 are expected to appear during this epoch. position and identity of all aircraft in the movement area. The avionics architecture installed in these airplanes assigns different functionalities to particular Line Replacement Units (LRUs).1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .4 Airport Operations In the airport surface operations. placing great physical and economical constraints on the implementation of new functionalities – leading to a very slow implementation of new functionalities. the control function will not detect all possible conflicts within the manoeuvring area21. This control function will anticipate the detection and resolution of conflicts and thus will. This is calculated by minimizing the delay according to planning. the occurrence of navigation mistakes. will be reduced. will provide routing.2 Impact on avionics The 2007 commercial aircraft fleet will be composed of the same aircraft in use today.

Existing plans for implementation of the reduced spacing contemplate the extension of the 8. [4]. will need to be supplied in the congested VHF band.2. the proposed solution for voice and data communications differs slightly from that of EUROCONTROL. In addition. problems associated with a timely implementation of that solution have led to changes in the initial plans and an interim solution based in 8.1. However.33 KHz spacing will be expanded over the following years to cover most of the European airspace. ATC Communication Management (ACM) Edition: 2. It is expected that the application areas of the 8.1 Voice By 2007 routine voice communications could start to diminish because of the increased use of data links for non time-critical applications. Provides automated assistance to the Aircrew and ATCO for conducting the transfer of all ATC communications.2 Data The following table summarizes the datalink applications and services expected for 2007 epoch. 4. [27]. particular terminal areas and designated airspaces will also be included as required. This would reduce controllers’ workload and enhance the system’s safety and efficiency because of the reduced opportunities for communication errors [2].33 kHz is still likely to be implemented in the short term.2. Therefore. by this time frame.33 kHz spacing reduction. [5].33 kHz) in determined areas of Europe.33 kHz program is based on the progressive introduction of reduced channel separation (from 25 kHz to 8.33 kHz area currently covers airspace above FL 245 controlled by 29 different states. This expansion will not have a big impact on the communication avionics since most aircraft in the target areas are expected to be equipped by previous mandates [51]. In that sense. both vertically and horizontally. The 8. The system would also integrate data communications. the increase of air traffic will require additional voice channels that. Datalink Application Controller to Pilot Datalink Communications (CPDLC) Datalink Services ATC Clearance Message (ACL) Description Specifies the aircraft/ATCC dialogue procedures using air/ground data communications.33 kHz program aims to relieve the voice radio channels congestion to some extent. In fact. the FAA has launched the NEXCOM program to develop the air to ground radio communication system to be used in the National Airspace System for air traffic control.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 21 .33 kHz area to cover the airspace above FL 195 by this timeframe. It further describes the rules for the combination of voice and data link communications and abnormal mode requirements and procedures [12]. data communications will not completely substitute voice communications. [3]. Within this program. the FAA has decided to move directly to digital voice communications instead of using 8. the 8. The 8.1. However. [27]. both the voice channel and the data channel [12]. In particular. harmonization in this area should be recognized as a need. These changes have required the airlines to equip their aircraft with new receptors capable of working in such an environment.2. In the US.1 Communications 4.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 4.

the costs associated with an integrated avionics solution based on ATN and the definition of minimum required capabilities could also contribute to delay the implementation schedule in excess of 2007. when available [2]. specifically appropriate to the departure.. in order to provide ATS datalink services a significant number of Area Control Centres (ACCs) should be equipped to realize the benefits associated with these services. METAR and NOTAMs /SNOWTAMS. In turn. VDL2/ATN is likely to be in use in the US in the 2009/10 timeframe [2]. will drive datalink equipage in Europe through the use of Pioneer Programmes and equipage incentives. Provides assistance for requesting and obtaining downstream ATCC clearances or information [12]. and its successor CASCADE. adoption of non-integrated solutions could dilute the business case for integrated solution since some of the benefits will already have been achieved. Meanwhile in the United States. It is compatible with ACARS message applications and ATN applications [53]. this program is now being terminated. The higher data transfer rate offered by VDL Mode 2 allows an important reduction in the needed frequencies when compared with traditional low speed ACARS VHF data links. the FAA has been running the CPDLC Build 1/1A program with a similar solution. Current implementation plans of ground stations could delay the widespread use of ATS datalink services. The Link2000+ programme. [52]. These do not include urgency or safety critical messages that will continue to be interchanged using voice channels. the ATN/VDL Mode 2 communications solution needs to be supported by the correspondent ground infrastructure. even though the voice and data channels will be operated in different frequencies. supported a/g datalink services.. departure airport and EOBT. Datalink – Flight Information Service (D-FIS) Data Link Operational Terminal Information Service (D-OTIS)24 Context Management (CM) Datalink Initiation Capability (DLIC) Table 3: Datalink services expected in 2007 epoch As stated above. In particular. data communications are expected to play a major role in the transmission of routine information exchanges. In addition. [27].Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Datalink Application Datalink Services Departure Clearance (DCL) Downstream Clearance (DSC) Description Provides automated assistance for requesting and delivering departure information and clearance [12]. Page 22 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. Following information is provided to the ground system: airframe id. this solution should allow a considerable increase in frequency capacity. Moreover. and has implemented the services in Miami. approach and landing phases of flight [12]. Regarding implementation. VDL Mode 2 is a high speed VHF data link. Provides Aircrew with automated assistance in requesting and delivering compiled met and operational flight information derived from ATIS. [27].33 kHz voice communications.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . A data link solution based on VDL Mode 2 over ATN has been demonstrated within the scope of the Link2000+ program and implemented in Maastricht. [27]. 24 Only D-ATIS is expected by 2007 epoch. when paired with 8. aircraft id. This service is a pre-requisite to the operational datalink services and allows flight plan / address association in the ATC system.

only non-radar procedures for ATC are available. some aircraft could use HFDL as their sole oceanic data link medium. In the trials. In conjunction with the use of two datalink applications (ADS and CPDLC). In addition. modern navigation systems (GNSS. In the field of AOC communications. However. Until the ATN becomes available. some pre-operational trials have been conducted in the North Atlantic area. Inertial Navigation System (INS) also provides a PVT-like solution without time. the traditional ACARS system limitations can be overtaken with the introduction of AOA. those aircraft equipped with VDL Mode 2 radios are prime candidates to use the AOA solution. 4. FANS avionics allow the aircraft to transmit its position (and additional data) to ground stations. The most general navigation solution provided by such systems is the so-called 4D position or PVT (Position-Velocity-Time). Regarding HF data link communications (HFDL). However. The subtle differences between the FANS1/A and ATN HMIs mean that it is unsafe to have both supported in the cockpit. the only option to use FANS data link applications has been based on the existing ACARS system. it is expected that voice reports will no longer be required in those areas in the short term. The same applies to approach procedures that are based on the guidance provided by ILS (and MLS in a few airports). However. AOA is the use of the VDL Mode 2 physical and data link layer to transmit ACARS data to and from equipped aircraft over VHF frequencies. an additional existing method for data transmission is the use of satellite based communications. 4.500). VOR/DME) that provide guidance but no position data.2. This is supported by considering the large number of aircraft already equipped with FANS avionics (over 1. neither velocity nor time accuracy are relevant for B-RNAV and P-RNAV procedures.2 Navigation As stated in the operational context section. FANS based operations have been established along oceanic and remote routes where. in fact.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 In the interim stage. this will constitute an interim solution since AOA is not ATN compliant. In particular. by means of an avionics package known as FANS-1/A. enabling them to interchange messages with existing ground-based ACARS hosts. the navigation scenario by 2007 can be characterized by the mandatory application of B-RNAV in the en-route phase plus a widespread implementation of P-RNAV in many terminal areas [14]. a solution for continental areas that considers existing FANS-1/A capabilities is expected to constitute a good way to materialize the benefits associated with the operational use of data link applications. [37].2. so the baseline PositionVelocity-Time (PVT) navigation function will only be required to provide barometric altitude in Edition: 2.2. in general. savings associated with an increasing use of HF data link for AOC communications could foster the introduction of HFDL. its elevated costs are slowing its widespread use in other airspace. [15].1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 23 . the HFDL has been used to downlink FMS-generated Waypoint Position Reports (WPR) for ATS use. [54]. The system is also capable of managing some basic ATC applications as DCL and ATIS. Although not modern. HFDL gaining approval as primary oceanic communications medium. Based on the results of these trials. In addition. According to existing EUROCONTROL RNAV requirements. [36]. this solution will enable the global use of data link communications by solving the interoperability problem associated with trans-oceanic flights. The following paragraphs introduce the avionics foreseen in that epoch.1 Position-Velocity-Time Conventional navigation has been based exclusively on navigation aids (NDB. accommodation needs to be supported by dual stacks on the ground. DME/DME multilateration) provide position (coordinates) instead of guidance. Over oceanic airspace. It is expected that many airlines will introduce this system by 2007.

in addition to the navigation signals. Jeppesen Navigation Database).2. the current GNSS implementations (GPS and GLONASS) lack integrity by themselves25 and so cannot provide a sole means. The use of Airborne Augmentation Systems (ABAS). It is noted that by 2007. Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). adding integrity and improved accuracy and availability to current GNSS implementations. In fact.2. like EGNOS in Europe. However.2.1. SBAS may be attractive to some of the smaller and older aircraft that do not have a good inertial system. some aircraft will perform RNAV based on just DME and some on just GNSS.g. No time provided in 2D RNAV. up to the required level for APV II operations. However. by 2007 it is anticipated that LNAV/RNAV approaches using Baro-VNAV and APV I approaches supported by SBAS will constitute the standard solution [23]. waypoints.2. will still be in place in 2007 timeframe. An important issue to be considered regarding the PVT function is that. standardization efforts remain to be accomplished to address important issues such as airborne/ground database compatibility and update mechanisms. of navigation position determination in core areas. 27 Page 24 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. The flight crew will be the only responsible for manipulating data (e. navigation databases will only be manipulated while the aircraft is on the ground.2. entering waypoints) when the aircraft is airborne. By 2007. and commercial products already exist based on this specification (e.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . These solutions constitute an important enabler for low RNP values. On the other hand. and GNSS in all areas. In particular.2 Guidance Conventional navigation methods restrict airlines to follow particular airways defined by the ground position of the respective navigation aids. RNAV procedures are based on external aids (DME/DME and GNSS) that provide position data. so the onboard computer has to provide guidance in order to navigate. Limited privileges to modify the navigation database will be granted to them. GNSS is expected to be almost always present in the navigation solution through different techniques of multi-sensor integration.3.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 all phases of flight. widespread implementation of APV II approaches is not likely to occur until 2011. Approved RNAV procedures will 25 26 GPS is currently used with integrity monitoring functions such as RAIM discussed in Section 4. PVT is used here as a general term as defined in 4.g. The PVT function will reside in the RNAV or FMS computers. plus 2D positioning for en-route and terminal phases. This capability frees capable aircraft from the restrictions imposed from traditional airways.2. On the other hand. Triple redundancy INS/IRS systems are still likely to be required for the foreseeable future (although they may be replaced by DME/DME based redundancy over continental areas soon after 2007) [16]. but is not attractive for the new aircraft (including B737. Although the data structure and transfer methods are specified in ARINC Specification 424 [35]. computing the solution from the following navigation sensors: • • • VOR/DME and multilateration DME/DME in continental areas. A320) where the use of INS/IRS leads to improved RNP compliance. giving the airlines the responsibility of ensuring data integrity and validity prior to departure26. INS in oceanic and remote areas. 4. For RNAV procedures. procedures etc) is needed to reach the solution. other information (a navigation database of navaid reference positions. but a primary means. formed by inertial augmentations as well as RAIM. the guidance function is computed synthetically from the 2D PVT27 solution and navigation data (by FMS or RNAV computer). are also expected to be in service by 2007.

integrity requirements impose serious constraints on that equipment in terms of reliability. with the electronic moving map displays. The first certification of GPS-based GBAS for GLS CAT I may occur by this timeframe (likely 2009-2011). Edition: 2.2. hence the need for augmentations (including receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)).Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 only rely on lateral guidance (LNAV). will at a minimum look HSI-like. 4.3 Integrity Monitoring The integrity of the functions described in the previous sections. Since multi-sensor PVT solution is performed by the RNAV computer or the FMS. they are not providing guidance to navigate the surface of the airport but enhancing situational awareness of the flight crew to perform this guidance task 28[63].2. Taxiway maps and parking stand information and NOTAMS should be available (with required integrity and accuracy) to flight crews in order to navigate around the airport surface.2. However. would need to be resolved) with enhanced accuracy. It should be noted that. although GLS will be no means be widespread. as currently defined. Airport databases. These devices. The current aircraft fleet has capability well beyond this minimum. at this stage. the use of electronic devices such an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) is expected to be widespread in this epoch. the airport guidance system does not show the position of other airplanes.). usually leading to double or triple redundancy. conventional guidance will still be provided by means ILS CAT I/II/III. integrity. 4. although MLS is not expected to become a widespread technology. The multi-sensor approach allows improved PVT accuracy and integrity. will also be affected by this considerations. By 2007 navigation data integrity will depend on both the database provider and the airline. As stated before. although liability issues remain to be solved.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 25 .4 Flight Control Flight control includes all the functions needed to sense and drive the aircraft dynamics in order to fly the intended trajectory. but RAIM techniques are required to perform fault detection and exclusion (FDE) onboard. depends on the integrity of the navigation signals as well as on the integrity of the navigation data used to compute the PVT solution and synthetic guidance. that will not necessary be part of the navigation database. over a moving map showing airport layout information. In particular. Since non-RNAV procedures will be available for contingency and emergency situations. Conventional navigation systems provide the required integrity level for the flight phase for which they are intended while current GNSS implementations (GPS and GLONASS) do not. The main functions are: 28 GBAS CAT II/III would be required for getting down to the ground. such as antenna locations. while the vertical guidance will look CDI-like.2. The main horizontal guidance function. whether analogical or synthetic. availability and continuity. conventional guidance provided by current VOR/DME will still exist as a backup (NDB may already have been decommissioned in some areas by this date. leading to greater efficiency and safety when following ATC instructions. although a great percentage of installed RNAV equipment will also be capable of providing vertical guidance [39]. A great benefit of GBAS is the possibility of providing ground guidance for taxi operations (although some issues on the suitability of GBAS for surface operations. have the potential to depict the own-ship position derived from GNSS / GBAS. For precision approach. assuming that the required data integrity can be achieved. Current GBAS coverage does not necessarily extend down to the airport surface. ADF may not be removed due to the need to support operations in areas other than core Europe. this would contribute to enhanced guidance functionality within the A-SMGCS concept. Currently. A few very constrained airports could decide to install MLS.

