Cyberspace, as the Iith common domain - aIter land, sea, air and outer space, is in great need Ior

coordination, cooperation and legal measures among all nations. A cyberspace treaty or a set oI
treaties at the United Nations level, including cybersecurity and cybercrime, should be the global
Iramework Ior peace, security and justice in cyberspace. Peace and security oI cyberspace should
be a part oI the progressive development oI international law.
The most serious cybercrimes and cyberattacks oI global concern should be investigated and
prosecuted based on international law, and sentenced by an international Court or Tribunal Ior
cyberspace.
LaLesL news on cyber crlme leglslaLlon from around Lhe world
1. 11
. September
3. China, Russia, Tajikstan, and Uzbekistan have sent a letter to UN Secretary-
General Ban Ki-moon, and suggests a code oI conduct on the use oI inIormation
technologies by countries. It is Iocused on threats to international stability, Iighting
cybercrime and prevent the use oI cyberspace Ior terrorism.

August
1. China - The Supreme People´s Court (SPC) and Supreme People´s Procuratorate
(SPP) have issued legal interpretations on hacking and other Internet crimes. The
interpretations entered into Iorce on September 1, 11.
.
3. July
4. Russia has made a suggestion Ior draIting a United Nations Convention on
combatting cybercrime and cyberattacks. This is necessary because the excisting Council
oI Europe Convention on Cybercrime is outdated.

1. June
. In Japan the Diet has enacted legislation that make the creation, acquisition or
storage oI computer viruses a criminal act. It also make it criminal the sending oI
pornographic email spam
3. The Government oI Australia has introduced cybercrime legislation to the
Parliament to combat global cyberattacks.
4.
5. May
6. A proposal Ior a new legal mechanism on combatting cybercrime and global
cyberattacks has been launched by Judge Stein Schjolberg: An International Criminal
Court or Tribunal Ior Cyberspace (ICTC)

1. April
. A White House DraIt Bill in the United States would expand the US Penal Code
Title 18, Chapter 47, Section 13, on Fraud and related activity in connection with
computers. The Bill have proposals Ior cybercrime, including a series oI criminal
oIIences Ior cyberattacks and conIidentiality abuses. The Bill have also details on critical
inIormation security.

1. March
. A Criminal Justice Bill is planned in Ireland that will target serious and complex
oIIences, including cybercrime.
3. Switzerland has approved the Council oI Europe Convention on Cybercrime,
and is expected to ratiIy the Convention later this year.
4. February
5. An International Criminal Tribunal Ior Cyberspace should be established as an
United Nations court oI law Ior the most serious cybercrimes oI global concern. Such
Court may have its seat in The Hague or in Singapore, discusses Judge Stein Schjolberg,
Norway, in a book «A Global Treaty on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime» that was
published on February 3.
6. The government oI Cameroon has introdused a new law on cybercrime in the
Parliament. The Bill would deIine major cybercrimes, including pedophilia, child
pornography, inIringments to human dignity, the propagation oI Ialse rumors and
intrusion into the banking system.
7. January
8. United Nations OIIice on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has on January 17-1,
organized the Iirst conIerence Ior the open-ended intergovernmental expert group that
was recommended in the Salvador Declaration Article 4 at the United Nations Crime
Congress in Salvador, Brazil, April 1-19, 1. The recommendation was adopted by
the UN General Assembly in its resolution 65/3. This expert group shall
conduct a comprehensive study oI the problem oI cybercrime, with a view to examening
options to strengthen existing and to promote new national and international legal or
other responses to cybercrime.
9. The United Arabic Emirates (UAE) is working on updating the cybercrime law,
in order to cover legal loopholes.
1.
11. 1
1. December
13. The parliament in Canada has enacted laws aginst spam. (pdI) The Senate
approved the Fighting Internet and Wireless Spam Act, including criminal oIIences.
14. 'enezuela has enacted cybercrime laws.
15. November
16. China has suggestions Ior strengthening the international law enIorcement
cooperation and joining hands in Iighting against transnational cybercrime. The Network
Security Protection Service oI Ministry oI Public Security has introduced suggestions Ior
solutions.
17. The INTERPOL General Assembly has elected Ronald K. Noble Ior a third
term as Secretary General. His vision Ior the Iuture development oI INTERPOL was also
the creation oI the INTERPOL Global Complex (IGC) in Singapore. The IGC will Iocus
especially in enhancing preparedness to eIIectively counter cybercrime.
18. The State Duma in Russia considers revising the cybercrime legislation. The
State Duma Committee on InIormation Policy, InIormation Technology and
Communication is open Ior cooperation on measures that could strengthen the Iight
against spam.

October
1. The Government in Bangladesh is considering a draIt Bill to curb cybercrime
and pornography. The Bill has been sent Irom the Home Ministry to the Law Ministry Ior
vetting.
. In Canada the Government has introduced in the House oI Commons two Bills
to Iight Cybercrime. The proposed Bill on Investigative Powers Ior the 1st Century Act,
will among other provisions, also make it illegal to possess a computer virus Ior the
purpose oI mischieI. The amendments would update Section 34. oI the Criminal Code.

September
1. Crime and Policing in 'irtual Worlds, a paper by Marc Goodman, Senior
Advisor at Interpol Steering Committee on InIormation Technology Crime.
. Namibia is planning Ior a Communications Bill, including cybercrime.
3. The European Commission in the European Union has presented a proposal Ior
a new cybercrime legislation to be adopted in all member countries. It willl increase the
Eu protection against cyberattacks.
4. August
5. Ireland signed the Council oI Europe Convention on Cybercrime on February
8, , but no legislation preparing Ior a ratiIication has been introdused. A recent
denial oI service attack shows a need Ior action.
6. The European Commission in EU is planning to establish a European rapid
response system Ior cyber attacks, and may present an EU Internal Security Strategy in
October 1.
7. The Cabinet in Jordan has approved a temporary Cybercrime Law.
8.
9. July
1. Marc Goodman, Senior Advisor at Interpol Steering Committee on InIormation
Technology Crime, is an expert on the Iuture crime. He made a presentation and
predicted that cybercrime oI 199 or 5 will have little in common with the technical
threats we are Iacing in 1 and beyond.
11. A Bill on Cybercrime and Cybersecurity has been introduced to the National
Assembly in Cameroon.
1.
13. June
14. The Turkish Transportation Minister Bilali Yildirim has declared that Turkey
will soon sign The Council oI Europe Convention on Cybercrime.
15. A conIerence on cybercrime is held in Oslo, Norway, June 16 - 17 (pdI). The
conIerence Crime in 'irtual Worlds covers identity theIt, phishing, massive and
coordinated cyber attacks, cloud computing and 'OIP-security issues.

