ABSTRACT

The project focuses on harnessing Micro-hydro power – a renewable source of energy. A conventional hydro-electric power plant requires a dam, the construction of which requires a great deal of time and cost. Also there is a considerable impact on the environment. Our project aims to design and fabricate such an integrated assembly of turbine and generator which will float on the water surface and generate power by utilizing the kinetic energy of the flowing water. The assembly itself acts as a horizontal axis turbine rotating by means of blades mounted on it. A direct current (D.C) electric generator is located within the assembly that produces power. The support is given by linkages that would accommodate any change in the water level. To analyze the performance of the system in a flow condition similar to river flow, we made use of the testing facility available in the Fluid Mechanics laboratory of our college. The design challenges included making the casing water-tight, balancing the entire assembly and yet allowing it to float and rotate. It was ensured that the project was implemented using materials and parts which were easily available and of low cost so that it is simple and affordable for even the people from rural areas. This project has a good potential for being implemented on a small-scale in many parts of our country where there are sites for micro-hydro power.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE NO

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS

1

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Hydro Power 1.1.1Types of Turbines 1.1.1.1 Pelton Wheel 1.1.1.2 Francis Turbine 1.1.1.3 Kaplan Turbine 1.1.2 Related Concepts 1.1.2.1 Continuity Equation 1.1.2.2 Bernoulli‟s equation 1.1.2.3 Specific Speed 1.2 Micro-Hydro Power 1.2.1 Types of Micro Hydro Power Turbines 1.2.1.1 Conventional turbine types 1.2.1.2 Cross Flow Turbines

1

1.2.1.3 Helical Turbines 1.2.1.4 Vertical Axis Turbines 1.2.1.5 Very Low Head turbines 1.3 Need and Importance 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Water wheel 2.1.1 Types of Water wheels 2.1.1.1 No-head water motor 2.1.1.2 Undershot wheel 2.1.1.3 Breastshot wheel 2.1.1.4 Backshot wheel 2.1.1.5 Overshot wheel 3 DESIGN AND ASSEMBLY 3.1 Design of Parts 3.1.1 Design of Turbine 3.1.1.1 Turbine Classification 3.1.2 Design of Blades 3.1.3 Design of Generator 3.1.4 Design of Gearbox 3.1.5 Design of Shaft 3.1.6 Design of Bearing 3.1.7 Design of Structure 3.2 Assembly of Parts 3.2.1 Mounting Sequence 3.2.1.1 Turbine 3.2.1.2 Generator

9 Digital multimeter .3.3.1 Material Selection 4.3.1.3 Bearings and Shafts 3.2 Observations 5.3 Calculations 5.3.2.5 Screw driver 5.2.4 Drilling machine 5.3. TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS 5.3.7 Rubber Mallet 5.2 Cost Analysis 5 TESTING.1 Testing Apparatus 5.1.2.1.3.3 Shaft 4.1 Spirit Level 5.4 Model Analysis 5.1.1 Procedure 5.3.2.2.3.6 File 5.1.3.3 Tools and Instruments 5.4 Gearbox 4.3 Hacksaw 5.1.8 Tachometer 5.4 Supporting Structure 4 MATERIAL SELECTION & COST ANALYSIS 4.2 Testing 5.1 Turbine 4.2 Jigsaw 5.2.2 Blades 4.

6 Power Storage 9 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES .1 Rural electrification 6.4 Gearbox 8.1 Combined Micro hydro and Solar energy 8.2 Limitations 8 FUTURE SCOPE AND DEVELOPMENTS 8.2 River side lighting 6.2 Size Variations 8.3 Industrial Flows 6.1 Advantages 7.3 Mass production 8.5 Output 8.6 APPLICATIONS 6.4 Sewage Treatment Plant 7 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 7.

3 Table 5.1 Specific speeds of turbines Classification of hydro power generating systems Typical range of heads Experiment results with small model Costing Main Observation Table.1 Table 1.2 Table 1.LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 Table 4.2 Table 5.3 Table 3.Performance Characteristics Table 5.1 Table 5.4 Calculation of Flow from Depth gauge Calculations for Power Model Analysis .

2 Fig 5.1 Fig 3.4 Fig 2.7 Fig 3.3 Fig 3.5 Fig 3.5 Fig 3.12 Fig 5.9 Fig 3.6 Fig 3.3 Cross flow turbine Helical turbine Vertical axis turbine – Gorlov turbine VLH Turbine Undershot wheel Types of Undershot wheels Breastshot wheel Overshot wheel Backshot wheel Front and side image of turbine Blade Design Shaft Design Fig 1 Force Diagram 1 Bending Moment Diagram 1 Shaft Design Fig 2 Shaft Design Fig 2 Bending Moment Diagram 2 Structure –Design of Links Assembly Exploded View of Components Mounting Sequence Testing Apparatus Wiring and Connection to Instruments Graph of power vs velocity .8 Fig 3.2 Fig1.3 Fig 1.2 Fig 3.10 Fig 3.4 Fig 3.4 Fig 2.1 Fig 5.11 Fig 3.2 Fig 2.1 Fig 1.1 Fig 2.3 Fig 2.LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1.

Fig 5.4 Fig 5.5

Graph for Model Analysis Tools and Instruments

LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS AND NOMENCLATURE A C F fs g H L10 L10h Mb N n Ns p P Q Ssy Syt v X Y z π ρ τmax Area of cross-section of flow (m2) Static load carrying capacity of bearing Force (N) Factor of safety Acceleration due to gravity Head Life of bearing (million revolutions) Life of bearing (hours) Bending Moment Rotational Speed RPM No. of blades Specific speed Pressure (bar) Power (kW) Flow (m3/s) Yield strength for shear loads (N/mm2) Yield strength for tensile loads (N/mm2) Velocity (m/s) Radial force factor for bearing Axial force factor for bearing Distance from reference level to calculate potential head Pi - Greek symbol Density of fluid (kg/m3) Maximum shear stress

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Hydro Power Hydro power or hydro electricity is the power produced by flowing water or water falling under gravity. Hydro power has been used for hundreds of years. A hydro electric power plant typically consists of a reservoir or water source, a dam, a turbine and a generator. Turbines convert the hydraulic energy into mechanical energy which is further converted to electrical energy by the generator. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Once a hydroelectric plant is constructed, it produces no direct waste, and produces no harmful emissions. The power extracted depends on the water flow as well as the head or difference in upstream and downstream flows. There are different types of hydro turbines depending upon the available flow and head. Broadly, hydro electricity is subdivided into following categories: 1) Conventional hydro electricity which involves construction of dams and power plants. 2) Run-off-the-river hydroelectricity in which kinetic energy of streams is used without construction of dams. A part of the surplus river flow is diverted through a pipe leading to the turbines, and then returned back to the river downstream. 3) Pumped storage hydroelectricity to pump up water and use its head to generate in times of demand. 4) Tidal power which involves obtaining electricity from the energy available from the tides in horizontal direction.