The level of capability varies from basic RNAV systems. The AOA data link will be used by 2007 to upload flight plans into the flight deck from the airline respective AOC. flight level selection.2. STARS and approaches. they provide supplemental situational awareness for onground and near ground operation (autoland).2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .2. the performance management function also monitors and tunes the internal performance model so that the required accuracy regarding performance computations is guaranteed along the aircraft service life. and fault isolation functions.6 Aircraft Performance Management Performance management is a function implemented by the FMS. which in turn has contributed to improved navigation accuracy.2. airways. Flight control automation has evolved in such a way in present years that almost all flight control functions have been transferred to the Flight Control Computer (FCC) during most flight phases.7 Flight Management The flight management computer system (FMC or FMS) can be considered as the avionics key element. 4. since current FCCs already exceed the needed performance. the aircraft flight envelope model enables the possibility of surveying whether the aircraft dynamics are within the appropriate safety margins regarding structural and operational flight limitations.2. As the aircraft performance degrades with service time. The flight management system provides navigation capability applicable to SIDs. based upon internal models of aircraft performance. It is not expected that significant differences when compared with the current situation will occur in this area. monitoring.[23] 4. and will (as a minimum) include 3D trajectory planning capabilities. 4.2. Automatic flight control technologies. The flight management system provides a multi-sensor navigation capability. airspeed. depending upon the sophistication of the sensor selection. In 2007 the flight planning functions will be implemented either in the FMC or in the RNAV computer (it could also be a GNU or GNLU). these systems also include trajectory prediction capability. The flight plan may be entered manually or uploaded via data link in suitably equipped aircraft. Typically. subject to a variety of constraints.3 NM capability or Page 26 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. Based on precise aircraft performance models. Command the aerodynamic control surfaces and throttle position. together with flight routes to the destination and alternate airport. With sufficient ground-based navaids (VOR and/or DME). to RNP capable systems with time of arrival control. the flight management system can achieve RNP 0. based on advanced sensing and very precise aircraft dynamics models. with strategic and tactical flight planning capability. the FMS is capable of computing optimised flight profiles minimizing operational costs or meeting some other criterion. Typically. have achieved a considerable reduction in the flight technical error (FTE). The performance of the flight management navigation function is dependent upon the navigation infrastructure. aerodynamic configuration and thrust setting. It is a complex navigation function that currently integrates all the above functionalities [39]. As part of the underlying aircraft performance model. It is not expected that significant differences when compared with the current situation will occur in this area.5 Flight Planning Flight planning capabilities include waypoint editing. selection of departure and arrival procedures.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 • • Sensing aircraft attitude. or GNSS satellite coverage.

and hence will not adopt this technology by this timeframe. the expected flight management functions will allow advanced features. 4. and provide augmented ground surveillance. their installation is more complex than those covering only Elementary Surveillance since they need to interface with several other functionalities on the flight deck to obtain the information to be transmitted. the majority of the commercial aircraft fleet will be equipped with FMS. Mode S Elementary Surveillance will be closely followed in time in the core ECAC airspace by Mode S Enhanced Surveillance. However. It is also worth mentioning that some countries may choose to jump directly to Mode S Enhanced Surveillance.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 27 . the unique 24bit address and the ability to extract flight identity (call sign) and flight status. This is achieved by installation of wiring between the Mode S transponder (ELS/EHS capable) and airborne Edition: 2.2. With no external navigation reference. without a corresponding RNP. Although the transponders are not expensive. The US and the rest of Europe. The main feature that separates Mode S from the current SSR Mode A/C is the assignment of a unique 24-bit address code to each aircraft. but it will certainly be in a very advanced state of implementation. the on-board inertial reference systems provide sufficient capability for oceanic/remote operations and short-duration domestic operations. and its response unambiguously identified. It is also anticipated that new commercial aircraft purchased in this timeframe will be capable of supporting the more stringent Required Navigation Performance Area Navigation (RNPRNAV) requirements. There are currently certified Mode S Enhanced Surveillance transponders.[10].Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 better. by which means interrogations can be directed to a particular aircraft. The installation of Mode S Elementary Surveillance in the core ECAC airspace is driven by the saturation of the current SSR Mode A/C capabilities caused by the very high traffic concentration in this area. are relatively inexpensive to install. do not present such an urgent need. These transponders already exist and have been certified. For those equipped with FMS. velocity and active flight plan. while the number of airplanes not equipped with either of these systems will not be significant. These systems utilize onboard inertial reference systems (IRS) and ground-based navaids to provide navigation capability. including required time of arrival (RTOA) (see Table 9). [25] Mode S Elementary Surveillance is fully compatible with SSR Mode A/C. Most new flight management systems support a moving map display that depicts aircraft position.[40] By 2007.3.2. fully compatible with both SSR Mode A/C and Mode S Elementary Surveillance.3 Surveillance 4. either because of the wider geographical distribution of their airports or the lower overall amount of traffic (or both). It may not be completely operational by 2007. such as optimised vertical flight profiles to perform Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs) and other noise abatement procedures. This provides significant situational awareness for the flight crew. but provides a much more effective utilization of the available bandwidth. improved resolution of reported altitude (25ft rather than 100ft). there will be still a mix of new generation aircraft equipped with FMS and other aircraft that nevertheless have area navigation capabilities by means of an RNAV computer.1 Traffic By 2007 most aircraft flying in the core ECAC airspace will be equipped with Mode S Elementary Surveillance compatible transponders (some aircraft will be provided with exemptions to the mandate). especially when combined with ACAS and terrain avoidance functions listed under surveillance. Older flight management systems provide RNAV capability. instead of adopting an intermediate step with the Elementary Surveillance. where the integrity of the function is directly tied to the integrity of the ground-based navaids.

This requires integration between the surveillance equipment and the FMS. In particular. position and speed uncertainty. Ground Speed.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 peripherals (such as the MMR. Both work on the principle of selective interrogation and are intended to augment the ground surveillance capabilities. etc. Roll Angle. IAS/Mach number. As mentioned above.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . which is the potential source of most of the above data [30]. trajectory intention via precise way point definition. Enhanced Surveillance transponders will transmit data obtained from the FMS.[10] Boeing and Airbus are providing both levels of functionality in new-build aircraft. The Selected parameters for initial implementation of Mode S enhanced surveillance in Europe are the following [12]: • • • • • • • • Magnetic Heading. ADS-B-Out is a surveillance data source by means of which. Inertial Reference Unit and the Mode S control panel navigation function. on-board data to other users equipped to receive the signal. known as Controller Access Parameters (CAPs). Mode S Elementary Surveillance therefore constitutes a significant improvement of the Air Traffic Surveillance system in dense traffic areas. additional means of surveillance will be available in this time frame. but since at least one core-European country is committed to a mandate for enhanced surveillance. On the other hand. IRS and FCU). The previous reasoning about the Mode S Elementary Surveillance implementation outside the core ECAC area is also valid for the Enhanced Surveillance. Track Angle Rate. ADS-B-Out represents a quantum leap as it supplements the position and time data with ground and air speed vectors. Mode S Enhanced Surveillance consists of Elementary Surveillance supplemented by the extraction of airborne parameters known as Downlink Airborne Parameters (DAPs) to be used in the ground Air Traffic Management systems. known as System Access Parameters (SAPs) [12]. This it is not overly difficult for modern aircraft. Although Mode S Enhanced Surveillance already provides position information (through the associated SSR). and some are for (ATM) system function enhancements. The following table summarizes surveillance applications expected in 2007. not those on board. aircraft automatically provide. Mode S Elementary Surveillance enables the use of the unique 24-bit aircraft address for selective interrogation and allows the aircraft identity to be acquired from the aircraft. In addition to Elementary and Enhanced Surveillance. Page 28 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. Some parameters are for display to controllers. weather information. but would be more so for analogue aircraft where data may not even be available. via a data link. Retrofit may be more difficult for enhanced surveillance. and True Track Angle. final and intermediate selected altitudes. it is likely that a high proportion of European operating aircraft will be equipped by 2007. multimode receiver. Selected Altitude. the end of the mandate transition period. It also enables to read out the flight level in 25 feet vertical resolution. Vertical Rate. ADS-B-Out capable aircraft will be flying in 2007 epoch.

ADS-B can provide a new source of surveillance information for SMGCS and possibly to contribute to runway incursion alerting. this application will allow to implement basic airport surveillance. although UAT lacks support in Europe. could not justify the installation of radars. Indeed. This is particularly the case for large airports already equipped with an SMGCS. any continental areas and certain oceanic areas. [13].1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 29 . due to the level of traffic or the cost of the equipment. meaning that differently equipped aircraft cannot see each other. traffic density and interference levels could prevent its use beyond the 2010 timeframe. The objective of this application is to provide additional aircraft derived data through ADS-B to be used by the ATC ground system for developing or enhancing ATC tools like MTCD. [13]. ADS-B can provide ATC surveillance in non-radar areas. It should be noted that this application does not encompass the ATC tools themselves but does only provide additional input data for these tools [11]. Both are still considered to be in development in comparison to 1090MHz squitter technology which is already in production. The FAA has also specifically chosen UAT for general aviation users. its use by selected ground systems could Edition: 2. offshore operation areas. Both VDL Mode 4 and UAT have been hindered by the need for multiple antennas (although UAT could share antennas with Mode S equipment). Since the ADS programme envisages adoption of some Package-1 applications by 2008 (GSA Applications [11]. [13]. [13]. single radar coverage is provided [11]. the data to be transmitted is not expected to include aircraft intent. Airport ground vehicles can also be fitted with the necessary equipment and displayed on an airport map with aircraft [11].Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 ADS-B Package I Application ATC surveillance for enroute airspace (ADS-B-ACC) ATC surveillance in terminal areas (ADS-B-TMA) ATC surveillance in nonradar areas (ADS-B-NRA) Description ADS-B can enhance ATC surveillance currently provided with radars. the FAA. These media are not interoperable. The main difference resides in that the squitter autonomously transmits at prescribed rates without being interrogated. The purpose is to enhance traffic information and separation services [11]. Boeing and Airbus are facilitating implementation of ADS-B-Out as part of the Mode-S transponder upgrade. which in addition to producing an impact on equipment costs also introduce potential interference and frequency separation issues associated to their placement on the fuselage. e. DMAN and ground based safety nets. which. 1090MHz Mode S “Extended Squitter” is a mature and standardized technology that can be considered an extension of Mode S technology. However.g. since there is a foreseen lack of performance due to increased interference levels. which means that it will not reach the full benefits ADS-B-Out can offer. and UAT. For smaller airports. The discussion has been settled with manifest support for 1090 Mode S “Extended Squitter” shown by the aircraft manufacturers. ADS-B can enhance ATC surveillance currently provided with radars. Mode S “Extended Squitter” has been adopted as a transitory technology suitable for the short and medium term. Airport surface surveillance (ADS-B-APT) Aircraft derived data for ATC tools (ADS-B-ADD) Table 4: Surveillance applications expected in 2007 epoch The main controversy and discussion affecting ADS-B is focused on the selection of an adequate data link among the three contenders: 1090 Mode S “Extended Squitter”. This is particularly the case in TMAs at low altitude and close to the terrain and when single radar coverage is provided [11]. Initially. for example. [13]. This is particularly the case at low altitude and close to the terrain and also in areas where. remote areas. VDL Mode 4. [13]). AMAN. and EUROCONTROL.

3.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 be assumed although the use of airborne surveillance applications is considered to be very limited in this epoch. In addition. It is noted that A-SMGCS is not an aircraft function29.3 Collision Avoidance31 Commercial aircraft will be equipped with Airborne Collision Avoidance System ACAS II as a last resort to safeguard against air collisions. However. the use of moving maps.2. It is noted that currently there is no link between traffic and terrain avoidance systems. ACAS II will have also reached total implementation for small commuter aircraft.2. 4. [50]. where no radar coverage exists. 31 Page 30 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. by using periodic transmissions of aircraft positions from the flight deck to ATC via voice and FANS ADS-C applications. The combination of information from different surveillance sensors (co-operative and non cooperative) in a data fusion process will provide the controller with a comprehensive surveillance picture of the airport surface. The choice of that solution constitutes a compromise between the requirements for A-SMGCS sensors and the maturity of surveillance technologies foreseen in this epoch. it is not expected a widespread implementation of that functionality in the 2007 epoch. but a ground system that needs some equipage on board to fully achieve expected benefits. some systems will be enabled to fully exploit the benefits associated with flight tracking and correlation with flight plan data. Mode S and Mode A/C) as the cooperative sensor is expected to be widespread in major airports by this epoch. This data fusion will constitute a basic enabler for the routing.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . needed integrity and accuracy for GPS and multipath & shadowing effects. since such equipment will be already installed as part of the standard avionics package. 29 30 Although some proposals for Level III and IV could change responsibility of pilot and ATCO. Therefore. In addition. Over remote and oceanic areas. A common solution for major airports is desirable to reduce the problems associated with interoperability. with no information available in the flight deck. In that sense. In addition. 4. the use of Mode S (Mode A/C) transponders for co-operative surveillance presents the advantage of a reduced cost. guidance and control functions of advanced SMGCS. providing both traffic and vertical resolution advisories [26]. In addition. [48]. It should be mentioned that ACAS II uses the SSR Mode S transponders to communicate and coordinate with surrounding aircraft. some airports could exploit the benefits associated with the availability of airborne data broadcast by ADS-B-Out equipped aircraft. no additional avionics equipment is needed for this solution.3. as stated above HF data links have the potential to become the primary oceanic communications link. From an airborne point of view. A short-term solution formed by a SMR as a non co-operative sensor and a multilateration system of 1090 MHz replies (long and short squitter.2 Airport Surface As stated in previous sections one of the main issues regarding A-SMGCS implementation is the choice of the sensor used to retrieve surveillance data. By this epoch. [47].[46]. both SMR and multilateration systems are exclusively ground surveillance tools. surveillance is expected to be provided as of now. with depiction of own-ship position provided by GNSS / GBAS. Some issues are still pending as GBAS coverage down to the surface. thus reducing the use of voice reports for ATS use. [49]. has the potential30 to constitute the main enhancement for aircraft guidance on the ground.

4. The main advance in this timeframe will be the introduction of PWS facilitated by the advance in the Doppler systems employed by WXR. often found around thunderstorms or in unstable atmospheric conditions. the operational approval of TAWS is limited to the issuance of advisories. and extremely dangerous because they may be capable of overcoming the maximum climbing performance of the airplane. since the TAWS processor needs to communicate with the FMC to obtain position and intent data.2. Edition: 2. Although no widespread implementation is expected by this time. smoke. Nevertheless. a comprehensive validation is impractical.vertical columns of air rapidly descending towards the ground.2. Its worst representation are the so-called microburst . Real-time integrity monitoring systems have been proposed. airplane configuration.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 4. and what actions (if any) should be taken (by either the pilots or the flight guidance system) in case of a threat. plus a predictive terrain avoidance function. A profile with the terrain ahead of the aircraft is shown on the navigation display (part of EFIS). some airlines based at or flying to conflictive areas may choose to implement protective systems. a viable technology for economically protecting commercial aircraft against missile attack will have been developed. by 2007. and lightning activity) can be obtained via voice communications from the ground or other aircraft. the regulatory agencies have decided to mandate the adoption of this equipment in 2005. This forward-looking function searches a predetermined volume ahead of the aircraft for obstacles to provide an earlier warning than that provided by GPWS.4 Terrain The transition from GPWS towards TAWS is well under way with the introduction of EGPWS and T2CAS (a new system under certification which includes the possibility of a lateral emergency manoeuvre if the climb performance of the aircraft is insufficient to clear the obstruction) and will most probably be complete in commercial aircraft by 2007. In particular. 32 There are several difficulties to quantify the integrity of terrain databases. and given the important safety benefits of both the predictive terrain avoidance function and its display. how to present the information in the flight deck. 4.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 31 .3. Also. and as a result. Weather radar data is displayed on stand-alone displays or on the Navigation Display/Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI). It uses airplane position information (from FMS or GNSS). the introduction of the new TAWS functionalities imply a significant modification of the avionics onboard.6 Security Threats It is desirable that. and turbulence in the aircraft’s vicinity. and later sends the results to the display. and a terrain database32 to provide all the services already supplied by GPWS (although with different sources for the data).2. Local weather conditions (including fog. TAWS is intended to prevent accidents caused by CFIT.3. wind. and a consensus reached on the necessary equipment.5 Atmosphere Weather surveillance will continue to be based on the onboard Weather Radar WXR system capable of detecting convective activity. precipitation density. In addition to equipment expenses. Wind shear is a sudden change in wind direction or velocity. digital information services as D-OTIS (METAR) will be available by means of datalink. in terminal areas and airports.3. but still require standardization work.

SOP.2. In non-visual conditions. thick fog. Performance. all of these displays can generally be summarized by as a Head Up Display (HUD). further levels of integration allow the EFBs to host a wide variety of applications such a [63]: • • • • • • • • • • • • Aircraft System Performance Monitoring. The information within the HUD is a rendition of the pilots’ primary flight instruments. Cabin-mounted video and aircraft exterior surveillance camera displays. non-equipped aircraft would not be able to e. the Page 32 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. The system achieves this overlay by projecting an image onto a transparent display situated in front of the pilot that is focused at infinity. this can enable the flight crew to land in conditions in which other. weight and balance calculations. have the potential to depict the own-ship position derived from GNSS / GBAS. AFM. Special additional information may be included such as guidance algorithms. obstacles. These devices. the benefits associated with HUDs are not expected to fully materialize until further epochs.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 4. Electronic checklists.g. but may also include flight path and trajectory information that will be overlaid on the real world view.1 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) Use of electronic devices such an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) is expected to be widespread in this epoch. Potentially. runway and taxiways in the immediate front of the aircraft. obstacle and noise databases. since the system is expected to be fitted to a small proportion of the fleet in 2007 timeframe. However.) 4. In today’s commercial environment.) Terrain. MLS. The HUD is utilized by the flight crew to increase situational awareness in the final moments of the flight prior to landing.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . communications frequencies. display of traffic information (ADS-B and TIS-B). the responsibility of the pilot can be prioritised as “aviate. OpSpecs. Potentially. Master flight plan/updating.3 Pilot role According to standard aviation training for flight crew. MNPS. which would primarily be used for landing purposes with deviation signals received from ILS. Weather and aeronautical status information (via datalink). a system that presents flight information within the pilots’ forward field of view. Interactive information (MSA.2. display of taxi routing.2 Enhanced Vision Systems Various enhanced vision systems are currently provided by different manufacturers. 4. However. etc. etc. over a moving map showing airport layout information.2.4.4 Other equipment 4. The HUD may utilize differing technologies such as infra-red or radar to provide the flight crew with a synthetic rendition of the terrain. navigate then communicate”. as currently defined. In addition to basic “paper replacement” functions. CPDLC/AOC communications.4. or GLS. Manuals and specifications hosting (FOM.

