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Heredity and Gene Action

Genetics From Genes to Genomes


Second Edition Hartwell ! Hood ! Goldberg ! Reynolds ! Silver ! Veres

Chapter 4 Image Slides*


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Mitosis and Meiosis


1. Mitosis

Chromosomes around the cell cycle


Metaphase Prophase

Interphase

Chromosomes

Metaphase chromosomes Imaged by SEM

Cell cycle In human M: 2 hours G1: 11 hours S: 7 hours G2: 4 hours

Chromosomes around the cell cycle

Chromosomes around the cell cycle


Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

Interphase

Prophase to cytokinesis

Prophase to cytokinesis

Prophase to cytokinesis

Prophase to cytokinesis

Prophase to cytokinesis

Prophase to cytokinesis

Prophase to cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

Mitosis and Meiosis


2. Meiosis

Why have sex

The problem with sex


! Only half the genes are transmitted from
each parent so each individual is less efficient at passing its genome to next generation, problem compounded when you have two sexes ! Sex is dangerous But it must have major advantages
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The advantage of sex


The main reason is the shuffling of genes, providing variation from which selection can act

Parents

Offspring

ie a grasshopper that never existed before!

Meiosis in human female

Meiosis in human males

Highly simplified overview of meiosis

Stages of meiosis
Meiosis I Prophase I !Leptotene !Zygotene !Pachytene !Diplotene !Diakinesis Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Interkinesis Meiosis II Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II

Leptotene-pachytene

Leptotene-pachytene

Leptotene-pachytene

Leptotene-pachytene

Recombination simplified

Pachytene recombination

Synaptonemal complex

Synaptonemal complex

Synaptonemal complex

Diplotene and Diakinesis

Telophase I and interkinesis

Meiosis II

Telophase II and cytokinesis

Meiosis I

Chorthippus parallelus Male meiosis

Meiosis II

Leptotene

Zygotene

Pachytene

Diplotene

Diakinesis

Metaphase I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

Interkinesis

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Genetic processes
! Recombination - chiasma formation ! Aneuploidy ! Polyploidy

Genetic material from one parent changes to the other parent genetic background
Cells with more - or less - DNA than a normal cell --> genetic disease eg Downs syndrome

Cells with many genomes immediate speciation, human agriculture

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Meiosis I

Chorthippus parallelus Male meiosis

Meiosis II

Meiosis
and its relation to French grasshoppers

Paris Veltsos 3rd year PhD student


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