1. May
. The East AIrican Communications Organisations (EACO) will work to establish
and harmonize Internet security policies and Internet laws in the East AIrica region.
3. ProIessor Solange Ghernaouti-Helie, University Lausanne, Switzerland, gave a
presentation on the «Need Ior a United Nations Cyberspace Treaty» (pdI) at the ITU -
High Level debate on Cybersecurity and Cyberspace in Geneva May 1, 1.
4. Judge Stein Schjolberg presented a paper on: Wanted - A United Nations
Cyberspace Treaty, including cybercrime, at the EastWest Institute First Worldwide
Cybersecurity Summit in Dallas, May 3-5, 1
5. The Council oI the European Union is developing a new concerted strategy to
combat cybercrime
6.
7. April
8. A proposal Ior a United Nations cyber crime treaty presented by judge Stein
Schjolberg at the United Nations Crime Congress in Salvador, Brazil, April 1-19, 1.
9.
1. Mars
11. Azerbaijan, Montenegro and Portugal have now ratiIied the Council oI Europe
Convention on Cybercrime.
Total number oI ratiIications oI the 1 Convention are now 9, while total number oI
signatures not Iollowed by ratiIications are 17.

1. February
. China will make amendments in penal legislation by strengthen cybercrime
laws. New measures on the interpretation oI hacking or illegal access, and how such
cases are handled by courts may be released.
3.
4. January
5. The OAS working group on cybercrime has recommended several intiatives,
including legislative steps to deIine cybercrime and how to prosecute it.
6.
7. 9
8. December
9. The senate in Jamaica passed The Cybercrimes Act. The Bill was approved with
six amendments.
1. The Portuguese Parliament has passed a new law on cybercrime
11. A new dialogue between the US and Russia on cybersecurity and cybercrime
1. November
13. Azerbaijan President Ilham Aliyev signed the law on approval oI Convention on
Cyber-Crime.
14.
October
15. The InIormation Technology (Amendment) Act 8 entered into Iorce in India.
Cyberterrorism is now punishable with liIe in prison, and it includes also new
cybercrime oIIences such as identity theIt, cyber-stalking, and cyber harassment.
16. In Australia, the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Amendment
Bill was rewritten by the Iederal government.
17.
September
18. A Bill has been presented in Jamaica providing legal sanctions Ior the criminal
misuse oI data.
19. July
. A Bill titled "Fostering a Global Respons to Cyber Attacks Act" (S.1438) was
introduced in the US Senate on July 1. The Bill includes in Section (6) as Iollows:
1.
1. "Relevant international cybersecurity agreements Iocus only on issues
relating to cyber crime and common operating standards and have not been signed
by certain countries Irom which cyberattacks may be launched."


The Bill also includes a proposal Ior cooperative activities Ior international
engagements with other governments.

1. June
. ĹThe European Union is planning amendment in the Council Framework Decision
on Attacks Against InIormation Systems, which went into Iorce in 5.

May
1. The Norwegian Parliament (Stortinget) has on May 8 adopted the New Penal Code,
including several provisions on cybercrime. See §§ 19, 1, , 4, 5b, 6, 311,
351, 361, and 371. The new penal code will enter into Iorce in 1-11.

April
1. A new Bill on cybercrime has been Iiled in The Philippine Senate.
. Bangladesh has introduced a new law on cybercrime.

March
1. Germany has ratiIied the Council oI Europe Convention on Cybercrime.
. In Norway a Bill on a new Criminal Law (8-9) has in § introduced a
provision on identity theIt, using the term Identity InIringements that reads as Iollows:
'With a Iine or imprisonment not exceeding years shall whoever be punished, that
without authority possesses oI a means oI identity oI another, or acts with the identity oI
another or with an identity that easily may be conIused with the identity oI another
person, with the intent oI
a) procuring an economic beneIit Ior oneselI or Ior another person, or
b) causing a loss oI property or inconvenience to another person.¨
(unoIIicial translation)

February
1. President Barack Obama has directed the National Security and Homeland
Security Advisors to conduct a review oI the plan, programs, and activities underway
throughout the government dedicated to cyber security, including new regulations to
combat cybercrime.
. US 'ice President Joe Biden gave a presentation at the 45th Munich ConIerence
on Security Policy on February 7. Among many issues he emphasized the need to tackle
terrorism and cyber-security.