Also. Navigate a. File flight plan according to P-RNAV routes in the terminal area and B-RNAV ‘routes’ in the en-route environment. request for speed/level. Continuously monitor assigned ATC frequency (and possibly one other of importance. Provide ATC with mandatory information messages. etc.g. Differences with regard to the current scenario are shown in blue cursive font.g. f. and then maintain separation from designated aircraft. Obtain information about airport weather. Obtain AIS and meteorological data when planning flight (updated via in-flight VDL2 contact with AOC) – this includes NOTAMs. e. Manage the ground operations in such a way that the estimated departure slot is achieved. the role of the pilot in a commercial IFR environment can be broken down into the following categories.g. traffic and weather). obstacles. c. Liaise with AOC (Airline Operations Centre) where appropriate – e. Manage the flight a. 2. no major changes are expected in pilot’s roles and responsibilities. Inter-communicate within the cockpit and the cabin.g. Request deviations in flight plan if thought necessary for safety reasons (e. bad weather). b. 4. Communicate with ATC using VHF voice (time-critical) and datalink (some non-time critical messages). Fly the aircraft according to the Rules of the Air [21]. via digital ATIS. alternate routings or deviations in the flight plan Edition: 2.e. monitoring all vital systems of the aircraft. b. Comply with clearances and instructions given by the ATSU (including the cleared flight plan filed before the flight) [21]. Take responsibility for separation assurance (when requested by ATC) in visual conditions on approach. b.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 33 . airfields.g. Communicate a. Aviate a. and ground infrastructure where and as necessary. Know the position of the aircraft with the appropriate accuracy including a proper assessment of the lateral and vertical position of the aircraft in relation to the external world (situational awareness of terrain. 1. runway in use. to notice ATC transmissions to own aircraft. Control and manage the aircraft in a manner that at all times guarantees the safety of those on-board [20]. Tower).Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 overall management of the flight can be added to this list. by sending fuel updates. [20]. passing WPT. either via VHF voice (e. estimated arrival time and/or maintenance requests. d. b. c. c. and the guidelines laid down in the relevant Aircraft Operating Manual. For the 2007 epoch. and to build up a situational awareness of other traffic’s intentions and position. level acceptance). 3. request for taxi) or via datalink (e. position reports. This is based in the “party-line” situational awareness concept. As such. and planning ahead for fuel contingencies etc. d.

[17] c. Page 34 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. for example). e. Equally. Manage the flight to be the most economic (or expeditious) as possible.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 may be co-ordinated with AOC as part of the Collaborative Decision Making concept. Note that this may mean requesting changes in the ATC constraints (cleared flight plan route. Uplink and process terminal information via D-ATIS. within the bounds of safety and ATC constraints. Upload and process flight plan information from the AOC into the FMS.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . the pilot has the responsibility to accept or reject proposed ATC route changes according to the safe operation of the aircraft or the efficiency/ economics of the new route d.

33 kHz. the same equipment is considered to be present in both CORE and NON-CORE areas fleets. DME/DME.FANS 1/A / AOA NAVIGATION Area Navigation Capability Area (PVT33) Navigation Sources Conventional Guidance34 Landing Systems Integrity Monitoring Flight Control Flight Planning Aircraft Performance Management Flight Management Databases Traffic Airport Surface Collision Avoidance Terrain Atmosphere Security Threats P-RNAV (terminal) and B-RNAV (en-route) DME-DME /GNSS / ABAS/ GBAS /INS VOR / DME / ADF ILS RAIM and ABAS FCC AOA with FMC / RNAV computer FMS FMS with advanced functionalities Navigation. multilateration) that provide position data (coordinates) instead of guidance.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 4.4 Avionics summary Table 5 includes a brief summary of the avionics that are considered being representative of the fleet mix in European CORE and NON-CORE areas in the 2007 epoch.) that provide guidance signals but no position data. Airport and Terrain 8. Based exclusively on conventional navigation aids (NDB. VOR/DME. CORE AREA COMMUNICATIONS Voice Data 8.FANS 1/A / HFDL NON CORE AREA Table 5: Avionics equipped in representative fleets for CORE and NON-CORE areas in 2007 epoch 33 Based on modern navigation systems (GNSS.ADSC B-RNAV DME-DME / GNSS / ABAS/ INS VOR / DME / ADF ILS RAIM and ABAS FCC AOA with FMC / RNAV computer FMS FMS / GNSS/ABAS-based RNAV computer Navigation. The equipment needed for transitioning into oceanic airspace is included in italics within the NON CORE column.33 kHz – 25 kHz VHF ATN-VDL2 / ACARS. Airport and Terrain SURVEILLANCE SSR Mode A/C/S ELS & EHS / ADS-B Out Mode A/C/S Multilateration / ADSB-Out ACAS II TAWS WXR with PWS N/A ACAS II TAWS WXR with PWS N/A SSR Mode A/C/S / FANS 1/A.25 kHz VHF / HF / SATCOM ACARS. 34 Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 35 . Where no information is provided.

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Table 6 includes a comparison between fully equipped aircraft.25 kHz VHF / HF / SATCOM VDL2 / ACARS.33 kHz.33 kHz.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . Airport and Terrain SURVEILLANCE Traffic Airport Surface Collision Avoidance Terrain Atmosphere Security Threats SSR Mode A/C/ S ELS & EHS / ADS-B Out Mode A/C/S Multilateration / ADS-B Out ACAS II TAWS WXR with PWS N/A SSR Mode A/C/S (due TCAS) Mode A/C/S Multilateration / ADS-B Out ACAS II TAWS WXR N/A GNSS/ABAS-based computer RNAV N/A B-RNAV DME-DME and/or GNSS/ABAS 8.25 kHz VHF N/A BASELINE Conventional Guidance Landing System Integrity Monitoring Flight Control Flight Planning Aircraft Performance Management Flight Management Databases VOR / ADF ILS RAIM and ABAS Navigation.FANS 1/A / AOA / HFDL NAVIGATION Area Navigation Capability Area (PVT) Navigation Sources B/P-RNAV or RNP-RNAV DME-DME / GNSS / ABAS/ GBAS / INS (SBAS for some regional aircraft) VOR / DME / ADF ILS RAIM and ABAS FCC AOA with FMC / RNAV computer FMS FMS with advanced functionalities Navigation. FULLY EQUIPPED COMMUNICATIONS Voice Data 8. such as large commercial ones. and aircraft with an avionics package that can be considered as a baseline for the 2007 epoch. Airport and Terrain Table 6: Comparison between full equipped aircraft and those with a baseline configuration in 2007 epoch Page 36 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.

For instance. On airborne side. [27].) will facilitate a reduction of pilot’s workload by avoiding the transcription of voice reports. The foundations for this advanced concept should be available by this timeframe in a coordinated effort intended to cope with the foreseen traffic increase. Consequently. thus reducing the workload of both controllers and pilots and alleviating voice RT channels. FLIPINT will allow an ATSU to initiate a contract with the aircraft for it to downlink trajectory data when a set of criteria supplied in the contract request are met [55]. [27].1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 37 . new datalink services will enable the presentation to the ATCO of downlinked pilot preferences (PPD). Airspace management and organization will be more flexible and dynamic. check its consistency with the corresponding filed flight plan and to propose route changes that will be accepted/rejected by the pilots. [64]. This process will be carried out automatically between ground and airborne computers. user’s preferences will be more frequently met [12].Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 5 AVIONICS ARCHITECTURE FOR 2011 5. The availability on-line of information corresponding to different locations will also permit the flight crew to better manage the remaining flight in real time [12].g.1 Operational context This timeframe will act as a bridge between the current ATM tactical system and the more strategically oriented future system based on trajectory exchange and optimisation in a cooperative environment.1. the transition to RNP based airspace will bring major benefits over the 2007 situation. etc. Subject to the availability of a data link system integrated with other avionics. it is expected that early forms of trajectory negotiation could take place by this time. and will permit real time responses to changing situations such as Edition: 2. This will be complemented by a further reduction in airspace categories to just three (N. uplink of operational flight information services (e.2 Navigation Acting as a main enabler for the process outlined above. D-RVR. By this timeframe.1 Communications Within the communications domain (and indeed navigation). these services will enable ground ATSUs to access route data contained in the FMS. Knowledge of accurate flight intent data by the ground ATSUs will also improve conflict detection and resolution functions by increasing the consistency of flight plan data and thus improving detection and false alarms rates. D-SIGMET and other improved meteorological forecasts. 5. This will enhance the efficiency of the system by permitting the ATCO to have better knowledge of the traffic evolution and to anticipate actions in response to pilot needs. uplink clearances would be based on the existence of virtual pre-defined waypoints and information exchange rules that will represent an initial negotiation framework for both pilots and ATCOs [12]. The use of services such as dynamic route availability (DYNAV) and flight plan consistency (FLIPCY / FLIPINT) is considered to constitute a basic form of automated route exchange providing increased synchronisation between the airborne and ground systems. there will be an extensive application of uniform airspace structures throughout the ECAC region. K.1. NOTAMs. Initial experiences to support a tactical negotiation of trajectories will be explored during this timeframe. [27]. and U). This will have a direct impact on safety [30]. In addition. In addition. 5.

interdependencies between approach and departure operations will be minimized by reduced aircraft containment volumes. more independent and flexible routing structures will be available to support user preferred routes and dynamic re-routings. With the implementation of these applications. On the other hand.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 short-term variation of user’s intentions. In addition. A reduction in Flight Technical Error (FTE) will be achieved by improved FMS/autopilot coupling. Thus. The functions supporting these applications are recommended in P-RNAV equipage but are expected to be present in all aircraft capable of RNP-RNAV [36]. without reference to the ATS route network. In addition. 35 Page 38 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . RNP procedures will also have benefits associated with the reduction of obstacle protection areas by means of the more accurate navigation capabilities. integration and interoperability issues will play a major role in the successful introduction of RNP procedures. new tools will be available on the ground to support controller tasks such as segregation of traffic and management of conflicts. Additionally. This will increase the efficiency of both individual flights and overall traffic mix. by allowing the management of the flight in any moment to best meet user needs. especially in highly congested terminal areas. The Free Routes Airspace Concept (FRAC) will allow capable aircraft to plan flights between en-route points at the beginning / end of the Terminal Procedures (SIDs / STARs) or the entry / exit points to the Free Routes airspace. In the longer term this concept may require 4D RNAV capabilities to ensure trajectories remain conflict free. The most important benefits associated with the implementation of RNP-RNAV procedures in TMAs will probably be the positive environmental impacts of the increased flexibility and higher track keeping accuracy. The latter does not preclude a reduction of separation minima [38]. ATCOs will benefit from a set of new RNAV applications such as the use of “parallel offset techniques” or “direct to” methods. This will be supported by the likely introduction of free route airspace in limited areas [69]. In that sense. In the terminal area. In particular RNAV terminal applications such as RNAV-SIDs and RNAV-STARs will facilitate the avoidance of environmentally sensitive areas and the provision of direct connections to the en-route structure. [38]. The provision of vertical guidance will then allow the design of optimum departure and arrival procedures that will meet strict noise abatement regulations while maintaining a high rate of airport capacity utilization. In this concept. by allowing a reduction of blocking times. On the ground. However. LP/LD and efficient climb profiles will be available in this timeframe. This will have a big capacity impact. ground systems should be able to identify aircraft capable of flying with particular RNP characteristics. difficulties associated with documenting the accuracy of the vertical profile could delay the specification and materialization of vertical containments and thus their expected operational benefits beyond 2011. there will be a need for adequate ATC support tools in order to manage the complexity associated with these “ideal” routings [36]. clean procedures such as CDA. the responsibility for separation of the aircraft remains with ATC. Reduced lateral separations35 will be also feasible and a decrease in pilot workload will enhance safety levels. The existence of alternative flight routes will increase also the capacity of the overall system to react in a flexible manner to changes in traffic variations [15]. consistency between navigation data used on the air and in the ground is needed to ensure safe use of Horizontal separation so that the distance between those portions of the intended routes for which the aircraft are to be laterally separated is never less than an established distance to account for navigational inaccuracies plus a specified buffer. This not only depends on airborne equipment but also on the ground infrastructure. This workload reduction will be achieved mainly by the reduction of “hands-on” flying that stringent RNP accuracy requirements will impose on all phases of flight. In particular.

Supports Initial/Intermediate Approach. GBAS and SBAS). training requirements. 4 ± 4. the download of aircraft derived data supported by enhanced surveillance has the potential to enable a variety of ATM applications.03/50 0.3/125 0. is aircraft weight. landing roll and take-off roll requirements. MLS and GBAS) Proposed for CAT II Precision Approach to 100 ft DH (ILS.003 NM [± z ft] RNP Type 0.03 NM [± 50 ft] ± 0.3 ± 0. chart design criteria.3 Surveillance The evolution process to an enhanced surveillance service will continue during this epoch.0 NM 5 ± 5. not yet addressed by surveillance applications. Supports Initial/Intermediate Approach. also envisaged as supporting the most efficient ATS route operations. For instance. Expected to be the most common application.1 NM ± 0.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 39 . Equates to P-RNAV. An interim type implemented in ECAC airspace to permit the continued operation of existing navigation equipment. 2D RNAV Approach and Departure.1. MLS and GBAS) Proposed for CAT 1 Precision Approach to 200ft DH (ILS. ATC support tools such as arrival/departure managers and ground-based safety nets will be further enhanced or even new ones developed. For example a key parameter for trajectory prediction. (ILS. Proposed for RNAV/VNAV Approaches using SBAS. Required Accuracy (95% Containment) ± 0. which are yet to be defined. Surveillance data links will be explored and as the need for additional airborne parameters will continue growing.003/z Description Planned for CAT III Precision Approach and Landing including touchdown. Initial Intermediate Approach and Departure.02 NM [± 40 ft] ± 0.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 these capabilities. Equates to B-RNAV. 2D RNAV Approach and Departure. Normally associated with continental airspace but may be used as part of some terminal procedures. 0.0 NM Table 7: RNP types 5. MLS.01/15 0.0 NM Supports Arrival. etc. Access to these parameters Edition: 2.1 0.01 NM [± 15 ft] ± 0.02/40 0.3 NM [± 125 ft] ± 0. In Table 7 RNP types that are currently in use or being considered for use in European Airspace are shown [71]. Supports ATS routes and airspace based upon limited distances between Navaids.3 NM 1 ± 1. Other factors would include engine variant and airline policy on thrust setting. phraseology. Proposed for RNAV/VNAV Approaches using Barometric inputs or SBAS. all based on the availability of new parameters. The global use of this concept requires a common effort to standardize procedures.

