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C4-301

CIGRE 2006

SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGES IN AIR-INSULATED SUBSTATION (AIS) DUE TO DISCONNECTOR AND CIRCUIT BREAKER SWITCHING CARSIMAMOVIC S.*, GACANOVIC R., BAJRAMOVIC Z., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo Bosnia & Herzegovina VELEDAR M. LJEVAK M. ABB Representation for B&H Energoinvest Bosnia & Herzegovina OSMOKROVIC P. University of Belgrade Serbia & Montenegro

SUMMARY
In this paper are presented results of switching overvoltages investigations, produced by operation of disconnector and circuit breaker in AIS rated voltage 220 kV. Measurements of these switching overvoltages were performed in the AIS Grabovica (Hydro Power Plant-HPP Grabovica) on River Neretva and the AIS Kakanj (Thermo Power Plant-TPP Kakanj). These power plants are important objects for operation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's electric power system. Investigations of operating of air disconnector type Centre-Break and SF6 circuit breaker were performed in order to determine switching overvoltage levels on primary and secondary circuits that can lead to relay tripping in AIS Grabovica and AIS Kakanj. During operations of disconnector (synchronization or disconnecting of generator from network) malfunctions of signalling devices and burning of supply units of protection ralays appeared. At the same time sparking between primary terminals of the instrument current transformer (CT) occured. In the paper are presented measures to reduce electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in secondary circuits. Also, results of computer simulations using EMTP-ATP [1] are presented. Comparison between results of measured and calculated overvoltages confirmed a good agreement of obtained values. These comparisons showed that calculations could be used for assessment of the transient overvoltages due to disconnector and circuit breaker switching.

KEYWORDS
Switching - overvoltage - air insulated substation (AIS) - electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) electromagnetic interference (EMI)

csalih@bih.net.ba

The voltage due to the disconnector switching [4. i. There are maximum levels of the common mode voltages ranging from 100 Vp (peak value) up to 2. DISTURBANCES AT SWITCHYARD DURING OPERATION OF DISCONNECTOR During operations of disconnector (synchronization or disconnecting of generator from network) at substation Grabovica. Bus current transients can also couple into low voltage circuits that are connected directly to the bus. Common impedance coupling (‘parasitic’) occurs inside a piece of equipment connected to the bus (for example the internal capacities of the instrument transformers) [6]. Results shown in paper [3] are for measured common mode voltages from 3-4 kV during switching operation by disconnector in 150 kV switchgear and up to 6-10 kV at 400 kV switchgear. ∆U. These travelling waves are the most important sources of electromagnetic coupling on secondary circuits. CM. The maximum value of voltages and maximum value of the slope of the wave front increasing will take place at the maximum distance between contacts. 5] a) Disconnector closing. represent the main parameter used for assessing equipment immunity. across the contacts of the switching equipment [2]. INTRODUCTION Switching operation of circuit breaker and disconnector in power stations and substations give rise to electromagnetic interferences because they generate abrupt voltage collapses.e.85 kVp [9]. Malfunctioning of auxiliary circuits was manifested by: 1 . Common mode. voltages.5 kVp in the shields of the secondary circuits cables of the CT and VT. voltages measured between conductors and local ground. That is the reason we measured voltages on buses and common mode. CM. Results show that measured values of the common mode voltages at CT/VT secondary circuits. The voltage collapse ∆U applied to the circuit gives rise to a voltage and current damped oscillating wave. voltages on CT and VT secondary circuits.I. For the purpose of the investigation of the insulation strength and induction of electromagnetic interferences (EMI). The collapse time. 1 a and b. Results of up to date measured common mode voltages at secondary circuits of CT and VT are presented in the paper [7]. respectively. 2.load side voltage Travelling wave current and voltage transients on each phase of high voltage bus act as a complex radiating antenna. range from Ucm=0. 1. the most important are the first few strikes during the closing operation or the last few strikes during the opening operation. malfunctions of signalling devices and burning of supply units of protection relays appeared. 220 kV ratings.32 kVp [8] up to Ucm=0. b) Disconnector opening 1-source side voltage. is dependent on the distance between the contacts (several tens or some hundreds of nanoseconds) of equipment in air-insulated substations (AIS) [3]. ∆t. Fig. II. a) b) Fig.

