MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS

05423268 ‫מס. קורס‬ ‫מרצה: פרופ' אילן גולדפרב‬

G. E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1986.

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‫,‪W. F. Hosford‬‬ ‫‪Mechanical Behavior of‬‬ ‫,‪Materials, First edition‬‬ ‫‪Cambridge University‬‬ ‫.5002 ,‪Press, NY‬‬

‫התנהגות מכנית של חומרים‬
‫נקודות זכות: 5.3‬ ‫דרישות קדם: קורסי מבוא בחומרים ומוצקים‬ ‫מבנה הקורס‬ ‫הקורס עוסק בתכונות מכניות מזווית של מיקרומבנה של חומרים: מנגנוני חיזוק,‬ ‫זחילה, התעייפות, קורוזיה, יסודות תורת הנקעים, ויסקואלסטיות, ותכונות מכניות של‬ ‫חומרים קרמיים, פולימרים ומרוכבים.‬ ‫רשימת ספרים מומלצים:‬
‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫.6891 ,‪Dieter G. E., Mechanical Metallurgy, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, NY‬‬ ‫‪Hosford , W. F., Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Fourth Edition, Cambridge‬‬ ‫.5002 ,.‪University Press, N.Y‬‬

‫מרצה: פרופ' אילן גולדפרב‬ ‫מס. קורס: 8623.2450‬

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‫הערכת הקורס‬ ‫עבודות בית:‬ ‫בוחן אמצע:‬ ‫בחינה סופית:‬

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Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Lecturer: Prof. Ilan Goldfarb Course No: 0542.3268
• • • Credits: 3.5 Prerequisits: introductory courses on Solids and Materials Syllabus: This course emphasizes the relation between mechanical properties and materials microstructure: Strengthening mechanisms, creep, fatigue, corrosion, elements of dislocation theory, viscoelasticity, and mechanical properties of polymers, ceramics, and composites. Recommended reading Dieter G. E., Mechanical Metallurgy, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1986. Hosford , W. F., Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Fourth Edition, Cambridge University Press, N.Y., 2005. Course Evaluation Homework: Midterm Quiz: Final Exam:

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MECHANICAL METALLURGY INTRODUCTION

Leonardo da Vinci

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such as elastic modulus. yielding stress. Poisson's ratio. Mechanical testing and properties Mechanical properties include basic material properties. bar velocity. melting and boiling temperature.. elongation. • Electric properties: electric resistivity. • Mechanical properties: including basic mechanical properties. i. shear wave velocity.Introduction – materials properties Properties of common solid materials are divided into following categories: • Physical properties: density. ultimate stress. thermal conductivity. • Acoustic properties: compression wave velocity. and mechanical strength properties.e. • Thermal properties: coefficient of thermal expansion. shear modulus. Examples: • elastic modulus • shear modulus • Poisson's ratio • yield strength • ultimate tensile strength • elongation 4 .

Mechanisms of strengthening in materials .1 73-85 Y.750 416-1.725 344-1.500-4.Strengthening by grain size reduction.Solid solution strengthening.000 0.01-0.600 Serope Kalpakjian.450 140-2. (1995).Strain hardening.310 415-1.Precipitation hardening. .Quenching .600 3.100 205-1. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.380 - UTS (GPa) 90-600 140-1. .Material Aluminum and its alloys Copper and its alloys Steels Titanium and its alloys Ceramics Rubbers Glass fibers E (GPa) 69-79 105-150 190-200 80-130 70-1. . . 3rd Edition.P. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.Annealing 5 . (MPa) 35-550 76-1.

Strengthening in crystalline materials 6 .

some alloying elements and impurities can cause embrittlement.Strengthening by grain size reduction Grain boundary Slip plane Grain B Grain A Grain boundaries generally impede dislocation motion: more grains produce higher strength. But at high temperatures: . 7 . .grains can slide against one another under load (creep).

Strengthening by grain size reduction Strengthening by grain size reduction 8 .

During plastic deformation. or the average grain diameter. the yield strength. slip or dislocation motion must take place across this common boundary. The grain boundary acts as a barrier to dislocation motion. σy varies with grain size according to σ y = σ 0 + k y d −1 / 2 In this expression. d is the average grain diameter and σ0 and ky are constants for a particular material.Strengthening by grain size reduction The size of grains. For many materials. in polycrystalline influences mechanical properties. termed the Hall-Petch equation. Strengthening by grain size reduction 9 .

• Alloys are stronger than pure metals because impurity atoms that go into a solid solution ordinarily impose lattice strains on the surrounding host atoms.Solid solution strengthening • Technique to strengthen and harden metals by alloying with impurity atoms that go into either substitutional or interstitial solid solution. • Lattice strain field interactions between dislocations and these impurity atoms result. • Increasing the concentration of the impurity results in an attendant increase in tensile and yield strengths. consequently. Solid solution strengthening 10 . dislocation movement is restricted.

Solid solution strengthening Solid solution strengthening 11 .

Solid solution strengthening Solid solution strengthening 12 .

Solid solution strengthening Solid solution strengthening 13 .

Solid solution strengthening Solid solution strengthening 14 .

Most metals strain harden at room temperature. The parameter n is often termed the strain-hardening exponent and has a value less than unity. due to dislocation multiplication or formation of new dislocations. or cold working. The strain hardening phenomenon is explained on the basis of dislocation-dislocation strain field interaction. 15 . The dislocation density in a metal increases with deformation or cold work. Strain hardening For some metals and alloys the region of the true stressstrain curve from the onset of plastic deformation to the point at which necking begins may be approximated by: n σT = Kε T where K and n are constants of values which will vary from alloy to alloy. Sometimes called work hardening.Strain hardening A ductile metal becomes harder and stronger as it is plastically deformed. and will also depend on the condition of the material.

Example Compute the strain-hardening exponent n for an alloy in which a true stress of 415 MPa produces a true strain of 0. Sometimes it also called work hardening.10. Most metals strain harden at room temperature.1) Strain hardening Strain hardening is the phenomenon whereby a ductile metal becomes harder and stronger as it is plastically deformed.cold working. or because the temperature at which deformation takes place . The strain hardening phenomenon is explained on the basis of dislocation-dislocation strain field interaction. The dislocation density in a metal increases with deformation or cold work. due to dislocation multiplication or formation of new dislocations.40 log ε T log( 0. Solution n= log σT − log K log( 415) − log(1035 ) = = 0. Assume a value of 1035 MPa for K. 16 .

• This will strengthen the metal. making it harder to deform. new dislocations are produced. the metal can be bent or shaped without cracking. • When a metal is deformed.Strain hardening Strengthening mechanisms Before Deformation After Deformation • Metals can be strengthened by preventing the movement of dislocations. • As the number of dislocations in the crystal increases. 17 . they will get tangled or pinned and will not be able to move. As dislocations are generated and move.

Alloys strengthened by exceeding the solubility limit (a) (b) (a) A coherent precipitate forms so that there is a definite relationship between the precipitate crystal structure and the matrix’s crystal structure.hardening and strengthening of a metal alloy by extremely small and uniformly dispersed particles that precipitate from a supersaturated solid solution (sometimes also called age hardening). (b) A non-coherent precipitate has no relationship with the crystal structure of the surrounding matrix.Precipitation hardening . Precipitation hardening 18 .

1 3 2 The Al . After the quench. atoms diffuse only to short distances. The three steps in age-hardening heat treatment: Step 1: Solution treatment In the solution treatment. Step 3: Age Finally.Age hardening or precipitation hardening Age hardening. hard coherent precipitate in the softer. produces a uniform dispersion of a fine. or precipitation hardening. which contains only α in its structure. and it is not equilibrium structure. At this ageing temperature. is rapidly cooled.4% Cu alloy is a classical example of an age-hardenable alloy. 19 . or quenched. more ductile matrix. the alloy is first heated above the solvus temperature and held until a homogeneous solid solution α is produced. the extra copper atoms diffuse to numerous nucleation sites and precipitate-grow. the structure still contains only α. the supersaturated α is heated below the solvus temperature. so the θ does not form. The atoms do not have time to diffuse to potential nucleation sites. The α is a supersaturated solid solution αss containing excess copper. Because the supersaturated α is not stable. Step 2: Quench After solution treatment. This step dissolves the θ precipitate and reduces any segregation present in the original alloy. the alloy.

Yield strength (MPa) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. if we hold the alloy for a sufficient time at the ageing temperature. however. is not always desirable as higher strengths may be achieved by stopping the ageing process before the equilibrium structure is produced. 1 1 10 107 oC 150 oC 260 oC 100 190 oC 1.000 10. the equilibrium α + θ structure is produced.Precipitation hardening Eventually. • This.000 Ageing time (h) 20 .001 0.01 0.

Precipitation hardening Precipitation hardening 21 .

Precipitation hardening Precipitation hardening 22 .

Precipitation hardening Precipitation hardening 23 .

Precipitation hardening Precipitation hardening 24 .

the carbon can precipitate giving a strong. this compound does not have time to form.Quenching .Steels can be hardened by quenching. tough structure. • At low temperatures. • If quenched. the iron changes to BCC which cannot dissolve carbon. iron has an FCC structure which can dissolve carbon. • If Martensite is gently heated. hard and brittle structure called Martensite. The Iron-Carbon TTT (Time-Temperature-Transformation) Diagram 1400 LOWER CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AUSTENITE AUSTENITE + PERLITE PERLITE TEMPERATURE (oF) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 BAINITE AUSTENITE + BAINITE Ms Mf MARTENSITE Log TIME 25 . • At high temperatures. so it precipitates as an iron-carbon compound. the carbon is trapped and distorts the BCC crystal structure to create a new.

but the structure becomes distorted) and the FCC structure of austenite is transformed to a body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure. • Plate martensite is found most frequently in high-carbon steels and carbon-free iron alloys. Plates cannot cross the matrix grain boundary and therefore the plate dimension is limited by the dimension of the prior austenite grain. Iron Martensite Martensite is characterized by a diffusionless shear mechanism (where the atoms don't migrate. which begins at a particular temperature (Ms) dependent upon the carbon content. 26 .Martensite Martensite is not shown on the phase diagram because it is entirely dependent on cooling rate. A fast cooling rate (called quenching) will produce martensite from austenite. • The martensite crystals are shaped as thin plates where neighboring plates are not parallel to each other. but for most steels is generally in the region of 200-350°C and transformation ends at a temperature Mf ~ 0-200°C.

e. the steel may be tempered (i. • The ability for steel to form martensite is termed "hardenability". held at a particular temperature for a desired period of time) to produce a lower hardness structure that is less brittle. • However. • Martensite is an extremely hard but brittle phase. Crystals of this type of martensite are shaped as interconnected plates having approximately the same orientation. and gains its hardness from the BCT structure inducing high strain into the lattice. 27 .Martensite Lath Martensite is observed in low and medium carbon steels.

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or % N/m2. MPa. or % fraction. MPa. psi N/m2. psi various various 30 .Selected engineering properties Property thermal conductivity stress strength strain ductility elastic modulus hardness toughness Definition energy flux along a thermal gradient force per unit area critical stress for failure dimensional response to stress plastic strain prior to fracture ratio of stress to elastic strain resistance to penetration energy absorbed prior to fracture Units W/mK N/m2. MPa. psi fraction.

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