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020

will improve the tactical ATC system and help establish the basis for a more co-operative operational environment [10]. On the airborne side, the introduction of airborne surveillance (AS) applications would improve the situational awareness of the pilots. In its initial form, and in conjunction with the information provided by controllers and other airplanes, this concept has the potential to improve the ability of the flight crew to detect unsafe situations [11], [13]. The airborne situational awareness relates with the extended knowledge by the flight crew of the operational scenario surrounding the progress of the flight. That includes own-ship position and planned intentions, the picture of other relevant aircraft in the proximity and the relative situation of the terrain and weather phenomena. The application of the airborne traffic situational awareness (ATSAW) concept can increase safety levels by offering a positive identification of the surrounding traffic and thus reducing the likelihood of misidentification. Moreover, the ability of the flight crew to detect hazardous situations with sufficient anticipation will be also improved with the presentation of traffic information in the cockpit [27], [34]. Initial applications based on ATSAW will support the flight crew in performing collision avoidance tasks. These applications will not modify the current distribution of roles and responsibilities between pilots and air traffic controllers. In particular, the use in terminal areas of an enhanced visual acquisition (EVA) function will allow the flight crews to rapidly establish a visual contact to other aircraft and even to assess the distance to a preceding aircraft. These initial applications may not need a dedicated display to operate. The use of existing TCAS boxes, to display proximate traffic based on 1090 ES returns can be considered as an interim solution for these applications and can facilitate the implementation of more challenging concepts. Their usefulness is however limited and a full CDTI or similar display will be needed for most air-air applications [12]. On the other hand, the benefits associated with these applications (ATSA-AIRB, S&A, SVA) highly depend on the number of aircraft equipped with ADS flying in the operational area. It is expected that a significant percentage of aircraft will be ADS-B-Out capable by the beginning of this epoch. However the number of ADS-B-in equipped aircraft will not follow the same path and more time will be needed for a significant percentage of the fleet equipped [11], [13]. In the meantime solutions based on broadcasting, over a defined area, the surveillance data available on the ground (TIS-B), seem to constitute an alternative for particular applications. However, issues related with the viability of such a system still remain to be solved including accuracy, latency times and the lack of global commitment. In any case, these initial basic applications can constitute a good means to achieve the required level of confidence for more advanced applications, such as airborne spacing aids. These spacing applications include an evolution to a more extensive transfer of responsibility to the pilot. As stated in the EUROCONTROL OCD [1], a distribution of responsibilities for separation assurance between the air and the ground ATM elements is envisaged in the following years. However, different views exist on the need of such a transfer of separation responsibility to the flight crew. In fact, the safety-related aspects still need to be analysed in depth, since the transfer of separation will impose important role changes for the human in the system and will require a significant investment in very reliable avionics with higher integrity and availability. These investments will be required for a concept that still has unproven operational benefits, although those are considered by some to be very important in terms of capacity and flight efficiency. Regarding spacing applications, as currently defined they do not impose any change in the current responsibility for separation provision. This offers an easier path for the implementation since safety studies are less complex. The use of applications such as the
Page 40 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020

Final Approach Spacing (ATSA-SVA), where the aircraft are instructed to establish and maintain separations with the preceding traffic, can contribute to a more efficient use of airspace by achieving spacing minima. In addition, this particular application does not need all aircraft to be fitted with ADS-B equipment and seems to offer great capacity benefits, especially in highly congested areas with a significant proportion of the fleet equipped [11], [13]. More complex spacing applications, such as en-route and terminal establishment of in trail and level spacing (ASPA-S&M), level crossing and passing (ASPA-C&P) etc., may appear later in this timeframe, although probably only in an experimental manner. Within the scope of these applications, air traffic controllers will be provided with a new set of instructions directing, for example, the flight crews to establish and to maintain a given time / distance related to a designated aircraft (ASPA-S&M), or to cross or pass designated traffic while maintaining given spacing values (ASPA-C&P) [11], [13]. On the other hand, flight crews will need new aircraft functions in order to perform these new tasks. Those applications will potentially facilitate the use of free-routes and user preferred trajectories and will contribute to a more efficient use of the airspace by a potential achievement of a reducing spacing. However their implementation will require equipping the aircraft with a full ADS-B package, consisting at least of an ADS-B receiver, a CDTI and an ASAS processor. The lack of standards and requirements for the display device and the applications could delay the realization of the expected benefits, although it is noted that EUROCONTROL and the FAA are supporting the necessary work under the scope of the Requirements Focus Group (RFG). In any case, those concepts need to be better defined to co-ordinate equipage efforts with the development and implementation of new procedures based on them. Significant effort is still required to define standards necessary to reach the desired operational environment by the 2011 timeframe. 5.1.3.1 Airport Operations On the airport side, the evolutionary transition to A-SMGCS will bring about the implementation of enhanced route planning and control functions. In particular, automated support tools will help the controller in assigning a more efficient route for each aircraft or vehicle. This optimum route would be consistent with minimum delay times, according to planning, ground rules and potential conflicts with other mobiles. The ATCOs will use the information provided by these tools to issue the correspondent instructions to pilots / drivers [47], [48], [49], [50]. These taxi instructions will be delivered directly, via a point to point datalink, to the onboard computers, which will process the surface routing information and then display it to the pilot. This service could be part of the ACL component of the CPDLC. In conjunction with the information provided by the surface enhanced visual acquisition applications (Surface EVA), the pilot will be presented with full picture of the surrounding operational environment, including the airport map, taxi information and other traffic and vehicles circulating on the manoeuvring area36. This will allow for increased taxiing in poor weather conditions and an increased level of safety [11], [13]. In addition, enhanced traffic situational awareness applications (ATSA-SURF) may also offer the possibility of reducing taxi times, in particular during low visibility conditions; also, runway occupancy time (ROT) could be improved by providing the pilot with braking instructions in

36

Extension of this concept to the movement area needs in-depth assessment considering at least equipage costs, safety, and human factors.

Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture

Proposed Issue

Page 41

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020

the last phase of the landing37, thus achieving an optimal speed to vacate the runway as soon as practicable (FAROA / “Brake to vacate”). These benefits still require validation [56]. The guidance function of the ground system that is foreseen for this epoch will also be capable of automatically managing the ground lights (stop bars, centreline, etc.) according to the cleared taxi route. This will provide the pilot with additional indications to keep the aircraft on the assigned route, but would not require additional avionics [47], [48], [49], [50]. The control function of the A-SMGCS would be constantly monitoring the adherence to the planned route and receiving the signals of the runway incursion prevention systems. With that information the function will be capable of providing alerts regarding potential incursions of runways and also of activating automatically protection devices (stop bars, alarms). The information about conflicts will be used by the controller to give instructions to the pilot and solve the conflict in a timely manner. 5.1.3.2 Impact on Avionics The 2011 commercial aircraft fleet will be composed of a majority of aircraft of the same type as those flying today, but with a small but rapidly increasing number of next generation aircraft making use of capability oriented architecture, instead of the current equipage oriented architecture. The growth of the new avionics architecture greatly facilitates the introduction of new functionalities, which will steadily overcome the resistance imposed by the diminishing number of aircraft equipped with traditional architectures. However in this epoch the majority of aircraft will be equipped with the traditional architecture, which is reflected in the intermediate nature of the operational concept. 5.1.4 Communications

5.1.4.1 Voice Voice communications will remain as the primary means for safety related information exchange in this epoch. However, the technology needed to support this service in the 2011 epoch is still unclear. This is because the VHF spectrum shortage that some studies predict will occur by 2012, based on the belief that the increase in voice communications due to the foreseen traffic will not be compensated by the reduction brought by the use of data link. However, there is still no decision about a potential migration to a new system (satellite systems, terrestrial wideband, etc.). This decision should be based on an in-depth analysis that has to consider all the related aspects and implications (cost, technical, operational, regulatory, etc). In any case, the decision should be made by 2005 in order to permit the introduction of such a new system in the 2011 timeframe. This decision will definitely affect the evolution of the communication equipment required to be onboard in the 2011 timeframe. 5.1.4.2 Data The following table summarizes the datalink applications and services expected for 2011 epoch. Those already existing in previous timeframes are not shown38.

37 38

Implementation of this function would require taxi routing predictions starting at the runway threshold. 2007 Datalink Applications: ACL/ACM/DCL/DSC/D-FIS/CM.

Page 42

Proposed Issue

Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture

However. maximum flight level) as well as requests for modification of some flight plan elements (e. [27]. [12]. [27] Automatically detects inconsistencies between the ATC used flight plan and the one activated in the aircraft Flight Management System. no consensus within the industry has been reached yet on this issue [12]. It was initially planned that VDL Mode 3 would be used for both digital voice and data communications in the US. SAP is an automatic system to system service without aircrew or ATCO involvement [12].g. [12].[12]. intended as an ATS only system (hence requiring separate AOC datalinks to be fitted).[27] Provides the aircrew with automated assistance in requesting and delivering the instantaneous RVR. Enables downlinking aircraft parameters to be used by several ground functions. [27] Allows an ATSU to initiate a contract with the aircraft for it to downlink trajectory data when a set of criteria supplied in the contract request are met.g. VDL Mode 3 is an ATN compliant digital data link proposed as a means of spectrum conservation. [27] Provides automated assistance in requesting and delivering SIGMET information. [12]. requested flight level). Fleets would mostly be equipped with standard solutions that allow the existence of seamless data link services. there are several issues remaining to be solved prior to Edition: 2. [55] Data Link – Significant Met Data (D-SIGMET) Datalink Runway Visual Range (D-RVR) Automated Downlink of Aircraft Parameters (ADAP) Controller Access parameters (CAP) System Access Parameters (SAP) Pilot Preferences Downlink (PPD) Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C) Flight Plan Consistency (FLIPCY) Flight Plan Intent (FLIPINT) Table 8: Datalink services expected in 2011 epoch Despite the considerations for a new system stated above.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 43 . Allows aircrew in all phases of flight to provide the controller with information not available in the filed flight plan (e. [27]. This can accentuate the need for an additional datalink to support the applications expected in the 2011 timeframe. the full migration to an ATN based VDL Mode 2 solution should have happened by 2011. [27]. even before the flight in under their control. However. It automates the provision to ATCOs of selected aircrew preferences even before the aircraft reaches their sector. [12].[27] Makes specific flight information available to the controller by automatically extracting the relevant data from the airborne systems [12].Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Datalink Application Controller to Pilot Datalink Communications (CPDLC) Datalink – Flight Information Service (D-FIS) Datalink Services Dynamic Route Availability (DYNAV) Description Automates the provision of route changes when alternative routings can be offered by an ACC. It is remarkable that the increasing number of ATM applications in conjunction with the traffic growth expected by this timeframe could require additional VDL2 channels to provide an adequate level of performance in the EUR region.

5. [52] From the previous statements. as aircraft must keep to strict accuracy requirements during all flight phases that only the FMS linked autopilot (or RNAV computer linked flight director system) is capable of providing. non-autopilot) may be minimal. As a result. As stated before. the FAA has recently withdrawn VDL Mode 3 implementation from their modernisation plans. On the other hand. It is foreseen that in this epoch RNP-RNAV will replace B-RNAV and P-RNAV in European airspace. capable of utilizing 25 kHz. SBAS (such as EGNOS in Europe) is likely to reach APV II category for approach operations. achieving.33 kHz. [59]. the earliest date GBAS Cat II/III is 2015.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 its implementation. 5. in particular with higher integrity. Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) could be certified later in this epoch40 for CAT II/III precision As stated in 2007 section. On the other hand. at least. this should not entail any significant difference in the operating procedures of the flight deck. such as Galileo. Page 44 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. the more stringent requirements (e. availability. The remaining ‘hands-on’ flying (i. will require double chain (dual equipage). resulting in a significant reduction of avionics equipage costs (in that a triple INS can be replaced with a combined GNSS and lower grade IRS meeting the MNPS requirements for oceanic airspace). This situation could lead to a relaxation in INS redundancy requirements. [14]. With GNSS probably becoming the main position source of navigation for en-route and TMA airspaces. [36] In terms of physical architecture. Contingency procedures are expected to be also RNAV based. the PVT function should be capable of providing a more accurate 3D solution (with increased integrity). EUROCONTROL are currently investigating this solution. New GNSS constellations.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .1 Position-Velocity-Time Provided that an improved GNSS such as Galileo is in place by 2011. Since the link has been proposed for ATS applications exclusively. continuity and accuracy.3) for RNAV SID/STAR procedures in terminal area [57]. RNP-5 (or RNP-1) in en-route and RNP-1 (or RNP-0. while VOR will be in the process of being decommissioned39.1. DME/DME over continental areas and INS in oceanic and remote airspace will still be needed for redundancy. [60]. aircraft will need to carry an additional data link for AOC communications.g. aircraft that do not operate in rich VOR and DME environments. a widespread use of APV II instrument approaches supported by SBAS systems could be envisaged in Europe and US. some states support the use of VDL Mode 4 as a data link communication solution for the future with introduction starting 2011. VDL3 and other standards. 40 39 In the FAA plans. GNSS-coupled INS would probably be used for all phases of flight. 5. VDL2. This would have negative repercussions on aircraft equipage costs. In consequence. is foreseen to be needed in this epoch. may not remove their ADFs.e. are expected to be already providing navigation services specifically designed to meet the air transport industry requirements. By 2011. it is not expected that all NDBs will be decommissioned as they are the cheapest way of providing a minimal service. In practice. this will contribute to the overall safety and efficiency of the system. In turn. containment integrity and reduced FTE) derived from the introduction of RNP-RNAV. 8. it can be derived that a solution based on software radios.1.5 Navigation The 2011 timeframe is likely to be characterized by significant changes in the navigation domain.

the availability of enhanced uplink data link services by 2011 will probably allow more dynamic flight planning. for example. new problems may arise. the PVT solution will start relying more on data links (for the transmission of integrity signals and GNSS differential corrections). 5. 5. except that it should be capable of providing improved accuracy (reduced FTE) due to increased navigation accuracy. although ILS decommission would still take some time. 5. agreement and standardization is needed prior to any implementation.1.5. Thus.3 Integrity Monitoring With the spread of SBAS and GBAS. The Galileo satellite system will be a pioneer in applying such techniques to radio navigation signals. which is expected to still be the most common CAT III system for precision approach and landing. The safety-critical character of the navigation data being exchanged will entail increased responsibility for the integrity monitoring function to account for the new communication component. GLS and MLS are expected to become widely used from 2011. the availability of a data link will open new possibilities of on-the-fly database updating. Except for ILS. such as navaid or procedure availability. guidance will be synthetic. This application would also require some modifications into the FMSs in order to perform the load. security of the communications is considered of paramount importance.1. or communications integrity. based on the capability of updating 41 It is noted that GBAS CAT II/III would likely not require GALILEO (SBAS ranging signals are enough for availability). [22] 5. However. Multi-mode Receivers supporting ILS. Nevertheless.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 approaches41.5. The role of MLS is likely to be limited to only a few airports.5 Flight Planning Regarding navigation databases.2 Guidance The guidance function installed on most aircraft will be capable of providing vertical guidance (VNAV) and may be used to support LNAV/RNAV approaches based on inputs from Barometric Altimeters and APV I/II approaches supported by SBAS.4 Flight Control No major changes are envisaged by 2011 for the flight control function. Indeed ILS has even been proposed as a backup system to mitigate potential wide-area failure modes associated with the reliance on GNSS for precision approach.1.1.5. the minimum HMI is not expected to differ from current HSI/CDI. no selection has been made yet regarding ground & airborne architectures (pseudolites and/or Galileo) Edition: 2. Regarding navigation databases.5. such as compatibility between aircraft and ground automation systems. In this scenario. this could however prevent the materialization of most of the cost-saving benefits expected from GBAS [16]. However.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 45 . by uploading waypoints and airport data that could populate the navigation database. Although cryptographic techniques are in place. An initial application will be the uplink of NOTAMS to change the status of database entries. This milestone would set the start point for a wide expansion of GNSS Landing Systems (GLS) all over the world that would be materialized during the next epoch. so communications encryption and authentication are issues that need to be addressed for these applications to be implemented. The availability of a standard data link with the appropriate characteristics would permit the introduction of applications based on navigation data sharing between the ground and the flight deck involving the real time modification of the aircraft navigation database. the integrity monitoring function would validate all the messages being transmitted.

7 Fight Management The main change by 2011 regarding the flight management function is that the navigation domain will still exceed the scope of advances in communications (data link) and surveillance (ADS. Dynamic route re-planning (for traffic and weather avoidance).5.6 Aircraft Performance Management No relevant changes are envisaged by 2011 regarding the aircraft performance management.1. However. For instance. Therefore. • It is important to note that whilst 4D RNAV capability would enable the use of required time of arrival (RTOA) functions in terminal areas. on the basis of enhanced models and increased computational capability. prior to the corresponding takeoff/landing operation). In fact. 4D-RNAV is not expected to be fully implemented during this timeframe. For this reason 4D-RNAV in considered in the 2020 epoch. The major changes envisaged for the flight management function in the navigation domain are the provision of enhanced (dynamic) route-planning and flight profile optimisation features. It is noted that some owners are already upgrading their older FMS aircraft with new FMSs for economic and operational reasons which include the need to keep up with the database requirements for the airspace structures where the aircraft are required to fly. 5.5. Early support for enhanced navigation (3D+RTOA for en-route & terminal airspace) in both air and ground systems42. operational 4D applications will also require a tactical datalink and advanced controller tools. and would be use to update the information contained in the navigation database. 5. CDTI).1.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . a significant amount of them will still require important retrofit investment to conform to the requirements set by the foreseen operational applications.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 the navigation database on-the-fly. except that improved accuracy is expected. Early support for optimised airport operations (ability to upload from ATC the ground trajectory between the selected gate and runway. The expected capabilities include: • • • Advanced noise abatement and environmental/cost-efficient procedures. More integrated avionics will be in place in this epoch. Provided that a considerable number of aircraft will be FMS-equipped by 2011. relevant information on serviceability of radio aids and runway availability and condition will be available from the OFIS/NOTAM service. these and other issues need to be addressed sooner in order to achieve the expected development of 4D navigation in a timely manner including the development of relevant specifications. Page 46 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. oceanic ATM can already. 42 It is likely that core area systems will not be able to handle full 4D flight paths in this epoch. TIS-B.