January
1. The Kenya Communications (Amendment) Act (pdI) was passed by the Kenyan
Parliament and signed into law by the President on January . The Act includes
legislation on cybercrime in Sections 83 W-Z and 84 A- F on: unauthorized access to
computer data, access with intent to commit oIIences, unauthorized access to and
interception oI computer service, unauthorized modiIication oI computer material,
damaging or denying access to computer system, unauthorized disclosure oI passwords,
unlawIul possession oI devices and data, electronic Iraud, tampering with computer
source documents, and publishing oI obscene inIormation in electronic Iorm.
hLLpť//wwwŦcybercrlmelawŦneL/CybercrlmelawŦhLml
hLLpť//wwwŦcybercrlmelawŦneL/documenLs/A_Clobal_1reaLy_on_CybersecurlLy_and_Cybercrlmeţ_Seco
nd_edlLlon_2011Ŧpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦewlŦlnfo/sysLem/flles/CyberueLerrenceWebŦpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦcybercrlmelawŦneL/documenLs/un_12Lh_Crlme_CongressŦpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦcybercrlmelawŦneL/documenLs/8russelÞresenLaLlonŦpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦcybercrlmelawŦneL/documenLs/CyberLerrorlsmŦpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦcybercrlmelawŦneL/documenLs/cybercrlme_hlsLoryŦpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦmoLorolaŦcom/web/8uslness/SoluLlons/8uslnessƷ20SoluLlons/8lomeLrlcs/8lomeLrlcsƷ20ld
enLlflcaLlon/_uocumenLs/SLaLlcƷ20llles/ln18CuuC1lCn_1C_8lCML18lCS_newŦpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦserscŦorg/[ournals/l!unLSS1/vol2_no3/2Ŧpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦparllamenLŦuk/documenLs/posL/pn163Ŧpdf
Biometric Technologies - INTRODUCTION,
BACKGROUND, Fingerprint, Facial
Recognition, Iris Scan, Retinal Scan, Voice
Recognition, Signature Verification
Mayank Vatsa
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
Richa Singh
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
! Gupta
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
A K Kaushik
lectronic Niketan, India
INTRUDUCTIUN
Identity veriIication in computer systems is done based on measures like keys, cards, passwords,
PIN and so Iorth. UnIortunately, these may oIten be Iorgotten, disclosed or changed. A reliable
and accurate identiIication/veriIication technique may be designed using biometric technologies,
which are Iurther based on the special characteristics oI the person such as Iace, iris, Iingerprint,
signature and so Iorth. This technique oI identiIication is preIerred over traditional passwords
and PIN-based techniques Ior various reasons:
O 1he person Lo be ldenLlfled ls requlred Lo be physlcally presenL aL Lhe Llme of ldenLlflcaLlonŦ
O ldenLlflcaLlon based on blomeLrlc Lechnlques obvlaLes Lhe need Lo remember a password or
carry a LokenŦ
A biometric system essentially is a pattern recognition system that makes a personal
identiIication by determining the authenticity oI a speciIic physiological or behavioral
characteristic possessed by the user. Biometric technologies are thus deIined as the 'automated
methods oI identiIying or authenticating the identity oI a living person based on a physiological
or behavioral characteristic.¨ A biometric system can be either an identiIication system or a
veriIication (authentication) system; both are deIined below.
O Ident|f|cat|onť Ooe to Mooy ŸA comparlson of an lndlvldual's submlLLed blomeLrlc sample
agalnsL Lhe enLlre daLabase of blomeLrlc reference LemplaLes Lo deLermlne wheLher lL maLches
any of Lhe LemplaLesŦ
O Ver|f|cat|onť Ooe to Ooe ŸA comparlson of Lwo seLs of blomeLrlcs Lo deLermlne lf Lhey are from
Lhe same lndlvldualŦ
Biometric authentication requires comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample (biometric
template or identiIier) against a newly captured biometric sample (Ior example, the one captured
during a login). This is a three-step process ( apture, Process, nroll ) Iollowed by a
Jerification or Identification .
During apture , raw biometric is captured by a sensing device, such as a Iingerprint scanner or
video camera; then, distinguishing characteristics are extracted Irom the raw biometric sample
and converted into a processed biometric identiIier record (biometric template). Next is
enrollment, in which the processed sample (a mathematical representation oI the template) is
stored/registered in a storage medium Ior comparison during authentication. In many commercial
applications, only the processed biometric sample is stored. The original biometric sample
cannot be reconstructed Irom this identiIier.
CKCRUUND
Many biometric characteristics may be captured in the Iirst phase oI processing. However,
automated capturing and automated comparison with previously stored data requires the
Iollowing properties oI biometric characteristics:
O Un|versa|ť Lveryone musL have Lhe aLLrlbuLeŦ 1he aLLrlbuLe musL be one LhaL ls seldom losL Lo
accldenL or dlseaseŦ
O Invar|ance of propert|esť 1hey should be consLanL over a long perlod of LlmeŦ 1he aLLrlbuLe
should noL be sub[ecL Lo slgnlflcanL dlfferences based on age or elLher eplsodlc or chronlc
dlseaseŦ
O Measurab|||tyť 1he properLles should be sulLable for capLure wlLhouL walLlng Llme and lL musL
be easy Lo gaLher Lhe aLLrlbuLe daLa passlvelyŦ
O S|ngu|ar|tyť Lach expresslon of Lhe aLLrlbuLe musL be unlque Lo Lhe lndlvldualŦ 1he
characLerlsLlcs should have sufflclenL unlque properLles Lo dlsLlngulsh one person from any
oLherŦ PelghLţ welghLţ halr and eye color are unlque aLLrlbuLesţ assumlng a parLlcularly preclse
measureţ buL do noL offer enough polnLs of dlfferenLlaLlon Lo be useful for more Lhan
caLegorlzlngŦ
O Acceptanceť 1he capLurlng should be posslble ln a way accepLable Lo a large percenLage of Lhe
populaLlonŦ Lxcluded are parLlcularly lnvaslve LechnologlesŤ LhaL lsţ Lechnologles requlrlng a parL
of Lhe human body Lo be Laken or (apparenLly) lmpalrlng Lhe human bodyŦ
O keduc|b|||tyť 1he capLured daLa should be capable of belng reduced Lo an easyŴLoŴhandle flleŦ
O ke||ab|||ty and tamperŴres|stanceť 1he aLLrlbuLe should be lmpracLlcal Lo mask or manlpulaLeŦ
1he process should ensure hlgh rellablllLy and reproduclblllLyŦ
O Þr|vacyť 1he process should noL vlolaLe Lhe prlvacy of Lhe personŦ
O Comparab|eť 1he aLLrlbuLe should be able Lo be reduced Lo a sLaLe LhaL makes lL dlglLally
comparable Lo oLhersŦ 1he less probablllsLlc Lhe maLchlng lnvolvedţ Lhe more auLhorlLaLlve Lhe
ldenLlflcaLlonŦ
O In|m|tab|eť 1he aLLrlbuLe musL be lrreproduclble by oLher meansŦ 1he less reproduclble Lhe
aLLrlbuLeţ Lhe more llkely lL wlll be auLhorlLaLlveŦ
Among the various biometric technologies being considered are Iingerprint, Iacial Ieatures, hand
geometry, voice, iris, retina, vein patterns, palm print, DNA, keystroke dynamics, ear shape,
odor, signature and so Iorth.
Fingerprint
Fingerprint biometric is an automated digital version oI the old ink-and-paper method used Ior
more than a century Ior identiIication, primarily by law enIorcement agencies (Maltoni, 3).
The biometric device requires each user to place a Iinger on a plate Ior the print to be read.
Fingerprint biometrics currently has three main application areas: large-scale Automated Finger
Imaging Systems (AFIS), generally used Ior law enIorcement purposes; Iraud prevention in
entitlement programs; and physical and computer access. A major advantage oI Iinger imaging is