SF6 circuit breakers have two interrupting chambers and parallel capacitors equal to 2 nF. DCdisconnector (220 kV. CVD 2-capacitive voltage divider (Cp=0. YD5). T-power transformer (64 MVA.1/√3/0. AG1-generator 1 (64 MVA. CVD 1 -capacitive voltage divider (Cp=1 nF. ratio 1273. Due to this occurrence. Substation at HPP Grabovica is characterized by the two generatortransformer sets with switchyards close to the generating station. phase '4'. independent of switching operation of air-insulated disconnector at substation Grabovica. Air disconnectors type Centre-Break are three-phase motor driven. MOSA-metal oxide surge arrester (Ur=199. during synchronization of generator AG1 on network one of the poles of 220 kV circuit breaker failed. The substation is enclosed with the dam base and generator station.035 nF CT CVD2 MOSA T AG1 Relay room Fig.1/√3 kV). Cs=0. Secondary cables are laid through cable channels of length of about 50 m to the control room. During operation of disconnector at switchyard Kakanj malfunctions of signalling device did not appear. Switching operation of circuit breaker and disconnector were performed at the test circuit at AIS Grabovica.5±5% kV) 2 . with metering and protective cores. R=300 Ω). 11] VT-inductive voltage transformer (220/√3/0.2.5 kV). Generator AG1 was disconnected at 10. Fig. Cs=0. 1250 A). Fig. CB-circuit breaker with two interrupting chambers and parallel capacitors (SF6 220 kV. HPP GRABOVICA LAYOUT OL TO RP JABLANICA M BUS BARS 220kV 3~50 Hz.445 µF. 2.signalisation on relay box 'ZB I'. 242/10. Voltage transformers are inductive types. R=300 Ω). 10 kA).440 µF. Current transformers are with metering and protective cores.5 kV transformer’s bushings. 3. 1250 A M 0. 3. The test circuit at AIS Grabovica[4.5±5% kV. -Arcing between primary terminals of the current transformer (CT). -Tripping relay of differential protection of the generator.5 kV. 10. -Signalling ‘fire’ in 35 kV control panel. Test circuits with and without the power transformer were varied. CT-current transformer (200/1/1 A). Fig.-Activation of phone signals in the command room. The substation cabling system carried out with shield (metering and protective circuits) and without shield (signalling circuits on power transformers). In this case generator AG1 worked in motor regime. 1600 A). CHARACTERISTICS OF TESTING OBJECTS HPP Grabovica and TPP Kakanj are important objects for operating of 220 kV electric power systems of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also.2 mH 1250 A 245 kV 300Ω 4400 pF 1nF DC 2nF M CB 2nF VT CVD1 300Ω .35 nF. HPP Grabovica plans to install circuit breakers on generator’s voltage (10. ratio 455. 10. Arcing between primary terminals of CT during opening of disconnector [10] III.