Storage of a minimum of 4 waypoints. Automatic channel selection of navigation aids. RNP RNAV All P-RNAV functional requirements. plus: System Integrity Requirements Parallel Offset Capability RF-legs Fixed radius transitions RNP compatible TMA leg types RTOA (for en-route airspace) 4D RNAV All RNP RNAV functional requirements. Appropriate failure indication of RNAV system (including RAIM for GPS operations) Recommended functionality includes: Autopilot/Flight Director coupling.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 47 . Indication of navigation accuracy. P-RNAV All B-RNAV functional requirements plus: high integrity navigation databases. verification and de-selection where appropriate of (terrestrial) navigation aids (to ensure sufficient geometry). a brief summary of RNAV capabilities is presented: Level B-RNAV Summary of Functional Requirements B-RNAV requires aircraft to have a track keeping accuracy of equal to or better than ±5 NM (95%). [60] Reference [57] . [60] Equipment capable of the automatic selection. path coding accordance with ARINC 424 (or equivalent standard) in [59]. B-RNAV functional requirements are: Continuous indication of aircraft position relative to track. Display of ground speed and time to active waypoint. Navigation database. ‘Direct to’ function.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 In Table 9. Display of distance and bearing to active waypoint. plus: RTOA (for terminal airspace) No Current Definition [15] Table 9: RNAV capabilities Edition: 2. Automatic leg sequencing and turn anticipation. Current position in lat and long.

Those already existing in previous timeframes are not shown. class G airspace). IFR/VFR in class D and E airspace. Additional data is provided to flight crews to supplement traffic information provided either by controllers or other flight crews. This application is an aid for the flight crews to perform their collision avoidance task when separation service in not provided by ATC (e. The objectives are to perform successive visual approach procedures on a more regular basis to enhance the runway throughput and to conduct safer operations [11].g. Enhanced traffic situational awareness during flight operations (ATSA-AIRB) Enhanced visual acquisition for see & avoid (ATSA-S&A) Enhanced successive visual approaches (ATSASVA) 43 2007 Surveillance Applications: ADS-B-ACC/TMA/NRA/APT/ADD. This application provides the flight crews with an "enhanced traffic situational awareness" during flight operations in all weather conditions. the flight crews will be able to detect unsafe situation. at taxiway crossings. [13]. [13]. on pushback) and to reduce taxi time in particular during low visibility conditions or at night [11]. This application is an aid for the flight crews to perform successive visual approaches when they are responsible to maintain visual separation with the aircraft they are following. The objective is safer flight operations [11]. [13]. Page 48 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. In radar-controlled airspace. The objectives are to improve safety of flight and the efficiency of air traffic control. in all weather conditions.g. CAP/SAP.6 Surveillance The following table summarizes surveillance applications expected in 2011. In procedural-controlled airspace.43 ADS-B Package I Application Enhanced traffic situational awareness on the airport surface (ATSA-SURF) Description This application provides the flight crews with an "enhanced traffic situational awareness" on the airport surface for both taxi and runway operations. before entering a runway.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . the flight crews will better understand the reasons of ATC instructions [11]. The objectives are to improve safety (e.1. [13].Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 5.

[13]. and by the recurrent mixed equipage problems associated with the technological transition. [27].[6]. the flight crews to establish and to maintain a given time or distance related to a designated aircraft. the safe execution of the spacing tasks will require not only a common view of the operational scenario but also a common interpretation of current and potential situations. consisting at least of an ADS-B receiver. as well as to display this same information in the flight deck.6. Enhanced crossing (ASPA-C&P) and passing operations Table 10: Surveillance applications expected in 2011 epoch 5. Required percentage of equipped fleet will depend on particular applications but. while ADS-B-in should achieve the latter. Full ADS-B implementation presents some difficulties.1. The objective is to provide the controller a new set of instructions to solve conflicts directing. TIS-B complements ADS-B-in by broadcasting surveillance information from the ground to properly equipped users.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 49 . The receiving aircraft uses these data to fill in the gaps left by ADS-B-Out in terms of other aircraft not equipped with ADS-B-Out (uplinked surveillance obtained from ground SSR Mode A/C and PSR) or equipped with a non-compatible ADS-B- Edition: 2. the flight crews to cross or pass a designated traffic while maintaining a given spacing values. [7]. In fact. ADS-B-Out is designed with the former objective in mind.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 ADS-B Package I Application Enhanced sequencing and merging operations (ASPA-S&M) Description The objective is to redistribute tasks related to sequencing (e. in general. The main expected benefit is increased controller availability by the reorganisation and the streamlining of tasks [11]. In the US there is no sign of a possible elementary/enhanced surveillance mandate. for example. in-trail following) and merging of traffics between the controllers and the flight crews. The flight crews will perform these new tasks using new aircraft functions. in order to move towards the general objectives outlined in 5. In that sense.1 Traffic By this time both Mode S Elementary and Enhanced Surveillance will be widespread in Europe. mainly caused by the need to develop and install a CDTI to present previously unavailable information in the flight deck. [13]. it is necessary to increase the amount of surveillance information available to ATC. The operational implementation of both enhanced ATSAW and spacing applications will require the presence of aircraft equipped with a full ADS-B package. Benefits associated with the potential increase in ATCO availability are still unclear. an important figure is required to achieve significant safety and capacity benefits [12]. [10] The need for a consistent surveillance picture between the ATCO and the pilot has a special relevance in the application of more challenging concepts such as airborne spacing. The controllers are going to be provided with a new set of instructions directing.1. The flight crews will perform these new tasks using new aircraft functions. TIS-B is intended to complement ADS-B at least until it becomes totally implemented. for example. a CDTI and an ASAS processor.g. The main expected benefit is increased controller availability but also to increase capacity through better adherence to ATC separation minima [11]. However.

such as the EFIS and MFD. huge engineering and equipment costs. or it may be implemented as a stand-alone display. although they are under development.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .6. Even if an aircraft is capable of processing the ADS-B-in and TIS-B signals. the requirements could imply some modifications in the avionics architecture to obtain the position directly from the MMR (with higher integrity than the FMS). ground surveillance on the airport surface would increasingly rely on its more accurate signal. position. and the FMS output is expected to be input to the ADS-B system. especially in huge airports with complex layouts. The industrial view is therefore that its introduction in the fleet will for a long timelag behind that of ADS-B-Out because of the later roll-out date and because the greater flight deck equipment modifications needed. as many aircraft will need additional processors and controls to display and manage the data.2 Airport Surface The implementation of further levels of A-SMGCS concept would require an improved source of surveillance data. etc. no standards or requirements have been defined yet. airborne surveillance does not materialize unless there is a medium to display that information in the flight deck via a CDTI. Route planning and conflict detection and alert functions will need the best available surveillance sources. most of the above problems (including standardization) should have been approached and probably solved by this date.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Out datalink (up linked surveillance obtained from UAT ground receivers for general aviation in the United States). [48]. 45 Page 50 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. This is why TIS-B is considered mainly as a temporary technology supporting the introduction of ADS-B-in. Regarding integrity. and the existence of a significant percentage of the fleet equipped could be delayed beyond 2011. will increase the percentage of older generation aircraft for which it is economically unfeasible. CDTI has the potential to revolutionize surveillance and enable procedures that will provide significant levels of capacity. with the technology ready to be gradually implemented during the 2011 epoch. reliable and accurate surveillance data are required in order to keep the false alarms rate of the control function at an acceptable level [47]. By significantly improving the situational awareness of the crew. As the number of aircraft equipped with ADS-B-Out steadily increases. In that sense. but it will generally be of inferior quality (greater margin of error) because of their respective sources. However. Whilst the combination of ADS-B-In. efficiency and even safety enhancement once high levels of equipage are achieved. It is noted that the requirements on the positioning source for ADS-B are not yet fully defined. ADS-B-Out also presents benefits for ground surveillance of the airport surface. position and speed uncertainty. Each TIS-B report corresponds to a single object (generally airplanes but also ground vehicles at the airport) and contains identification. [49]. accuracy requirements need to be compared with those expected from GNSS to derive the need for using that position source. and its accuracy is better than that obtained from either SMR or multilateration of the SSR Mode S signal45. ground speed vector. [50]. but the current 44 GNSS position is used as a sensor input to the FMS. However. application time. For instance. The position data provided by the FMS could be based on GNSS44. TIS-B information is processed on-board in the same way as that obtained from ADS-B-in. TIS-B. The development of ADS-B-In clearly lags when compared to that of ADS-B-Out.1. 5. and CDTI shows increased benefits when compared to the 2007 situation (those produced by ADS-B-Out over Mode S “Extended Squitter”) the industrial perspective is that the combination of lack of standards. it may also be possible to use GNSS position output directly as an input to ADS-B. However. There is a significant engineering and human factors effort required to develop CDTI which also implies a huge modification or retrofit of the current flight deck equipment. and uncertainty over the final applications create considerable risk for the introduction of these technologies. In particular. It may be combined with other flight deck displays.

1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 51 . By this date. no standard system is defined yet. Such a system could take information from a much further distance and provide greater azimuth accuracy than current systems. especially under low visibility conditions.1.6.3 Collision Avoidance No significant modification is expected by this time frame apart of the use of ADS-B data to enhance the function. TCAS detection could be improved by fusing TCAS and ADS-B-in data in a traffic computer and presenting this information in a TCAS/CDTI display. the Mode S transceiver is also capable of transmitting intent data. 5. and to monitor ground vehicles and those airplanes not equipped with ADS-B-Out [11]. The potential implementation timeline is not clear. However. The benefits are clear since a given aircraft would be capable of receiving weather reports from the aircraft flying ahead. The possibility of merging traffic information coming from ADS-B-in and TIS-B with terrain data coming from TAWS into the same display should be taken into account when designing and standardizing the future CDTIs. In particular. TIS-B. 5. 48 Edition: 2.5 Atmosphere The selection of 1090 Mode S “Extended Squitter” as the data link for ADS has been made on the basis that it will initially transmit only position and velocity information. Taxing operations and procedures would be greatly simplified if the flight crew could refer to a display showing the situation of all the aircraft superimposed on a moving airport map. and weather data. 47 Although different TIS-B solutions are being implemented at some major airports. The gradual implementation of ADS-B-Out. it might imply significant equipage and retrofit costs in order to continuously monitor the surrounding 46 The CDTI (Conflict Display of Traffic Information) could be provided on the main cockpit displays or as part of the Electronic Flight Bag depending upon the role and certification requirements placed on the display. However. This would result in more efficient and safe taxing operations. Although it is impossible to predict what could be its final form. 5. back-up. 5. ADS-B-in and TIS-B thus creates the potential for aircraft to share their weather data with the ground and among themselves (directly or through the ground). An airport database will be required in addition to the terrain database. general information. TIS-B and CDTI is not yet defined at the present time47. and CDTI46 could present even more benefits for onboard surveillance of the airport surface than in flight.1. The main progress will be in the detail of the terrain information loaded onto the databases. Future work is required to ensure that chosen display methods are appropriate for specific applications.6.6. All these technologies can also be applied for ground vehicles moving on the airport surface.6.4 Terrain TAWS will have been installed in the whole fleet by 2011. the implementation timeline for ADS-B. and a reduced number of runway incursions.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 systems would still need to be maintained for validation. TIS-B can with very little cost take their position obtained from SMR and broadcast it to the aircraft so ground vehicles also appear on their CDTI displays.6 Security Threats Missile surveillance and protection could be in the process of being implemented by 2011.1. as explained in the previous section. The combination of ADS-B-in. if implemented.1. some advanced systems may have the capability of automatically updating this information (of interest for TMAs and airport surfaces48) via communications from AOC.

[13] c. ASAS Situational Awareness). ATC. 50 49 There is not yet enough evidence of this concept even if it is a promising one in the sense to give some degree of flexibility to the airlines route planning which may be not fully compatible with the solution to increase airspace capacity Page 52 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. In defined conditions. the flight crew will assume a greater responsibility for tactical decisions (pilots have already the option of suggesting a solution. When requested by ATC. c.g.e. Use basic free route airspace concepts50 in planning flight (i. Collaborate with all other actors (e. It is thought that by 2011 the majority of the flight crew’s situational awareness will come from the ASAS equipment.3.2 Pilot role This section highlights any differences in the role of the pilot from the 2007 environment discussed in Section 4.49 b. 3. Aviate a. Through the introduction of datalink communications – i. 1. with more alternatives available to them. liaise with ATC on planned routing.g. In-flight. Manage the flight a. 5. 2. or when crossing or passing). updating it as necessary for the safe and efficient operation of the flight (through the use of pilot preferences downlink – PPD).1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . Communicate 4. handling. Responsibilities in blue cursive are new to the 2011 scenario. b.e. Although ATC should retain responsibility for the overall traffic picture. which ATC can then agree/disagree with). CPDLC – the party-line effect of VHF voice communications leading to situational awareness will disappear over a period of time. d. due to the onboard trajectory prediction / decision support tools. [11]. alternate airports etc). fuel. AOC) via datalink in decisions when in-flight (e. unambiguously identify ASAS targets (through the use of the CDTI and MCDU). Navigate a. use ASAS CDTI to enhance traffic acquisition in visual separation procedure. Maintain a mental picture of the position of other aircraft through scanning the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (i. then acquire and maintain the instructed spacing with respect to the target aircraft (either behind the target. much more attention to optimum routing for aircraft). File flight plan according to RNP-RNAV airspace structures.e.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 environment for threats and if necessary respond in a quick and accurate way with (maybe) counter-measures and evasive (automatic or pilot guidance) manoeuvres.

Airport and Terrain SURVEILLANCE Traffic Airport Surface Collision Avoidance Terrain Atmosphere Mode S ELS&EHS / ADS-B / CDTI / ASAS Mode S Mult. the same equipment is considered to be present in both CORE and NON-CORE areas fleets.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 5. Where no information is provided. Flight Control Flight Planning Aircraft Management Flight Management Databases Performance FCC AOA with FMC / RNAV computer FMS with enhanced models Enhanced Profile opt.33 kHz. CORE AREA COMMUNICATIONS Voice Data 8. multilateration) that provide position data (coordinates) instead of guidance. That equipment needed for transitioning into oceanic airspace is included in italics within the NON CORE column.25 kHz VHF / HF / SATCOM ATN-VDL2 / ACARS. / ADS-B Out ACAS II TAWS WXR Table 11: Avionics equipped in representative fleets for CORE and NON-CORE areas in 2011 epoch 51 Based on modern navigation systems (GNSS. DME/DME.FANS 1/A / HFDL NON CORE AREA Navigation. Airport and Terrain / INS / B-RNAV (en-route) and P-RNAV (terminal) GNSS(ABAS / SBAS/ GBAS) INS DME / VOR / ADF ILS RAIM and ABAS / 8.) that provide guidance signals but no position data.33 kHz – 25 kHz ATN-VDL2 / AOA NAVIGATION Area Navigation Capability Area (PVT51) Navigation Conventional Guidance52 Landing Systems Integrity Monitoring RNP-RNAV GNSS(ABAS/SBAS/GBAS) DME-DME DME MMR (ILS CAT III. route-planning & Flight FMS /GNSS / ABAS – based RNAV computer Navigation.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 53 . / ADS-B / CDTI / ASAS ACAS II TAWS with automatic updates from AOC WXR with PWS SSR Mode AC/S ELS&EHS / FANS 1/A. GLS CAT I) RAIM and ABAS Integrity signals by datalink.3 Avionics summary Table 11 includes a brief summary of the avionics that are considered being representative of the fleet mix in European CORE and NON-CORE areas in the 2011 epoch. 52 Edition: 2. Based exclusively on conventional navigation aids (NDB.ADS-C / ADS-B Mode A/C/S Mult. VOR/DME.