the long-time use oI Iingerprints and its wide acceptance by the public and law enIorcement
communities as a reliable means oI human recognition. Others include the need Ior physical
contact with the optical scanner, possibility oI poor-quality images due to residue on the Iinger
such as dirt and body oils (which can build up on the glass plate), as well as eroded Iingerprints
Irom scrapes, years oI heavy labor or mutilation.
Facial Recognition
Face recognition is a noninvasive process where a portion oI the subject`s Iace is photographed
and the resulting image is reduced to a digital code (Zhao, ). Facial recognition records the
spatial geometry oI distinguishing Ieatures oI the Iace. Facial recognition technologies can
encounter perIormance problems stemming Irom such Iactors as non-cooperative behavior oI the
user, lighting and other environmental variables. The main disadvantages oI Iace recognition are
similar to problems oI photographs. People who look alike can Iool the scanners. There are many
ways in which people can signiIicantly alter their appearance, like slight change in Iacial hair and
style.
Iris Scan
Iris scanning measures the iris pattern in the colored part oI the eye, although iris color has
nothing to do with the biometric 6 . Iris patterns are Iormed randomly. As a result, the iris
patterns in the leIt and right eyes are diIIerent, and so are the iris patterns oI identical twins. Iris
templates are typically around 56 bytes. Iris scanning can be used quickly Ior both
identiIication and veriIication applications because oI its large number oI degrees oI Ireedom.
Disadvantages oI iris recognition include problems oI user acceptance, relative expense oI the
system as compared to other biometric technologies and the relatively memory-intensive storage
requirements.
Retinal Scan
Retinal scanning involves an electronic scan oI the retinathe innermost layer oI wall oI the
eyeball. By emitting a beam oI incandescent light that bounces oII the person`s retina and returns
to the scanner, a retinal scanning system quickly maps the eye`s blood vessel pattern and records
it into an easily retrievable digitized database 3 . The eye`s natural reIlective and absorption
properties are used to map a speciIic portion oI the retinal vascular structure. The advantages oI
retinal scanning are its reliance on the unique characteristics oI each person`s retina, as well as
the Iact that the retina generally remains Iairly stable throughout liIe. Disadvantages oI retinal
scanning include the need Ior Iairly close physical contact with the scanning device. Also,
trauma to the eye and certain diseases can change the retinal vascular structure, and there also are
concerns about public acceptance.
Voice Recognition
'oice or speaker recognition uses vocal characteristics to identiIy individuals using a pass-
phrase (Campbell, 1997). It involves taking the acoustic signal oI a person`s voice and
converting it to a unique digital code that can be stored in a template. 'oice recognition systems
are extremely well-suited Ior veriIying user access over a telephone. Disadvantages oI this
biometric are that not only is a Iairly large byte code required, but also, people`s voices can
change (Ior example, when they are sick or in extreme emotional states). Also, phrases can be
misspoken and background noises can interIere with the system.
Signature Verification
It is an automated method oI examining an individual`s signature. This technology examines
dynamics such as speed, direction and pressure oI writing; the time that the stylus is in and out oI
contact with the 'paper¨; the total time taken to make the signature; and where the stylus is
raised Irom and lowered onto the 'paper¨. Signature veriIication templates are typically 5 to
3 bytes. The key is to diIIerentiate between the parts oI the signature that are habitual and
those that vary with almost every signing. Disadvantages include problems with long-term
reliability, lack oI accuracy and cost.
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andJFinger Ceometry
Hand or Iinger geometry is an automated measurement oI many dimensions oI the hand and
Iingers. Neither oI these methods takes actual prints oI palm or Iingers. Only the spatial
geometry is examined as the user puts a hand on the sensor`s surIace. Hand geometry templates
are typically 9 bytes, and Iinger geometry templates are to 5 bytes. Finger geometry usually
measures two or three Iingers, and thus requires a small amount oI computational and storage
resources. The problems with this approach are that it has low discriminative power, the size oI
the required hardware restricts its use in some applications and hand geometry-based systems
can be easily circumvented 9 .
Palm Print
Palm print veriIication is a slightly modiIied Iorm oI Iingerprint technology. Palm print scanning
uses an optical reader very similar to that used Ior Iingerprint scanning; however, its size is much
bigger, which is a limiting Iactor Ior use in workstations or mobile devices.
Keystroke Dynamics
Keystroke dynamics is an automated method oI examining an individual`s keystrokes on a
keyboard (Monrose, ). This technology examines dynamics such as speed and pressure, the
total time oI typing a particular password and the time that a user takes between hitting keys
dwell time (the length oI time one holds down each key) as well as Ilight time (the time it takes
to move between keys). Taken over the course oI several login sessions, these two metrics
produce a measurement oI rhythm unique to each user. Technology is still being developed to
improve robustness and distinctiveness.
Vein Patterns
'ein geometry is based on the Iact that the vein pattern is distinctive Ior various individuals.
'ein measurement generally Iocuses on blood vessels on the back oI the hand. The veins under
the skin absorb inIrared light and thus have a darker pattern on the image oI the hand. An
inIrared light combined with a special camera captures an image oI the blood vessels in the Iorm
oI tree patterns. This image is then converted into data and stored in a template. 'ein patterns
have several advantages: First, they are large, robust internal patterns. Second, the procedure
does not implicate the criminal connotations associated with the taking oI Iingerprints. Third, the
patterns are not easily damaged due to gardening or bricklaying. However, the procedure has not
yet won Iull mainstream acceptance. The major disadvantage oI vein measurement is the lack oI
proven reliability 9 .
DN
DNA sampling is rather intrusive at present and requires a Iorm oI tissue, blood or other bodily
sample 9 . This method oI capture still has to be reIined. So Iar, DNA analysis has not been
suIIiciently automatic to rank it as a biometric technology. The analysis oI human DNA is now
possible within 1 minutes. II the DNA can be matched automatically in real time, it may
become more signiIicant. At present, DNA is very entrenched in crime detection and will remain
in the law enIorcement area Ior the time being.
ar Sbape
IdentiIying individuals by ear shape is used in law enIorcement applications where ear markings
are Iound at crime scenes (Burge, ). Problems are Iaced whenever the ear is covered by hair.
ody Udor
The body odor biometrics is based on the Iact that virtually every human`s smell is unique. The
smell is captured by sensors that are capable oI obtaining the odor Irom non-intrusive parts oI the
body, such as the back oI the hand. The scientiIic basis is that the chemical composition oI odors
can be identiIied using special sensors. Each human smell is made up oI chemicals known as
volatiles. They are extracted by the system and converted into a template. The use oI body odor
sensors broaches on the privacy issue, as the body odor carries a signiIicant amount oI sensitive
personal inIormation. It is possible to diagnose some disease or activities in last hours by
analyzing body odor.
MIN FUCUS UF T RTICL
Performance Measurements
The overall perIormance oI a system can be evaluated in terms oI its storag e, speed and accurac
y. The size oI a template, especially when using smart cards Ior storage, can be a decisive issue
during the selection oI a biometric system. Iris scan is oIten preIerred over Iingerprinting Ior this
reason. Also, the time required by the system to make an identiIication decision is important,
especially in real-time applications such as ATM transactions.
Accuracy is critical Ior determining whether the system meets requirements and, in practice, the
way the system responds. It is traditionally characterized by two error statistics: False Accept
Rate ( FAR) (sometimes called False Match Rate), the percentage oI impostors accepted; and
False Refect Rate ( FRR ), the percentage oI authorized users rejected. These error rates come in
pairs: For each Ialse-reject rate there is a corresponding Ialse alarm. In a perIect biometric
system, both rates should be zero. UnIortunately, no biometric system today is Ilawless, so there
must be a trade-oII between the two rates. Usually, civilian applications try to keep both rates
low. The error rate oI the system when FAR equals FRR is called the 6ual rror Rate , and is
used to describe perIormance oI the overall system. Good biometric systems have error rates oI
less than 1°. This should be compared to error rates in current methods oI authentication, such
as passwords, photo IDs, handwritten signatures and so Iorth. Although this is Ieasible in theory,
practical comparison between diIIerent biometric systems when based on diIIerent technologies
is very hard to achieve. The problem with the system is that people`s physical traits change over
time, especially with alterations due to accident or aging. Problems can occur because oI
accident or aging, humidity in the air, dirt and sweat (especially with Iinger or hand systems) and
inconsistent ways oI interIacing with the system.
According to the Biometric Working Group (Iounded by the Biometric Consortium), the three
basic types oI evaluation oI biometric systems are: technology, scenario and operational
evaluation 9 .
The goal oI a technology evaluation is to compare competing algorithms Irom a single
technology. The use oI test sets allows the same test to be given to all participants. The goal oI
scenario testing is to determine the overall system perIormance in a single prototype or
simulated application to determine whether a biometric technology is suIIiciently mature to meet
perIormance requirements Ior a class oI applications. The goal oI operational testing is to
determine the perIormance oI a complete biometric system in a speciIic application environment
with a speciIic target population, to determine iI the system meets the requirements oI a speciIic
application.
Problems of Using iometric Identification
DiIIerent technologies may be appropriate Ior diIIerent applications, depending on perceived
user proIiles, the need to interIace with other systems or databases, environmental conditions and
a host oI other application-speciIic parameters.Biometrics has some drawbacks and loopholes.
Some oI the problems associated with biometrics systems are as Iollows:
O Most of the techno|og|es work we|| on|y for a "sma||" target popu|at|onť Cnly Lwo blomeLrlc
Lechnologlesţ flngerprlnLlng and lrls scannlngţ have been shown ln lndependenL LesLlng Lo be
capable of ldenLlfylng a person from a group exceedlng 1ţ000 peopleŦ 1hree LechnologlesŸfaceţ
volce and slgnaLureŸhave been shown ln lndependenL LesLlng Lo be lncapable of slngllng ouL a
person from a group exceedlng 1ţ000Ŧ 1hls can be a blg problem for largeŴscale use 2Ŧ
O 1he |eve| of pub||c concern about pr|vacy and secur|ty |s st||| h|ghť Þrlvacy lssues are deflned as
freedom from unauLhorlzed lnLruslonŦ lL can be dlvlded lnLo Lhree dlsLlncL formsť
4
4 Þhyslcal prlvacyţ or Lhe freedom of lndlvldual from conLacL wlLh oLhersŦ
4 lnformaLlonal prlvacyţ or Lhe freedom of lndlvlduals Lo llmlL access Lo cerLaln personal
lnformaLlon abouL oneselfŦ
4 ueclslon prlvacyţ or Lhe freedom of lndlvlduals Lo make prlvaLe cholces abouL personal
and lnLlmaLe maLLersŦ
Þubllc reslsLances Lo Lhese lssues can be a blg deLerrenL Lo wldespread use of blomeLrlcŴbased
ldenLlflcaLlonŦ
O 8|ometr|c techno|og|es do not f|t we|| |n remote systemsŦ lf verlflcaLlon Lakes place across a
neLwork (Lhe measuremenL polnL and Lhe access conLrol declslon polnL are noL colocaLed)ţ Lhe
sysLem mlghL be lnsecureŦ ln Lhls caseţ aLLackers can elLher sLeal Lhe person's scanned
characLerlsLlc and use lL durlng oLher LransacLlons or ln[ecL Lhelr characLerlsLlc lnLo Lhe
communlcaLlon channelŦ 1hls problem can be overcome by Lhe use of a secure channel beLween
Lhe Lwo polnLsŦ
O 8|ometr|c systems do not hand|e fa||ure we||Ŧ lf someone sLeals one's LemplaLeţ lL remalns
sLolen for llfeŦ Slnce lL ls noL a dlglLal cerLlflcaLe or a passwordţ you cannoL ask Lhe bank or some
LrusLed Lhlrd parLy Lo lssue a new oneŦ Cnce Lhe LemplaLe ls sLolenţ lL ls noL posslble Lo go back
Lo a secure slLuaLlonŦ
CUNCLUSIUN
The world would be a Iantastic place iI everything were secure and trusted. But unIortunately, in
the real world there is Iraud, crime, computer hackers and theIt. So there is need oI something to
ensure users` saIety. Biometrics is one method that can give optimal security to users in the
available resource limitations. Some oI its ongoing and Iuture applications are:
O Þhyslcal access
O IlrLual access
O LŴcommerce appllcaLlons
O CorporaLe l1
O AvlaLlon
O 8anklng and flnanclal
O PealLhcare
O CovernmenL
This article presents an overview oI various biometrics technologies` perIormance, application
and problems. Research is going on to provide a secure, user-Iriendly and cost-eIIective
biometrics technology.
hLLpť//encyclopedlaŦ[rankŦorg/arLlcles/pages/6336/8lomeLrlcŴ1echnologlesŦhLml
hLLpť//blomeLrlcsŦcseŦmsuŦedu/ÞubllcaLlons/llngerprlnL/!alnlpMaLchlng_lLLLComp10Ŧpdf
hLLpť//wwwŦblomeLrlcsŦgov/uocumenLs/8loPlsLoryŦpdf
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Ʒ3A10ƎqƹblomeLrlcs+and+crlme+deLecLlon+and+analyslsƎsaƹCoogle+SearchƎslLeurlƹgoogleŦaLcomeLŦ
comƷ2lcƷ2l#1077
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acLlveŦneL/slLes/daLa/docs/vldeosurv062011/Crlme_prevenLlon_Survey2002_ukgovernmenLŦpdf
Research !roposal On Fear Of Crime
. ABSTRACT
The research aims at establishing a relationship between the Iear oI crime, gender and prior
victimization. Prior research indicates that there have been weak links between the latter Iactors
hence the research aims at assorting the three parameters.
The research will be conducted through structural interviews and secondary sources. The
