MODEL 146C

DYNAMIC GAS CALIBRATOR (Version 1)

INSTRUCTION MANUAL P/N 13410

THERMO ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS INC. 8 WEST FORGE PARKWAY FRANKLIN, MASSACHUSETTS 02038 TELEPHONE: (508) 520-0430 FACSIMILE: (508) 520-1460 Revision A The 220V option complies with 89/336/EEC directive for electromagnetic compatibility.

Other brands and product names mentioned in this instruction manual are trademarks of their respective owners. Copyright  2002 Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc. Franklin, Massachusetts “This manual is a work protected under Copyright law. Copying or other reproduction of any of its contents without the prior written consent of Thermo Environmental Instruments is expressly prohibited.”

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
The Thermo Environmental Model 146C Multigas Calibration dilutes calibration gases to precise levels. The gas levels are used to perform zero, precision and Level 1 span checks, audits, and multipoint calibration of these gases. The design of the Model 146C meets or exceeds all published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements for multipoint calibration, audit, Level 1 span and precision checks. All of the components used such as mass flow controllers, ozone generator, permeation tube oven, power supplies, and solenoid valves, have been used previously for calibration purposes, and are known for their accuracy and reliability. In the Model 146C, these components are integrated into a single microprocessor-controlled unit. The instrument can also be controlled remotely, using a data logger or computer.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND HARDWARE CONFIGURATIONS
The standard Model 146C hardware/plumbing configuration comprises gas and zero air flows, as shown in Figure 1-1. The basic unit can handle three gas standards, controlled by individual solenoids (a six-gas option is also available). The zero air flow and the gas flow are regulated by mass flow controllers. The zero air controller is high flow (typically 10 slm full scale). The gas flow controller is low flow (typically 100 sccm). A Teflon mixing chamber is used to achieve complete mixing of the two components at the desired concentration level. This hardware/plumbing configuration allows precision gas dilution. The Model 146C can be equipped with an optional internal ozone generator. The hardware/plumbing configuration of the standard instrument with the ozone generator is shown in Figure 1-2. The generator produces ozone by exposing air to light at 185nm. The ozone level is changed by varying the intensity of the lamp. With all of the gas standard solenoids deactivated, the Model 146C can be used as a transfer standard ozonegenerating source. Gas Phase Titration (GPT) is achieved by combining ozone with a known NO concentration, and measuring the loss of NO using the NO channel of a chemiluminescence analyzer. The amount of NO2 formed is equal to the measured decrease in the NO level, as shown in the following equation: NO + O 3 → NO 2 + O 2 + hυ

1-1

Chapter 1 Introduction In the Model 146C, GPT is accomplished by routing zero air, at approximately 150 cc per minute, through the internal ozone generator and then precisely mixing this with NO from a gas cylinder connected to one of the gas inlets. From there, the NO/O3 goes to the reaction chamber whose volume meets the dynamic parameter specification requirements of the U.S. EPA. The gas is then fed into the mixing chamber and out the manifold at the rear of the instrument. The Model 146C can also be used as a permeation gas source when equipped with an optional permeation tube oven, as shown in Figure 1-3. Accuracy is achieved since both the release rate of the permeation tube gas and the flow of zero air through the zero-air mass flow controller are known, and the temperature of the permeation tube is stable. Temperature stability of the permeation tube is accomplished by allowing only a small amount of zero air to enter the permeation tube oven to be heated. The major portion of zero air bypasses the oven and is routed to the mixing chamber. The solenoids on either side of the permeation tube oven, shown in Figure 1-3, under microprocessor control, are used to route the flow of gas going through the oven to either the main air stream or to vent. It should be noted that zero air must always flow through the permeation tube oven, regardless of the 146C output flow. To accomplish this, a flow of zero air set by a capillary at approximately 150 cc per minute is continuously fed through the permeation tube oven. When only the permeation oven is activated, up to five permeation dilution gas levels (ppm) can be set. When the permeation gas source is used in conjunction with the gas dilution system, a permeation dilution concentration cannot be specified because the gas dilution system controls the flow rate of zero air. In that case, only the permeation concentration, and not a permeation level, is displayed. Figure 1-4 shows the hardware/plumbing configuration with both the optional ozone generator and permeation oven installed. This figure is for illustration purposes only, since there is no calibration gas requirement that would necessitate activating both hardware components simultaneously.

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Figure 1-1. Model 146C Hardware Configuration, Standard Gas Dilution System

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Figure 1-2. Model 146C Hardware Configuration, Standard Gas Dilution System with Ozonator Option

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Figure 1-3. Model 146C Hardware Configuration, Standard Gas Dilution System with Permeation Tube Oven Option

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Figure 1-4. Model 146C Hardware Configuration, Standard Gas Dilution System with Ozonator and Permeation Tube Oven Options

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Chapter 1 Introduction

SPECIFICATIONS
Gas Dilution: Accuracy of each Mass Flow Measurement Linearity of Mass Flow Measurement Repeatability of Mass Flow Measurement + 2% of reading or 1% of full scale, whichever is less – 20 to 100% full scale 0.5% of full scale + 2% of reading or 1% of full scale, whichever is less – 20 to 100% full scale

Available Ranges: Zero Air Span Gas Dilution Ratio Response time as measured at output of manifold to 99% of final value 5, 10, 15, 20 slm 25, 50, 100, 200, 500 sccm Depends upon Controllers choice of Mass Flow

Less than one minute for low flows. Faster for high flow (for gas-phase titration mode response time increases to 4 minutes). Meets or exceeds U.S. EPA Dynamic Parameter specification requirements for gas-phase titration.)

Permeation Oven: Temperature Control Temperature Stability Warm-Up Time – Oven Carrier Gas Flow Chamber Size Single point 30, 35, 45 C + 0.1 C 1 hour (permeation device can take 24-48 hours to stabilize 150 sccm nominal Accepts permeation tubes up to 9 cm in total length; 1 cm in diameter
o o

Ozone Generator: Ozone Output Stability and Repeatability: 6 ppm-liters Meets or exceeds U.S. EPA requirements for a Transfer Standard

1-7

Chapter 1 Introduction

SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
Remote Operation: Input Mode Commands Ozone Levels Available Flow Levels Available through I/O Commands Flow Levels Available through RS-232 Commands Output: Output Signals External Solenoid Controller Temperature Range Physical Dimensions Power Requirements Reed relay, RS-232/485, external drivers Up to (8) 24 VDC external solenoids can be controlled by Model 146C 10 - 30 C 16.75" W x 8.62" H x 23" D (43cm x 22cm x 58cm) 90-110 VAC @ 50/60 Hz 105-125 VAC @ 50/60 Hz 210-250 VAC @ 50/60 Hz 100 Watts 43 pounds
o

Contact closure to ground, TTL logic levels, RS-232/485 Multiple levels as set through menu commands Multiple levels as set through menu commands Levels over entire range of mass flow controllers

Weight:

Any alteration, modification, or republication of this instruction manual or any alteration or modification to the Thermo Environmental Instrument product without the express written consent of Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. is expressly prohibited, nullifies our warranty obligations, and bars our liability for any damages deriving there from.

1-8

CHAPTER 2

INSTALLATION
The installation of the Model 146C Dynamic Gas Calibrator includes lifting and unpacking the unit, connecting zero-air, gas cylinders, and instruments to be calibrated, adding a permeation tube if required, and making electrical connections to the remote control device, if one is being used. To install optional equipment, see Chapter 8, “Optional Equipment.”

LIFTING
When lifting the calibrator, use a procedure appropriate for handling a heavy object. This procedure consists of bending at the knees while keeping your back straight and upright. The calibrator should be grasped at the bottom, in the front, and at the rear of the unit. Do not attempt to lift the calibrator by the cover or other external fittings. While one person may lift the unit, it is desirable to have two persons lifting, one by grasping the bottom in the front and the other by grasping the bottom in the rear.

UNPACKING
The Model 146C Dynamic Gas Calibrator is shipped complete in one container. If, upon receipt of the instrument, there is obvious damage to the shipping container, notify the carrier immediately and wait for his inspection. The carrier is responsible for any damage incurred during shipment, not Thermo Environmental Inc. In addition to the basic analyzer, a six-foot line cord and an RS-232 null modem connector cable is included in the shipping container. Use these steps to unpack the Model 146C: 1. Remove the Model 146C from the shipping container and set it on a table or bench that allows you easy access to both the front and rear of the instrument. 2. Remove four screws from the outside of the instrument cover. 3. Snap open the four hold-down latches holding the cover to the instrument and remove the cover from the main frame of the instrument to expose the internal components (see Figure 2-2). 4. Remove any packing material and check for possible damage during shipment. 5. Check that all connectors and printed circuit boards are firmly seated, and then reinstall the instrument cover.

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Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

SETUP PROCEDURE
Use the following procedure to setup the instrument: 1. Connect a source of zero-air to the inlet port labeled ZERO AIR (Figure 2-1). The zero-air source is capable of supplying the full-scale flows of the zero-air controller at a pressure between 10 and 40 psi. 2. Connect the standard gas cylinders to the ports labeled A, B and C. 3. Install the permeation tube using the following procedure (applicable only if the permeation option is installed): a. Remove the instrument cover and locate the permeation oven (Figure 2-2). b. Release the latches on the sides of the oven cover and remove cover. c. Remove glass chamber assembly by loosening (not removing) knurled screw, located at the top of the chamber, and gently pulling assembly upward. Completely remove assembly from oven (Figure 2-3). d. Separate glass chamber from top assembly by twisting and gently pulling glass away from top (Figure 2-3). Keep glass clean by using Kimwipes or similar material to handle glass. e. Place permeation tube in chamber. f. Attach glass chamber to top assembly by gently pushing together with a slight twisting motion (Figure 2-3). g. Replace glass chamber assembly into oven until top of assembly is flush or slightly below oven top (Figure 2-4). h. Tighten knurled screw with finger. Do not use tools to tighten. i. Replace oven cover, being careful to place tubing and wire in slot of cover.

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Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

49P731

Figure 2-1. Model 146C Rear Panel

49P731

Figure 2-2. Removing Cover

2-3

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

49P210

Figure 2-3. Removing Glass Chamber

49P211

Figure 2-4. Replacing Glass Chamber

2-4

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

REMOTE INTERCONNECTIONS
The rear panel I/O (DB50) connector enables flow modes, ozone levels, and gas settings to be remotely controlled using contact closure. In addition, the connector mimics any input settings with corresponding relay outputs. The following tables correspond to the pin-outs in Figure 2-5.

93P294

Figure 2-5. 50-Pin I/O Connector Inputs The Model 146C is controllable through the 50-pin back-panel connector. Before getting started, set dip switch 1 to the ON position and the mode to REMOTE. Refer to the following tables when selecting the appropriate gas, gas span level, and ozonator or permeation oven level for your Model 146C. Pins 24, 25, and 26 select a gas (1 indicates contact closure to ground and 0 indicates no contact). Pins 31 and 32 are ground. Note: Gases D, E, and F are available only when the instrument is equipped with the 6-gas option.
Pin 24 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 25 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 26 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Gas Type Gas Off Gas A Gas B Gas C Gas D Gas E Gas F

2-5

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup Pins 28, 29, and 30 select a gas span level gas (1 indicates contact closure to ground and 0 indicates no contact).
Pin 28 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 29 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 30 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Span Level Span 0 Span 1 Span 2 Span 3 Span 4 Span 5 Manual

Pins 37, 38, 39, and 40 select an ozonator or permeation oven level gas (1 indicates contact closure to ground and 0 indicates no contact).
Pin 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 38 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 39 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 40 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Ozonator or Permeation Oven Level Ozon/Perm Off Ozon Manual Ozon 1 Ozon 2 Ozon 3 Ozon 4 Ozon 5 Perm 1 Perm 2 Perm 3 Perm 4 Perm 5

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Chapter 2 Installation and Setup Outputs The output mixes report the status of the 146C; they are always active. Pins 1, 2, 11, 12, 21, and 22 are relay common. Pins 4, 5, and 6 to report the selected gas (1 indicates contact closure):
Pin 4 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 6 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Gas Type Gas Off Gas A Gas B Gas C Gas D Gas E Gas F

Pins 8, 9, and 10 to report the selected gas span level (1 indicates contact closure):
Pin 8 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 9 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 10 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Span Level Span 0 Span 1 Span 2 Span 3 Span 4 Span 5 Manual

Pins 17, 18, 19, and 20 to report the selected ozonator and permeation oven level (1 indicates contact closure):
Pin 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 18 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 20 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Ozonator or Permeation Oven Level Ozon/Perm Off Ozon Manual Ozon 1 Ozon 2 Ozon 3 Ozon 4 Ozon 5 Perm 1 Perm 2 Perm 3 Perm 4 Perm 5

2-7

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup Analog Output Cover Installation An analog output cover is mounted over the analog outputs to comply with 89/336/EEC Directive. This section describes the procedure used to install the user-supplied analog output cable in the instrument’s analog output cover. The following shielded cables or their equivalent are recommended:
Cable Alpha #1741C Alpha #1746C Alpha #5320/2C* Alpha #51 52C* Alpha #5162C* Alpha #1743C Alpha 1747/4C Alpha #5320/4C Alpha #5154C Alpha #5164C Belden #8208 Gauge 20 28 20 20 18 20 18 20 20 18 18 Number of Conditions 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 2

* Maximum shielding. Under harsh environments, maximum shielding may be required. The following tools are required: • • • Small screwdriver Wire stripper Electrical tape or heat shrink tubing

To properly ground the user-supplied shielded analog output cable, you must come into full contact with the cable clamp (mounted to the analog output cover). To ensure full contact, the shielding must be exposed and folded back over the cable as shown in Figure 2-6.

49P769-B

Figure 2-6. Shielded Cable with Shielding Pulled Back

2-8

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup Preparing the Shielded Cable Use the following procedure to prepare the shielded cable: 1. Remove about 1.8 cm of insulation from the cable. 2. Fold back the shielding. 3. Use electrical tape or shrink tubing to hold the shielding in place. Be sure at least 1.5 cm of shielding is exposed. 4. Strip each signal wire a maximum of 0.5 cm from the end. Connecting the Shielded Cable Use the following procedure to connect the shielded cable to the 8-position header: 1. Pass the shielded cable through the cable clamp on the analog output cover, as shown in Figure 2-7. 2. Insert the bare signal wire into the slot of the header. 3. Tighten down the corresponding setscrew. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each signal wire. 5. Plug the header(s) into the analog output connectors. 6. Install the analog output cover using the four #6 screws with star lockwashers. 7. Position the cable shielding so that it makes contact with the cable clamp. 8. Tighten down the cable clamp onto the shielding, as shown in Figure 2-8. 9. Install cable clamp into shield cover and secure. Be sure there is good electrical conductivity between clamp and shield cover.

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Chapter 2 Installation and Setup

49P769-A

Figure 2-7. Exploded View of Analog Output Cover Installation

Romex Connector Must contact shielding

49P769-A1

Figure 2-8. Properly Installed Shield Cable

2-10

Chapter 2 Installation and Setup Analog Output Cover Components The following is a parts list of components in the analog output cover assembly:
Part No. 7592 11519 5889 5820 14549 Description Analog output cover 8-Position header #6 Star lock washers 6-32X3/8” screw Cable clamp Qty. 1 2 4 4 1

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CHAPTER 3

OPERATION
This chapter describes the Model 146C Dynamic Gas Calibrator’s front panel display, front panel pushbuttons, and menu-driven software.

DISPLAY
The Model 146C provides a 4-line by 20-character alphanumeric front panel display that shows you the current flows, parameters, and controls of the instrument (see Figure 3-1).

PUSHBUTTONS
Located under the display, are the front panel pushbuttons (RUN, MENU, ENTER, ALT, and arrows ↑ ↓ ← →). These pushbuttons let you access your instrument’s system software, where you can then set or change the various flows, parameters, and controls of your Model 146C. Run Pushbutton The RUN pushbutton is used to display two run screens. Run screen 1, displays the instrument’s current flow selections. For example, Gas A Span 2 with the flow and concentration. These selections can be set using the Main Menu. Run screen 2 reports the instrument’s current gas flow, zero-air flow, and corresponding target flows. Press the RUN pushbutton to toggle between the two Run Screens.

49P731

Figure 3-1. Front Panel Pushbuttons

3-1

Chapter 3 Operation Menu Pushbutton The MENU pushbutton is used to display the Main Menu from the run screen. If the run screen is not displayed, press the MENU pushbutton to retrace the screen path to the Main Menu. Some Main Menu selections contain more items than can be displayed at one time. Use the up and down pushbuttons (↑ ↓ ) to move the cursor through these menus. Enter Pushbutton The ENTER pushbutton is used to choose a menu item, activate an entry, or toggle on/off functions. ALT Pushbutton The ALT pushbutton toggles between the last accessed RUN screen and the last accessed MENU screen. ↑↓ ← → These pushbuttons (↑ ↓ ← →) move the cursor through the run screen in an up, down, left, and right direction.

3-2

Chapter 3 Operation

OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW
The Model 146C can produce accurate concentrations for gas dilution from a gas cylinder or the permeation tube oven, transfer standard, Gas Phase Titration (GPT), and ozone calibration. This section provides step-by-step procedures to produce each type of concentration gas. Detailed information about each operation can be found by referring to the Run Screen 1 and the appropriate menu screens. Procedures The following procedures assume that the instrument is either in Local or Service modes. If it is in the Remote mode, no selections can be made from the Run Screen 1. Gas Dilution using a gas cylinder Use these steps to set the gas dilution using a gas cylinder: 1. From Run Screen 1, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons to scroll to the Gas option line. 2. Use the ← and → pushbuttons to select the desired gas (A through C or A through F if the instrument has the six-gas option). 3. While still in Run Screen 1, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons to scroll to the Span option line. 4. Use the ← and → pushbuttons to select the desired span level (Span 0, Span 1 to 5, or Manual). 5. Press the ENTER pushbutton to activate the selections. Gas Dilution using the permeation tube oven Use these steps to set the gas dilution using the permeation tube oven: 1. If you have just powered on your 146C, allow 24 hours for the permeation tube to stabilize. 2. From Run Screen 1, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons to scroll to the ozone/perm line. 3. Use the ← and → pushbuttons to select the desired permeation level (Perm Levels 1 through 5). 4. Press the ENTER pushbutton to activate the selection. 5. Allow 24 hours for the permeation tube to stabilize.

3-3

Chapter 3 Operation Transfer Standard Use these steps to set the transfer standard: 1. From Run Screen 1, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons to scroll to the ozone/perm line. 2. Use the ← and → pushbuttons to select the desired ozone level (Ozone Manual or Ozone Levels 1-5). 3. Press the ENTER pushbutton to activate the selection. Gas Phase Titration (GPT) Use these steps to set the Gas Phase Titration (GPT): 1. From Run Screen 1, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons to scroll to the Gas option line. 2. Use the ← and → pushbuttons to select the gas solenoid to which the NO cylinder is attached. 3. Use the ← and → pushbuttons to select the desired span level (Span 1 to 5, or Manual). 4. While still in Run Screen 1, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons to scroll to the Ozone/Perm line. 5. Use the ← and → pushbuttons to select the desired ozone level (Ozone Manual or Ozone Levels 1-5). 6. Press the ENTER pushbutton to activate the selections.

3-4

Chapter 3 Operation

SOFTWARE OVERVIEW
The Model 146C is based on menu-driven software as illustrated in Figure 3-2. The Thermo Environmental Instruments Model 146C Power-Up and Ready screens, shown at the top of the flowchart, are displayed when the instrument is turned on. After the warmup period, the first run screen appears. This screen displays the instrument’s current mode, any alarms present, and lets you select previously determined gas, span, and ozonator/permeation oven settings. The second run screen, accessed by pressing the RUN pushbutton, shows the gas flow and zero-airflow rates, and their target rates. From the Run screen, the Main Menu can be displayed by pressing the MENU pushbutton. The Main Menu contains a list of submenus. Each submenu contains related instrument settings. Power-Up Screen The Power-Up screen, shown below, is displayed on power up of the Model 146C.

THERMO ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS MODEL 146C

Power-Up Screen

3-5

Chapter 3 Operation

Ready Screen The Ready Screen, shown below, is displayed while the internal components are warming up. MODEL 146C GETTING READY

Ready Screen

Bad Data Screen If any of the stored parameters in the HC11 EEPROM memory are outside the allowed limits, for example, a new HC11 is installed, the Bad Data Screen appears and prompts you to load the default values, as shown below. This feature speeds up the restoring of the 146C to operating conditions. When prompted, press the ENTER button to load default values.

Bad data in the HC11 EEPROM memory Set them to default?

Bad Data Screen

3-6

Power Up Screen

Getting Ready Screen

Run Screen 1

Main Menu

Run Screen 2

Service Mode "On"

Mode

Gas A, B, C * Name * Solenoid * Tank Conc Span 0 Flow Span 1-5 Manual

Ozonator Zero Air Manual Level 1-5

Permeation Oven * Permeation Temp * Adj Oven Thermistor * Adj Gas Thermistor * Adj Gas Temperature * Permeation K Permeation Rate Perm 1-5 PPM

Program Program Start Time Start Date Period Days Duration Min Events

Alarms Internal Temp Ozon Lamp Temp Perm Oven Temp

Instrument Controls Time Date Instrument ID Screen Brightness

Diagnostics Program Numbers Voltages Temperatures Option Switches

3-7

Service Local Remote

Load Default Parameters

Flow Control F Scales Zero Air Gas

Enter Pres And Temp

Zero Air Flow Cal

Gas Flow Cal Sol

Gas Flow Cal

External Solenoids Gas Assignment Zero Assignment

A/D Frequency

Test D/A

Set Test Display

Chapter 3 Operation

* AVAILABLE IN SERVICE MODEL ONLY

FLOW CHART MENU-DRIVEN SOFTWARE

49P208

B

Figure 3-2. Flowchart of Menu-Driven Software

Chapter 3 Operation

Run 1 Screen

SERVICE REMOTE EVENT GAS A GAS B GAS C SPAN 1 SPAN 2 SPAN 3 SPAN 4 SPAN 5 MANUAL OZON OZON OZON OZON OZON OZON PERM PERM PERM PERM PERM MAN 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Run 1 Screen The Model 146C has two run screens. Pressing the RUN pushbutton toggles the display between the two screens. The Run 1 screen is used to make a selection of 146C operating parameters from the settings specified through the MENU screen. Settings are preserved when power to the 146C is turned off, selections are not. In remote mode, the Run 1 screen is only a display screen the selections are made remotely. LOCAL ALARM O4:OO *GAS OFF TSCCM O SPAN PPM O.OOOO OZON/PERM OFF

3-8

Chapter 3 Operation The first line of the Run 1 screen displays the instrument’s mode, current alarm, and the time, as shown on the previous page. Lines two through four contain the current menu selections. When the instrument is in either Local or Service mode, an asterisk (*) appears on the line, whose selection is to be made. If the instrument is in Remote mode, a pound sign (#) appears in place of the asterisk. While in Remote mode, selections can be made using RS232, or through contact closures using the 50-pin connector located on the instrument’s rear panel. When a scheduled event occurs, the word EVENT appears on the first line. Note: Selections cannot be made when an event is active. If the selections made do not correspond with instrument’s current settings, a message appears indicating an inconsistency. Note: When the flows and concentration settings are entered, they are checked for consistency with the tank concentration and flow controller ranges (4 to 100 percent of full scale), and then validated. These setting can become invalid if a new tank concentration is entered. When the instrument is in either Service or Local mode and an event is not running, use the Run 1 screen as follows: ! Press the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons to move to a new line. ! Press the ← or → pushbuttons to select a previously determined setting. The second line displays the total flow (gas plus zero-air) of the selected, or GAS OFF if a gas is not selected. The Model 146C can have up to three external gas (standards) or up to six external standards (optional). The third line of the Run 1 Screen displays the span selection (Span 0 through 5, and Manual). The Span settings are predetermined when entering the Gases A, B, or C and Spans 1 through 5 screen. The instrument sets the flow parameters to meet these criteria. MANUAL is also a previously determined setting, but the zero-air and gas flows are set manually. The fourth line of the Run 1 Screen displays the ozonator or permeation oven selections. This line is not displayed if the ozonator or permeation oven options are not installed. A maximum of five ozonator settings can be selected for each gas. If no gas flow is active, up to five different permeation oven settings can be selected, and the permeation level is displayed to its right. When a gas flow is active, the permeation oven can be functioning, but no permeation gas concentration can be prescribed. Therefore the screen only displays “PERM”, with the permeation concentration to the right.

3-9

Chapter 3 Operation

Run 2 Screen GAS OFF SCCM TARGET Z AIR SCCM TARGET 0.00 100.00 150. 4000.

Run 2 Screen The second run screen, shown above, reports the actual gas and zero-air flows and the corresponding target flows.

3-10

Chapter 3 Operation Main Menu The Main Menu, shown below, contains the Model 146C submenus. Instrument parameters and settings can be read and modified within the submenus according to their function. To display the Main Menu, start at the Run screen and press the MENU pushbutton. Using the Main Menu: ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons. ! To select a setting, press ENTER. ! To switch to the Run screen, press RUN or ALT. 1.

MAIN MENU: >MODE GAS A GAS B GAS C

10:00 GAS A GAS B GAS C

OZONATOR PERMEATION OVEN PROGRAM ALARMS INSTRUMENT CONTROLS DIAGNOSTICS Note: Items shown below are only available in Service mode. LOAD DEFAULT PARAMS FLOW CONTROL FSCALES ENTER PRES AND TEMP ZERO AIR FLOW CAL GAS FLOW CAL SOL GAS FLOW CAL EXTERNAL SOLENOIDS A/D FREQUENCY SET TEST DISPLAY Main Menu

3-11

Chapter 3 Operation Mode The Mode screen, shown below, is used to set the instrument’s mode to Service, Local, or Remote. The Service mode includes parameters and functions that are useful when making adjustments or troubleshooting the Model 146C. The following menus can be accessed only when the instrument is in the Service mode: Load Default Parameters, Flow Control Fscales, Enter Pressure and Temperature, Zero-air Flow Calibration, Gas Flow Calibration Solenoid, Gas Flow Calibration, External Solenoids, A/D Frequency, and Set Test Display. Local mode is used to control the instrument through the front panel. Remote mode is accomplished through an RS-232/485 interface, enabling the instrument to be controlled by a remote host device such as a PC, PLC, datalogger, etcetera. (refer to Appendix B, “RS-232/485 Commands”). To display the Mode screen, start at the Main Menu and select Mode. Using the Service Mode screen: ! ! ! ! To change modes, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To set the mode, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To switch to the Run screen, press RUN or ALT.

MODE:

SERVICE

SET TO REMOTE?

Mode Screen

3-12

Chapter 3 Operation

GAS A, B, C SCREENS
When in Service mode, the Gas A, B, or C menus let you assign a name, solenoid, and tank concentration to each gas. When using any of the three instrument modes (Service, Local, and Remote), the gas menus let you set the zero-air flow (span 0 flow) and the total flow output for a maximum of five span settings for each gas. Additionally, the gas menus let you manually set the zero-air and gas flows for each gas. To display the Gas A, B, or C menus, start at the Main Menu and select Gas A, B, or C. Using the Gas A, B, or C menus: ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons. ! To select a gas, press ENTER. ! To switch to the Run screen, press RUN or ALT.

GAS A >NAME SOLENOID TA TANK CONC SPAN O FLOW SPAN 1 SPAN 2 SPAN 3 SPAN 4 SPAN 5 MANUAL

GAS A

Gas A, B, or C Screens

3-13

Chapter 3 Operation Name Screen The Name screen, shown below, lets you identify each gas. As initially delivered, the instrument lists the gas standards using the letters A, B, C (and D, E, F if the six gas option is installed). These characters can be changed to represent actual chemical symbols of the gases used by each (for example, SO2, NO, CO2), or any other representation, up to five characters. This screen is available only when the instrument is in the Service mode. To display the Name screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, and then select Name. Using the Name screen: ! ! ! ! ! To move the underscore to select a character, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To select a new character (A - Z, 0 - 9, space), use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press the ENTER pushbutton. To return to the Gas A, B, or C menus press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

GAS A NAME ENTER?

SO2

Name Screen

3-14

Chapter 3 Operation Solenoid Screen The Solenoid screen, shown below, lets you select a solenoid to control each of the gases (note that Gas A has been identified in the Name screen as SO2, and the Solenoid screen retains the identification). Default solenoid designations are: Solenoid A for Gas A, Solenoid B for Gas B, and Solenoid C for Gas C (the same default designation system applies to Solenoids D through F if the six gas option is installed). This screen is available only when the instrument is in the Service mode. To display the Solenoid screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, and then select a Solenoid. Using the Solenoid screen: ! ! ! ! To select a new solenoid, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Gas A, B, or C menus press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

GAS A SOLENOID SET TO ENTER?

SO2 A B

Solenoid Screen

3-15

Chapter 3 Operation Tank Concentration Screen The Tank Concentration screen, shown below, lets you enter the concentration, in parts per million (ppm), of each tank gas (note that Gas A has been identified in the Name screen as SO2, and the Tank Concentration screen retains the identification). This screen is available only when the instrument is in the Service mode. To display the Tank Concentration screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C (if the six gas option is installed, Gas D, E, or F can also be selected), and then select Tank Conc. Using the Tank Concentration screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Gas A, B, or C menus press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

GAS A SO2 TANK CONC: PPM OOO2OO.OOO ENTER?

Tank Concentration Screen

3-16

Chapter 3 Operation Span 0 Flow Screen The Span 0 Flow screen, shown below, sets the zero-air flow. The screen identifies the minimum and maximum acceptable Span 0 flow rates and lets you select a flow rate between these two settings. If the selected Span 0 flow is lower or higher than the acceptable range, “TOO LOW” or “TOO HIGH” appears on the screen. To display the Span 0 Flow screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, and then select Span 0 Flow. Using the Span 0 Flow screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Gas A, B, or C menus press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

MIN SCCM AO MAX SCCM SETTING ENTER?

2OO 1OOOO O2OO

Span 0 Flow Screen

3-17

Chapter 3 Operation Span 1-5 Screen The Span menu, shown below, displays the span concentration and total flow rate settings, with a maximum of five span levels. The span concentration and/or the total flow rate can be selected using this menu to change these settings. To display the Span menus, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, and then select Span (1 - 5). Using the Span menu: ! ! ! ! To select concentration or flow, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To switch to the corresponding screen, press ENTER. To return to the Gas A, B, or C menus press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

GAS A SPAN 1: >CONC PPM FLOW SCCM

O.4OO 1OOO

Span Menu

3-18

Chapter 3 Operation Span Concentration Screen The Span Concentration screen, shown below, displays the minimum and maximum concentration for spans 1 through 5 of each gas. Minimum and maximum values are calculated based upon the tank concentration and the mass flow controllers. The desired concentration can be set between these two limits. If the concentration entered is outside of the minimum or maximum values, the message “Too High” or “Too Low” is displayed. To display the Span Concentration screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, select Span (1 - 5), and then select Conc PPM. Using the Span Concentration screen: ! ! ! ! ! To move the underscore to select a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Span menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

MIN PPM A1 MAX PPM SETTING ENTER?

O.O2O 33.33O O32.4OO

Span Concentration Screen

3-19

Chapter 3 Operation Span Flow Screen The Span Flow screen, shown below, displays the minimum and maximum flows for spans 1 through 5 of each gas. Minimum and maximum values are calculated based upon, the tank concentration, mass flow controllers. The desired concentration can be set between these two limits. If the concentration entered is outside of the minimum or maximum values, the message “Too High” or “Too Low” is displayed. To display the Span Flow screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, select Span (1 – 5), and then select Flow PPM. Using the Span Flow screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save the setting, press ENTER. To return to the Span menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

MIN TSCCM A1 MAX TSCCM SETTING ENTER?

5OO 1OO4O O15OO

Span Flow Screen

3-20

Chapter 3 Operation Manual Screen The Manual screen, shown below, displays the zero-air and gas flows, and lets you manually set the zero-air and gas flows. To display the Manual screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, and then select Manual. Using the Manual screen: ! ! ! ! To select zero-air or gas, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To switch to the corresponding screen, press ENTER. To return to the Gas A, B, or C menus press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

GAS A MANUAL FLOWS: >ZERO AIR SCCM 9624 GAS SCCM 6O.OO

Manual Screen

3-21

Chapter 3 Operation Manual Zero Air Screen The Manual Zero Air screen, shown below, displays the manual zero air flow setting, and lets you modify this setting. To display the Manual Zero Air screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, select Manual, and then select Zero Air SCCM. Using the Manual Zero Air screen: ! To increment or decrement the setting, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To return to the Manual menu, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press ALT. Note: Manual flow settings are not saved.

GAS A MAN ZERO AIR: FLOW SCCM 429 78 INC/DEC

Manual Zero Air Screen

3-22

Chapter 3 Operation Manual Gas Screen The Manual Gas screen, shown below, displays the manual gas flow setting and lets you modify this setting. To display the Manual Gas screen, start at the Main Menu, select Gas A, B, or C, select Manual, and then select Gas SCCM. Using the Manual Gas screen: ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To return to the Manual menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT. Note: Manual flow settings are not saved.

GAS A MAN GAS FLOW: SCCM 1OO.OO 78 INC/DEC

Manual Gas Screen

3-23

Chapter 3 Operation

OZONATOR CONTROLS
The Model 146C can be equipped with an optional internal ozonator. The production of ozone is regulated by either changing the flow of zero-air or by changing the intensity of the ozone-producing lamp. The Ozonator menu, shown below, lets you set the amount of zero-air flow. From this menu, the ozone generation can be set manually, or up to five ozone levels can be set. To display the Ozonator menu, start at the Main Menu and select Ozonator. Using the Ozonator menu: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

OZONATOR: >ZERO AIR SCCM MANUAL LEVEL 1

5535 O.O 2O.O%

LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL

2 3 4 5

4O.O% 6O.O% 8O.O% 1OO.O%

Ozonator Menu

3-24

Chapter 3 Operation Ozonator Zero Air The Ozonator Zero Air screen, shown below, lets you set the amount of zero air flow through the ozonator. To display the Ozonator Zero Air screen, start at the Main Menu, select Ozonator, and then select Zero Air. Using the Ozonator Zero Air screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Ozonator menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

MIN OZ ZERO AIR 2OO MAX SCCM 1OOOO SETTING O5635 ENTER?

Ozonator Zero Air Screen

3-25

Chapter 3 Operation Ozonator Manual Level The ozonator in the Model 146C can be certified for use as a transfer standard. To determine a calibration curve, an external ozone primary standard such as the Thermo Environmental Model 49C Primary Standard, must be used. Due to changes in light intensity, flow, and ambient temperature, the calibration curve is accurate only for a short time after a transfer standard reading is taken. Since the setting is not remembered once the Model 146C is powered down, the calibration curve is not retained and must be regenerated on instrument start up. This ensures that the calibration is accurate. The Ozonator Manual Level screen, shown below, is used when certifying the ozone generator as a transfer standard. To display the Ozonator Manual Level screen, start at the Main Menu and select Ozonator. Using the Ozonator Manual Level screen: ! To increment or decrement the level, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To return to the Ozonator menu and select the value, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

OZONATOR MAN LEVEL: O.O% 78 INC/DEC

Ozonator Manual Level Screen

3-26

Chapter 3 Operation Ozonator Level 1-5 Five ozonator levels can be set using the Ozonator Level screen, as shown below. To display the Ozonator Level screen, start at the Main Menu, select Ozonator, and then select Level (1 – 5). Using the Ozonator Level screen: ! ! ! ! To increment or decrement the level, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Ozonator menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

OZONATOR LEVEL 1: 2O.O% SET TO 25.O% 78 INC/DEC

Ozonator Level Screen

3-27

Chapter 3 Operation

PERMEATION OVEN CONTROLS
The Model 146C can be equipped with an optional permeation oven. The permeation oven supplies an internal source of calibration gas. A small amount of zero-air flows through the permeation tube oven and is mixed with the remainder of the zero-air flow in the mixing chamber. Before you can calibrate the permeation oven controls, you must perform these steps: 1. Set option switch 4 to the ON position. 2. From the Main Menu, select Mode, and then set the Mode to Service. All of the functions displayed in the Permeation Oven menu, as shown below, can be accessed. Note: In Local or Remote mode, only the permeation level (PERM 1 – 5) can be accessed, not calibrated. The flow of zero air is set in the Manual Settings screen of the Flow Controls menu. To display the Permeation Oven menu, start at the Main Menu and select Permeation Oven. Using the Permeation Oven menu: ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ and ↓ pushbuttons. ! To select the flow, press ENTER. ! To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

PERMEATION OVEN: >PERMEATION TEMP AD ADJ OVEN THERMISTOR AD ADJ GAS THERMISTOR

ADJ GAS TEMPERATURE PERMEATION K PERMEATION RATE PERM 1 PPM 0.2OO PERM 2 PPM 0.4OO PERM 3 PPM 0.6OO PERM 4 PPM 0.8OO PERM 5 PPM 1.OOO Permeation Oven Menu

3-28

Chapter 3 Operation Permeation Temperature The Permeation Temperature screen, shown below, lets you set the oven temperature to either 30°C, 35°C, or 45°C. This function is only available when the instrument is in the Service mode, and should not be changed until the factory has been consulted (see the caution, below).

! CAUTION: The Model 146C is set to the proper oven temperature at the factory. Any changes to that temperature setting without factory consultation will cause inaccurate temperature and concentration readings.
To display the Permeation Temperature menu, start at the Main Menu, select Permeation Oven, and then select Permeation Temperature. Using the Permeation Temperature menu: ! ! ! ! To increment or decrement the temperature, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press the ENTER pushbutton. To return to the Permeation Oven menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

PERM TEMP 45.O gC SET TO 45.O gC temp is set by R1,R3 78 INC/DEC

Permeation Temp Screen

3-29

Chapter 3 Operation Adj Oven Thermistor, Adj Gas Thermistor, and Adj Gas Temperature The Adj Oven Thermistor, Adj Gas Thermistor, and Adj Gas Temperature screens, shown below, are used to calibrate the permeation tube oven. See chapter 4, “Calibration”, for more details. These screens are only available when the instrument is in Service mode. To display these screens, start at the Main Menu, select Service Mode, select Permeation Oven, and then select Cal Oven Thermistor, Cal Gas Thermistor, or Set Gas Temperature.

OVEN DRIVE 4.876 V replace oven therm with 4369 ohms and adj R2 for 5.OOO V

Adj Oven Thermistor Screen

PERM GAS 44.99gC replace gas therm with 4369 ohms and adj R4 for 45.OO gC

Adj Gas Thermistor Screen

PERM GAS OVEN DRIVE adj R2, wait repeat until

44.99gC 4,873 V 10 min, 45.O gC

Adj Gas Temperature Screen

3-30

Chapter 3 Operation Permeation K The Permeation K (constant) screen, shown below, lets you set the multiplier for each permeation tube for a given oven temperature. This function is only available when the instrument is in Service mode. To display the Permeation K screen, start at the Main Menu, select Permeation Oven, and then select Permeation K. Using the Permeation K screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Permeation Oven menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

PERMEATION K: SET TO ENTER? 1.OOO 1.O2O

Permeation K Screen

3-31

Chapter 3 Operation Permeation Rate The Permeation Rate screen, shown below, lets you enter the permeation rate of the permeation capsule used. This function is only available when the instrument is in Service mode. To display the Permeation Rate screen, start at the Main Menu, select Permeation Oven, and then select Permeation Rate. Using the Permeation Rate screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Permeation Oven menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

PERMEATION RATE: NG/NG/MIN 1OOO.O SET TO O1O2O.O ENTER?

Permeation Rate Screen

3-32

Chapter 3 Operation Perm 1-5 Screen The Perm 1 - 5 screens, shown below, let you set minimum and maximum permeation levels. These levels can be selected from the Run screen when the instrument is in Local or Service modes. Note: When a tank gas is powered-on, permeation levels cannot be selected from the Run screen. To display the Perm 1 – 5 screens, start at the Main Menu, select Permeation Oven, and then select Perm (1 – 5). Using the Perm (1 – 5) screens: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Permeation Oven menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

MIN PPM P1 MAXMAX PPM SETTING ENTER?

O.1OO 5.OOO 1.2OO

Perm 1-5 Screens

3-33

Chapter 3 Operation

PROGRAM CONTROLS
Program sets the Model 146C’s internal computer program to conduct a series of calibration events at preset times and durations. Up to 10 calibration events can be programmed. Each event can be assigned gas, span, ozonator, and permeation oven parameters. To display the Program screen, start at the Main Menu and select Program. Using the Program Settings screen: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To make a selection, press ENTER. To return to Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

PROGRAM: >PROGRAM ENABLED START TIME 1O:OO START MAR O2 2OO2 NEXT TIME 15:00 PERIOD DAYS DURATION MIN EVENTS 7 1O

Program Settings Screen

3-34

Chapter 3 Operation Program Enabled/Disabled The Program Enabled/Disabled screen, shown below, lets you activate or deactivate the Program function. When enabled, the instrument performs calibration functions at the preset times and durations. To display the Program Enabled/Disabled screen, start at the Main Menu, select Program, and then select either Program Enabled or Disabled. Using the Program Enabled/Disabled screens: ! To enable or disable the program, press ENTER. ! To return to Program, press MENU pushbutton. ! To return to the Run screen, press RUN pushbutton.

PROGRAM STATUS: ENABLED DISABLE IT?

Program Enabled/Disabled Screen

3-35

Chapter 3 Operation Start Time The Start Time screen, shown below, displays the next time (military) that the program will be activated. To display the Start Time screen, begin from the Main Menu, select Program, and then select Start Time. Using the Start Time screen: ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. ! To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To save the revised time, press ENTER. 2. Note: The revised time appears in the Program Setting screen only after the Program Settings have been enabled). ! To return to Program, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

START TIME: SET TO ENTER? 15:00 16:00

Start Time Screen

3-36

Chapter 3 Operation Start The Start screen, shown below, displays the next date (month/day/year) that an event is activated. If an event is presently running, the current date is shown. If an event is not running, the next start date is shown. To display the Start screen, begin from the Main Menu, select Program, and then select Start. Using the Start screen: ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. ! To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To save the revised date, press ENTER. Note: The revised date appears in the Program Setting screen only after Program Settings have been enabled. ! To return to Program, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

FIRST START DATE: SUN MAR O4 2OO2 SET TO MAR O5 2002 ENTER?

Start Screen

3-37

Chapter 3 Operation Period Days The Period Days screen, shown below, lets you select the number of days between cycles of the program. To display the Period Days screen, begin from the Main Menu, select Program, and then select Period Days. Using the Period Days screen: ! ! ! ! To increment or decrement the repetition period, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save the revised period, press ENTER. To return to Program, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

PERIOD OF EVENTS: DAYS 7 SETSET TO 5? 78 INC/DEC

Period Days Screen

3-38

Chapter 3 Operation Duration Min Duration Min, shown below, lets you set the duration of an event. The maximum run time allowed is 100 minutes. To display the Duration Min screen, start at the Main Menu, select Program, and then select Duration Min. Using the Duration Min screen: ! ! ! ! To increment or decrement the duration period, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save the revised period, press ENTER. To return to Program, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

DURATION PER EVENT: MINUTES 1O SETSET TO 3O? 78 INC/DEC

Duration Screen

3-39

Chapter 3 Operation Events The Events menu, shown below, lets you turn events on or off. You can control a maximum of 10 events from this menu. To display the Events menu, start at the Main Menu, select Program, and then select Events. Using the Events menu: ! ! ! ! To select an event, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save the event, press ENTER. To return to Program, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

PERIODIC EVENTS: >EVENT 1 OFF EVENT 2 OFF EVENT 3 OFF

EVENT EVENT EVENT EVENT EVENT EVENT EVENT

4 5 6 7 8 9 1O Events Menu

OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

3-40

Chapter 3 Operation Periodic Events The Periodic Events screen lets you select specific parameters (a gas, a preset span level for that gas, and Ozonator and Permeation levels, see “Gas A, B, C | Span” and “Ozonator” and “Permeation Oven” below) for each event. To display the Periodic Events screen, start at the Main Menu, select Program, select Events, and then select an event number. Using the Periodic Events screen: ! To move the asterisk to a parameter, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To select a gas, change the span level, or change the ozonator/permeation oven level use the ← and → pushbuttons. ! To save your revised parameter selection, press ENTER.

SPAN 1 SPAN 2 SPAN 3 SPAN 4 SPAN 5 MANUAL OZON OZON OZON OZON OZON OZON PERM MAN 1 2 3 4 5

EVENT 1: *ON GAS A? SPAN O? PPM 0.8OO OZON/PERM OFF?

OFF GAS B GAS C GAS OFF

Events Screen

3-41

Chapter 3 Operation

ALARM CONTROLS
The Model 146C’s calibrator monitors specific temperature parameters such as internal temperature, ozonator lamp temperature, and permeation oven temperature, and displays them in the Alarm menu (shown below). The Alarm menu gives you access to the appropriate screens that let you set an acceptable range for each parameter. If a temperature being monitored exceeds the lower or upper limit, its status is either LOW or HIGH, respectively. The top line of the Alarm menu shows the number of parameters that are not within the acceptable range. To display the Alarm menu, start at the Main Menu and select Alarm. Using the Alarm screen: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your temperature range selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

ALARMS DETECTED: >INTERNAL TEMP: OZON LAMP TEMP: PERM OVEN TEMP:

O OK OK OK

Alarm Screen

3-42

Chapter 3 Operation Internal Temp The Internal Temperature screen, shown below, displays the actual internal temperature of the instrument and the minimum and maximum permissible temperature limits. You can use this screen to change the instrument’s internal temperature limits. To display the Internal Temp screen, start at the Main Menu, select Alarm, and then select Internal Temp. Using the Internal Temp screen: ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

INTERNAL TEMP: ACTUAL 28.4gC LIMITS 18.5 47.O ENTER?

Internal Temp Screen

3-43

Chapter 3 Operation Ozone Lamp Temp The Ozone Lamp Temperature screen, shown below, displays the actual lamp temperature and the minimum (65.0 degrees centigrade) and maximum (75.0 degrees centigrade) permissible temperature limits. You can use this screen to change the instrument’s ozone lamp temperature limits. To display the Ozone Lamp Temp screen, start at the Main Menu, select Alarm, and then select Ozon Lamp Temp. Using the Ozone Lamp Temp screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selected limits (appears when the limits change), press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

OZON LAMP TEMP: ACTUAL 68.9 gC LIMITS 65.O 75.O ENTER?

Ozone Lamp Temp Screen

3-44

Chapter 3 Operation Permeation Oven Temp The Permeation Oven Temperature screen, shown below, displays the actual internal temperature permeation oven and the minimum and maximum permissible temperatures. You can use this screen to change the instrument’s permeation oven temperature limits. To display the Permeation Oven Temp screen, start at the Main Menu, select Alarm, and then select Perm Oven Temp. Using the Permeation Temp screen: ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

PERM OVEN TEMP: ACTUAL 45.7gC LIMITS 44.8 45.8 ENTER?

Permeation Oven Temp Screen

3-45

Chapter 3 Operation

INSTRUMENT CONTROLS
The Instrument Controls menu, shown below, lets you set various controls within the instrument such as mode, time, date, baud rate, instrument ID, and screen brightness. To display the Instrument Controls menu, start at the Main Menu and select Instrument Controls. Using the Instrument Controls menu: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your control selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

INSTRUMENT CONTROLS: >TIME 11:2O DATE MAR O7 2OO2 INSTRUMENT ID SCREEN BRIGHTNESS Instrument Controls Screen

3-46

Chapter 3 Operation Time The Time screen, shown below, lets you set your instrument’s internal timing device for local time using a 24-hour clock. To display the Time screen, start at the Main Menu, select Instrument Controls, and then select Time. Using the Time screen: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your time selection, press ENTER. To return to the Instrument Controls, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

CURRENT TIME: SET TO ENTER? 15:18 15:19

Time Screen

3-47

Chapter 3 Operation Date The Date screen, shown below, lets you set the month, day, and year for your instrument’s internal date system. To display the Date screen, start at the Main Menu, select Instrument Controls, and then select Date. Using the Date screen: ! To underscore a month or day/year digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. ! To increment or decrement the underscored digit or month, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To save your date selection, press ENTER. ! To return to the Instrument Controls, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

CURRENT DATE: WED MAR 07 2002 SET TO MAR 08 2002 ENTER?

Date Screen

3-48

Chapter 3 Operation Instrument ID The Instrument ID screen, shown below, allows you to create a numeric (0 to 99) identification number or “ID” for each of your instruments. You can then use this screen to display and or change your instrument’s ID for maintenance and tracking purposes. To display the Instrument ID screen, start at the Main Menu, select Instrument Controls, and then select Instrument ID. Using the Instrument ID screen: ! ! ! ! To increment or decrement the ID number, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your number selection, press ENTER. To return to the Instrument ID, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

INSTRUMENT ID SET TO 78 INC/DEC

95 95

Instrument ID Screen

3-49

Chapter 3 Operation Screen Brightness The Screen Brightness screen, shown below, lets you change the intensity of your instrument’s display. You can alter the intensity from 25 to 100 percent in 25 percent increments. To display the Screen Brightness screen, start at the Main Menu, select Instrument Controls, and then select Screen Brightness. Using the Screen Brightness screen: ! ! ! ! To increment or decrement the brightness, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your percent selection, press ENTER. To return to the Instrument Controls, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

BRIGHTNESS SET TO 78 INC/DEC

100 % 100 %

Screen Brightness Screen

3-50

Chapter 3 Operation

DIAGNOSTIC CONTROLS
The Diagnostics menu, shown below, lets you set various diagnostic parameters within your instrument such as program numbers, voltages, temperatures, and option switch states. To display the Diagnostics menu, start at the Main Menu and select Diagnostics. Using the Diagnostics screen: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your diagnostics selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

DIAGNOSTICS: >PROGRAM NUMBERS VOLTAGES TEMPERATURES OPTION SWITCHES Diagnostics Screen

3-51

Chapter 3 Operation Program Numbers The Program Numbers screen, shown below, lets you view the current software version installed on your instrument. This screen is a read only display. You cannot change the information on this screen. To display the Program Numbers screen, start at the Main Menu, select Diagnostics, and then select Program Numbers. Viewing Program Numbers screen: ! To return to the Diagnostics screen, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

MAIN PROGRAM: 146C 002000P 012802 COMM PROGRAM: 146C 002000L 012802

Program Numbers Screen

3-52

Chapter 3 Operation Voltages The Voltages screen, shown below, lets you view your instrument’s current DC power supply voltages. This screen is a read only display. You cannot change the information on this screen. To display the Voltages screen, start at the Main Menu, select Diagnostics, and then select Voltages. Viewing the Voltages screen: ! To return to the Diagnostics screen, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

+5 SUPPLY +15 SUPPLY -15 SUPPLY BATTERY

5.O 15.2 -14.8 2.9

V V V V

Voltages Screen

3-53

Chapter 3 Operation Temperatures The Temperatures screen, shown below, lets you view your instrument’s internal temperature, ozone lamp temperature, and permeation oven temperature. This screen is a read only display. You cannot change the information on this screen. To display the Temperatures screen, start at the Main Menu, select Diagnostics, and then select Temperatures. Viewing the Temperatures screen: ! To return to the Diagnostics screen, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

TEMPERATURES: INTERNAL 26.2 OZON LAMP 71.7 PERM GAS 45.75

g

g C g

C C

Temperatures Screen

3-54

Chapter 3 Operation Option Switches The Option Switches screen, shown below, lets you view your instrument’s internal option switch settings. Option switch settings cannot be changed through the software. They can only be changed through the dip switches located on the motherboard (see Figure 3-3). This screen is a read only display. You cannot change the information on this screen. To display the Option Switches screen, start at the Main Menu, select Diagnostics, and then select Option Switches. Viewing the Option Switches screen: ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To return to the Diagnostics screen, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

OPTION SWITCHES: >#1 I/O REMOTE OFF #2 SPARE ON #3 OZONATOR ON #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 PERM OVEN SPARE SPARE NO OF GASES NO OF GASES ON OFF OFF OFF OFF

Option Switches Screen

3-55

Chapter 3 Operation The internal option switches are used to activate hardware and software options. The function of each option switch is given in Table 3-1. These option switches are located on the motherboard, near the front panel, as shown in Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3. Location of Internal Option Switches

3-56

Chapter 3 Operation

Option Switch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Function I/O or RS-232 Spare Ozonator Permeation Oven Spare Spare *Number of Gases *Number of Gases

Table 3-1. Option Switch Functions RS-232 and Input/Output (I/O) Remote Option switch 1 is used to select between RS-232 and I/O Remote activation. When option switch 1 is off, RS-232 is activated, and when option switch 1 is on, I/O is activated. Ozonator Option switch 3 should be set to ON if either of the ozonators is installed. Permeation Oven Option switch 4 should be set to ON if the permeation oven is installed. Number of Gases Option switches 7 and 8 are used together to identify the amount of gases that the 146C controls. Refer to Table 3-2 for the appropriate settings. Number of Gases 3 4 5 6 Option Switch 7 Off Off On On Option Switch 8 Off On Off On

Table 3-2. Settings for Option Switches, 7 and 8

3-57

Chapter 3 Operation

LOAD DEFAULT PARAMETERS
The Load Default Parameters screen, shown below, lets you reset your Model 146C to its factory settings. Once you select this feature, all previous changes to these settings are deleted. Thermo Environmental Instruments recommends that you do this only when a new processor is installed. If the flow controllers installed are not set to 100 SCCM for Gas and 10 slm for zero-air, the flow controllers full scale is invalid. It is recommended that you change the default readings. This function is available only in Service Mode. To display the Load Default Parameters screen, start at the Main Menu and select Load Default Params. Using the Load Default Parameters screen: ! To Load Default Parameters and follow the screen prompts, press ENTER. ! To return to the Main menu, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

LOAD DEFAULT PARAMS? ARE YOU SURE? GAHONEST?

Load Default Parameters with prompts

3-58

Chapter 3 Operation Default Parameters The default parameters are as follows:
Name: Solenoid: Tank Conc: Span 1: Span 2: Span 3: Span 4: Span 5: Manual: Ozonator: Manual: Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4: Level 5: Permeation Oven: Temperature: Permeation Constant: Permeation Rate: Perm 1: Perm 2: Perm 3: Perm 4: Perm 5: Alarms: Internal Temperature Limits: Ozone Lamp Temperature: 20.0°C to 50°C 65.0°C to 75°C 45.0º C 1.000 1000.0 ng/minute 0.200 ppm 0.400 ppm 0.600 ppm 0.800 ppm 1.000 ppm Gas A, B, C (and D, E, F, with the six external standards option) Gas A = A, Gas B = B, Gas C = C 100 ppm Conc 0.400 ppm, Flow 1000 SCCM Conc 0.800 ppm, Flow 1000 SCCM Conc 1.200 ppm, Flow 1000 SCCM Conc 1.600 ppm, Flow 1000 SCCM Conc 2.000 ppm, Flow 1000 SCCM Zero-air 0 SCCM, Gas 0.00 SCCM Zero-air 10000 SCCM 0.0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Permeation Oven Temperature: 44.8°C to 45.2°C Instrument Controls: Instrument ID: Screen Brightness: 51 100%

3-59

Chapter 3 Operation Default Parameters (continued)
Flow Control Fullscale Zero-air: 10.0 SLM Gas: Zero-air Flow Calibration: Gas Flow Calibration Solenoid: Gas Flow Calibration 10.0 SLM 100 SCCM 0. 500, 2.000, 3.500, 5.000, 6.500, 8.000, 9.500 Solenoid A 0.500, 2.000, 3.500, 5.000, 6.500, 8.000, 9.500

3-60

Chapter 3 Operation

FLOW CONTROL FULLSCALES
The Flow Control Fullscale menu, shown below, lets you select either the zero-air controller or gas controller screens. This menu is available only when the Model 146C is in Service Mode. To display the Flow Control Fullscale menu, start at the Main Menu and select Flow Contrl Fscales. Using the Flow Control Fullscale menu: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To select a choice, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

FLOW CONTRL FSCALES: >ZERO AIR SLM 1O.OO GAS SCCM 1OO.OO

Flow Control Fullscale Menu

3-61

Chapter 3 Operation Zero Air Controller and Gas Controller The Zero-air Controller and Gas Controller screens, shown below, are used when installing new mass flow controllers (for example, when installing controllers other than the standard 10 SLM for zero-air, or 100 sccm for gas). Note: The mass flow controllers are accurate to only ±2 percent upon delivery from the manufacturer. When you receive the Model 146C from Thermo Environmental Instruments, the controllers are calibrated with greater accuracy. To achieve an equivalent accuracy, when installing new controllers, see the “Zero-air Flow Calibration” menu and screens and the “Gas Flow Calibration” menu and screens later in this chapter. To display the Zero-air Controller or Gas Controller screens, start at the Main Menu, select Flow Contrl Fscales, and then select either the Zero Air or Gas screens. Using the Zero Air Controller or Gas Controller screens: ! ! ! ! To increment or decrement the controller flow rate, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your rate selection, press ENTER. To return to Flow Contrl Fscales menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

ZERO AIR CONTROLLER FULL SCALE: SLM 10.00 78 INC/DEC

GAS CONTROLLER FULL SCALE: SCCM 100.00 78 INC/DEC

Zero-air Controller Screen

Gas Controller Screen

3-62

Chapter 3 Operation

ENTER PRES AND TEMP
The Enter Pres and Temp screen, shown below, is used only prior to calibrating the flow controllers. The flow controllers are calibrated prior to shipment. However, if you need to recalibrate the flow controllers, you can use this screen to enter the pressure and temperature for your 146C. Note: When recalibrating these flow controller, the pressure and temperature of the area immediately around the Model 146C must be entered for an accurate calibration. The pressure is in millimeters mercury and the temperature is degrees Celsius. To display the Enter Pres and Temp Screen, start at the Main Menu and select Enter Pres and Temp. Using the Enter Pres and Temp Screen: ! ! ! ! ! To move the cursor, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To move the cursor up or down, press the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

ENTER PRES AND TEMP: PRES 760.0 TEMP 25.0 ENTER? REL VOLUME 1.000

Enter Pres and Temp Screen After the pressure and temperature have been entered the volume relative to standard atmospheric conditions is displayed.

3-63

Chapter 3 Operation

ZERO AIR FLOW CALIBRATION
The Zero-air Flow Calibration menu, shown below, lets you calibrate the zero-air mass flow controller at 5, 20, 35, 50, 65, 80, and 95 percent of fullscale. Using a NIST traceable flow meter, the accuracy of the controller can be calibrated to about ±1 percent, as opposed to the ±2 percent accuracy rating when shipped from the manufacturer. This menu is available only when the Model 146C is in Service Mode. To display the Zero-air Flow Calibration menu, start at the Main Menu and select Zero Air Flow Cal. Using the Zero Air Flow Calibration menu: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, press the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

ZERO > 5% 20% 35%

AIR FS FS FS

FLOW CAL: SLM 0.5OO SLM 2.OOO SLM 3.5OO

50% 65% 80% 95%

FS FS FS FS

SLM SLM SLM SLM

5.OOO 6.5OO 8.000 9.500

Zero-air Flow Calibration Menu

3-64

Chapter 3 Operation Zero Air Drive (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 percent) The Zero Air Drive screens (the 20 percent screen is shown below) let you calibrate the zero-air mass controller using an NIST traceable flow meter as a reference. The Zero Air Drive screens cannot be accessed without first entering the present ambient pressure and/or temperature (see the “Enter Pressure and Temperature” section above). To display the Zero Air Drive screen, start at the Main Menu, select Zero Air Flow Cal, and then select a Drive Level. Using the Zero Air Drive screens: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

ZERO AIR DRIVE 2O%: STD FLOW SLM O2.OOO VOL FLOW LM 02.OOO ENTER?

Zero Air Drive Screen

3-65

Chapter 3 Operation

GAS FLOW CAL SOL
The Gas Flow Calibration Solenoid screen, shown below, lets you select the solenoid to be used when calibrating the gas flow mass controller. This function is available only when the Model 146C is in Service Mode. To display the Zero-air Drive screen, start at the Main Menu and select Gas Flow Cal Sol. Using the Gas Flow Cal screens: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a letter, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To change the solenoid assignment, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your solenoid assignment, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

GAS FLOW CAL: SOLENOID SET TO ENTER?

A B

Gas Flow Cal Screen

3-66

Chapter 3 Operation

GAS AIR FLOW CALIBRATION
The Gas Air Flow Calibration menu, shown below, lets you calibrate the gas flow mass controller at 5, 20, 35, 50, 65, 80, and 95 percent of fullscale. Using a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable flow meter, the accuracy of the controller can be calibrated to about ±1 percent, as opposed to the ±2 percent accuracy rating when shipped from the manufacturer. This menu is available only when the Model 146C is in Service Mode. To display the Gas Flow Calibration menu, start at the Main Menu and select Gas Flow Cal. Using Gas Flow Calibration menu: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

GAS AIR FLOW CAL: > 5% FS SCCM 0.5OO 2O% FS SCCM 2.OOO 35% FS SCCM 3.5OO 50% 65% 80% 95% FS FS FS FS SLM SLM SLM SLM 5.OOO 6.5OO 8.000 9.500

Gas Flow Calibration Menu

3-67

Chapter 3 Operation Gas Drive (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 percent) The Gas Drive screens (the 20 percent screen is shown below) are used to calibrate the gas mass flow controller using a NIST traceable flow meter as a reference. The Gas Drive screens cannot be accessed without first entering the present ambient pressure and/or temperature (see the “Enter Pressure and Temperature” section above). To display the Gas Drive screens, start at the Main Menu, select Gas Flow Cal, and then select a Drive Level. Using the Gas Drive screens: ! ! ! ! ! To underscore a digit, use the ← or → pushbuttons. To increment or decrement the underscored digit, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press MENU. To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

GAS DRIVE 2O%: STD FLOW SCCM O2.OOO VOL FLOW CCM 02.OOO ENTER?

Gas Drive Screen

3-68

Chapter 3 Operation

EXTERNAL SOLENOIDS
The Model 146C can drive up to eight external solenoids. You can select the external solenoids with the External Solenoids menu. Each solenoid can be connected to the following: Gas A, B, or C (or D, E, or F if the six gas option is installed), the ozonator, or the permeation oven. This menu is available only when the Model 146C is in Service Mode. To display the External Solenoids menu, start at the Main Menu and select External Solenoids. Using the External Solenoids menu: ! ! ! ! To move the cursor up or down, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. To save your selection, press ENTER. To return to the Main Menu, press the MENU. To return to the Run screen, press ALT.

EXTERNAL SOLENOIDS: >SOL 1 abcop SOL 2 abcop SOL 3 abcop

SOL SOL SOL SOL SOL

4 5 6 7 8

abcop abcop abcop abcop abcop

External Solenoids Menu

3-69

Chapter 3 Operation External Solenoid (1 – 8) The External Solenoid screen, shown below, lets you assign either a Gas A, B, or C (or D, E, or F if the six gas option is installed), the ozonator, or the permeation oven to each of the eight external 24-volt solenoid drivers in the Model 146C. To display the External Solenoid screen, start at the Main Menu and select External Solenoid. Using the External Solenoid screen: ! To underscore a gas (a, b, c), ozonator (o), or permeation oven (p), use the ← or → pushbuttons. ! To capitalize the letter, use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. An upper case letter indicates that the gas, ozonator, or permeation oven will activate this external solenoid. ! To detach the gas, ozonator, or permeation oven from the external solenoid (the letter becomes lower case), use the ↑ or ↓ pushbuttons. ! To save your selections, press ENTER. ! to return to the Main Menu, press MENU. ! to return to the Run screen, press ALT.

EXTERNAL SOLENOID 1: Abcop SET TO abcop ENTER?

External Solenoid (1-8) Screen The pin assignments on the rear connectors for the external solenoid wires are as show in Table 3-3:
Solenoid 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 6 8 8

Pin
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Table 3-3. External Solenoid Pin Assignments

3-70

Chapter 3 Operation

A/D FREQUENCY
The A/D Frequency screen displays the frequency of each of the analog to digital (A/D) converters located on the A/D Board, as shown below. This screen is available as a software diagnostics tool and should be used only by TEI Service Technicians. To display the A/D Frequency screen, start at the Main Menu, select Service Mode, and then select A/D Frequency. ! To increment or decrement the A to D number, use the ← or → pushbuttons. ! To return to the Service Mode menu, press MENU. ! To return to the Run screen, press RUN.

A TO D FREQ A TO D NUMBER 78 INC/DEC

0 NONE

A/D Frequency Screen

3-71

Chapter 3 Operation

SET TEST DISPLAY
The Set Test Display screen, shown below, displays the contents of a given memory location for your Model 146C. This screen is available only in the Service Mode. Note: This is screen is not for general use and should be accessed only when consulting with trained TEI factory personnel. To display the Set Test Display screen, start at the Main Menu and select Set Test Display.

SET TEST DISPLAY: MODE 0 ADDR 0000

Set Test Display

3-72

CHAPTER 4

CALIBRATION
This chapter describes the procedures used to calibrate the individual components of the Model 146C.

! CAUTION: The instrument has been calibrated at the factory, and recalibration at the time of delivery should not be necessary. If recalibration should become necessary at a later time, ensure that the proper test equipment is available.
MASS FLOW CONTROLLERS
In order to calibrate the mass flow meter section of the zero or gas mass flow controller, a NIST traceable flow meter is required. The term calibration means determining the actual flow versus the flow setting for seven equally spaced flows along the range of the device. The Model 146C then corrects the output according to an internal algorithm. Appendix C is an excerpt from the Tylan Mass Flow Controller manual. The long-term stability of the flow controllers is quite good. As shipped from the factory, the target flow and actual flow from 20 to 100 percent of full scale agree to within ± 2 percent of reading or 1 percent of full scale whichever is less. Calibration may be done with a properly calibrated flow meter. For the most accurate calibration procedure, use a volumetric NIST traceable calibrator with the following stepby-step calibration procedure. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Connect a source of clean, dry air to the inlet of the mass flow controller. Measure barometric pressure and room temperature. Connect a suitable flow meter to the mass flow controller outlet. Set Model 146C to Gas Drive or Zero Air Flow Calibration as described in Chapter 3, “Operation.” Set flow controller to 95 percent of full scale, then wait until flow meter reading stabilizes. Enter the flow meter reading using the flow input screen. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for the remaining flow settings. If difficulty is encountered due to a malfunction of the flow controller, contact Thermo Environmental Instruments.

4-1

Chapter 4 Calibration

OZONE GENERATOR
The ozone generator used on the Model 146C qualifies as a transfer standard under current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements. In order to use it as a transfer standard, the user must certify the generator, following the procedures published in the technical assistance document for the calibration of ozone transfer standards. In order to determine a calibration curve for the ozone generator, an ozone primary standard such as the Thermo Environmental Model 49C Primary Standard must be used. If an ozone analyzer such as the Thermo Environmental Model 49C is also available, the generation of the calibration curve becomes easier. A procedure for both is given below. It is assumed that a Thermo Environmental Model 49C PS and Thermo Environmental Model 49C are being used. For other ozone instruments, refer to their user's manual. Calibration Using a Model 49C and 49C PS Use the following steps to calibrate the Model 146C using a Model 49 and 49C PS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Turn on the Model 146C, Model 49C and Model 49C PS. Allow them to stabilize for approximately one hour. Connect zero air to the Model 146C. Calibrate the Model 49C using the Model 49C PS. Follow the procedure outlined in the Model 49C and 49C PS manuals. Connect output of the Model 146C to the sample inlet of the Model 49C. Set flow of Model 146C to desired level. It must be at least in excess of the flow demand of the Model 49C, which is usually 2 Lpm. Determine the ozone concentration at different ozone level settings on the Model 146C. Note ozone level setting, ozone concentration and flow. Determine a calibration curve by plotting the results of step 5. The curve is not necessarily linear. For highest confidence, reconnect the Model 49C PS to the Model 49C and recheck the ozone calibrations.

4-2

Chapter 4 Calibration Calibration Using Only a Model 49C PS Use the following steps to calibrate the Model 146C using a Model 49C PS: 1. 2. Connect the same source of zero air to the Model 146C and Model 49C PS. Remove cover of the Model 49C PS. Disconnect the Teflon line between the ozone generator and output manifold at the manifold, and then cap the manifold fitting. 3. Replace the cover. 4. Connect a piece of 1/4" Teflon tubing between the output port of the Model 146C and “ozone out” port of the Model 49C PS. 5. Leave the vent port on the back of the 146C open to atmosphere. 6. Turn on both the Model 49C PS and Model 146C. Allow units to stabilize one hour. 7. Set the flow to desired level. It must be in excess of the Model 49C PS demand, which is 2 Lpm. 8. Determine the ozone concentration from Model 49C PS for different ozone level settings of the Model 146C. Note ozone level setting, ozone concentration, and flow. 9. Determine a calibration curve by plotting the result of step 6. The curve is not necessarily linear. 10. Disconnect Model 49C PS and reconnect ozone generator of the Model 49C PS. Leak check. Calibration of Ozone Generator at Different Flows Since the Model 146C is set up so that the flow through the ozone generator is constant and independent of the total flow, changing the total flow changes the dilution of the ozone. Thus the ozone concentration at other flows can be computed from the curves determined above using the following equation.
Concentration at Flow 2 = Flow 1 X Concentration at Flow 1 Flow 2

1

PERMEATION TUBE OVEN
There are two general approaches that can be used to calibrate the permeation tube oven. The first is to calibrate the temperature indicator very accurately (to better than 0.02°C), and to use a permeation tube whose weight loss has been previously determined at that temperature (note, an error of about 0.1°C corresponds to an error of 1 percent in release rate). The second approach is to note that the thermistors used to measure temperature are interchangeable to better that ± 0.2°C. Thus a 1 percent resistor of the proper value (4.369 K ohm for 45°C) can be used to set the span on the Oven Controller Board. The release rate for the permeation tube is then determined by weight loss in the actual oven being used.

4-3

Chapter 4 Calibration Setting Measure Temperature with Water Bath 1. 2. Unplug the connector at J3, from the Oven Controller Board. Place a 4.369 KΩ resistor across pins 3 and 4 of J3 on the Oven Controller Board. From the Permeation Oven menu, select Cal Oven Thermistor. Adjust R2 on the Oven Controller Board until the oven drive voltage is 5.000 volts. Press MENU to return to the Permeation Oven menu.

OVEN DRIVE 4.876V replace oven therm with 4369 ohms, adj R2 for 5.000 V Cal Oven Thermistor Screen 3. Remove the thermistor from the permeation tube oven. Leave the thermistor connected to the Oven Controller Board. Insert the thermistor into the water bath next to a NIST traceable thermometer. (If necessary, use an extension cable to reach). Turn on the power to the water bath. Using an NIST traceable thermometer with a resolution of ± 0.01°C, adjust water bath to 45°C. From the Permeation Oven menu, select Cal Gas Thermistor. Adjust R4 on the Oven Controller Board until the permeation gas temperature reading is 45°C. PERM GAS 44.99 gC replace gas therm with 4369 ohms, adj R4 for 45.00 gC

4. 5.

Cal Gas Thermistor Screen 6. 7. 8. Remove thermistor from the water bath, dry, and replace into the permeation tube oven. Wait for the permeation gas temperature reading to stabilize. From the Permeation Oven menu, select Set Gas Temperature. Adjust R2 until the Perm Gas reading displayed on the first line is 45.00°C. Since it takes several minutes for the permeation oven temperature to stabilize, it is best to wait 10 minutes between adjustments.

4-4

Chapter 4 Calibration

PERM GAS 44.99 gC OVEN DRIVE 4.873 V adj R2, wait 10 min, repeat until 45.0 gC Set Gas Temperature Screen Setting Measure Temperature with an Accurately Known Oven Temperature 1. 2. Unplug the connector at J3, from the Oven Controller Board. Place a 4.369 KΩ resistor across pins 3 and 4 of J3 on the Oven Controller Board. From the Permeation Oven menu, select Cal Oven Thermistor. Adjust R2 on the Oven Controller Board until the oven drive voltage is 5.000 volts. Press MENU to return to the Permeation Oven menu.

OVEN DRIVE 4.869 V replace oven therm with 4369 ohms, adj R2 for 5.000 V Cal Oven Thermistor Screen 1. 2. 3. Unplug the thermistor from J1 on the Oven Controller Board. Connect a resistance of 4.369 KΩ across pins 1 and 2 of J1 (use a resistance substitution box and an accurate meter if necessary). From the Permeation Oven menu, select Cal Gas Thermistor. Adjust R4 on the Oven Controller Board until the permeation gas temperature reading is 45°C. PERM GAS 45.00 gC replace gas therm with 4369 ohms, adj R4 for 45.00 gC

Cal Gas Thermistor Screen 4. Reconnect measure thermistor.

4-5

Chapter 4 Calibration

5. 6.

Wait for the permeation gas temperature reading to stabilize. From the Permeation Oven menu, select Set Gas Temperature. Adjust R2 until the Perm Gas reading displayed on the first line is 45.00°C. Since it takes several minutes for the permeation oven temperature to stabilize, wait 10 minutes between adjustments.

PERM GAS 45.00 gC OVEN DRIVE 4.848 V adj R2, wait 10 min, repeat until 45.00 gC

Set Gas Temperature Screen Determination Of Permeation Rate by Weight Loss 1. 2. Make sure the oven has been calibrated as described above. Gently, insert the permeation tube using tweezers for other clean tool. Never touch the tube with your fingers. 3. Turn on the Model 146C. 4. Wait 48 to 72 hours for the permeation tube to stabilize. 5. Carefully remove the permeation tube from the oven and weigh to an accuracy of 0.1 mg. Perform this measurement as quickly as possible. 6. Replace permeation tube into the oven of the Model 146C. 7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 after two weeks. 8. Compute the weight loss of the permeation tube from the values determined in steps 5, 6, and 7 above. 9. Repeat steps 5 to 8 until the weight loss has been determined to a precision of 1 to 2 percent. 10. For most accurate work, use the permeation tube in the same oven that was used to determine the permeation tube's weight loss. Determination of Release Rate by Use of Transfer Standard 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To perform this procedure, one Model 43C and two Model 146Cs are needed. Ensure that the ovens in both of your Model 146Cs have been calibrated. Determine permeation rate for permeation tube in Model 146C being used as calibration standard, or install a certified permeation tube. Allow the permeation tubes in both Model 146Cs to stabilize at least 48 hours. Carefully calibrate an analyzer, such as a Thermo Environmental Model 43C, using Model 146C's with calibrated permeation tube.

4-6

Chapter 4 Calibration 6. 7. 8. Connect calibrated analyzer to Model 146C with permeation tube whose permeation rate is to be determined. Adjust flow of the Model 146C so that the analyzer reads close to full scale. Note flow and measured concentration. From flow and measured concentration, compute release rate from the following equation:
RxK Qo

Model 146C output (ppm) =

where: R Qo K = permeation rate in ng/min = flow rate in sccm = constant for specific permeant =

24.45 MW MW = molecular weight of specific permeant

4-7

CHAPTER 5

THEORY OF OPERATION
In order to understand the operation of the Model 146C, a general knowledge of the electronics, software, and subassemblies is necessary.

ELECTRONICS
The electronics consist of the following subassemblies: • • • • DC Power Supply Ozonator Power Supply Permeation Oven Controller Board Microprocessor System

A brief description of each follows. Note that all the electrical schematics are given in Appendix D, “Schematics.” DC Power Supply The DC Power Supply outputs the regulated and unregulated dc voltages necessary to operate the analog and digital electronics. It outputs +20 and +18 volts unregulated and ±15 volts and +5 volts regulated. The power supply board also contains the circuitry for driving both the internal and external solenoid valves, and generates the mass flow controller input and output voltages. Ozonator Power Supply The ozonator lamp is driven by a square wave signal at approximately 15 kHz. The square wave is generated by a pulse width modulation control circuit (U2). The square wave feeds (Q3), which feeds two transistors (Q1 and Q2), which then drives the primary of the lamp transformer (T1). The secondary circuit includes the secondary winding, a 35K ohm resistor (R3), the lamp, and a 100 ohm resistor (R4) in series. One end of the transformer is at ground potential. The 35K ohm resistor acts as a current limiting resistor to limit the current to the lamp. The 100 ohm resistor can be used to check the wave form and the current through the lamp.

5-1

Chapter 5 Theory of Operation In addition to driving the lamp, the ozonator power supply also includes the ozonator block heating circuit (U1 and associated circuitry). The lamp block is heated by a power transistor. The temperature is measured by a thermistor. The current, and thus the heat into the transistor, is controlled by the operational amplifier integrated circuit (U1). As long as the temperature as determined by the thermistor is low, the lamp power supply is off. When the temperature is above 70°C, the lamp ignites. If the temperature of the ozonator block should ever fall below its set point, the lamp will be turned off. The lamp is turned off and on by turning the pulsed width modulator (U2) on or off as controlled by the line between Pins 15 of U2 and the output of the temperature controlling op amp, Pin 8 of U1. The Ozonator Power Supply Board also contains circuitry for adjusting the lamp amplitude and sensing the lamp temperature. Permeation Oven Controller Board The temperature of the permeation tube oven is controlled using the HC11 Oven Controller Board. Contained on this board is the circuitry for controlling the oven and sensing gas temperature. Resistors R1 and R3 set the oven temperature to 30, 35, or 45°C. The calibration of the permeation oven is described in Chapter 4. Microprocessor System The microprocessor system consists of printed circuit boards, which plug into a motherboard, connecting them to each other and to the rest of the instrument. These boards are as follows: • • • • • • Display Module Processor Board Analog to Digital Board Digital to Analog Board C-Link Board Input/Output Board

Display Module The vacuum fluorescent display module shows zero air and gas flow rates, calculated concentrations, ozone levels, instrument parameters, and help messages. The single board display module consists of 80 characters (4 line by 20 column); refresh memory, character generator, dc/dc converter, and all necessary control logic. The display module is powered by +5 volts dc.

5-2

Chapter 5 Theory of Operation Processor Board The Processor Board contains a Motorola M68HC11F1 microprocessor (U4), RAM (U5), and EEPROM (U2). In addition, this high-performance, nonmultiplexed 68-pin microprocessor contains 512 bytes of EEPROM and 1K of RAM. It is operated at a frequency of 2 MHz, which is generated by crystal X1. During each instruction cycle, the processor fetches an instruction from memory and executes it, reading or writing data to or from the data bus, or performing a calculation on some internal register or registers. The reset signal is generated by U7. The MC6840 counter chip (U1) acts as the interface between the Input Board and the microprocessor. Pulse trains from the Input Board are fed into one of the three counters on the MC6840 counter chip. Digital to Analog Board The Digital to Analog Board contains four 12-bit D/A converters, only two of which are used in the Model 146C. One is for the permeation oven, and the other is for the ozonator. Each is addressed by the processor via signals from PA0-PA7 and PG0 and PG1. The D/A converters are zeroed using potentiometers R5 and R7 and span is set using potentiometers R6 and R8. The fullscale output of the two D/A converters is set by jumpers on switches SW3 and SW4 on the D/A Board. Fullscale voltages of 10 volts are required. Analog to Digital Board The Analog to Digital Board acts as an interface between all the signals monitored by the processor system and the microprocessor itself. The internal ambient temperature, internal ambient pressure, and power supply voltages are converted to digital signals used by the microprocessor. C-Link Board The C-Link Board contains the RS-232 circuitry, clock, and memory for the datalogger. Incoming RS-232 signals are converted to TTL levels by U3, which is a RS-232 driver/receiver. The TTL signals are then interpreted by U5, a 68HC11 microprocessor, which is dedicated to remote communications. Data records from the internal datalogger are stored in U2, a 128K RAM, and the link program is stored in U6, a 64K EPROM. U10 is the internal clock. A battery supplies +3 volts to the clock and the datalogger memory when instrument power is off.

5-3

Chapter 5 Theory of Operation Input/Output Board The Input/Output Board contains relays and circuitry that provide contact closures for given outputs and or given inputs. U5 and U9 serve the input lines I1 through I16. U4 and U8 activate the relays K1 through K16, providing contact closures for the outputs OUT1 through OUT16. U3 drives the data, clock and strobe lines for serial transfer of data to the 12 bit D/A counters U2 and U6. U2 and U6 generate a 0 to 2 volt signal, applied by U1:A and U1:B to 0 to 5 volts. U1:A drives the zero air flow controller input, U1:B drives the gas flow controller input.

5-4

Chapter 5 Theory of Operation

FLOW SYSTEM
The Model 146C Dynamic Gas Calibrator can produce up to four different flow streams, using three hardware modules. The basic unit contains only the dilution module. There are two optional modules, either or both of which can be added to the basic instrument. These optional modules are: (1) the ozonator generating module, which can produce an ozone flow or, with the addition of an NO cylinder, gas phase titration (GPT), and (2) the permeation tube oven module. The flow for each module is governed by mass flow controllers and solenoids. Each system will be discussed independently. While many of the components are shared, they may only be necessary for one or two functions. These components will only be discussed when the system that requires them is being used. Precision Gas Dilution Gas dilution is achieved by utilization of two accurate mass flow controllers. One governs high flow (typically 10 lpm fullscale) to control the diluting zero air, the other governs low flow (typically 100 sccm) for controlling the gas to be diluted. To achieve complete mixing of the two components, a Teflon mixing chamber is used. Since the mass flow controllers used do not have a positive shutoff, a solenoid (called the zero air solenoid in flow schematic) is used to shut off zero air when the system is in standby. This reduces the use of zero air. Since it is often desired to dilute more than one type of gas, the Model 146C has the ability to use three different independent gas inlets; which one is being used is determined by opening gas solenoids A, B or C, as determined by the mode being commanded. Ozone Generation The Model 146C produces ozone by exposing air to light at 185 nm. The ozone level can be changed by changing the flow through the ozone generator, or by changing the light intensity. In the Model 146C, the selected light intensity level is held constant by temperature controlling the lamp, and by using a highly stable lamp power supply. The flow is held constant by the mass flow controller.

5-5

Chapter 5 Theory of Operation Gas Phase Titration Gas phase titration in the Model 146C is accomplished by combining the outputs of the precision gas dilution system with that of the ozone generating source. The gas dilution system is used to produce an accurately known concentration of NO from a known concentration gas cylinder. By mixing the NO concentration with ozone and measuring the loss of NO, the amount of NO2 formed is determined (i.e., it is equal to the NO loss). The only caution that must be used in performing the gas phase titration is to ensure the NO-O3 reaction has been completed. Empirically, certain dynamic parameter constraints have been derived to ensure completion of the reaction. These conditions dictate that the residence time in the reaction chamber, the gas flow rate and reaction chamber volumes meet the following conditions: Condition 1: Condition 2:

PR = [NO] RC × t R ≥ 2.75 ppm - min

[NO] RC = [NO] STD ×
tR =

FNO FO + FNO

Condition 3:

VRC ≤ 2min FO + FNO

where: PR [NO]RC tR [NO]STD FNO FO VRC = the dynamic specification, determined empirically, to ensure complete reaction of the available O3, ppm-min = the NO concentration in the reaction chamber, ppm = the residence time in the reaction chamber, min = the concentration of the NO gas cylinder, ppm = the NO flow rate, sccm = the O3 generator air flow rate, sccm = the volume of the reaction chamber

5-6

Chapter 5 Theory of Operation

The flows through the Model 146C satisfy these requirements. The reaction chamber volume is 150 cc. By use of the backpressure regulator (set to approximately 3 psi) and the capillary, the flow through the ozonator is approximately 150 sccm. All excess flow of zero air bypasses the ozone generator (see flow schematic, Figure 1-2). Thus, for any reasonable NO flow (12.5-100 sccm) and [NO]STD (40-60 ppm), the dynamic parameter conditions are met. Since the reaction chamber is only needed during gas phase titration, and since the flush time (i.e., residence time) is approximately less than one minute, and since three flush times are necessary for a response of 95 percent, the reaction chamber is only in the system during gas phase titration.
Permeation Tube Oven

Since the temperature of the permeation tube oven should be stable, the gas flow through the oven is small (approximately 150 sccm). The major portion of the flow bypasses the oven, and is directed to the mixing chamber with the stream from the oven. This is achieved by using the same backpressure regulator described above for gas phase titration, with a capillary of identical size. During standby operation, a continuous flow of gas is necessary through the oven. The standby flow and operating flow should be the same to +10 percent. This is achieved by setting the pressure regulator to the same pressure setting as the backpressure regulator. In practice, rather than measuring the pressure, it is the actual flows that are measured while adjusting the pressure regulator. Two solenoids, under control of the microcomputer, are used to change the flow of gas going through the oven to the mainstream or to vent.

5-7

CHAPTER 6

TROUBLESHOOTING
This chapter provides a troubleshooting guide for locating and correcting problems that can affect the normal operation of the Model 146C. This guide describes malfunctions, possible causes, and corrective actions. For additional assistance, contact Thermo Environmental Instruments’ Customer Service department at 508-520-0430, 508-5201460 (FAX), or web site: http://www.thermoei.com/. In any correspondence with the factory, please note both the serial number and program number of the instrument. In servicing the Model 146C, as in servicing any electronic equipment, the first thing to check is the dc power supply. The troubleshooting guide of this section assumes that the ±15VDC, +5VDC, and 24VDC power supplies have been checked.

WARNING: This instrument contains 120 volts AC (or 220 volts AC) and 800 volts DC. Normal precautions should be used when working on the inside of the instrument with the power connected.

!

6-1

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting

TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

MALFUNCTION Flow controller unstable

POSSIBLE CAUSE Gas, or zero air source not adequate, or pressure too low Flow controller malfunction Leak

ACTION Increase pressure (to greater than 25 psi), and/or flow from gas, and/or zero air source Refer to Flow Controller manual, Appendix C Leak check (see Chapter 7) Put instrument in local mode Check solenoid for continuity and replace as necessary (see Chapter 7) Check power supply at J6 and J7. If voltage correct, but solenoid does not switch, replace U3 or U5 Put instrument in remote mode Replace appropriate board Replace connector Leak check (see Chapter 7)

Solenoid not switching in local mode

Instrument in remote mode Solenoid malfunction Solenoid driver malfunction

Solenoid not switching in remote mode

Instrument in local mode I/O, C-Link board failure Bad connectors

Calibration as measured at output of mass flow controller does not agree with calibration as measured at output of instrument

Leak

6-2

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting

TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE (continued)
MALFUNCTION No ozone output POSSIBLE CAUSE Lamp failure ACTION Check for blue light when removing ozone lamp from ozonator and replace lamp if light not visible Check to see that ozonator is warm (» 50 °C). If not warm, replace or repair heater or heat power supply (see Chapter 7). Repair or replace ozonator power supply (see Chapter 7) Check for leaks in ozonator and manifold system (see Chapter 7) and repair leak Check zero air flow valve and adjust to less than 8 slm Voltage on primary of step-up transformer with ozonator level set to 100% should be greater than 16V. If not, repair or replace ozonator power supply (see Chapter 7) Check to see that there is a bright blue light when removing the ozone lamp from ozonator, with ozonator level set to 100%. If not, replace lamp (see Chapter 7) Repair analyzer Check for leaks and repair (see Chapter 7) Check zero air flow meter

Ozonator heater failure

Ozonator power supply failure Low ozone output Leak in ozonator or distribution manifold Flow excessively high Power supply failure

Weak lamp

Unstable ozone output

Failure of analyzer measuring ozone Leak in system

Zero air flow unstable

6-3

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting

TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE (continued)
MALFUNCTION POSSIBLE CAUSE ACTION

Lamp failure Defective ozonator power supply

Replace with new lamp (see Chapter 7) Check to see 15 kHz square wave at R4 on lamp power supply. If not there, repair or replace power supply (see Chapter 7) Wait one hour from powering up instrument Replace oven Follow adjustment procedures outlined in Chapter 4 Replace permeation oven printed circuit board (see Chapter 7) Check correct resistors R1, R3. For:30°C = 70.7K 35°C = 57.1K 45°C = 38.3K Clean capillary, readjust regulator (see Chapter 7)

Permeation oven fails to warm up

Not enough time has elapsed since turning oven on Oven heater open Heater voltage not present or improperly calibrated Control circuit malfunction Set point not set properly

Temperature display erratic

Flow through permeation tube oven not constant

6-4

CHAPTER 7

SERVICING
This chapter explains how to replace the Model 146C subassemblies. Fault location is accomplished in the preceding chapter, “Troubleshooting.” This chapter assumes that a subassembly has been identified as defective and needs to be replaced. For additional service assistance, see “Servicing Locations” later in this chapter.

REPLACEMENT PARTS LISTS
Table 7-1 lists the part numbers of the major subassemblies in the Model 146C. Refer to Figure 7-1to identify their location. Part Number 9837 10761 9839 9956 9843 14293 14291 10760 7217 8953 10763 4121 4509 8095
8096 8097 8092 8093 8094

Description Processor Board Analog to Digital Board Digital to Analog Board I/O Board C-Link Board Motherboard Power Supply Board Ozonator Board Transformer Permeation Oven Temperature Control Board Lamp Heater Capillary – 10 mil long Fuse, 2-Amp Slo-Blo Mass Flow Controller, 50 ccm
Mass Flow Controller, 100 ccm Mass Flow Controller, 200 ccm Mass Flow Controller, 5.0 lpm Mass Flow Controller, 10.0 lpm Mass Flow Controller, 20.0 lpm

Table 7-1. Replacement Parts

7-1

Chapter 7 Servicing

7-2 Figure 7-1. Model 146C Component Layout
49P739

Chapter 7 Servicing

LEAK CHECKING
Teflon caps - 1/4" and 1/8" are required to perform this the following procedure:

!

CAUTION: Failure to reduce pressure to below 8 psi before output is capped can cause damage to the model 146C.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Reduce pressure of zero air supply and gas cylinders to below 8 psi. Cap both output fittings of the manifold (labeled VENT and OUTPUT). Make sure Model 146C is in local mode and place in zero air flow mode. Set zero air flow from 30% to 50% of fullscale. Zero air flow should gradually decrease to zero (reading less than 2% of full scale) if no leak is present. Disconnect power and remove cover. Unplug zero air solenoid from cable that goes to power supply board. Reconnect power. Set flow mode to Gas A, B or C dilution. Make sure a source of gas is connected to that input (zero air can be used). Set pressure to less than 8 psi. Set gas flow for 80-90% full scale. The gas flow should gradually decrease to zero (reading less than 2% of full scale) if no leak is present. Since the sum of the volumes of the mixing and reaction chamber is about 1/3 liter, it will typically take several minutes for the flow to go to zero in a leak-free system. If no leak is found, remove caps on manifold. Reconnect zero air solenoid and readjust pressure of the gas cylinder and zero air gas. If the system is found to have a leak, the location can most easily be found by following a systematic approach. For the Model 146C, a systematic approach starting at the mass flow controllers and capping off more and more of the system works best. It is also helpful to leak check the reaction and mixing chambers independently. This is most readily accomplished by connecting these chambers directly to the low flow mass flow controller and capping the outlet of the chamber.

7.

8. 9.

7-3

Chapter 7 Servicing

PRESSURE REGULATOR ADJUSTMENT
A Flowmeter (must measure 150 sccm) is required to perform the following procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Disconnect power and remove cover. Unplug Perm 2 solenoid from power supply board and reconnect power. Connect flowmeter to exhaust port on rear panel. Place 146C in zero air mode. Make sure Model 146C is in local, and that zero air is connected. Adjust pressure regulator for a reading on flowmeter of 125-150 sccm. Place 146C in permeation oven mode. Adjust backpressure regulator for same pressure measured in 4 above. Remove flowmeter and reconnect solenoid.

SOLENOID REPLACEMENT
There are four (4) different types of solenoid used on the Model 146C. The following instructions cover all cases. Equipment required: • • • 1. 2. 3. Solenoid (For Part No. see 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 below) Open-end wrench - 5/8", 9/16" Nut driver - 1/4" Disconnect power and remove cover. Unplug defective solenoid from cable connecting to power supply board. Disconnect all Teflon lines from defective solenoid.

7-4

Chapter 7 Servicing 4. Gas A, B, or C solenoid on rear panel (Part No. 8130). a) Loosen and remove nut holding defective solenoid onto rear panel. Remove solenoid. b) Remove fittings from solenoid. c) Install fittings into new solenoid in same manner as they were removed. d) Install new solenoid in reverse manner. 5. Zero air solenoid. (Part No. 8130) a) Loosen all fittings holding solenoid. b) Remove four screws holding mass flow controller bracket onto floor plate and disconnect plumbing between solenoid and mass flow controller. c) Move mass flow controller bracket forward to loosen solenoid. d) Remove solenoid. e) Install new solenoid in reverse order. 6. Ozone solenoid. (Part No. 8130) a) Loosen and remove bracket holding ozone solenoid onto divider panel. b) Remove ozonator assembly. c) Remove ozonator solenoid from ozonator assembly. d) Install new solenoid in reverse order. 7. Bypass solenoid. (Part No. 8119) a) Unclip solenoid from divider panel. b) Install new solenoid in reverse order.

7-5

Chapter 7 Servicing 8. Perm 1 solenoid. (Part No. 7368) a) Remove pressure regulator from divider panel by removing knurled plastic nut holding pressure regulator onto divider panel. Remove pressure regulator solenoid assembly. b) Remove solenoid from pressure regulator. c) Install new solenoid in reverse order. 9. Perm 2 solenoid. (Part No. 8131) a) Remove solenoid by loosening two (2) screws holding solenoid onto divider panel. b) Install new solenoid in reverse order. 10. After replacement of any solenoid, leak check as described above.

7-6

Chapter 7 Servicing

DC POWER SUPPLY BOARD REPLACEMENT
Equipment required: • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nut driver - 1/4" Screw driver DC power supply (Part No. 14291) Wear an antistatic strap (see “Safety Precautions”), earlier in this chapter for more information. Turn instrument off, unplug the power cord, and remove the instrument cover. Disconnect all plug-in connections from power supply board being replaced. Remove screws holding board to chassis and remove board. Install new board by following the above directions in reverse. Re-install the instrument cover.

7-7

Chapter 7 Servicing

OZONATOR LAMP REPLACEMENT
Equipment required: • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Replacement lamp (Part No. 8645) Allen wrench - 7/64" Wear an antistatic strap, see “Safety Precautions,” earlier in this chapter for more information. Turn instrument off, unplug the power cord, and remove the instrument cover. Unplug lamp from ozonator power supply board. Slide insulation off the lamp handle onto the lamp cord. Loosen both Allen screws holding down lamp clamp. Carefully slide lamp out of ozonator housing. Slide insulation off of old lamp and slide onto new lamp. Carefully slide new lamp onto ozonator housing until it bottoms. Pull lamp out approximately 1/16" to allow for expansion when the lamp warms up. Position lamp so that the power input wires are oriented horizontally.

10. Check ozone production, which should be in excess of 2150 ppb. If ozone output is less than 2150 ppb, rotate lamp until specification is met. 11. Tighten Allen screws holding down lamp clamp. 12. Plug lamp into ozonator power supply, replace cover, reconnect power.

7-8

Chapter 7 Servicing

OZONATOR HEATER REPLACEMENT
Equipment required: • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. New heater (Part No. 8593) Allen wrench - 7/64" Screw driver Heat conductive compound Wear an antistatic strap (see “Safety Precautions”), earlier in this chapter for more information. Turn instrument off, unplug the power cord, and remove the instrument cover. Unplug heater from ozonator power supply. Remove top flange of ozonator housing. Remove ozonator heater block from ozonator by removing four Allen screws. Coat new heater block with a thin film of heat conductive compound. Install new ozonator heater block by following the above procedure in reverse. Re-install the instrument cover.

7-9

Chapter 7 Servicing

OZONATOR POWER SUPPLY REPLACEMENT
Equipment required: • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. New ozonator power supply (Part No. 8515) Screw driver Nut driver - 1/4" Wear an antistatic strap (see “Safety Precautions”), earlier in this chapter for more information. Turn instrument off, unplug the power cord, and remove the instrument cover. Unplug lamp, heater, cable to main power supply, and cable to motherboard of the microcomputer. Remove six screws holding ozonator power supply board to bracket and remove the board. Check that transformer is wired for proper voltage. Install new ozonator power supply by following the above procedure in reverse. Re-install the instrument cover.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL PERMEATION OVEN PCB REPLACEMENT
Equipment required: • • 1. 2. 3. 4. Nut driver - 1/4" Replacement PCB (Part No. 8953) Turn instrument off, unplug the power cord, and remove the instrument cover. Disconnect all plug-in connections from permeation oven. Remove four screws holding permeation oven PCB to oven assembly. Install new permeation oven PCB assembly by following the above procedure in reverse.

7-10

Chapter 7 Servicing

MASS FLOW CONTROLLER REPLACEMENT
Equipment required: • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nut driver - 1/4", 5/16" New mass flow controller (Part No. 8129) for 10 slm (Part No. 8128 for 100 sccm) Disconnect power and remove cover. Loosen all four fittings to mass flow controllers. Remove four screws holding flow controller bracket to floor plate. Remove flow controller assembly. Remove defective flow controller from bracket by removing the two (2) screws holding flow controller to bracket. Install new flow controller by following the above directions in reverse. Leak check system and recalibrate.

PERMEATION OVEN REPLACEMENT
Equipment required: • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nut driver - 1/4", 7/16" New oven (Part No. 14020) Disconnect power and remove cover. Disconnect all connectors from permeation oven PCB. Disconnect two gas fittings. One on top of oven, the other going out of oven chamber. Remove four (4) screws holding oven to floor plate. Remove oven. Remove oven glass chamber from oven and install in new oven. Install the new oven using the above directions in reverse. Leak check system.

7-11

Chapter 7 Servicing

SERVICE LOCATIONS
For additional assistance, Thermo Environmental Instruments provides customer service from the following locations: Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. 8 West Forge Parkway Franklin, Massachusetts 02038 Telephone: (508) 520-0430 Facsimile: (508) 520-1460 Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. 900 Watercrest Way, Suite 910 Cheswick, Pennsylvania 15024 Telephone: (724) 275-9815 Facsimile: (724) 275-9818 Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. 325 E. Arrow Hwy. #506 San Dimas, California 91773 Telephone: (909) 394-2373 Facsimile: (909) 394-2367 Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. 9305 West Sam Houston Parkway South Houston, Texas 77099-5298 Telephone: (713) 771-8067 Facsimile: (713) 771-3563

Thermo Environmental Instruments has service available from exclusive distributors worldwide. Contact one of the above service centers or a local distributor for product support and technical information.

7-12

APPENDIX A

WARRANTY
Subject to the exceptions stated below, Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. agrees to correct either by repair or at our option, by replacement, any defects in materials or workmanship which develop within one year from the date of delivery not to exceed eighteen (18) months from date of shipment, parts and labor supplied free of charge. The exceptions mentioned above are: (1) All defective items must be returned to Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc., transportation charges prepaid, and will be shipped prepaid and charged to the customer unless the item is found to be defective and covered by the warranty in which case Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc will pay all surface transportation charges; (2) Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. agrees to extend to the customer whatever warranty is given to Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. by suppliers of component items purchased by Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. and incorporated into products sold to the customer; (3) Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc. shall be released from all obligations under this warranty in the event repairs or modification are made by persons other than its own authorized service personnel, or service personnel from an authorized representative, unless such repair is minor, merely the installation of a new plug-in component; (4) if any model or sample was shown to Purchaser, such model or sample was shown merely to illustrate the article and not to represent that any article delivered hereunder would conform to the model or sample, and (5) Spare parts are warranted for ninety (90) days. THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER WRITTEN, ORAL, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY. SELLER DOES NOT WARRANT MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR MAKE ANY OTHER WARRANTY OR AGREEMENT EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WITH RESPECT TO ANY ARTICLES COVERED HEREUNDER. THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES THAT EXTEND BEYOND THOSE EXPRESSLY STATED IN THIS CONTRACT.

A-1

APPENDIX B

RS-232/485 COMMANDS
The RS-232/485 interface enables the analyzer to be remotely controlled by a host remote device such as, a PC, PLC, datalogger, etc.

CONNECTIONS
On the rear panel of the analyzer there are two male DB9 connectors. Both connectors are identical, so either can be connected to the remote device. The remaining connector can be used to connect a second analyzer. Using a daisy-chain configuration, several analyzers can be connected to one remote device. A null modem (crossed) cable is required when connecting the analyzer to an IBM Compatible PC. However, a straight cable (one to one) may be required when connecting the analyzer to other host remote devices. As a general rule, when the connector of the host remote device is female, a straight cable is required and when the connector is male, a null modem cable is required.

DATA FORMAT
9600 baud 8 data bits 1 stop bit no parity All responses are terminated with a carriage return (hex 0D)

INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
When using software other than TEI for Windows to control the Model 146C, it is necessary to send an instrument identification byte with each command (the instrument identification byte equals the Instrument ID plus 128). Because several C Series instruments can be connected to a single host RS-232 device, this identification byte directs the command to a specific C Series instrument. The Model 146C ignores any command that does not begin with its instrument identification byte. The Instrument ID can be changed in Instrument Controls Menu using the Instrument ID screen.

B-1

Appendix B RS-232/485 Commands The instrument identification number must be sent as an ASCII character. Do not type in the decimal equivalent (e.g. 180) or the alphanumeric hex equivalent (e.g. B4) of the ASCII character. The following is an example of the instrument identification numbers of several C Series instruments. Note that the ASCII representations will vary depending upon the program that is used (the following ASCII characters were produced with the Microsoft Unicode Character Map using Terminal font and Windows Characters as the subset). Model 42C 43C 146C Hex Equivalent AA AB B4 Decimal Equivalent 170 171 180 ASCII Character ¬ ½ ┤

COMMANDS
The analyzer must be in the remote mode in order to change instrument parameters using remote. Report commands can be issued either in the remote or local mode and can be sent in either uppercase or lowercase characters. In the examples below, only the characters between the quotation marks (" ") are sent and received. If an incorrect command is sent, a "bad cmd" message will be received. The example below sends the incorrect command "set local mode" instead of the correct "set mode local". Send: Receive: "set local mode" "set local mode bad cmd"

Because the 146C has a different RS-232 format than the other Thermo Environmental C-series instruments, a list of errors and a warning for an unknown instrument appears when the instrument is polled using TEI for Windows. Before sending commands in the remote mode, follow these steps. 1. 2. 3. In the Unidentification window, click the maximize button in the lower left corner. On the TEI screen, click the TERM button. At the Unidentified prompt, type set format 0 and press Return. This sends the set format 0 command to the program and the program returns OK, OK.

sel gas off This command selects gas off. Send: Receive: "sel gas off" "sel gas off ok"

B-2

Appendix B RS-232/485 Commands sel gas a span d (d=1-5) This command selects gas a at span levels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5. Substituting “gas a” with “gas b, c, d, e, or f” will select the entered gas with the entered span level. Send: Receive: "sel gas a span 1" "sel gas a span 1 ok"

sel gas a man This command selects gas “a” at the level preset for manual. Substituting “gas a” with “gas b, c, d, e, or f” will select the entered gas with the corresponding manual preset levels. Send: Receive: "sel gas a man" "sel gas a man ok "

sel ozon perm off This command turns off the ozonator or permeation oven if these options are present. Send: Receive: "sel ozon perm off" "sel ozon perm off ok"

sel ozon man This command selects the preset manual ozone level. Send: Receive: "sel ozon man" "sel ozon man ok"

set ozon d (d=1-5) These commands select ozone levels 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5. Send: Receive: "set ozon 1" "set ozon 1 ok"

B-3

Appendix B RS-232/485 Commands sel perm d (d=1-5) This command selects preset permeation oven levels. Send: Receive: "sel perm 1" "sel perm 1 ok"

man gas a zflow ddddd This command sets the zero air flow for gas “a” in sccm for the manual level. The italicized d is representative of a numerical digit. Substituting “a” with “b, c, d, e, or f” sets the zero air flow for the entered gas for its manual level. Send: Receive: "man gas a zflow 01000" "man gas a zflow 01000 ok"

man gas a gflow ddd.dd This command sets the gas flow for gas “a” in sccm for the manual level. The italicized d is representative of a numerical digit. Substituting “a” with “b, c, d, e, or f” sets the gas flow for the entered gas for its manual level. Send: Receive: "man gas a gflow 020.00" "man gas a gflow 020.00 ok"

man ozon zflow ddddd This command sets the ozone zero air flow for the ozone manual level. The italicized d is representative of a numerical digit. Send: Receive: "man ozon zflow 01000" "man ozon zflow 01000 ok"

man ozon level dddd This command sets the ozone level for the manual level. representative of a numerical digit. Send: Receive: "man ozon level 0200" "man ozon level 0200 ok" The italicized d is

B-4

Appendix B RS-232/485 Commands set time hh:mm set time hh:mm:ss These commands set the military time of the 146C. The italicized h, m, and s represent hour, minute, and second. The following example sets the time for 10:30 and 35 seconds at night. Send: Receive: "set time 22:30:35" "set time 22:30:35 ok"

set date mon dd yyyy set date mon-dd-yyyy set date mon/dd/yyyy These commands set the date in the forms shown above. The italicized mon, dd, and yyyy represent the three letter abbreviation for the month, two digit day of the month, and the four digit year. Send: Receive: status This command returns the gas and span status of the Model 146C. Send: Receive: "status" "status remote gas A span 4" "set date jan 29 2014" "set date jan 29 2014 ok"

mode (remote or local) This command returns the current mode of the 146C. Send: Receive: gas conc This command returns the current concentration of gas being supplied by the Model 146C. Send: Receive: "gas conc" "gas conc actual 100.000 target 1.600 ppm" B-5 "mode" "mode remote"

Appendix B RS-232/485 Commands gas a params This command returns the parameters for gas “a”. Substituting “a” with “b, c, d, e, or f” returns the parameters for the appropriate gas. Send: Receive: "gas a params" "gas a params tank ppm 10.000 span 0 zflow 1800 span 1 zflow 1000 ppm 0.400 span 2 zflow 1000 ppm .800 span 3 zflow 1000 ppm 1.200 span 4 zflow 1000 ppm 1.600 span 5 zflow 1000 ppm 2.000 manual zflow 0 gflow 0.00"

zflow This command returns the current zero air flow. Send: Receive: gflow This command returns the current gas flow. Send: Receive: event status This command returns the status of programmed events. Send: Receive: "event status" "event status 0" "gflow" "gflow actual 15.68 target 16.00 sccm" "zflow" "zflow actual 0 target 0 sccm"

event dd params (dd= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10) This command returns the parameters programmed for the specified event. Send: Receive: "event 2 params" "event 10 params gas H span 0"

B-6

Appendix B RS-232/485 Commands oz lamp temp This command reports the temperature of the ozonator lamp. Send: Receive: "oz lamp temp" "oz lamp temp 70.0 C"

ozon params This command returns the ozone parameters. Send: Receive: perm conc This command returns the permeation oven concentration. Send: Receive: intern temp This command returns the internal temperature of the Model 146C. Send: Receive: option sw This command returns the status of the option switch. Send: Receive: bat This command returns the Clink battery voltage. Send: Receive: "bat" "bat 3.1 volts" B-7 "option sw" "option sw 01110011" "intern temp" "intern temp 25.7 C" "perm conc" "perm conc 62.500 ppm" "ozon params" "ozon params 01000 levels 20.0 40.0 6"

Appendix B RS-232/485 Commands sc This command returns the 146C screen display. Send: Receive: "sc" "DIAGNOSTICS: VOLTAGES TERMPERATURS > OPTION SWITCHES"

program no This command returns the program numbers installed in the Model 146C. Send: Receive: time This command returns the time set in the Model 146C. Send: Receive: date This command returns the date set in the Model 146C. Send: Receive: "date" "date jan-29-2001" "time" "time 10:15:38" "program no" "program 146C 002000P Clink 146C 002000"

B-8

APPENDIX C

SCHEMATICS
This appendix contains the schematics for the standard and optional printed circuit boards contained in the Model 146C. Always turn off the instrument and unplug the power cord before removing any printed circuit board. For more information about appropriate safety precautions, see Chapter 7, “Servicing.” A description of each board can be found in Chapter 5, “Theory of Operation.”

PC Board Motherboard Processor Board Digital/Analog Board Analog/Digital Board Input/Output Board C-Link Board DC Power Supply Board Ozonator Power Supply Board (optional) Perm Oven Controller Board (optional) Rear Connector Interface Board

Schematic No. 49P915 93P907 93P908 93P950 49P917 93P914 49P914 45P949 57P960 49P918

Part No. 14293 9837 9839 10761 14279 9843 14091 10760 8953 49P306

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