1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . Airport. such as large commercial ones. and aircraft with an avionics package that can be considered as a baseline for the 2011 epoch. Terrain SURVEILLANCE Traffic Airport Surface Collision Avoidance Terrain Atmosphere Mode S ELS&EHS / ADS-B / CDTI / ASAS Mode S Multilateration / ADS-B / TIS-B ACAS II TAWS with automatic updates from AOC WXR with PWS BASELINE 8. FULL EQUIPPED COMMUNICATIONS Voice Data 8.33 kHz – 25 kHz ATN-VDL2 / AOA NAVIGATION Area Navigation Capability Area (PVT) Navigation Conventional Guidance Landing Systems Integrity Monitoring RNP-RNAV GNSS(ABAS/SBAS/GBAS) / INS / DMEDME DME MMR (ILS CAT III. Airport. Terrain based SSR Mode A/C / ADS-B Out Mode A/C Multilateration / ADS-B Out ACAS II TAWS WXR Table 12: Comparison between fully equipped aircraft and those with a baseline configuration in 2011 epoch Page 54 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.25 kHz VHF ATN-VDL2 B/P-RNAV GNSS(ABAS / SBAS/ GBAS) INS DME / VOR / ADF ILS RAIM + ABAS / N/A FMS FMS or GNSS+ABAS RNAV computer Navigation. GLS CAT I) RAIM and ABAS Integrity signals by datalink Flight Control Flight Planning Aircraft Management Flight Management Databases Performance FCC AOA with FMC / RNAV computer FMS with enhanced models Enhanced route-planning & Flight Profile opt.33 kHz. Navigation.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Table 12 includes a comparison between fully equipped aircraft.

where real-time flight data. from circa 2015 onwards there should be diminishing impact of national boundaries on ATM services provision. The application of free routing schemes would likely be extended to most of the areas within the ECAC region53 [69]. ground aircraft tracking stations. a ground-based ATM system is still likely to be operational in the 2020 time frame. User preferred trajectories shall be used to optimise aircraft routes. GRECO for instance will enable controllers to manage and implement the time advisories provided by ground tools (e.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 55 . 6. [62]. modification and co-ordination a continuous process. and communication between pilot and controller only in the case of deviation from plan. Using aircraft 4D trajectories to adjust flight plans before airplane departure will help flight planners to avoid air traffic system overloads. Advanced datalink services (such as COTRAC / GRECO) will provide a common framework to establish and agree trajectory contracts between aircrew and controllers in real time. [62].1. 6. with tactical ATC intervention being the exception and not the rule [61]. All participants will be able to view the same what-if scenario to reach a mutually acceptable plan of action that will consider the impact of the proposed changes on the different actors. as stated above. fewer ATC centres. Further.1 Communications Digital data link communications will make flight planning. the advanced navigation capabilities associated with 4D RNAV. Edition: 2. The evolution to a more strategic ATM system based on trajectory exchange and optimisation is likely to occur during this epoch. airports status.1. On the contrary. Flight crews will acknowledge receipt of new instructions and adequate methods will be developed to verify that the changes have been implemented. Data from several sources (aircraft flight decks.2 Navigation The exchange and negotiation of 4D trajectories will also enable the extensive use of User Preferred Trajectories (UPT). Agreed changes in flight trajectory will be communicated directly to the onboard FMC by means of secure data links. The use of a structured negotiation method will facilitate an effective coordination between all the actors needed for the safe development of these applications. In addition. airspace system loading and status) could be integrated in an advanced flow management system to assist ground strategic traffic managers in evaluating the consequences of a particular flight plan or traffic flow change. The use of a common information management system by all actors will enable an active collaborative decision making environment. Airlines operations managers will play a major role in this process. weather services. to achieve the necessary capacity is even possible that more organisation and systematisation would be needed. [27]. Real time sharing of information will enable this functionality via continuous information updates between the onboard and ground systems. A potential reduction to only two airspace categories (N & U or MAS & UMAS) would potentially be the main enabler in the evolution to more predictive airborne and ground-based systems. weather and other information will be available to facilitate the trajectory based planning.1 Operational concept According to the EUROCONTROL OCD [1]. is still not fully proved as providing the necessary answer to the demand. this will contribute to reaching higher levels of flight efficiency [61].g. will allow a reduction in the complexity of 53 The Free Route Concept. AMAN) [12]. Together with the reduction on flight uncertainty.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 6 AVIONICS ARCHITECTURE FOR 2020 6.

In terminal areas. such as trajectory prediction. The cost of avionics will be extremely high due to the likely certification requirements. 6. These benefits will only be achieved if the required controller support tools. Page 56 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. to some extent. Currently. The introduction of autonomous operations could revolutionize the way aircraft operations are carried out in non-core area but several difficulties arise: • The means of transferring of separation responsibility still needs to be determined and several efforts are being undertaken to evaluate the operational and economical benefits of the implementation of this concept. Airport Operations • 6. while assuring the maintenance or improvement of existing safety levels.1. a comprehensive paradigm of the A-SMGCS functions will materialize in complex airports with heavy traffic. the level of integrity associated with aeronautical data issued by the navigation database providers is considered insufficient to support RNP≤1 operations [36].3 Surveillance The trajectory management paradigm outlined above. together with a diminishing but maybe still considerable amount of current generation aircraft. or at least not completely integrated architecture that nevertheless still have a significant number of flight hours left. There will probably also exist substantial retrofit programs to upgrade the architecture of those aircraft with old. Enhanced forms of co-operative surveillance.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 the routes structure. based on the broadcast of accurate own-ship positions and the acquisition of other traffic. Autonomous operations. limited airborne separation assurance will be transferred to the flight deck [11].2 Impact on avionics The 2020 commercial aircraft fleet will include a considerable percentage of next generation aircraft equipped with functionality oriented flight deck architecture which can be upgraded by software change rather than LRU replacement and re-wiring which has been traditionally expensive to achieve. will enable the existence of an increased situational awareness in the flight deck [47]. guidance and conflict detection and resolution functions. the introduction of 4D RNAV will permit consistent spacing and ensure efficient timing and accurate approach sequencing. Ground systems will act as surveillance data providers allowing the sharing of a common surveillance picture between controllers. pilots and vehicle drivers. The continuous flow of traffic information at adequate rates will enable evolved forms of automated routing. De-conflicted taxi routes will be proposed to the controller by the route planning function for his approval and then transmitted directly to the flight management computers by means of secure datalinks. will still need a certain degree of tactical separation monitoring and. but not within core areas.1.4 On the ground. The pilot will accept the cleared route and follow it by using advanced guidance systems. The cost-benefit of equipping aircraft with avionics which do not support the core operations needs to be carefully evaluated.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . based on ASAS enabled self-separation (ADS Package 2 and 3) is also envisaged for this epoch. by using the accuracy and predictability provided by the 4D-capable aircraft. conflict resolution and arrival / departure managers are in place in this timeframe. It is also important to note that advanced database and AIS requirements will have to be defined and implemented in a timely manner to enable 4D RNAV operations in the 2020 timeframe. this will need to be done consistently with the overall 4D concepts. 6. [48].

Enhanced security protection to avoid attacks.2. Increase flexibility to add or remove services on demand. The following basic characteristics are being considered: • • • • • Requirements driven solution enabling further technology evolution.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 6. a decision to migrate to a new communication system could be made as early as 2005.2.g.2. satellite based solutions providing SATNAV and SATCOM supporting ADS and TIS) and such an integrated system could constitute a promising alternative. As of today. while new ground automation facilities have been widely deployed. a potential integration of communications with navigation and surveillance services in one system is also being explored [61] (e. Global solution with extensive interconnectivity capabilities. A safety-critical and secure data link is being widely used by airborne and ground automation systems. there is not a clear definition about the main features of the potential new system. 6. 54 55 As stated above.2 Navigation This long-term timeframe is foreseen to be the point when the required capabilities enabling the implementation of trajectory-based airspace management concepts are finally reached. although terrestrial wideband and satellite systems seem to be the best available options.2. This new system will probably integrate voice and data communications. Recent EUROCONTROL studies have suggested that additional DMEs will be required to support uniform application of RNP-RNAV [68]. further analysis still needs to be undertaken to determine the potential effect on safety of an integrated voice and data solution. Additionally. In addition. communications continue to be an enabling service that will provide the means by which user requirements for the interchange of information are met. According to current EUROCONTROL’s plans ([14]. Airbus are currently studying digital voice architectures for this epoch. RNP-compliant for all gate-to-gate flight phases.1 Position-Velocity-Time The above scenario enables full 4D PVT solution by this timeframe. although the continued use of ILS should not be discounted. There is however a general agreement on what should be the main requirements that such a future system should meet. Intensive use of commercial solutions. some issues regarding use of GBAS down to the surface ground remain to be solved. However. • • 6.1 Communications As stated above. In any case.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 57 . allowing it to be in operation by 2020. [36]). a reasonable ground infrastructure of DME55 will be maintained as backup for continental navigation. Edition: 2. This is characterized by the accomplishment of the following three key milestones: • GNSS is in place and certified as the primary means of navigation for all phases of the flight with the assistance of SBAS and GBAS augmentations. while GBAS is likely to be accepted as the preferred means of providing CAT I/II/III operations and accurate position on the ground54. A renewed commercial fleet equipped with advanced flexible avionics architecture is in operation. the potential reliance on GNSS for precision approach. which could result in wide-area failure modes. GLS is also the preferred precision approach system in most airports.

Since trajectory negotiation is safety-critical and business-sensitive.2. part of the dynamic flight planning.2.7 Flight Management As noted above.2. together with the expected advances in human factors research. flight deck. it is envisaged that the Page 58 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. regulations-compliant. integrity monitoring must ensure that the negotiation process is developed within a yet to be define performance level.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .2. it is realistic to consider that also the number of non-IMA aircraft will be significant.6 Aircraft Performance Management No major changes are expected except for increased accuracy required by the trajectory prediction function.2 Guidance The guidance function will be provided on the basis of computation from the 4D-PVT solution and the navigation database. For oceanic and remote airspace.2. 6. 6.2. In fact. but later on multiple aircraft and AOCs could be involved.). aircraft performance capabilities. 6.4 Flight Control Flight control is not likely to change significantly by 2020. company cost policy. exception perhaps of an increase in accuracy. will combine in the next generation aircraft available in this timeframe to incorporate some kind of advanced HMI to provide the guidance information in a different way that in today’s aircraft (HUD. safe.2. etc. integrity monitoring of the navigation functions will have become even more complex since new integrity reliance will have appeared or be about to do so. virtual reality.2. 6.2. flight re-planning is expected to become a complex function in charge of providing conflict-free. 6.3 Integrity Monitoring By 2020. weather (including wind forecast and disruptive met hazards such as thunder storms).2. Fundamentally.5 Flight Planning By 2020 this navigation function plays an increasingly important role since onboard trajectory prediction capability becomes one of the enablers for trajectory negotiation – and therefore enables more interactive flight planning to support AOC requirements. One of these new functions is the trajectory negotiation. Early trajectory negotiation will involve three actors (ATC. trajectory prediction involves flight re-planning automation based on the best available knowledge of terrain. and cost-efficient trajectories as input for trajectory negotiation. etc. and AOC). This is an obstacle for the successful implementation of the operational concepts foreseen by 2020 since to cope with them. It should be noted that the increase in accuracy of the flight controls for the en-route environment will be limited in part by acceptable ride performance (passenger comfort). However. In that scenario.2. 6. Negotiation will require secure authenticated communications through the data link. obstacles.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 might result in the continuing need for a backup system such as ILS. by 2020 it is expected that the majority commercial aircraft will be equipped with IMA based avionics architecture. similar to that used for the autoland function. will probably not provide acceptable ride performance in the en-route phase.2. This is a clear example illustrating the level of function interoperability required by the far-term avionics representative of this timeframe. The great onboard computational power available. a relaxed INS will also act as backup. a highly accurate active control.

The function will be software intensive and upgradeable to allow the logic of trajectory negotiation and other complex sub-functions to be updated and added as the operational concepts evolve. where flight intent is defined as a set of flight instructions to be performed by the aircraft in order to meet the intended trajectory and as such unambiguously describe one trajectory. has been proposed by MITRE [31] Edition: 2. From that shared flight intention. the flight management system will become a complex function managing a large amount of aircraft and flight operation aspects. Surveillance • • • 6. It is for example feasible to use traffic surveillance data 56 57 An important industry-standards activity still needs to be completed in order to define these models. The IMA concept may allow for faster upgrades across the whole fleet. but in how all those systems share resources in an Integrated Surveillance System [24]. Sharing flight intent descriptions made in terms of such standard language would facilitate trajectory negotiation by ensuring no ambiguity and reducing the needed bandwidth. In effect. The system would be composed of a single processor unit (processing all functionalities).Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 required increase in onboard computational power and function complexity will probably be met only by avionics within the IMA paradigm. thus enabling common understanding when sharing information among the future ATM system actors. The function is likely to be distributed through the airborne network allowing full interoperability with the underlying avionics functions (see references to ISS developments in the surveillance section below). A standard model for the acknowledged logic of trajectory negotiation. a single display and control panel (maybe also integrated with EFIS or MCDU). Under the IMA assumption.3 Following the trend described in previous paragraphs. on the basis of the same standard aircraft performance model. whatever flight intention could be described. This concept would allow identical trajectory prediction to be performed by all the actors involved in the trajectory negotiation. in terms of which. Some of the envisaged models could potentially be56: • A standard generic aircraft performance model. or terrain). The ISS would be designed with the purpose of simplifying the installation and reduce the life cycle costs through integration. known as Path Objects. the coefficients of such model being the specific for the particular aircraft. such a language would be a metamodel providing a set of flight intent modelling primitives. weather. A similar concept. provided a description of flight intent. weather. A standard weather model to share meteorological information. including navigation as well as communications and surveillance. the main advances by 2020 may not be in the individual surveillance technologies (described below). Such a system could include as many of the previously described surveillance functionalities as desired or needed by the particular user. and terrain surveillance information into the same display. a weather radar antenna located in the radome. but would also merge the processing of the information resulting in a system that considers all the available surveillance data when triggering alerts (either collision.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 59 . enabling the ATC solution to evolve with the fleet. Strictly speaking. the FMS capabilities expected by 2020 are well beyond the current scope of navigation. each actor could then perform the necessary trajectory prediction by means of their own operational decision-support tools. Such a system would not only integrate the traffic. of course. A standard formal language to share flight intent descriptions57.2. It is also expected that the flight management function will rely on standard models for many aspects. and another collision avoidance and surveillance antenna system (located above and below the fuselage) [19].

a similar concept may be required in Europe by this epoch if a complement to 1090ES is required. 58 Page 60 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. and other business and entertainment applications exclusively for the passenger. However. The use of TIS-B as a cross-link is more pertinent in the US where both UAT and 1090ES are considered for operational use. or for the FMS to use the overall surveillance picture in its 4-D trajectories computation and modification. have achieved the necessary maturity to be considered for certification for ATM applications. (more likely) L-band. TIS-B will also continue to provide information about ground vehicles and those aircraft.1 Traffic By this time. displaying traffic surveillance increasingly dependant on ADS-B-In messages instead of TIS-B. during this epoch. or similar functions. it is neither expected nor desired for ASAS to represent the full migration of separation management from ATC to the flight deck. ADS Package 2 functionality may also be available supporting self-separation in non-core areas. and terrain). the squitter data link is likely to have reached or even surpassed its intended life. In addition. television. and others. as its range limitations to broadcast intent data become more visible each passing year. TIS-B will be increasingly relegated to an airborne validation role. TIS-B.2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . That said. will increase the capacity of the system. As the “Extended Squitter” becomes saturated. or oceanic airspace. This integrated system could be considered another step in the direction of ASAS [11]. airport surfaces. The major safety benefit brought by the provision of positive air traffic control over non-radar areas will allow further a safe reduction in separation minima in certain areas and thus. There are clear benefits in having enhanced situational awareness in the flight deck (adjacent traffic and their intentions. such as general aviation ones. As ADS-B-In gains acceptance. currently in the process of being introduced for internet access. From an industrial perspective. e-mail. new protocols based on VHF. The candidates may include current or updated versions of VDL Mode 4 and UAT. In terms of airborne surveillance. that have decided not to install ADS-B-Out. a debate will be initiated with the objective of selecting another data link capable of transmitting the whole ADS information (intent data in particular) over a bigger range. rather than replacement links. The requirements are not yet fully defined. If this is the case. It may also happen that by this time broadband satellite based communications. the safety. the transfer of full separation assurance to the flight deck would require avionics systems designed with different requirements and imply very important role changes for both ATC and pilots. greatly diminishing the benefits that the full ADS-B-Out capabilities permit.3. The high cost (due to tightened avionics requirements) and low traffic figures could prevent the implementation in non-core areas on strictly economic grounds. weather. but at the cost of significant added surveillance costs in “U” (non-radar) airspace58 [65]. the extension of surveillance enhancement to non-radar areas could improve separation services and facilitate transition issues between continental and oceanic areas.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 to provide long range conflict detection and resolution. If supplementary links are introduced. ADS-B-Out by means of the 1090 Mode S “Extended Squitter” data link will be widespread or even totally implemented in the commercial fleet. have not been mandated to do so or continue to use a different link. This may require coupling between the surveillance system and the flight controls. and satellite based communication systems. 6. and there also exists the possibility of implementing (at least partially) airborne separation management in terminal areas. However. CDTIs will be standard equipment in new aircraft and being retrofitted into a majority of the fleet. would become more important and widely used. economic and operational benefits of which are yet to be proven. the much higher information transmission capabilities of broadband will certainly turn it into one of the preferred contenders of the above debate.