respondents will be determined through non probability sampling with strict adherence to gender
balance. The Likert scale will be used Ior the structured interview. ThereaIter, the data will be
analyzed though bar charts and standard deviation Ior the two independent variables: gender and
prior victimization will be calculated in relation to the dependent variable; Iear oI crime. The two
values oI standard deviation will be compared and an inIerence made.
The research will be managed by a project coordinator with the help oI Iour other team members.
Expenses include supplies, traveling expenses and personnel logistics; they all sum up to $ 6,
77.
1. INTRODUCTION
Research conducted by Skogan (1986) Iound that the Iear oI crime creates negative
psychological eIIects in a community. Consequently, stakeholders in the crime prevention sector
need to equip themselves with knowledge surrounding this topic. They need to know Iactors
linked to the Iear oI crime and the magnitude or relative importance oI each. However, this essay
will only examine two Iactors; gender and prior victimization. Examining the relationship
between Iear oI crime, gender and prior victimization is quite instrumental in crime prevention
strategies. This is because at the end oI the research, there will be empirical evidence to help law
enIorcement oIIicers, government agencies and stakeholders in the crime prevention unit. (Hale
1996)
3. LITERATURE RE'IEW
Morris et al (3) conducted a survey in New Zealand linking numerous demographic Iactors to
crime victimization. They Iound that gender has a signiIicant eIIect on the perceptions oI saIety
hence Iear oI crime. McGarrell et al (1997) also Iound that when one had been a victim oI crime
in the past, chances were that they would depict greater Iear oI the same in the Iuture. Hale
(1996) adds that some disparities exist among people who had never been victimized beIore and
those who were at greater risk.
Akers et al (1987) tried examining the link between victimization and Iear oI crime. Their results
were not very convincing because the relationship was quite weak. Similarly, Bennet & Flavin
(1994) also came up with weak conclusions. However, there were other researchers that
managed to come up with links relating the above subjects. For instance, Stiles et al (3) Iound
a strong link between victimization and crime. These Iindings were aIIirmed by Acierno et al
(4) and Moore and Shepherd (7). As it can be seen, there are mixed perceptions about the
eIIect oI victimization on Iear crime. The research intends on clariIying this matter and linking
this Iactor to gender.
In order to establish a relationship between the Iear oI crime and other Iactors, it is necessary o
understand what kind oI indicators denote Iear oI crime'. This allows better and more proIicient
measurement. Surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau oI Statistics in (6) and by
Statistics New Zealand (6) employed similar techniques. These surveys considered; how saIe
people Ielt when at home, when traveling or when walking alone within speciIic communities.
Conversely, Ferraro and LaGrange (1988) argue that these Iactors are invalid. They believe that
these Iactors are not directly linked to crime or to Iear. For instance, by asking people about their
Ieelings oI saIety when walking home, researchers tend to include other issues such as the Iear oI
an accident or a heart attack. These Iactors are ambiguous and lack direct relation to crime.
Ferraro and La Grange (1988) also argue that most oI the issues indicate quality oI liIe rather
than Iear oI crime. This is because they indicate the kind oI risk present in certain communities
or how saIe particular individuals really are. These individuals base their understanding oI saIety
upon their Ieelings oI uncertainty, concern and anxiousness.
In light oI these arguments, some authors came up with better indictors oI Iear oI crime. Warr
(1984) asked people about their Iear oI crime in relation to a number oI crimes. Figgie (1983)
concurs with this argument; he believes that questions should directly talk about the Iear oI crime
in order to depict accurate results.
4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS
The research questions chosen above will require validation oI two major Iactors then it will
eventually necessitate linking those Iactors together. At this point, there will be a need to move
Irom theory to operationalization oI the concept. The literature review conducted above has
resulted in the creation oI interlinked logical assumptions and propositions. For instance, it has
been established that there is a link between gender and Iear oI crime but this link is not clearly
understood. Additionally, it has been assumed that prior victimization is related to Iear oI crime
but the extent oI this relationship needs to be established. ThereIore, it is essential that the report
clearly chooses the best indicators oI the latter three variables i.e. gender, Iear oI crime and prior
victimization. Consequently, measuring these major concepts is the major challenge hen trying to
construct the research questions. (Babbie, 5)
It should be noted that various methods oI asking one question are possible and each approach
would result in totally diIIerent responses hence diIIerent analyses and results. This research
questions may be asked in such way that they solicit open ended responses. For instance, the
respondents may be asked what their Iear oI crime is in relation to their community. Then
responses will be evaluated on the basis oI gender. This is called the nominal approach. On the
other hand, one can evaluate level oI crime by asking respondents to answer yes or no with iI
their Iear oI crime oI a high or low degree respectively. This is what is called the ordinal level oI
setting research questions. (Meyers et al, 5)
The latter method is more appropriate in situations where the research questions are sociological.
Because this is a sociological research then the latter method could be used to vary the research
questions. It could allow better manipulation oI results because oI the simplicity oI the responses.
Open ended questions may require too much statistical maneuver and this may eventually
interIere with the Iinal results. Additionally, this method is also appropriate because the research
will be considering gender as a Iactor. Experts believe that when one is examining another
indicator in between, then the ordinal approach is more appropriate. (Babbie, 5)
5. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SAMPLE
The main reasons why structured interviews were chosen Ior this research are: Participants give
very good response rates. Additionally, some interviewees may not understand particular
questions but since the interviewer is in direct contact with the respondent, then chances are that
they can iron out these anomalies. Besides these, it reduces bias on the part iI the interviewer
because there are preset questions to Iollow. Also, because there is uniIorm assortment oI
questions, then chances are that the results can be easily compared. Also such an approach is
quite useIul when quantiIying data. (Meyers et al, 5)
However, there are also some disadvantages to this method oI data collection. First oI all, it will
require more time than simply mailing questionnaires to participants. This deIiciency will be
minimized by delegating duties and also by planning the design well. Besides that the structured
interview Iormat can prove to be quite expensive is administered in large portion or are.
Consequently, there is a need to make sure that most oI the responses are spread over a huge
small size. However, this inadequacy will be reduced by reducing the sample size. Interviewers
themselves may have some bias when recording results but this can be ironed out by conducting
some Iorm oI training prior to the actual interviews. (Likert, 193)
Likert Scaling is quite appropriate in this scenario because Iear oI crime' as a main Iactor is
quite diIIicult to quantiIy, thereIore using Likert items will help in clariIying out some oI the
arguments. Likert scales measure negative or positive responses and this will be quite
instrumental in the data analysis stage. This is because all the answers given under the disagree'
and strongly disagree' categories can be summed up to represent negative responses while those
ones given under the agree' and strongly disagree' categories can also be summed to represent
the positive responses. It should be noted that there is room Ior distortion in this kind oI
approach; some respondents may shy away Iorm extreme respondents in order to appear socially
acceptable. Furthermore, some may tend to give positive responses in order to make their
community look saIe and Iree Iorm crime. This disadvantage will be minimized by balancing out
the number oI negative and positive statements to be addressed in the interviews. At the en oI the
research, all the Likert questions will be added up in order to come up with a Iinal response
related to Iear oI crime. It should be noted that adding up the statements is only permissible is all
the question were asked using the Likert response. Addition' in this case will not be done
literally. It will be achieved through variance analysis. (Likert, 193)
A non-probability response scale is chosen because oI its convenience and its limited Iinancial
requirements. However, some authors argue that this approach should only be used with caution
because it is almost impossible to calculate the probability oI getting the sample. Consequently,
there is a need Ior application oI some sociological knowledge when conducting the analysis. For
this particular research, the respondents will be selected using ad-hoc-quotas non probability
sampling. The latter approach will require that IiIty percent oI the respondents are male and IiIty
percent are Iemale. ThereIore as long as this quota is met, any respondent can be interviewed.
(Likert, 193)
6. DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND 'ARIABLES
The independent variables are those ones that cannot be manipulated and are simple measured.
In this case, gender, cannot be manipulated and will be considered as an independent variables.
Alternatively, prior victimization cannot be altered and also qualiIies as an independent variable.
The research will only measure these parameters by requesting respondents to indicate whether
or not they have been victims oI crime. On the other hand, Iear oI crime is aIIected by a number
oI Iactors as seen earlier. Consequently, this will be the dependent variable. (Babbie, 5)
Gender is a nominal variable (one that cannot be quantiIied) so there will be no ranking in this
case with reIerence to gender. This variable will only be used to classiIy answers i.e. qualitative
analysis. On the other hand, prior victimization is an ordinal variable (one that can be ranked but
cannot be allocated speciIic numbers or percentages). Consequently, questions in the structured
interview will include rank prior victimization into categories i.e. those who have been
victimized many times, those who have been victimized once or those how have never been
victimized. (Meyers et al, 5)
The ultimate goal in research is to establish a relationship between variables. In this particular
research, Iear oI crime will be compare between men and women. II is Iound that men have
higher Iear oI crime than women, then it ill be established that there is relationship between
gender and Iear oI crime'. (Meyers et al, 5)
7. PROPOSED DATA ANALYSIS
There are two key Ieatures that need to be considered when analyzing any sort oI data;
magnitude and reliability. Magnitude is established by determining the extent oI relationships
between two variables. In this case, the magnitude will be analyzed by determining how much
gender aIIects Iear oI crime and also how much prior victimization aIIects Iear oI rime. II the
research Iinds that there are higher numbers oI women with high Iear oI crime, then it can be
deduced that the magnitude oI the two variables (Iear oI crime and gender) is high.
On the hand, reliability oI the data cannot be analyzed directly through statistical methods. It
employs the use oI secondary data and prior knowledge in order to inIer Iindings to the rest oI
the population. (Babbie, 5)
AIter covering the deIinitions, the next challenge is on measurement oI that magnitude. The
number oI variables covered in this research are three; gender, Iear oI crime and prior
victimization. These variables will invariably determine method oI analysis. Additionally, the
Likert scale will also aIIect the type oI analysis used and also the kind oI relationships between
these variables. (Babbie, 5)
But the main principle behind measurement oI these variables is a comparison between
observable relations and the ideal relationship. This means that the analysis must involve a
comparison between the extent oI interrelation between the two parameters (gender and Iear oI
crime) prior victimization and Iear oI crime) as indicated by the research and what should be
common is the variables were in an ideal situation. (Meyers et al, 5)
Taking an example oI the eIIect oI gender on Iear oI crime; iI the proposed research reveals that
the percentage oI women who register high levels oI Iear oI crime is sixty percent and the
number oI men to represent the percentage oI men who register high Iear oI crime is Iorty, then
we can analyze this by getting the deviation Irom the grand mean. In this case, the grand mean is
IiIty and the amount oI deviation is ten. In isolation, this number cannot indicate the relativity oI
the measurement. Consequently, it is important to lay out a reIerence point Ior the analysis. II set
one hundred percent as the ideal value or the grand mean, then the analysis would yield totally
diIIerent results. ThereaIter, a deviation will need to be conducted relating the actual values oI
deviation in comparison to one hundred percent. The deviations Iound in the latter case would be
extremely low because the grand mean chosen is too high. (Babbie, 5)
Conversely, iI the ideal was set as ten percent, the deviation between males and Iemales in
relation to Iear oI crime would be almost negligible Ior both genders and the research would Iind
very low relations between gender and Iear oI crime. All in all, it is important to set the grand
mean in relation to the kind oI individual scores portrayed in the results in order to perIorm na
accurate analysis. (Meyers et al, 5)
However, beIore the calculation oI deviation Ior the grand mean, there is a need to get a
representative value Iorm all the respondents' answers. Since the data was collected using the
Likert scale, then the Iirst part oI the analysis will also be done using methods limited to this
scale. (Likert, 193)
For this particular research, a number oI items will be asked in relation to one particular issue.
For instance, the responses asking people about their Iear oI crime in relation to speciIic crime
types will be summed up and all the responses made by men will be analyzed. Similarly,
women's responses will be analyzed too. The summing up will assist in giving a summative
score Ior the two types oI genders. ThereaIter, the diIIerent Likert items will be arranged into bar
charts. The beauty about using bar charts is that they Iacilitate the calculation oI a c3entral
tendency. The proposed research will utilize median calculations because mean calculations will
be use in later stages as seen above. Dispersion oI the data will also be checked by percentage
quartiles. (Likert, 193)
It is permissible to sum up all the responses linking gender to crime because thy will all be
utilizing the same scale. This means that it is an interval scale and much can be achieved though
this. The same analysis will also need to be applied to prior victimization. All items relating to
this parameter will be summed up and their correlation values determined through standard
deviation. ThereaIter, there will be a comparison oI the two parameters; gender and prior
victimization to Iear oI crime. The correlation values Ior gender and Iear oI crime will be
compared to correlation values Ior prior victimization and Iear oI crime. Once it has been
established that the values are somewhat similar, and then one can conclude that the two Iactors
both aIIect Iear oI crime. But iI one correlation value is much higher than the other (say gender is
higher than prior victimization) then one can deduce that gender is the principle Iactor or vice
versa iI results Iavor prior victimization. (Likert, 193)
8. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH
The research will have a project tem made up oI Iive people. The project coordinator will be
responsible Ior coordinating all the activities necessary in the research. First oI all, the team will
start with plan. This will be a guide Ior all the activities that will take place within the time span
oI the project. ThereaIter, material necessary Ior the research will be collected. As it had been
stated earlier, there will be numerous research methods used and secondary sources re included.
Library material will be identiIied and studied. AIter collection oI all secondary material, then
the primary research will begin. This will probably be done aIter a period oI Iour weeks. (Meyers
et al, 5)
The project coordinator will be responsible Ior ensuring that al the interviewers are well aware oI
what they should do one they go out in the Iield. There will be no strict criteria Ior determining
the kind oI respondents as they ill employing non probability sampling. However, they must
make sure that they cover equal numbers oI men and women. (Meyers et al, 5)
BeIore the interviewers go out in the Iield, they will sit down and agree on the questions. They
will also ensure that there is an even balance between the negative and positive statements in
order to minimize biased responses Irom the interviewees. This will last Ior two months
AIter the primary research is completed, the statistical work will begin and this may last Ior two
weeks. ThereaIter a conclusion will be done.
9. RESEARCH BUDGET AND NARRATI'E
Research budget
Personnel
Research coordinator's logistics-$
Interviewer's logistics-$ 5
Project secretary-$ 1
Total- $8
Supplies and related expenses
Telephone calls-$ 3
Duplicating questions-$5
Computer-$ 1
OIIice equipment-$4
ReIerence materials-$
Meeting Iacilities (temporary oIIice)-$ 1
Total-$ 4, 97
Travelling
StaII travels-$ 1
Total Expenses- $ 677
Budget Narrative
The research will employ the services oI Iive project members with one oI them acting as a
project coordinator. This coordinator will need to prepare meting venues, search Ior resources
and at the same time meet his daily needs such as Iood. Because oI these additional
responsibilities, he will require higher payments hence the dollars. The interviewers will
each receive 15 dollars because thy have les responsibilities. This will be Ior their personal
expenses such a Iood and accommodation. (Meyers et al, 5)
The research process will require lots oI secondary resources. (Babbie, 5) Some oI the
journal items and books will purchased hence the two hundred dollars. On the other hand,
internet resources will also be necessary hence the need Ior a computer. The project team will
need a standard place to assemble because the preparation oI research questions, data analysis,
and data collection Irom primary resources will be quite time consuming. This is the reason why
they will have to rent an oIIice and they will also need oIIice equipment Ior the stated amount.
Lastly, project team members will need to travel to libraries, book stores and also to the
respondents. Given the current transport economy it is likely the total will reach one thousand
dollars. In conclusion, the proposed research project will require a total oI six hundred, seven
hundred and seventy dollars Ior completion.
1. REFERENCE:
Skogan, w. (1986): Fear oI crime and neighborhood change; Crime and Justice, 8/, 3-9.
Hale, C. (1996): Fear oI crime: A review oI the literature; International Review oI 'ictimology,
4, (), 79-15
McGarrell, F., Giacomazzi, A., & Thurman, Q. (1997): Neighborhood disorder, integration, and
the Iear oI crime; Justice Quarterly, 14, (3), 479-5
Moore, S., & Shepherd, J. (7): The elements and
prevalence oI Iear; The British Journal oI Criminology, 47, (1), 154-16
Morris, A., Reilly, J., Berry, S., & Ransom, R. (3): New Zealand National Survey oI Crime
'ictims 1; wellington: Ministry oI Justice.
Acierno, R., Rheingold, A., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, G. (4): Predictors oI Iear oI crime in
older adults; Journal oI Anxiety Disorders,18, (3), 385-396
Akers, R. et al (1987): Fear oI crime and victimization among the elderly in diIIerent types oI
communities; Criminology, 5, (3), 487-55.
Bennett, R., & Flavin, J. (1994): determinants oI Iear oI crime: The eIIect oI cultural setting;
Justice Quarterly, 11, (3), 357-381
Ferraro, K. & LaGrange, I. (1988): Are older people aIraid oI crime? Journal oI Aging Studies,
, (3), 77-87
Stiles, B., Halim, S., & Kaplam, H. (3): Fear oI crime among individuals with physical
limitations; Criminal Justice Review, 3, (), 3-53
Warr, M. (1984): Fear oI victimisation: why are women and the elderly more aIraid?; Social
Science Quarterly, 65,681-7
Statistics New Zealand (6): Demographic trends 5 (No.16.1). Wellington: Author
Australian Bureau oI Statistics (ABS) (6): Crime and saIety, Australia, 5 (No. 459.).
Canberra: Author.
Babbie, Earl R. (5): The Basics oI Social Research; Thomson Wadsworth, p. 174
Likert, Rensis (193): A Technique Ior the Measurement oI Attitudes; Archives oI Psychology
14: pp. 1-55
Meyers, L. et al (5): Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation. Sage
Publications Inc, p.
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   f°  ½ € ½ $$ fn – f$ n¯ °¾$.

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 f°  ½ € ½ $$ fn – f$ n¯ °¾$$$$     .

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