220/√3/0. i. Table I. BUS BAR II 220kV 3∼50 Ηz. ∆U. a)Substation Grabovica. RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS ON SITE Measurements of overvoltages generated during switching operations of circuit breakers and disconnectors in the air insulated substations HPP Grabovica on the River Neretva and TPP Kakanj for over 300 switching events during 2004 and 2005 were recorded. 14002000 ms).e. Voltage transformers are of capacitive type with metering and protective cores. 5.536 MHz. The maximum overvoltage value at busbar. Current transformers are with metering and protective cores.440 µF. voltages measured between wires and local earth represent the main parameter used for assessing equipment immunity. 1000-1400 ms).CVD 2-capacitive voltage divider (Cp=1 nF. ∆U. R=300 Ω).5. Closing (C) time of disconnector lasted for about 50-70 cycles (i. ratio 455. Operations of circuit breaker and disconnector at switchyard were performed at coupling bay of AIS Kakanj. Measured values of overvoltage at AIS Grabovica [10] 3 . CT-current transformer (600-1200/1/1/1). Cs=0. Voltages on source and load side of disconnectors and circuit breakers CVD1 and CVD2 as well as common mode (CM) voltages on CT and VT have been considered. CM voltages. with the dominant frequency of considered transient fd equal to 0. 11] CB-circuit breaker (SF6 220 kV.5 m. Fig. 4.445 µF. Air disconnectors type Centre-Breaker are three-phase motor driven (two phases are blocked during tests).Switchyard Kakanj is 6 km far from TPP Kakanj and is characterized as the biggest one in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Switchyard is on a flat terrain. Substation cabling system is carried out with shield (metering and protective circuits).e. 1250 A). Cs=0. Average value of transient overvoltages on instrument transformers during opening and closing operations are shown in brackets. but opening (O) time of disconnector lasted for about 70-100 cycles (i. were recorded up to 344 kVp. Maximum values of transient overvoltages. C-capacitive load (C=1 nF) IV. Secondary shielding cables are lead through cable channels of length of about 20 m to the control room. 2500 A). ratio 477. VT-capacitive voltage transformer (Cp=4400 pF. DC-disconnector (220 kV. 4. The test circuit at AIS Kakanj [4. produced by switching operation in AIS Grabovica are given in the Table I. Power transformer was not apart of the test circuit. During switching operation of disconnector there were registered up to 500 restrikes (pulses). Length of excited buses ranged from 18 m to 26. R=300 Ω).1/√3). CVD 1 -capacitive voltage divider (Cp=1 nF. 1250 A CB COUPLING BAY CT BUS BAR I 300 Ω DC 1nF 1nF 300 Ω CVD1 OL SY KAKANJ CVD2 VT Relay room Fig.e. SF6 circuit breakers have two interrupting chambers and without parallel capacitors.

Maximum overvoltage values on metering core of VT during closing/opening operations of disconnector were recorded up to 720/940 Vp (average 710 Vp). overvoltage values at secondary circuits of voltage transformer were recorded up to 976 Vp. ∆U. respectively. The maximum values of transient overvoltages. Maximum overvoltage values on metering core of CT during closing/opening operations of disconnector were registered up to 136/144 Vp (average 128 Vp). Table II. Average value of transient overvoltages on instrument transformers during opening and closing operations are shown in brackets. During switching operations of circuit breaker without restrikes higher overvoltage values at secondary circuits of instrument transformers were not recorded. produced by switching operation in AIS Kakanj are given in the Table II. In the case of circuit breaker switches with restrikes. and on protective core were up to 408/488 Vp (average 328 Vp). b)Switchyard Kakanj. respectively. Measured values of overvoltage at AIS Kakanj [5] 4 . and protective core were up to 108/102 Vp (average 86 Vp).