2 Airport Surface Ground and onboard surveillance of the airport surface will be based on the same systems that general air traffic surveillance (ADS-B-Out. 6. but it is in a very early stage of development and at this time it is unknown if it will ever be implemented59. although no standards have been defined so far. it would be feasible to consider the traffic surveillance data obtained from ADS-B-in and TIS-B to provide long range conflict detection and resolution in advance of that currently provided by ACAS II.2. or even with aircraft or vehicles that have non-working surveillance equipment. The information provided by non co-operative surveillance sensors would then be shared with the rest of the participants involved by means of a traffic information broadcast service (TIS-B) [47]. Apart from the co-operative surveillance.3. An important addition expected by this timeframe may be the implementation of a turbulence detection function. and the significant costs necessary to equip those vehicles with the above technologies. and CDTI) use.2. Given the high number of ground vehicles in major airports. 6.5 Atmosphere Automatic weather information sharing will be widespread by this time making use of the available data communication technologies.2.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 6. with the difference that ground vehicles position will also be included in the TIS-B messages.2.3.3. TIS-B.6 Security Threats Missile surveillance and protection may already have been implemented by 2020. Those sensors will help with the detection of possible intruders in the system.3 Collision Avoidance A future ACAS III system capable of providing traffic and resolution advisories in both the vertical and horizontal planes has been proposed. Edition: 2. [48]. 6. 59 Airbus thinks that ACAS III will not be implemented.3. it is expected that in some cases there will not be any surveillance aboard the ground vehicles. Capabilities to predict and detect wake vortex are also expected to be commonplace by 2020.3. This will limit to some extent the benefits associated with a full A-SMGCS implementation but does not preclude the detection of those vehicles by the surveillance sensors. As stated above.4 Terrain No modification in this area is expected by this timeframe. 6.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 61 . ADS-B-in. This will allow the real time sharing of surveillance information between all the actors involved and will enable the use of advanced conflict detection and resolution tools. it is expected that forms of non co-operative surveillance will still be used.2.

3 Pilot role This section highlights any differences in the role of the pilot from the 2011 environment discussed in Section 5.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . 1. Use 4D trajectory prediction and Airborne Surveillance to plan a de-conflicted route (then monitor the aircraft’s compliance with this route. and re-plan the route in coordination with ATC and AOC if necessary using airborne decision support tools). Aviate a. Manage the flight Page 62 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.2. Responsibilities in blue cursive are new to the 2020 scenario. Use advanced datalink services to establish and agree trajectory contracts with Air Traffic Controllers (COTRAC/GRECO). 3. Navigate a.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 6. b. 2. As ATC and the flight crew should have consistent flight plans and Conflict Detection & Resolution systems. Communicate 4. the negotiation of trajectory should take place when the aircraft is airborne.

Terrain & Flight AOA with FMC / RNAV computer Flight Management Databases Navigation. GLS CAT III) RAIM + ABAS Integrity signals by datalink RNP RNAV GNSS(ABAS/SBAS/GBAS) DME / INS DME / VOR / ADF MMR (ILS / GLS CAT I) RAIM + ABAS Integrity signals by datalink / DME- Flight Control Flight Planning Aircraft Management Performance FCC Trajectory Negotiation FMS with enhanced models Complex models function with standard Enhanced route-planning Profile opt. Terrain SURVEILLANCE Traffic Airport Surface Collision Avoidance Terrain Atmosphere Mode S ELS&EHS / ADS-B / CDTI / ASAS Mode S Multilateration / ADS-B / TISB ACAS II TAWS with automatic updates from AOC WXR+Wake Detection Vortex & Turbulence SSR Mode S ELS&EHS / ADS-B-Out Mode S Multilateration / ADS-B-Out / TIS-B ACAS II TAWS WXR Table 13: Avionics equipped in representative fleets for CORE and NON-CORE areas in 2020 epoch 60 Based on modern navigation systems (GNSS.) that provide guidance signals but no position data.33 kHz New Comm System/ ATN-VDL2 NAVIGATION Area Navigation Capability Area (PVT ) Navigation Conventional Guidance61 Landing Systems Integrity Monitoring 60 NON CORE AREA 8. 61 Edition: 2. Airport.33 kHz – 25 kHz / SATCOM ATN-VDL2 / HFDL / SATCOM 4D RNAV GNSS(ABAS/SBAS/GBAS) / INS / DME-DME DME MMR (ILS CAT III. Navigation. Where no information is provided. VOR/DME. the same equipment is considered to be present in both CORE and NON-CORE areas fleets. Based exclusively on conventional navigation aids (NDB.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 6. That equipment needed for transitioning into oceanic airspace is included in italics within the NON CORE column. Airport.4 Avionics summary Table 13 includes a brief summary of the avionics that are considered being representative of the fleet mix in European CORE and NON-CORE areas in the 2020 epoch. DME/DME. multilateration) that provide position data (coordinates) instead of guidance.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 63 . CORE AREA COMMUNICATIONS Voice Data New Comm System/ 8.

Terrain RNP-RNAV GNSS(ABAS / SBAS/ GBAS) DME-DME DME / VOR / ADF MMR (ILS / GLS CAT I) RAIM and ABAS / 8. Airport. Airport.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Table 14 includes a comparison between fully equipped aircraft. such as large commercial ones. GLS CAT III) RAIM and ABAS Integrity signals by datalink Flight Control Flight Planning Aircraft Management Flight Management Databases Performance FCC Trajectory Negotiation FMS Complex function with standard models Navigation. FULL EQUIPPED COMMUNICATIONS Voice Data New Comm System / 8. and aircraft with an avionics package that can be considered as a baseline for the 2020 epoch.33 kHz – 25 kHz ATN-VDL2 BASELINE Table 14: Comparison between fully equipped aircraft and those with a baseline configuration in 2020 epoch Page 64 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .33 kHz New Comm System / ATN-VDL2 NAVIGATION Area Navigation Capability Area (PVT) Navigation Conventional Guidance Landing Systems Integrity Monitoring 4D RNAV GNSS(ABAS/SBAS/GBAS) / INS / DMEDME DME MMR (ILS CAT III. Terrain SURVEILLANCE Traffic Airport Surface Collision Avoidance Terrain Atmosphere Mode S ELS&EHS / ADS-B / CDTI / ASAS Mode S Multilateration / ADS-B / TIS-B ACAS II TAWS with automatic updates from AOC WXR+Wake Detection Vortex & Turbulence SSR Mode S ELS&EHS / ADSB-Out Mode S Multilateration / ADS-BOut ACAS II TAWS WXR N/A GNSS/ABAS-based RNAV FMS Navigation.

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020

7

REFERENCES
[1]. EUROCONTROL Operational Concept Document (OCD) Volume 1 (The Vision),

FCO.ET1.ST07.DEL01, Edition 2.1, 12 January 2004.
[2]. Link2000+ website (www.EUROCONTROL.int/link2000/) [3]. Communication Strategy - Management Overview, Version 4.0, 25 August 2003. [4]. Communication Strategy - Technical Description, Version 5.0, 25 August 2003 [5]. ATC Data Link Manual for Link2000+ Services, Version 1.0, 8 January 2004. [6]. Mode S Programme website (www.EUROCONTROL.int/mode_s/) [7]. Mode S Enhanced Surveillance - 3 States Project - Master Plan, Edition 1.0, 30

August 2002.
[8]. EUROCONTROL ATM Strategy for the Years 2000+ Volume 1, 2003 Edition. [9]. EUROCONTROL ATM Strategy for the Years 2000+ Volume 2, 2003 Edition. [10]. A Surveillance Strategy for ECAC, Edition 1.0, January 1998. [11]. EUROCONTROL

ASAS/ADS-B (www.EUROCONTROL.int/ads/)

Programme

website

[12]. Roadmap for the implementation of data link services in European Air Traffic

Management (ATM), European Commission, February 2003 available at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/transport/air/single_sky/studies_en.htm
[13]. CARE/ASAS Activity 5 Description of a first package of GS/AS applications, Version

2.2 - September 30, 2002.
[14]. EUROCONTROL NAV.ET1.ST16-001. Navigation Strategy for ECAC. March 1999 [15]. MASPS for RNP RNAV, Eurocae, ED75A, September 2002 (equivalent to DO-236A) [16]. GBAS Roadmap, EUROCONTROL, Edition 1.0, 25 February 2003. [17]. Potential Applications of CDM, Revision 1.0, EEC Note No.9/99, July 1999. [18]. Avionics Workshop (see www.EUROCONTROL.int/eatmp/events/avionics.html) [19]. ASFA Final Study Report, ADS/REP/SFA/004, Edition 1.0, 15 January 2004. [20]. ICAO Annex 6, Operation of Aircraft, Eighth Edition, July 2001 [21]. ICAO Annex 2, Rules of the Air, Ninth Edition, July 1990. [22]. ARINC 755-2 Multi-Mode Receiver (MMR) – Digital, January 2001. [23]. ARINC 756-3 GNSS Navigation and Landing Unit (GNLU), February 2004. [24]. Draft 1 of Project Paper 768: Integrated Surveillance System (ISS) [25]. ARINC 718A Mark 4 Air Traffic Control Transponder (ATCRBS/MODE S), February

2002.
[26]. ARINC 735A-1 Mark 2 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS),

January 2003.
[27]. EUROCONTROL Air-Ground Co-operative ATC Programme website

Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture

Proposed Issue

Page 65

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020

(www.EUROCONTROL.int/eatmp/agc)
[28]. PHARE (see: http://www.EUROCONTROL.int/phare/) [29]. AFAS (TBD) [30]. INTENT (www.nlr.nl/public/hosted-sites/intent/intent.htm#Related) [31]. The concept of path objects: making the FMS more useful, Dr John N Barrer, MITRE

CAASD, December 1999.
[32]. MA-AFAS website (www.ma-afas.com) [33]. Gate-to-Gate website (www.g2g.isdefe.es) [34]. NUP-II website (www.nup.nu) [35]. ARINC Specification 424-16 Navigation System Database. August 2002 [36]. EUROCONTROL NAV.ET1.ST16-002. Transition Plan for the Implementation of the

Navigation Strategy in ECAC 2000-2015+. May 2000
[37]. ICAO Doc 9613-AN/937. Manual on Required Navigation Performance (RNP). 2nd

Edition 1999
[38]. JAA temporary guidance leaflet NO XZ Airworthiness and Operational Approval for

RNP-RNAV Approach Operations. January 2004
[39]. ARINC Characteristic 702-6 Flight Management Computer System. June 1994 [40]. ARINC Characteristic 702A-1 Advanced Flight Management Computer System.

January 2000
[41]. RTCA DO-255 Requirements Specification for Avionics Computer Resource (ACR).

June 2000
[42]. ARINC Specification 653-1 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface.

October 2003
[43]. ARINC Report 651-1 Design Guidance for Integrated Modular Avionics. November

1997
[44]. ARINC Report 660A. CNS/ATM Avionics, Functional Allocation and Recommended

Architectures. January 2001
[45]. ARINC Specification 659 Backplane Data Bus. December 1993 [46]. AIAA 2002-4857. Improved Taxi Prediction Algorithms for the Surface Management

System. Chris Brinton, Jimmy Krozel, Ph.D., Brian Capozzi, Ph.D. / Metron Aviation, Inc. Stephen Atkins, Ph.D. / NASA Ames Research Center.
[47]. EUROCONTROL

DAP/APT. Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels.

September 2003
[48]. EUROCONTROL DAP/APT. A-SMGCS Project Strategy. September 2003 [49]. ICAO Doc 9476-AN/927. Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control

Systems (SMGCS). 1986
[50]. ICAO AOPG Final Draft. European Manual on Advanced Surface Movement

Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS). November 2001.
[51]. EUROCONTROL

8.33 kHz Programme. (http://www.EUROCONTROL.int/eatm/public/standard_page/833.html)

[52]. FAA CPDLC Program (http://adl.tc.faa.gov/)

Page 66

Proposed Issue

Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020

[53]. ARINC Specification 622-4 ATS data link applications over ACARS air-ground

network. October 2001
[54]. ARINC Characteristics 758-1 Communications Management Unit (CMU) Mark 2.

February 1998
[55]. EUROCONTROL IOP-IRD-AGDL. Interoperability Requirements Document (IRD)

Air/Ground Cooperative ATS. October 2003
[56]. Safe Flight 21- RTCA SC-186 Final Approach and Runway Occupancy Awareness

(FAROA) Application Description. October 2002
[57]. JAA GAI 20 ACJ20X4 (formerly TGL2). Airworthiness Approval and Operational

Criteria for the use of navigation systems in European Airspace designated for Basic RNAV operations.
[58]. JAA TGL-3. Interim Guidance Material on Airworthiness approval and Operational

Criteria for the use of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS)., revision 1 dated 01.02.98.
[59]. JAA TGL-10. Airworthiness and Operational Approval for P-RNAV Operations in

Designated European Airspace. November 2000.
[60]. EUROCONTROL 003-93. Standard Document for RNAV Equipment – Operational

Requirements and Functional Requirements. Edition 2.2, December 1998,
[61]. Boeing Air Traffic Management. Revolutionary Concepts That Enable Air Traffic

Growth While Cutting Delays.
[62]. Boeing Air Traffic Management. Working Together Team (WTT). Working Together

to Define the Future Global ATM System. May 2003.
[63]. FAA AC 120-76. Guidelines for the certification, airworthiness, and operational

approval of Electronic Flight Bag computing devices. September 2002.
[64]. AFAS – Aircraft in the future ATM System. Pierre Depape, Cockpit Operations.

Airbus France. FAA-EUROCONTROL Workshop. June 2002.
[65]. TIS-B: a transition or an end state?. David Bowen- QuinetiQ. FAA-EUROCONTROL

Workshop. June 2002.
[66]. RNAV Business Case: Analysis Report, Helios Technology for EUROCONTROL,

24th January 2004.
[67]. Mode S Elementary and Enhanced Surveillance Information Notice, EATM Mode S

Programme, March 2004.
[68]. Navigation

Infrastructure Evolution Study – Phase 2 Report, Stasys for EUROCONTROL, December 2003.

[69]. EUROCONTROL Airspace Strategy for ECAC States. Ed. 1.0. January 2001 [70]. AFAS User Forum. January 2004 (http:\\www.euroafas.com) [71]. ICAO European Region Area Navigation (RNAV) Guidance Material. Fifth Edition.

September 2003

Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture

Proposed Issue

Page 67

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 8 GLOSSARY Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System Airborne Collision Avoidance System ATC Clearance ATC Communications Management Avionics Computer Resource Automatic Direction Finder Automatic Dependant Surveillance ADS – Broadcast ADS.Contract Aircraft Flight Manual Airplane Information Management System Aeronautical Information Regulation And Control Arrivals Manager ACARS Over AVLC Airline Operational Control Approach Procedure with Vertical guidance Approach with Vertical guidance Aeronautical Radio.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . INC Aeronautical Recommended Practices Airborne Separation Assistance System Advanced – Surface Movement Guidance and Control System Airborne Surveillance and Separation Assistance Processing Air Traffic Control Air Traffic Controller Automated Traffic Information System Air Traffic Management Air Trafic Management / Communication Navigation Surveillance Aeronautical Telecommunications Network Air Traffic Situational Awareness Air Traffic Services Unit Aviation VHF Link Control Aerodrome Visibility Operational Level ACARS ACAS ACL ACM ACR ADF ADS ADS-B ADS-C AFM AIMS AIRAC AMAN AOA AOC APV APV ARINC ARP ASAS A-SMGCS ASSAP ATC ATCO ATIS ATM ATM/CNS ATN ATSAW ATSU AVLC AVOL Page 68 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.

1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 69 .Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 BR&TE B-RNAV CAP CDI CDM CDTI CFIT CNS/ATM COTRAC CPDLC DAP D-ATIS DCL D-FIS DLIC DME D-OTIS D-RVR DSC D-SIGMET DYNAV EATMP ECAC EFB EFIS EGNOS EGPWS EHS ELS ES ETA FAA FANS FAROA FCC Boeing Research & Technology Europe Basic RNAV Controller Access Parameters Course Deviation Indicator Collaborative Decision Making Cockpit Display of Traffic Information Controlled Flight Into Terrain Communications Navigation Surveillance / Air Trafic Management Common Trajectory Co-ordination Controller Pilot Data Link Communications Down-linked Aircraft Parameters Digital – Automated Terminal Information Service Departure Clearance Data link – Flight Information Service Data Link Initiation Capability Distance Measuring Equipment Data link – Operational Terminal Information Service Data link – Runway Visual Range Downstream Clearance Data link – SIGnificant METeorological report Dynamic Route Availability European Air Traffic Management Programme European Civil Aviation Conference Electronic Flight Bag Electronic Flight Instrument System European Geo-stationary Navigation Overlay Service Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System Enhanced Surveillance (Mode S) Elementary Surveillance (Mode S) Extended Squitter Estimated Time of Arrival Federal Aviation Administration Future Air Navigation System Final Approach and Runway Occupancy Awareness Flight Control Computer Edition: 2.