These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid jet. it is called a mixed flow turbine. it is a tangential flow turbine. it is a radial flow turbine. As the water flows under pressure through the turbine. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid. Another way of classification is the direction of flow which may be tangential. A large amount of plants and animals thrive in the river and its banks.1. the pressure energy goes on changing into kinetic energy.Though hydro power is a renewable and clean source of energy. radial or axial. If the water flow through the rotor is along a direction parallel to the axis of the rotation of the rotor. II. A hydro power plant takes a lot of time as much as several years to complete. According to the type of energy inlet: i) Impulse Impulse turbines are those which utilize only the kinetic energy available at the inlet. All these factors affect the people and environment in the surrounding areas. If the water flows radially towards or away from the center of the rotor. Their life cycle gets disturbed by constructing dams and reservoirs. it is an axial flow turbine. Also. I. people are displaced to make available reservoirs and catchment areas. . In case of both radial and axial flows. it may have a considerable impact on the environment. hydro turbines are classified as impulse and reaction turbines.1 Types of Turbines Depending on the operating principle. ii) Reaction Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to the fluid's change of pressure. 1. According to the direction of flow : If the water flows along the tangent to the turbine rotor.

The water from the penstock enters a spiral casing which surrounds the runner or turbine rotor. The water from the reservoir flows through the penstock at the outlet of which a nozzle is fitted. In order to avoid cavitation. a tube of gradually increasing area called draft tube is attached at the turbine exit. The guide vanes allow the water to strike the vanes fixed on the runner without shock at the inlet. The nozzle increases the kinetic energy of water at the inlet.1.3 Kaplan Turbine An axial flow reaction turbine having fixed vanes attached to a vertical shaft is known as a propeller turbine.1. The water from the penstock enters a scroll casing and then moves to the guide vanes after which the flow is axial. It consists of an air-tight casing which is fully filled with water. Thus it is a mixed flow turbine.1.2 Francis Turbine The inward flow reaction turbine having axial discharge at outlet is known as Francis turbine. it is called as the Kaplan turbine. But if the vanes on the hub are adjustable. 1. . 1.1 Pelton Wheel The Pelton wheel is a tangential flow impulse turbine.1. The resulting jet impinges on a number of buckets mounted on the periphery of a circular disc. Each bucket is split in two halves by a dividing wall or splitter to deflect the water at an optimum angle and maximize the power output.1.Following are the main types of hydro electric turbines which are commonly used : 1.1.

blade angle. 1.5v2 and hence. geometrical dimensions.2. the flow at the surface possesses only kinetic energy 0.1. with the actual turbine but of such a size that it will develop unit power when working under unit head. and gate opening etc.1. only the kinetic head v2/2g is converted to electrical energy. + +z = constant or + +z1 = + +z2 For any two sections 1 and 2 of a fluid. kinetic energy and potential energy of a flowing fluid at any point is constant.1 Continuity equation Flow is defined as the quantity of fluid flowing per section through a pipe or channel.1.1.2.2 Related Concepts Following are a few basic concepts related to hydro power turbines.1. It is expressed as a product of velocity and area of cross-section.2 Bernoulli’s equation The Bernoulli‟s equation is a statement of the law of conservation of energy appropriate to flowing fluids. If p is the pressure of the fluid. For the turbine designed in this project. then at any point. having density ρ flowing with a velocity v and at a distance z from a reference level. the flow of fluid is constant. At all cross-sections of a pipe. Q=v*A Continuity equation is a law of conservation of mass of flowing fluids. v1*A1=v2*A2 1. 1. It states that the sum of the pressure energy. .3 Specific Speed It is defined as the speed of the turbine which is identical in shape.2.

micro hydro is the lowest-cost technology for generating electricity.It is denoted by symbol Ns.1 Specific speeds of turbines Sr. . Specific Speed 1 2 3 4 8. power generating systems are defined as „Micro Hydro‟ if they generate power up to 100kW.m P = power generated in kW H = head available to turbine in m Table 1. According to the classification given in table. For these rural communities. These provide an economical source of energy without purchase of fuel. It is used in comparing the different types of turbines. Ns= √ Where N = speed of turbine in r.2 Micro-Hydro Power Micro hydro installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community.5 to 30 30 to 51 51 to 225 255 to 860 Type of Turbine Pelton wheel with single jet Pelton wheel with two or more jets Francis turbine Kaplan or propeller turbine 1. or are sometimes connected to electric power networks. There are thousands of sites where people have a source of falling water but do not have electricity.p. No.

Table 1. maintenance and mechanism costs often become important.1. 1. the relatively low cost makes the projects economically feasible. The very smallest micro hydro installations may successfully use industrial centrifugal pumps.1. Unlike axial or radial flows.2 Classification of hydro power generating systems System Hydro-electric power Small Hydro Micro Hydro Capacity greater than 1 MW up to 1 MW up to 100 kW 1. and is more likely to encounter surface debris. reaction or propeller turbines are used.2.2. For low head installations. the water is . The design may vary from conventional hydro power turbines to certain other types depending on the application. Very low head installations of only a few meters may use propeller type turbines placed below ground level. run in reverse as prime movers. or across the turbine blades. Francis or propeller type turbines are used. and such factors as availability of local maintenance and transport of equipment to the site.1 Types of Micro Hydro Power Turbines Several different types of water turbines can be used in micro hydro installations. 1. while the efficiency may not be as high as a purpose-built runner. in this turbine the water passes through the turbine transversely.2. selection depending on the head of water. In case of high heads. a Pelton wheel can be used. As with a water wheel.2 Cross flow turbine In low-head installations. impulse turbines are used and in case of low heads.1 Conventional turbine types For mountainous regions where a head of 50 meters or more may be available. For such cases a cross flow turbine is often preferred. the volume of flow. A low-head system moves larger amounts of water.

it leaves on the opposite side. 1.1 Cross flow turbine Though less efficient. Fig 1. then out of it. Since the water flows in. After passing the runner. it cleans itself and is less prone to jam with debris.1. its simpler structure is less expensive than other lowhead turbines of the same capacity.2 Helical turbine . Cross flow turbines such as the Banki or Ossberger turbine are useful for small to large flows and heads from 10 feet to 100 feet.2.3 Helical turbines Fig 1.admitted at the turbine's edge.

1. it will force the screw to rotate. the Darrieus turbine. if water is poured into the top of an Archimedes' screw. Such an installation has the same benefits as using the screw for pumping: the ability to handle very dirty water and widely varying rates of flow. The Gorlov helical turbine (GHT) is a water turbine evolved from the Darrieus wind turbine design by altering it to have helical blades. The Archimedes' screw. a large screw is made to rotate by the force of impinging water.3 Vertical axis turbine – Gorlov turbine Micro hydro turbines whose blades rotate about vertical axis are used in case of flow whose direction varies significantly. 1. The physical principles of the GHT work are the same as for its main prototype.In case of helical turbines. also called the Archimedean screw or screw pump. the flow always remains perpendicular to the turbine axis. In either case.2. The rotating shaft can then be used to drive an electric generator. The best example is that of a reverse Archimedes' screw. is a machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches. Instead. It is another type of micro-hydro turbine which is resistant to debris. . GHT solves the pulsatory torque issue by using the helical twist of the blades.4 Vertical axis turbines Fig1.

Fig 1. Table 1.3 Typical range of heads Type Hydraulic wheel turbine Archimedes' screw turbine Kaplan Francis Turgo Pelton Head 0.2.1. The VLH turbine or Millau turbine is as per its name used for generating power from streams having very low head.2 < H < 4 (H = head in m) 1 < H < 10 2 < H < 40 10 < H < 350 50 < H < 250 50 < H < 1300 . France. In most cases.5 Very low head turbines The very low head turbines are used for heads of 1.4 to 2.1. open flow Kaplan turbine. A number of such turbines have been installed at Troussey. It is a large diameter.4 VLH Turbine The turbine in designed and mounted in a sloping manner in order to utilize both the force due to flow and weight of the water.8 m. slow turning. a permanent magnet generator is used.

our project aims to solve the energy need of a remote locality where demand is met by the flow availability at the site. The transmission and distribution losses are also minimum in case of micro-hydro power. geothermal and other forms of renewable energy. oil and natural gas are depleting and hence. In our project.1. we have tried to develop a model of a turbine which requires least cost to manufacture and uses easily available materials. Technologies involving production of large scale emissions need to be avoided and alternate methods of power generation need to be developed. there has been an energy crisis. The conventional energy resources like coal. the world also faces the problems of pollution and global warming. . there is a need to develop the renewable energy sources in order to provide a sustainable means to satisfy world‟s energy demand in the future. Hence. It is imperative to develop micro-hydro solutions in rural and remote areas of a country like India. Along with wind. The prototype can function even in areas having no potential head as it uses only the kinetic energy of flowing surface water. In this context.3 Need and Importance In the recent times. micro-hydro power offers the cheapest and most environment-friendly means. solar. In addition to power shortage. hydro power is a major renewable energy resource which involves low cost of generation and is feasible for long term use.

1 Water wheel A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowing or falling water into electrical or mechanical energy for other use. Hence. Vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears. horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load. undershot. it is also called a hydraulic turbine wheel. While they are somewhat inefficient compared to more traditional designs.1.1. Waterwheels may be horizontal or vertical. Nowadays. These are a relatively new innovation.1. with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. they have the advantage that they do not . breastshot. overshot and backshot wheels. A water wheel though generates less power. they may be used for generation of power for domestic purposes. 2.1 No-head water motor A wheel or turbine is said to be of no-head or zero head if the stream of water from which it extracts energy has an average velocity of 4 ft/sec or higher.Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 2. depending on where the water hits the wheel paddles into no-head. The two main functions of water wheels were water-lifting for irrigation purposes and milling. it performs the same function as a hydraulic turbine. A water wheel consists of a large wooden or metal wheel. particularly of grain.1 Types of Water wheels Water wheels can be classified.

1. The name undershot comes from the water striking at the bottom of the wheel. Their disadvantages are as . The advantages of undershot wheels are that they are somewhat cheap and simple to build and have less of an environmental impact. The time.need a dam of any sort.2 Undershot wheel Fig 2. This type of water wheel is the oldest type of wheel. although subtypes of this water wheel: i) ii) iii) the Poncelet wheel the Sagebien wheel and the Zuppinger wheel allow somewhat greater efficiencies than the traditional undershot wheels.1. expense and just plain hassles associated with building a dam make these designs very desirable. It is also regarded as the least efficient type.1 Undershot wheel An undershot wheel also called a stream wheel is a vertically-mounted water wheel that is rotated by water striking paddles or blades at the bottom of the wheel. 2.

3 Breastshot wheel Fig 2. Undershot wheels are also well suited to installation on floating platforms.1. If properly designed. They are good for small to medium flows and heads from 1 foot to 12 feet.3 Breastshot wheel .1. They were sometimes mounted immediately downstream from bridges where the flow restriction of arched bridge piers increased the speed of the current. which means that they generate less power and can only be used where the flow rate is sufficient to provide torque. They are most suited to shallow streams in flat country. 2. a Poncelot wheel can be 85% efficient.2 Types of Undershot wheels Undershot wheels gain no advantage from head. Fig 2.mentioned before less efficiency.

and not simple paddles like those of most undershot wheels. which helps contain the water in the buckets as they progress downwards.1. A breastshot wheel requires a good trash rake and typically has a masonry apron closely conforming to the wheel face. Breastshot wheels are the most common type in the United States of America and are said to have powered the American industrial revolution. high-volume flows.4 Overshot wheel A vertically-mounted water wheel that is rotated by falling water striking paddles. Breastshot wheels are preferred for steady. more efficient than undershot wheels.4 Overshot wheel Fig 2. as are those of most overshot wheels. A typical overshot wheel has the water channeled to the wheel at the top and slightly . blades or buckets near the top of the wheel is said to be overshot.1. or just above it. is said to be breastshot. Breastshot wheels are less efficient than overshot wheels. The individual blades of a breastshot wheel are actually buckets.A vertically-mounted water wheel that is rotated by falling water striking buckets near the center of the wheel's edge. 2.

and the water flows out into the tail-water when the wheel rotates enough to invert the buckets.1. 2. . overshot wheels gain a double advantage from gravity. The mechanical power derived from an overshot wheel is determined by the wheel's physical size and the available head. On average. also called „pitch back‟ wheel is a variety of overshot wheel where the water is introduced just behind the summit of the wheel. For small streams and heads up to 25 feet. Not only is the force of the flowing water partially transferred to the wheel.1. Overshot wheels demand exact engineering and significant head. millpond and waterways. The weight turns the wheel. the weight of the water descending in the wheel's buckets also imparts additional energy. The overshot design can use all of the water flow for power unless there is a leak and does not require rapid flow. Unlike undershot wheels. the undershot wheel uses 22% of the energy in the flow of water. so they are ideally suited to hilly or mountainous country. Sometimes the final approach of the water to the wheel is along a lengthy flume or penstock. which usually means significant investment in constructing a dam. since the full amount of the potential energy released by the falling water is harnessed as the water descends the back of the wheel. Overshot wheels were proved to be 93% efficient.beyond the axle. while an overshot wheel uses 63%.5 Back shot wheel A back shot wheel. these are still the best choice for a home/farm user. The water collects in the buckets on that side of the wheel. It combines the advantages from breastshot and overshot systems. making it heavier than the other empty side.

when any other overshot wheel will be stopped or even destroyed. in some situations an overshot wheel is preferable to a turbine. . and not just the weight of the water falling in the wheel's buckets.5 Backshot wheel A back shot wheel continues to function until the water in the wheel pit rises well above the height of the axle. often in association with a small reservoir. A back shot wheel may also gain power from the water's current past the bottom of the wheel. Breastshot and undershot wheels can be used on rivers or high volume flows with large reservoirs. Nevertheless. Overshot and particularly backshot wheels are the most efficient type. Overshot & pitchback water wheels are suitable where there is a small stream with a height difference of more than 2 meters. This makes the technique particularly suitable for streams that experience extreme seasonal variations in flow.Fig 2. a backshot wheel can be about 60% more efficient than all but the most advanced and well-constructed turbines. and reduces the need for complex sluice and tail race configurations.

or redevelopment of abandoned mills. .The development of the hydraulic turbine wheels with their improved efficiency which is greater than 67% opened up an alternative path for the installation of water wheels in existing mills.

2) The shape should be symmetric making it well balanced.1 Design of Turbine The turbine is the central component of this project and it is designed keeping in mind the intended function as well as the availability of resources. 3) The size should be large enough to obtain substantial power generation.1 Design of Parts The various parts of the micro hydro turbine are designed to obtain optimum power with given flow conditions.Chapter 3 DESIGN AND ASSEMBLY 3.1.1 Turbine Classification As per the literature review. 3. Following were the functional requirements: 1) The turbine body should be light weight and able float freely on water.1 Front and side image of turbine 3. Fig 3.1.1. the turbine in this project is classified as: .

The casing or main body of the turbine is a plastic hollow cylindrical drum or casing of diameter 280 mm.1) No head 2) Impulse 3) Tangential flow turbine The turbine can be manufactured in two ways: 1. This method is useful for mass production. 3. it will float on water 2. The length of the turbine is 330 mm. A polypropylene turbine is the feasible option for that purpose. As the casing is hollow and made of plastic.1. It minimizes chances of leakage of water into turbine barrel. The whole turbine is done one piece with the help of rotational molding.2 Design of Blades Fig 3.2 Blade Design .

1 Experiment results with small model Sr. 2) Only tangential component of flow is to be utilized. 3) Cross-sectional area covered is large. Table 3. The RPM was measured for each different included angle of blades mounted.V-shaped blades with a large included angle are chosen because: 1) Flow is concentrated from all along the length of the turbine towards the centre. 4) The force of water on a blade at the backside of the flow is to be minimized and on a blade ahead of the flow is to be maximized. the rpm was maximum indicating the maximum possible energy transfer. Included Angle of Blade 1 2 3 4 150° 160° 170° 180° Rpm 58 63 57 50 . Hence. flow separation is avoided. No. It was found that at an angle of 160°. The included angle was decided by preparing a small model of the turbine proportional in size of the actual model.

2 m/s So.04 cm Let D= 36 cm So.34= 28.02 to 44.34 cm . working circumference = πd = 90.03 cm Submergence = Head = 7.66 cm Let d = 28. the kinetic head available H = = 0.Consider velocity v = 1. of blades (n) = Also. blade pitch < head Trial 1: 7 cm < 7. working diameter = d = D-H = 36-7.0734 m = 7.34 cm No.34 cm Optimum diameter of turbine = 3H to 6H = 22.66 cm So.

05 blades = 16 blades. Now. In order to make a floating model. work independently.n= = 12. So. This is the absolute least cost arrangement. DC is the simplest and cheapest to use however only small appliances work on DC.8 m/min Dividing by working circumference.C generator was preferred due to the low starting torque needed.1.9003 m RPM = 53. the most efficient energy transfer is considered which occurs when wheel speed is at 67% to 90% of water speed.34 cm n= = 15. to find optimum RPM. The generator used in this turbine model is a readymade component. . MSEDCL and so.3 Design of Generator Generators are of two types.24 m/min to 64.9 times 1.08 m/s = 48.67 to 0. But. Trial 2: 6 cm < 7. 0.804 m/s to 1.g. D. this would make it unsymmetrical and unbalanced. the generator had to be compact and light weight. n = 16 blades. = 0.direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). 2) Generator of desired rpm and voltage is chosen.86 blades = 13 blades.2 m/s = 0. Mostly micro-hydro installations work off-grid that is they don‟t supply power to the utility grids of the state electric company e. low self-weight and compactness. 1) Generator is coupled either directly to turbine casing or to the gearbox which in turn coupled to turbine.5 rpm to 71.97 rpm 3.

5 Design of Shaft Material of shaft = Plain C steel 40C8 Syt=380 N/mm2 Factor of safety fs = 2 τmax = = = 95 N/mm2 . 200rpm dc motor as a generator.3) Motor can be used as generator by rotating its shaft. In this turbine model. 3. generator winding body is held stationary by clamping it to the shaft which is joined to the main structure rigidly. Shafts on both sides are attached to turbine by using ball bearings 3. Clamps are made of wood to keep them low weight. a planetary gearbox for example. 8) The shaft is kept hollow so that generator wire can come out from the turbine barrel. Shaft is also attached to the clamp by flange. Acrylic or PP clamps can also be used as they are water proof and light weight but costlier than wood. increases the rotational speed (RPM) and hence the current. the output speed was sufficient for the size of turbine so a gearbox was not required.1.1. 6) The shell plate is attached to turbine casing from inside which rotates along with turbine barrel and generator shaft is coupled to it by using flange 7) While shaft is rotating. So. 5) Generator is coupled to turbine casing by using shell plate. 4) We have used 24v.4 Design of Gearbox A gearbox is to be used to match the output characteristics of turbine with the demand.

Shaft 1 at Left Side of Assembly Fig 3. 1.8 We have used shaft having inner diameter as 8 mm and outer diameter as 10 mm.C = di/do = 0.4 Force Diagram 1 .6 kg Fig 3.785 kg Self-weight of each bearing = 0.25 kg Weight of generator = 0.2 kg Weight of each link = 0. For ensuring that the shaft does not fail.3 Shaft Design Fig 1 Weight of turbine casing + wt of blades = 1. following are the design calculations.

3385 N = 16.4 mm As we have taken a shaft of outer diameter 10mm and inner diameter of 8mm.8 x3 = 2.03935 N Fig 3.6 Shaft Design Fig 2 .70085 + 8.F = Fa+Fb = 7. Shaft 2 at Right Side of Assembly Fig 3.4 Nmm τmax= do3 = do = 3 mm di = 0.5 Bending Moment Diagram 1 Mb = 0.2084 Nm = 208. the design is safe. 1.

3385+7. F= 2.8 Bending Moment Diagram 2 ∑M =0 .70085 = 24.A: position of wooden plank (or shell plate) and coupling B: position of generator C: position of bearing D: position of linkage 2 ∑F =0 Fig 3.7 Shaft Design Fig 2 So.86835 N Fig 3.943+5.886+8.

04 mm di = 0.04= 0. = 3.Mb at A and B = 0 Nm Mb at C =0.1.535 Nmm d o3= do = 1.8*1.3385 N . the design is safe.832 mm As we have taken a shaft of outer diameter 10mm and inner diameter of 8mm.6 Design of Bearing The bearing used in this turbine model has following characteristics: d= 10 mm D= 26 mm B= 8mm C =4620 N Co = 1960 N Designation = 6000 SKF Diameter of shaft do= 10 mm Radial force on the bearing Fr= 8.4291 = 0.012535 Nm = 12.44145-0.

2487 N/mm2 Hence.3385) + 0 = 8.3385 N L10h=16000 hr N = 100 rpm L10 = for machines used for eight hours of service per day such as electric motors. turbines and gear drives. the design is safe. allowable τ = Ssy/fs = 0.3385 x(96)1/3 C = 38. . by welding or using adhesive. 3. The links are designed against shear as follows: If the force P exceeds allowable value.7 Design of Structure The structure consists of two links attached to the stationary shaft about which the turbine rotates. initial assumption = 96 million rev C=Px(L10)1/3 = 8.Axial force Fa = 0 Then P=XFr+YFa P= (1x8. If „L‟ is the distance of hole from the free end of the link and„t‟ is the thickness. then shear stress „τ‟ is given by: τ= = = 0.18 N And for given bearing C = 4620 N >>> 38.5x400/4 = 100 N/mm2 >>> 0.5Syt/fs = 0.1.18 N Hence. and material being 30C8 Syt = 400 N/mm2 Also.2487 N/mm2 Taking factor of safety as 4. the stresses on the links are within limits. the material will undergo shear failure.

9 Structure –Design of Links 3.2 Assembly of Parts .Fig 3.

3) Appropriate dimensions of mating parts.Fig 3. 4) Preventing damage to parts while fitting and assemblage. 2) Sufficient settling time for adhesives to dry up and form firm bonds.10 Assembly After every part is designed. the parts are assembled in a specific order and principle to prevent inconvenience and repetitive work. . There is a need to inspect the following parameters: 1) Alignment of various parts along axis or parallel to each other.

1 Turbine Initially the turbine is designed and manufactured by considering the input conditions and the output desired. This material is to be adopted if the turbine is mass produced. This is done in either of the following methods: 1) The whole turbine is produced as a single piece with the help of rotational or centrifugal molding.1. The most preferred material for molding is polypropylene.1 Mounting Sequence Fig 3.11 Exploded View of Components Following sequence is adopted in assembling the various parts.2.3. 3.2. The blades may . 2) Another cheaper way to manufacture the turbine is to obtain a drum or casing of appropriate size and attach the blades separately.

2 Generator The generator is mounted by attaching its shaft to a suitable coupling which fits to a rotating element.12 Mounting Sequence . the coupling is attached to a wooden plank (or shell plate) which is rigidly fitted to the turbine drum‟s inner surface. Clamps are made of wood to keep them low weight. Further. In this turbine model. Acrylic or PP clamps can also be used as they are water proof and light weight but costlier than wood.1. special care is taken to bring out the wires attached to generator terminals through the center to prevent the wire from rotating and entangling. generator winding body is held stationary by clamping it to the shaft which is joined to the main structure rigidly. 3.2.be fabricated by material removal methods or prepared by bending sheets at desired angles. While shaft is rotating. Fig 3. this is another reason why a hollow shaft is used. Also.

2. 5) Press fit bearings by using a rubber or wooden mallet. . swivel.e. 3. 2) The bearing should be safeguarded from physical damage while handling.2.1. Precautions to be taken while mounting bearings are: 1) Bearings are assembled in clean rooms to prevent entry of small particles between the races which could affect their performance. The shaft used is hollow to keep it light weight and it also provides outward passage for generator wires. 3) The alignment of bearings with the shaft should be proper.3.3 Bearings and Shafts The bearings are mounted by press fitting them to the wooden boards attached to the casing. The links are then to be attached to an overhead frame such that it will allow movement of link about one degree of freedom i. 4) Always apply pressing force to the inner race while mounting bearing to shaft or to the outer race while mounting bearing to the housing. This is to be done to ensure the turbine casing to freely float and keep its submergence constant irrespective of change in water level.1. The bearings are initially fitted to the shafts and the resulting sub-assembly is then fitted to the board to be attached to the casing. by welding or by using adhesive.4 Supporting Structure The structure consists of two links attached to the stationary shaft about which the turbine rotates.

by rotational or centrifugal molding. Wood is cheap but less reliable as it is swells due to action of water or moisture.1. polypropylene (PP). plastic or metal if the blades are separately made. A coat of oil paint is necessary.2 Blades Blades made from aluminium as in case of this turbine model are produced by bending sheet metal to appropriate angles. 3) Metals such as aluminium or light weight alloys are other options. Use of simple plywood with application of epoxy coating to make it water proof. the various options of materials are discussed for each component of the turbine. 2) Various polymers available include nylon. availability and cost of different materials influences the design. the most preferred material is polypropylene. However. Polymers last longer.1 Turbine The turbine can be simply made of wood. 4.Chapter 4 MATERIAL SELECTION AND COSTING 4. In the following sections. Hence following methods can be adopted: 1) Use of marine plywood which is moisture-resistant. . When the turbine and blades are produced as a single piece. The blades are attached to the turbine by means of bolts and nuts.1 Material Selection Material selection is important as the mechanical properties. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high density poly ethylene (HDPE). Any such metal should be light weight and corrosion resistant. are durable and light-weight. 4.1. the cost of polymers is usually very high.

4. 1 2 3 4 5 Material D. Table 4. Metal gearboxes are easily available but they need to be of light-weight and corrosion resistant materials.4 Gearbox Whenever a gearbox is essential to increase the speed.Alternatively. polymers are mostly lighter than metal of the same size.1.00 120. These would be from rural and remote areas where water source in the form of streams is available and there is a need to match available power with the demand. These materials are costly but produce highly efficient designs.00 . This is because.00 50. PP or PVC or even acrylic if they can sustain the load. 4.1.2 nos. The cost of all components required in the project is as detailed below.00 45. Aluminium Sheet for Blades Turbine barrel Linkages-2 nos. Cost (Rs) 225. Also plastic does not react with water or moisture. plastic would be best suited for low capacity turbines. In such cases.C Motor 24 V 200 rpm Bearings 6000 series. Aluminium has the advantage of being light weight and cheap but it has lower strength than steel. adhesives such as Anabond or superglues may be used. 4.3 Shaft This turbine model made use of mild steel shafts. the blades may be made of polymers such as nylon.00 50.1 Costing Sr.2 Costing One of the important aims of this project is also to optimize the cost as the users would prefer an economical design.No.

00 690.00 200. Cost estimated for 1KW capacity turbine: Sr. Turbine barrel Planetary Gearbox Main frame(supporting structure) Other accessories Total Cost (Rs) 4000.00 The cost increases as more sophisticated and efficient components like polymer parts are used.00 11.00 3500.00 .00 100.6 7 Wooden boards Other small parts Total 100. However.00 500. the cost can be reduced by mass producing the parts.700.00 3000.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Material Generator Bearings-4 nos.00 500.

.1 Testing Apparatus Fig 5. TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS 5.1 Testing Apparatus The testing facility at the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory under the Department of Applied Mechanics at College of Engineering. Pune provided us the means of simulating the flow conditions of a river stream so that we could test the turbine prototype.Chapter 5 TESTING.

observations and calculations for testing. The flow velocity can be varied by operating a valve. 25 revolutions correspond to fully closed valve. 8 and 12 revolutions were taken. In order to measure the rotational speed of the turbine accurately. 4. So.2 Testing Following is the procedure.2. 5. Depth gauges are provided to measure flow area and hence the flow. 5. A high power pump delivers the water to the channel.1 Procedure 1. 0. applied a white mark using double-sided tape. 3.The apparatus consists of an approximately 10 m long and 0. The wires attached to the terminals of the generator brought outside from the assembly were connected to the digital multimeter to measure voltage and current. . Inlet and exit gates are provided to control flow. The water pump of the testing apparatus was started and the flow varied by changing the valve position from fully open to half open in 3 steps. 2. we applied black insulation tape on both sides of the turbine and at a certain point on its circumference.5 m wide channel for water flow.

Then the turbine was inserted in the flow path and as soon as the turbine was steadily rotating. the testing was done and the readings were noted. . we took the readings of: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Velocity Height Voltage Current Rpm 5.Fig 5.2 Wiring and Connection to Instruments 4. At each of the above conditions.

43 73 67.Performance Characteristics Sr No Valve Position Time to cover 4.6 7.6068 2.7 s 2. N (half open) 2 3 4 8 rot.9 s 3s 1.2.6916 0. Power is the product of Voltage and current. Power = Voltage x Current Table 5.3 m 1 12 rot. .48 1. N (full open) 2.59 1.8239 0.3 m is measured and hence velocity of flow is calculated. the depth gauge readings are observed and their difference with the reference gives the height from which area of flow is calculated.936 The depth gauge has a pointer which rests on the water surface.2 Observations The time taken for a floating object to cover a distance of 4. N 0 rot.8 120 Velocity v Rpm (m/s) N Voltage V (volt) Current I Power (Ma) W (watt) 0.4 s 1.4 107 91 82 0.2 66 7.7 7. N 4rot.1 Main Observation Table.79 77 7. After adjusting the screw.5.

66 Hence.3 Calculations Specific speed is given by: Ns = Ns = √ √ where H= Ns = 15.3 23. Further calculations involve calculating the power produced theoretically.59 1. It is an exponential curve.1 5.43 0.1 28. Following table shows the calculations.03774 0.3 28.8 5.4 28.5 50 225 1. The shaded readings in the table are those which have same inputs as the test values.7 4.79 0. it is verified that this is a low head impulse turbine.2.2 Calculation of Flow from Depth gauge Sr Valve Ref Level Flow cm Height Width of channel cm 1 12 rotation 23.8 4.4 50 50 50 240 255 270 1.040275 Area velocity Flow Q cm2 v (m/s) (m3/s) No Position Level cm cm 5. a graph of power vs velocity is plotted.48 1.3 /half open 2 3 4 8 rotation 4rotation 0 rotation /full open 23.Table 5.3 23. Ultimately. .03861 27.03816 0.

Due to gravity Diameter of barrel Height factor Height of blade Working diameter Length factor Length of barrel Distance Time Velocity of river (m/s) RPM (by tachometer) RPM (by calculation) projected area Force (newton) Torque (Nm) Power (watt) 1.Table 5.654 1.28 1.81 9.040 0.1 0.111 0.6075 2.280 1.280 1.111 0.3081 0.111 0.3 2.280 1.73 91.3410 0.36 0.3081 0.1 0.040 0.2 4.5431 1.2970 0.04 99.4277 0.36 0.65 81.36 0.5453 1.433 1.24 95.792 1.0123 0.0123 0.28 1.36 0.280 1.111 0.7658 1.28 73.6 4.8942 2.5783 2.8 4.8073 0.280 1.81 9.040 0.3179 0.0123 0.1 0.280 1.040 0.36 0.1 0.9 4.03 78.3031 3.1 0.28 1.3 3.8650 3.280 1.870 0.81 9.0123 0.3667 0.0123 0.0371 2.7098 1.81 9.8963 2.81 9.48 87.3 2.1055 2.3081 0.36 0.593 1.0123 0.1 0.28 1.3081 0.040 0.3761 2.4208 1.3081 0.28 1.1 4.1969 2.3 2.0123 0.81 9.3 Calculations for Power Density of water Coefficient of drag Acc.36 0.3081 4.28 1.280 1.2782 0.6501 1.58 76.280 1.483 1.111 0.28 1.344 1.1 0.3081 0.81 9.4503 1.720 1.3081 0.3954 0.040 0.46 84.1 0.81 1.7 4.040 0.111 9.5053 1.111 0.3795 2.3081 0.28 1.3 0.3 3 4.387 1.3 2.3 2.111 0.040 0.17 52 53 55 57 59 62 63 64 68 71 1.280 1.4 4.3 3.0123 0.0123 71.1 0.1 0.81 9.7552 0.81 9.0123 0.4641 0.28 1.111 0.5 4.040 0.2610 0.040 0.36 0.28 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 .3 2.36 0.536 1.36 0.111 0.3 2.3081 0.

720 1.654 1.75 9.4 Model Analysis Density of water Drag coefficient Acc.28 1000 1.5000 1.28 1000 1.4.81 2 1.0000 0.5 1000 1.870 Velocity of river Fig 5.28 1000 1.5 m.28 1000 1. the model can be scaled up or scaled down to obtain the performance of the prototype.28 1000 1.81 2 2 9.5 9.593 1.344 1. Table 5.25 9.81 2 1.28 1000 1.0000 2.81 2 1.3 Graph of power v/s velocity 5.387 1.28 .2.536 1. due to gravity Velocity of river Diameter of 9.81 2 0.28 1000 1.0000 1.75 9.28 1000 1.5 9.5000 Output power in watt 2.0000 1.25 9.28 1000 1.0000 3. the power output of the turbine will be equal to 1 kW.5000 3.433 1.28 9.792 1.81 2 2.483 1.81 2 0.81 2 1 9.81 2 2.81 2 0.5000 0.4 Model Analysis Using model laws and dimensional similarities. For a velocity of 2m/s and diameter of barrel equals to 1.

15 1.15 1.258 30.15 0.505 21.4 0.1 2.4 1161.0 3921.15 0.371 25.15 1.55 0.7 43.25 2.5 1.8 96.2 344.1 336.0 245.925 0.093 0.8 269.1 2.barrel Length factor Length of barrel Height factor Height of blade Projected area RPM Gear ratio New rpm Force Torque Power 1.2 5378.6 5 152.8 152.4 Graph for Model Analysis .5 6 152.75 1 1.0 4000.15 1.825 0.1 2.9 115.25 1.8 131.2625 0.1 1.2 172.1 43.375 0.8 2.28 0.4 2 0.1 1.1 21.835 17.2 672.2 0.15 1.3 0.8 172.4 1 76.5 0.5 6.660 19.15 1.75 2 2.475 0.8 6000.7 0.8 3.3 42.042 0.75 0.031 15.1875 0.075 0.8 1844.65 0.1 0.1 1.308 0.0 Output power in watt 2000.15 1.4 0.2 0.041 136.9 72.013 0.8 24.5 Diameter of barrel Fig 5.225 0.8 7 152.7 10.1 0.8 218.2 4 136.4 0.0 1000.2 0.375 1.8 67.0 0.4 152.15 1.0 0.0 3000.0 152.0 9 152.2 9.15 1.9 3 38.9 2754.0 0.165 50.3375 0.1 0.1 8 152.1125 0.5 145.1 0.3 10 152.1 1.0 5000.

3. Two notches or rings on the spirit level designate where the bubble should be if the surface was level. The parallelism is to allow true rotation of turbine along with the generator shaft. Fig 5.5.3 Tools and Instruments A list of additional equipment that was required for manufacturing the turbine assembly is as detailed below. The diagram shows a tubular spirit level and a carpenter‟s spirit level. the spirit level was used to ensure the wooden plank (or shell plate) and the motor as well as the turbine body are parallel to each other. They include commonly used tools and measuring instruments as well as those specifically required for the purpose.5 Tools and Instruments 5.1 Spirit Level A spirit level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal or vertical or to check the parallelism between two surfaces. Often an indicator for a 45 degree inclination is included in a carpenter‟s level. . In the case of this turbine model.

4 Drilling machine A simple hand drill finds use in boring holes of required diameters. such as stenciled designs or other custom shapes.5.3.7 Rubber Mallet Rubber mallets are used when a softer blow is called for than that delivered by a metal hammer. was used for cutting materials such as wood. A large screwdriver was used to tighten the screw joining the coupling between generator and turbine.3.3 Hacksaw A hacksaw. Alternatively. since they don't leave marks. They are typically used to form sheet metal.3.3. a fine-tooth saw with a blade under tension in a frame. as well as for forcing tight-fitting parts together and are used for a variety of general purposes. The jigsaw was required to cut circular profiles of wood sheet which fitted on both sides of the casing. . metal. or other material. the electric drill may be cost-effective.3. 5.3.5 Screw driver In most cases a small screwdriver met the need of tightening screws and bolts. 5. 5. into a piece of wood. if turbines are manufactured on a large scale. 5.2 Jigsaw A jigsaw is a tool used for cutting arbitrary curves. A flat file was used for making the surfaces level and a round file were used to finish holes to allow mating of parts. metal or plastics of different sizes. It also could produce small parts such as clamps for the generator.6 File A file is a metalworking and woodworking tool used to cut fine amounts of material from a work piece. 5.

3.3.The rubber mallet was used to successfully press fit the bearings into the hub.8 Tachometer A non-contact tachometer is used to measure rotational speed or RPM (revs per minute) of a rotating part such as shaft. A gentle tap is given to the outer race in case of fitting the bearing on the shaft. the tachometer was required to measure the speed of the turbine.9 Digital multimeter The digital multimeter provided accurate readings of voltage and current while connected to the output of the turbine. A light beam emitted from the tachometer is reflected back by a reflective tape used to mark on the shaft. 5. 5. This was done to prevent damage to the minute parts of the bearing. The number of reflections is a measure of the speed. . During testing of the turbine model.

Such material and other considerations will make them suitable for such applications where small amount of power would be produced. the turbine may be made to be corrosion resistant and wear resistant. However. milk.4 Sewage Treatment Plant One of the several industrial uses of this project can be its introduction in a sewage treatment plant. Industries handling certain fluids like chemicals. canals and rivulets located close by. this project finds use for generating power. The power produced can be used to operate a light source. For milk. copper should be avoided to prevent spoiling. The turbine can function in flows carrying sediments and debris and therefore it is suitable in such flows carrying sewage.2 River side lighting An application of directly using the renewable micro hydro power from this turbine is by mounting it to a bridge by means of linkages and placing it along the river side. may run the turbine by placing it in the path of such fluid flow. 6. For chemicals. 6.Chapter 6 APPLICATIONS 6. paint etc. The power developed during the day may be stored and used at night for lighting. the surface and certain depth up to which turbine is submerged should be clear. . oil. This can be dome in villages having streams. 6. Even a small amount of electricity produced in such places can make a big difference.3 Industrial Flows In case of any fluid flow apart from water.1 Rural electrification The application which can most be advantageous to society at large is in villages.

The flow in such a plant reaches large velocities due to churning of sewage water for treatment. large amount of energy can be drawn from this turbine for lighting of the plant office or treatment chamber or providing power to small machines. . Hence.

4) In case design is such that the assembly floats on water. 9) People staying at or near the river banks need not be relocated and the environmental impact is negligible. 3) As only surface kinetic energy is utilized. it can adjusts to water level easily. 5) The equipment being portable can be easily transported from one location to another. 2) The initial capital cost per kW is very less and affordable for any ordinary rural community. It also does not disturb the natural flow of water. 8) Like all micro hydro projects.Chapter 7 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 7. 7) There are very few moving parts involved in this design hence it produces significantly less noise as compared to conventional Hydro projects. 6) For additional power requirement.1 Advantages 1) The project can be implemented even in shallow waters or waters carrying underwater sediments. . there is no need to burn conventional fuel and there are hardly any emissions produced. More robust design should be incorporated to make it safe. more number or large size of turbine is possible. 7. the impact on the environment is negligible.2 Limitations 1) The turbine structure may become prone to damage by natural calamities like floods and cyclones.

.2) The project implementation is site specific. Hence. there is always a possibility of water entering the casing with time. So. 3) Even if the turbine is made completely water proof. 4) Such projects depend largely on flow availability round the year. places close to the river or such flow conditions only have the potential for implementing this project. it becomes a disadvantage when the power generated is less due to low flow speed and it cannot satisfy the energy demand of the consumer. This might damage the generator and spoil wooden parts or cause metal parts within the turbine cylinder to rust. Therefore. it needs periodical leak inspection.

4 Gearbox A gearbox may be used in the design if it is required to change the voltage or current. hydro power may become scarce due to drying up of river streams. 8.C appliances are limited and also D.C .5 Output In this turbine model. Also. This is due to the fact that hydro power is available more in winters when the solar intensity is less.C. gear ratio and type is to be selected accordingly. A torque reduction will cause voltage to step down and increase the current. generator.3 Mass production The benefits of this project would be highlighted if the turbine is produced in large quantities thus reducing the cost per kW. 8. Hence.Chapter 8 FUTURE SCOPE AND DEVELOPMENTS 8. D.1 Combined Micro hydro and Solar energy The project if implemented by complementing the power by that produced by solar cells can provide good power characteristics. A. 8. Larger the diameter. However. Arrangement should also be made to prevent the gears from rusting even if water enters the turbine container in the worst case.C power can be produced by using an A. output is obtained by means of a D.C power cannot be transmitted to large distances easily. D. 8. Conversely.2 Size Variations The turbine may be manufactured in wide range of sizes to suit application.C. a speed reduction will increase voltage and decrease current. Hence. solar power being available in summers. more is the torque obtained and hence more the power.

C power produced as above may be converted to A.C by means of and inverter.generator such as the permanent magnet type. . 8. the D.6 Power Storage The power produced by the turbine may be stored by using capacitors and then used to meet large power requirements or for meeting surplus demand. Also.

the various similarities such as geometric. 3.8 V and 120 mA respectively. kinematic and dynamic similarities are used to associate the parameters of the model and the prototype. gearbox for speed increase.936 W for 1. However. direct A. The applications of this turbine are both domestic and industrial and suited to any type of surface flow. it could float easily and hence.43 m/s of surface flow. and higher velocity of flow the performance of the turbine can be significantly improved. Using model laws and dimensional similarities. The output characteristics of the above model of the turbine can be used to predict the performance of the larger model or the prototype. 4. the model can be scaled up or scaled down to obtain the performance of the prototype. The output of the turbine model in this project is 0.5 m. The turbine was rotating at 77 rpm and the voltage and current were 7. 5. the turbine will adjust automatically according to changing water level. . With the help of more sophisticated materials such as light weight polymer blades.Chapter 9 CONCLUSIONS 1. For a velocity of 2m/s and diameter of barrel equals to 1. by suspending the assembly in water. Also. In model analysis. the cost increases dramatically. In such a case. the power output of the turbine will be equal to 1 kW. producing all components on a large scale will help cut the costs. There is no need for any height difference upstream and downstream of the turbine.C generator. 2.

Hydromax Energy Limited. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines by Dr. 4th edition. 2.Bansal 5. (2007). Douglas T. Waterpower for personal use by Rudy Behrens Issue 16 Jul/Aug 1992 2. Broomhall P. B. Watershed Watch Salmon Society (2009). R.mnre. 6.M. Douglas. Knight Piesold Consulting. Approvals. and design (Rev.Hydrology: principles. 1. http://www.394 . 288. New Delhi: New Age International.com website. Hydromax Energy Limited website. (2009). Watershed Watch. 7. analysis.com/bearing_basics. A. Design calculations for no-head.com. The Bute Inlet Hydroelectric Project. Bute Inlet Project.html 7. Run-of-the-River Hydropower in BC: A Citizen‟s Guide to Understanding Approvals. Design of Machine Elements V.in/prog-smallhydro. low-head waterwheels by Rudy Behrens Issue 17 Sep/Oct 1992 3. p. Pearson Education Canada. H. New Delhi: New Age International. pp 226.K.). Raghunath. 3.htm 6. 5. 2nd ed. Orr C. Summary of Project Intake and Turbine Parameters. 8. and Sustainability of Run-of River Independent Power Projects in British Columbia. Freedman. (2007).K.B. Impacts and Sustainability of Independent Power Projects.. “Green” Hydro Power: Understanding Impacts. Watershed Watch.nationalprecision. Backgrounder. IPPwatch. Amit Prakash Srivastava. 2007. Knight Piesold Consulting. Environmental Science: a Canadian Perspective. Dwivedi. IPPwatch. Toronto. Plutonic Hydro Inc.REFERENCES 1. ISBN 8122418252. ed. Power Plant Engineering. 354. http://www. Manish (2006). T. 4. Raja. Watershed Watch.gov.Bhandari 4. p.

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