busbar-Z=350 Ω. CT-500 pF. for the same substation layout on which measurements were carried out. • Mitigating the coupling mechanism between sources and 'victims' and evaluating the disturbances affecting the electronic systems. V. The maximum values of transient overvoltages at busbar during operations of disconnectors. During switching operation of disconnector there were registered up to 300 restrikes (pulses).e. The wave shape of simulated and measured overvoltages at load side are given in Fig. with the dominant frequency of considered transient fd equal to 0. (VT=500 pF included in network 220 kV) The difference between magnitudes of measured and simulated overvoltages is 1.98 % and 6. MODELING OF THE TEST CIRCUIT Computer simulations of the test circuits at TPP Kakanj were performed on the model of test circuits containing elements drawn in Fig. stray CB=200 pF. the disturbances. Measures to reduce coupling path and enhance interference immunity are not subject of this paper. Maximum overvoltage values on metering core of CT during closing/opening operation of disconnector were registered up to 112/144 Vp (average 92 Vp). C-load=1 nF.4 % on frequency. and on protective core were up to 208/248 Vp (average 156 Vp). During switching operations of circuit breaker without restrikes. CVD-R=300 Ω. The dominant frequency of simulated overvoltage is 0. Waveshape of simulated overvoltage surge −−−− measured. ∆U. Overvoltages at busbars were calculated during disconnector closing operations. ········ calculated Arc=2 Ω. were recorded up to 339 kVp. Closing time of disconnector lasted for about 35-40 cycles (i. the best way is to reduce sources of interference emission during switching of air-insulated disconnector: a) Installing disconnecting circuit breakers 5 . bus DC arc bus bus CVD R C s tray DC network 220 kV CT C load s tray 1 nF CB Fig. VI. or at least to reduce. higher overvoltage values at secondary circuits of instrument transformers were not recorded. In order to reduce EMI in secondary auxiliary circuits. Comparison of the computer simulations with field measurements showed that calculations could be used for assessment of the transient overvoltages due to disconnector switching. Maximum overvoltage values on metering core of VT during closing/opening operation of disconnector were recorded up to 184/168 Vp (average 127 Vp). When circuit breaker switches with restrikes. overvoltage values on protective core of CT were recorded up to 368 Vp (average 227 Vp) and on protective core of VT up to 220 Vp (average 148 Vp). The purpose of this paper is to suggest measures for reducing sources of interference emission during switching of air insulated disconnectors. characterising their working environment.e. • Designing equipment and systems to include the immunity requirements related to the actual electromagnetic environment. 700-800 ms). but opening time of disconnector lasted for about 40-45 cycles (i. 5. 800-900 ms).415 MHz. MEASURES TO REDUCE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCES (EMI) IN SECONDARY CIRCUITS There are several actions can be adopted to reduce of the electromagnetic interferences [3]: • Operating directly on the source of interference trying to suppress. respectively. and on protective core were up to 216/232 Vp (average 165 Vp). C=1 nF. 6. 5. Model of the test circuit Fig.Length of excited buses ranged from 14 m to 71 m.8 MHz. stray DC=200 pF. 6.

14]. are presented in Table III. CT and T. b) Another way of reducing sources of interference emission is to install CB without parallel capacitors and to install VT on generator side of CB. This case causes installation of circuit breaker (GCB) at generator’s voltage (10. but low maintenance requirements mean it is no longer necessary to isolate the circuit breaker.One of the ways of reducing of source of interferences is to install the disconnecting circuit breaker [12. Fig. ∆U For the model 3). The disconnecting breaker had to be designed to be safety locked in the open position and to meet all voltage withstanding capabilities and safety requirements of disconnectors. Table III. 2) model of CB with two interrupting chambers and without parallel capacitors (with capacitance of open contacts each 20 pF) and VT on network side of CB. With installing of the disconnecting circuit breakers there is no more need for switching operation of disconnectors. Magnitudes of simulated overvoltages.5 kV) for synchronization of the generator to the network (better conditions for synchronization). 13. 3) model of CB with two interrupting chambers and without parallel capacitors (with capacitance of open contacts each 20 pF) and VT on generator side of CB. 6 . This solution of installing circuit breakers on generator’s voltage resulted from problems which have occurred during synchronization of the generator with the existing 220 kV CB. Magnitudes of simulated overvoltages. 2. Voltages are measured in point of connection of VT. ∆U. overvoltages on generator side of the 220 kV CB during switching operation of disconnectors could be up to 1700 V in the case of installing voltage transformers (VT) on generator side of CB without parallel capacitors (near instrument current transformer CT). Table III: 1) model of CB with two interrupting chambers and parallel capacitors and VT on network side of CB (current stage). With disconnecting circuit breakers it is still possible to isolate the line. These suggestions are based on analyses performed on several circuit models.

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