1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 FL FLIPCY FLIPINT FMC FMS FOM FTE GBAS GLONASS GLS GNLU GNSS GPS GPWS GRECO HF HFDL HMI HSI HUD I/O ICAO IFR ILS IMA INS IRS ISS JSF LNAV LRU MCDU METAR MFD MLS Flight Level Flight Plan Consistency Flight Plan Intent Flight Management Computer Flight Management System Figure of Merit Flight Technical Error Ground Based Augmentation System GLObal NAvigation Satellite System GNSS Landing System GNSS Navigation and Landing Unit Global Navigation Satellite System Global Positioning System Ground Proximity Warning System Graphical Enabler for Trajectory Co-ordination High Frequency High Frequency Data Link Human Machine Interface Horizontal Situation Indicator Head Up Display Input Output International Civil Aviation Organization Instrument Flight Rules Instrument Landing System Integrated Modular Avionics Inertial Navigation System Inertial Reference System Integrated Surveillance System Joint Strike Fighter Lateral NAVigation Line Replaceable Unit Multi-purpose Cockpit Display Unit Meteorological Aviation Report Multi-Function Display Microwave Landing System Page 70 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.

RNAV Primary Surveillance Radar Position Velocity Time Predictive WindShear Radio/Telephony Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Requirements Focus Group Area Navigation Required Navigation Performance Required Time of Arrival Required Time Of Arrival Real Time Operating System Runway Visual Range Society of Automotive Engineers System Access Parameters SATellite COMunications Satellite Navigation Space Based Augmentation System Standard Instrument Departure Surface Movement Radar Standard Operating Procedure Secondary Surveillance Radar STandard ARrival Short Term Conflict Alert Terrain Awareness and Warning System Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 71 .Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 MMR MMU MTCD NATS NDB NOTAM NPA OATA OCD PPD P-RNAV PSR PVT PWS R/T RAIM RFG RNAV RNP RTA RTOA RTOS RVR SAE SAP SATCOM SATNAV SBAS SID SMR SOP SSR STAR STCA TAWS Multi Mode Receiver Memory Management Unit Medium Term Conflict Detection National Air Traffic Services Non Directional Beacon Notice to Airmen Non Precision Approach Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Operational Concept Document Pilot Preferences Downlink Precision .

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 TCAS TCP TIS-B TMA UAT UML UPT VDL VDL VFR VHF VNAV VOR WPT WXR Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Trajectory Change Point Traffic Information Service – Broadcast Terminal Maneuvering Area Universal Access Transceiver Unified Modeling Language User Preferred Trajectory VHF Data Link Very high frequency Data Link Visual Flight Rules Very High Frequency Vertical Navigation VHF Omni-directional Ranging Waypoint Weather Radar Page 72 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .

The table is organised in the same way as the sections describing each section: • • • • • • • • • • Communication Applications Navigation Surveillance Collision Avoidance Pilot Display Security Threats Function name Description: A short description of the function and how it is modelled (or not). Inputs: Data required by the function Outputs: Data produced by the function The table includes: Table 16 describes the identified data types.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 73 . including: • • A. In Section 7.2 Identification of supported functions. Edition: 2. including those still present from 2007. Identification of required data. The Logical Architecture expresses the 2011 concept as a set of UML diagrams.1 Functional Decomposition for 2011 Objective The purpose of this section is to provide a bridge between this document and the Logical Architecture developed in the second half of the project. Identified functions The following table lists the functions identified for the 2011 epoch.2 a functional analysis is presented.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 A A.

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Function Description Communication Applications Inputs Outputs CM (Context Management) CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) DLIC (Data Link Initiation Capability) – NOT IN MODEL ACM (ATC Communication Management) – Automated frequency change ACL (ATC Clearance Message) – Receipt of ATC constraint DCL (Departure Clearance) – Receipt of ATC constraint DSC (Downstream Clearance) – Receipt of ATC Constraint DYNAV (Dynamic Route Availability) – Receipt of new route.Uplink of flight information: • • • • ATIS NOTAM ASHTAM SNOWTAM Used to update aeronautical information D-SIGMET (Datalink Significant Met Data) – See uplink of met data.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . D-RVR (Datalink Runway Visual Range) – See uplink of met data ADAP CAP and SAP are considered under surveillance - Page 74 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. NA Datalink Frequency Voice Frequency ATC Constraint ATC Constraint ATC Constraint ATC Constraint ATIS NOTAM Met Hazard NA N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A D-FIS D-OTIS .

ADS-C ADS-C (see Surveillance) FLIPCY: Checks consistency between airborne and ground based flight plan. eg the avionics downlinks a representation of the flight plan for the ground based application to check. Proposed Issue PVT Determination Integrity Monitoring From Navigation Sources N/A Aircraft State Vector N/A Edition: 2. Use of RAIM to support integrity of GNSS signals. for example the AUTOMET function Navigation Determination of Position. FLIPINT: Downlink of trajectory data (intent) Met Data Uplink Receipt of met data/hazards via datalink.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Function Description PPD (Pilot Preferences Downlink) downlink of pilot preferences for: • • • • • • Cruise Flight Level Operating Cruise Airspeed Top of decent Approach Type Intermediate Approach Speed Preferred Landing Runway Inputs - Outputs Preference Data ATC are able to use these values to enable clearances which meet the pilot preferences if possible. including the following applications: • • • Met Downlink METAR: Receipt of Met data D-SIGMET: Receipt of Met Hazards D-RVR: Receipt of Runway Visual Range Met Data Met Hazards RVR Met Data Flight Plan - Trajectory Downlink of met data to support forecasting. Use of RAIM is included in the description of GNSS within the model.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Page 75 . Velocity and Time from area navigation sources (GNSS and DME/DME).

Guidance includes ability to meet a Required Time of Arrival (RTOA) at a particular waypoint. noise abatement.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . Only used as a backup following failure of RNAV system. Routes. The status of entries may be updated by received NOTAMS. Proposed Issue Trajectory Page 76 Edition: 2. Area navigation is provided in accordance with RNP RNAV. Lateral Guidance Vertical Guidance ATC Constraint Preference Data Performance Data Flight Plan Flight Control Flight Plan Trajectory Profiling Ability to establish the optimum route within the constraints of the existing flight plan. The level of accuracy required is dependant on phase of flight.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Function Guidance Description Provision of guidance to selected waypoints. optimisation may take account of cost. Provides guidance to a particular navigation aid. The navigation database contains information on Nav Aids. Determining flight plan including selection of routes and procedures including dynamic re-routing during flight. The navigation database is static (updated in accordance with AIS procedures in line with the AIRAC cycle). Inputs Aircraft State Vector Trajectory Outputs Lateral Guidance VNAV Point-to-Point Navigation Navigation Database Provision of vertical guidance to support APV and PA (CATI. preferred settings etc. Procedures and Waypoints. Sensing current: • • • • attitude airspeed aerodynamic configuration thrust setting Altitude Trajectory Navaid - Vertical Guidance Lateral Guidance Navaid Routes Waypoints Sensing Attitude - Autonomous data Aerodynamic Configuration Thrust Setting Flight Control Flight Planning Command the aerodynamic control services and throttle position. The waypoints and routes are held in the navigation database. II and III) operations.

1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 77 . The function is adjusted as aircraft performance degrades with service life enabling the same accuracy of performance calculation throughout aircraft service life. Function is supported by Mode S. Surveillance Provision of information regarding targets to ground systems. ADS-B and Datalink Applications: • • • • • • • • CAP SAP Mode S ELS Mode S EHS ADS-B-ACC ADS-B-TMA ADS-B-NRA ADS-B-ADD Inputs - Outputs Performance Data Transmit Surveillance Data Autonomous Data Aircraft State Vector Aircraft Intent Surveillance Reports Receive Surveillance Data Receipt of ADS-B and TIS-B data to support the following ASAS applications: • • • • • • ATSA-AIRB (see Pilot Display) ATSA-S&A (see Pilot Display) ATSA-SVA (see Surveillance Guidance) ASPA-S&M (see Surveillance Guidance) ASPA-ITP (see Surveillance Guidance) ASPA-C&P (see Surveillance Guidance) - Proximate Traffic Met Radar Use of a weather radar to autonomously detect met data and hazards: None Met Data Edition: 2.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Function Aircraft Performance Management Description Provision of a model of aircraft performance to support Trajectory Profiling.

Special case of guidance above.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . ASMGCS Provision of surveillance on ground Receipt of Surveillance on ground Taxi Management Landing Management Surface Guidance Pilot Display Page 78 Provision of surveillance information to airport systems (ADS-B-APT) Combination of ADS-B and TIS-B supporting ATSA-SURF. the aircraft state vector. ASPA-C&P ASAS Clearance Aircraft State Vector Trajectory Proximate Traffic Flight Guidance Each requires a ‘clearance’ to be followed. knowledge of the involved traffic. aircraft trajectory and logic for achieving the clearance (including coupling with automated flight guidance).Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Function Description • • • • precipitation turbulence windshear micoburst Inputs Outputs Surveillance Guidance Provides guidance to support the following ASAS applications: • • • • ATSA-SVA ASPA-S&M ASPA-ITP. Provision of taxi guidance. Pilot Display The following information is displayed to the pilot: Proposed Issue Surveillance Data ATC Constraint Airport Database Braking Instruction Airport Database Proximate Traffic Surveillance Data Proximate Traffic Flight Control Information Displayed. Edition: 2. Receipt of complete taxi clearance (displayed on moving map) Receipt of braking instructions following landing (enabling aircraft to take correct runway exit.

but could cause deviation from trajectory. MFD and CDTI. Not modelled. Terrain avoidance – provision of climb instructions to avoid Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) based on terrain database. Whilst based on received surveillance information the provision of collision avoidance system must be independent of ASAS functionality. Security Anti-missile devices Device to detect incoming missiles and provide counter measures.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 79 . Aircraft State Vector Proximate Traffic Terrain Data Aircraft State Vector N/A Traffic Advisory Resolution Advisory Resolution Advisory Terrain Awareness N/A Table 15: Identified Functions Edition: 2.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Function Description • • • • • • Guidance Cues Current Trajectory/Route Proximate Traffic Weather Resolution Advisories Taxi Clearance/Airport Map Inputs Resolution Advisory Weather Hazard Weather Data Taxi Clearance Airport Map Trajectory Lateral Guidance Vertical Guidance Outputs NOTE: This is generic display including the functionality of HIS. The split between various displays is an implementation issue. Collision Avoidance Aircraft Collision Avoidance Traffic Alerts – provision of traffic advisories and resolution advisories to avoid conflict with proximate traffic. EFIS.

ILS protection areas Frequency information of surface and tower control. • • • • • • • • • • • Page 80 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . Contents Short Term: • • • Aircraft State Vector • • • • • Airport Map The presentation to the pilot of the aerodrome plates in an electronic format consistent with ED99.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 A. • • • • • • • Autonomous Data Data received by independent sensors on board the aircraft that are required by the flight data processors and necessary for effectual control of the aircraft’s position within the flight envelope. Altitude Aircraft ID Altitude limit Speed limit Heading limit Conditional clearance ASAS Clearance Aircraft Mach number Static air temperature Local Mach number True airspeed Calibrated airspeed Pressure altitude Baro-corrected altitude Local air density Density altitude Angle of attack Angle of sideslip Medium/Long term intent: • Altitude ASAS Clearance ATC Constraint The height of the aircraft above sea level (part of Aircraft State Vector) Indication of the aircraft to follow. An instruction given to the aircraft that limits the extent to which the aircraft can manoeuvre within the airspace or on the aerodrome surface. Describes the aircraft vector at that current precise moment of interrogation. hold points. taxiways. Data Item Aircraft Intent Description Describes the immediate flight path that the aircraft intends to follow on course to its destination.3 Identified data The following table describes the content of the identified data. stands. This may mean the download of the entire aircraft’s filed flight plan or the next and subsequent waypoints as stored within the aircraft FMS. • Selected Altitude Selected Heading TCP list Speed Heading Altitude Position Climb rate Position of runways.

as the the the Set of: • • • • • • (See OATA Flight Plan model) Lateral Guidance Guidance given to the flight control system that ensures that the aircraft remains within the lateral limits. Frequency required for communications with ATSU. does not overshoot the required RET when instructed to use the said RET. Flight Plan The intended path of the aircraft submitted to ATC that specifies departure point and arrival point of aircraft and the intended route that aircraft will follow to the destination.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Data Item Braking Instruction Description An instruction received by the aircraft to ensure that the aircraft exits at the correct runway exit.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 81 . datalink Contents • Automatic brake setting Datalink Frequency Flight Control • • • • • Frequency Roll delta Yaw delta Pitch delta Thrust delta SID Route (as set of waypoints) STAR Approach Taxi Plan etc The mechanisms through which the flight path of the aircraft is maintained in a stable set-up. • Lateral Deviation Edition: 2.e. i.

Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Data Item Met Data Description Information provided to the flight crew/aircraft systems regarding weather conditions at certain flight phases Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Wind direction Wind speed CAVOK Conditions report Gusts report TREND report QFE QNH Temperature Dew Point Wind Shear State of the sea Minimum visibility directions Cloud coverage Cloud types Cloud base height Runway deposits Runway contamination Depth of runway deposits Reduced runway length Reduced runway width RVR Page 82 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .

Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fume – smoke Dust haze Rising dust and sand Dust devil Brune .1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 83 .Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Data Item Met Hazard Description A description given to a meteorological event that may have significant impact on the performance of an aircraft or the capability of an aircraft to remain in flight.mist Mince fog .shallow fog Mince fog Fog Freezing fog Drizzle Heavy drizzle Freezing drizzle Heavy freezing drizzle Rain Heavy rain Freezing rain Heavy freezing rain Rain and snow Snow Heavy snow Snow grains Ice pellets Showers Heavy showers Showers of rain and snow Snow showers Soft hail Hail Thunderstorm Thunderstorm with hail Heavy thunderstorm Volcanic ash Navigation aid type Navigation aid frequency or channel Navigation aid operational duration Navaid Location and type of navigation aid (part of navigation database) • • • Edition: 2.

or provide to Crew command of one of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Increased climb Climb Do not descend Do not descend faster than 500ft/min Do not descend faster than 1000ft/min Do not descend faster than 2000ft/min Increased descend Descend Do not climb Do not climb faster than 500ft/min Do not climb faster than1000ft/min Do not climb faster than2000ft/min A manoeuvre restriction intended maintain existing separations Page 84 Proposed Issue Edition: 2.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture . • • • • • • Proximate Traffic Traffic that is within the vicinity of other aircraft. Contents • • • • • • Maximum take-off weight Maximum speed Stall speed Maximum climb rate Sustainable climb rate Operational ceiling Cruise Flight Level Operating Cruise Airspeed Top of decent Approach Type Intermediate Approach Speed Preferred Landing Runway ID 3D Position Heading Speed Medium Term Intent Preference Data Data that the pilot will set as being preferred flight envelope restrictions that will have the least impact in terms of cockpit workload or economic penalties to the aircraft. For each proximate target: • • • • • Resolution Advisory An indication given to the flight crew recommending: A manoeuvre intended to separation from all threats.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Data Item Performance Data Description Data that details the capabilities of an aircraft to fly within certain limits and respond in a timely manner to flight control requirements.

• • • • Surveillance Data Data that is reported about the proximity of other aircraft and could include aircraft intend and Aircraft State Vector • • • • • • • • • • • • Taxi Clearance A clearance provided by the ground movement controller permitting the aircraft to either leave the stand for departure or directing an aircraft on the way it should move in order to reach the desired stand. • • • • • • • • Terrain Data Traffic Advisory Trajectory Vertical Guidance An indication given to the flight crew that a certain intruder is a potential threat.Endpoint Method of measurement Target ID Target heading Target speed Target altitude Magnetic Heading Air Speed Selected Altitude Vertical Rate Track Angle Rate Roll Angle Ground Speed True Track Angle Clearance Route Stand Latitude Longitude Height Datum Traffic Alert RVR The Runway Visible Range is the distance that the flight crew will be able to see down the runway. • Vertical Deviation Edition: 2. Guidance given to the aircraft’s flight control systems to ensure that the aircraft remains within the bounds of the vertical restrictions placed on the aircraft by Air Traffic Control. A model of the earth’s surface that provides an indication of the contours of the earth’s surface and is used by terrain avoidance systems to protect against CFIT. Contents • • • • • • • Max flight level Min flight level Max speed Min speed Start waypoint End waypoint Direction of travel RVR – touchdown RVR – Midpoint RVR . Set of TCPs plus ETA. This is generally limited by speed and altitude restrictions.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Data Item Route Description The flight path from one waypoint to another. The movement path that the aircraft will follow in the course of flight.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture Proposed Issue Page 85 .

Table 16: Data types Page 86 Proposed Issue Edition: 2. A waypoint at which a turn is initiated in order to join the next segment of a route or procedure. A waypoint which requires turn anticipation to allow tangential interception of the next segment of a route or procedure. Waypoints are identified as either: Fly-by waypoint. or Flyover waypoint.Study Report on Avionics Systems for 2011-2020 Data Item Voice Frequency Waypoint Description Frequency required for communications with controller voice Contents • • • • • Frequency ID Latitude Latitude Altitude A specified geographical location used to define an area navigation route or the flight path of an aircraft employing area navigation.1 Overall ATM/CNS Target Architecture .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful