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How is English for Specific Purposes (ESP) different from English as a Second Language (ESL), also known as general

How is English for Specific Purposes (ESP) diIIerent Irom English as a Second Language (ESL), also known as general English?
The most important diIIerence lies in the learners and their purposes Ior learning English. ESP students are usually adults who already
have some acquaintance with English and are learning the language in order to communicate a set oI proIessional skills and to
perIorm particular job-related Iunctions. An ESP program is thereIore built on an assessment oI purposes and needs and the Iunctions
Ior which English is required .
ESP concentrates more on language in context than on teaching grammar and language structures. It covers subjects varying Irom
accounting or computer science to tourism and business management. The ESP Iocal point is that English is not taught as a subject
separated Irom the students' real world (or wishes); instead, it is integrated into a subject matter area important to the learners.
However, ESL and ESP diverge not only in the nature oI the learner, but also in the aim oI instruction. In Iact, as a general rule, while
in ESL all Iour language skills; listening, reading, speaking, and writing, are stressed equally, in ESP it is a needs analysis that
determines which language skills are most needed by the students, and the syllabus is designed accordingly. An ESP program, might,
Ior example, emphasize the development oI reading skills in students who are preparing Ior graduate work in business administration;
or it might promote the development oI spoken skills in students who are studying English in order to become tourist guides.
As a matter oI Iact, ESP combines subject matter and English language teaching. Such a combination is highly motivating because
students are able to apply what they learn in their English classes to their main Iield oI study, whether it be accounting, business
management, economics, computer science or tourism. Being able to use the vocabulary and structures that they learn in a meaningIul
context reinIorces what is taught and increases their motivation.
The students' abilities in their subject-matter Iields, in turn, improve their ability to acquire English. Subject-matter knowledge gives
them the context they need to understand the English oI the classroom. In the ESP class, students are shown how the subject-matter
content is expressed in English. The teacher can make the most oI the students' knowledge oI the subject matter, thus helping them
learn English Iaster.
The term "speciIic" in ESP reIers to the speciIic purpose Ior learning English. Students approach the study oI English through a Iield
that is already known and relevant to them. This means that they are able to use what they learn in the ESP classroom right away in
their work and studies. The ESP approach enhances the relevance oI what the students are learning and enables them to use the
English they know to learn even more English, since their interest in their Iield will motivate them to interact with speakers and texts.
ESP assesses needs and integrates motivation, subject matter and content Ior the teaching oI relevant skills.
The responsibility of the teacher
A teacher that already has experience in teaching English as a Second Language (ESL), can exploit her background in language
teaching. She should recognize the ways in which her teaching skills can be adapted Ior the teaching oI English Ior SpeciIic Purposes.
Moreover, she will need to look Ior content specialists Ior help in designing appropriate lessons in the subject matter Iield she is
As an ESP teacher, you must play many roles. You may be asked to organize courses, to set learning objectives, to establish a positive
learning environment in the classroom, and to evaluate student s progress.
Organizing Courses
You have to set learning goals and then transIorm them into an instructional program with the timing oI activities. One oI your main
tasks will be selecting, designing and organizing course materials, supporting the students in their eIIorts, and providing them with
Ieedback on their progress.
Setting Goals and Objectives
You arrange the conditions Ior learning in the classroom and set long-term goals and short-term objectives Ior students achievement.
Your knowledge oI students' potential is central in designing a syllabus with realistic goals that takes into account the students'
concern in the learning situation.
Creating a Learning Environment
Your skills Ior communication and mediation create the classroom atmosphere. Students acquire language when they have
opportunities to use the language in interaction with other speakers. Being their teacher, you may be the only English speaking person
available to students, and although your time with any oI them is limited, you can structure eIIective communication skills in the
classroom. In order to do so, in your interactions with students try to listen careIully to what they are saying and give your
understanding or misunderstanding back at them through your replies. Good language learners are also great risk-takers , since they
must make many errors in order to succeed: however, in ESP classes, they are handicapped because they are unable to use their native
language competence to present themselves as well-inIormed adults. That s why the teacher should create an atmosphere in the
language classroom which supports the students. Learners must be selI-conIident in order to communicate, and you have the
responsibility to help build the learner's conIidence.
Evaluating Students
The teacher is a resource that helps students identiIy their language learning problems and Iind solutions to them, Iind out the skills
they need to Iocus on, and take responsibility Ior making choices which determine what and how to learn. You will serve as a source
oI inIormation to the students about how they are progressing in their language learning.
The responsibility of the student
What is the role oI the learner and what is the task he/she Iaces? The learners come to the ESP class with a speciIic interest Ior
learning, subject matter knowledge, and well-built adult learning strategies. They are in charge oI developing English language skills
to reIlect their native-language knowledge and skills.
Interest for Learning
People learn languages when they have opportunities to understand and work with language in a context that they comprehend and
Iind interesting. In this view, ESP is a powerIul means Ior such opportunities. Students will acquire English as they work with
materials which they Iind interesting and relevant and which they can use in their proIessional work or Iurther studies. The more
learners pay attention to the meaning oI the language they hear or read, the more they are successIul; the more they have to Iocus on
the linguistic input or isolated language structures, the less they are motivated to attend their classes.
The ESP student is particularly well disposed to Iocus on meaning in the subject-matter Iield. In ESP, English should be presented not
as a subject to be learned in isolation Irom real use, nor as a mechanical skill or habit to be developed. On the contrary, English should
be presented in authentic contexts to make the learners acquainted with the particular ways in which the language is used in Iunctions
that they will need to perIorm in their Iields oI specialty or jobs.
Subject-Content Knowledge
Learners in the ESP classes are generally aware oI the purposes Ior which they will need to use English. Having already oriented their
education toward a speciIic Iield, they see their English training as complementing this orientation. Knowledge oI the subject area
enables the students to identiIy a real context Ior the vocabulary and structures oI the ESP classroom. In such way, the learners can
take advantage oI what they already know about the subject matter to learn English.
Learning Strategies
Adults must work harder than children in order to learn a new language, but the learning skills they bring to the task permit them to
learn Iaster and more eIIiciently. The skills they have already developed in using their native languages will make learning English
easier. Although you will be working with students whose English will probably be quite limited, the language learning abilities oI the
adult in the ESP classroom are potentially immense. Educated adults are continually learning new language behaviour in their native
languages, since language learning continues naturally throughout our lives. They are constantly expanding vocabulary, becoming
more Iluent in their Iields, and adjusting their linguistic behaviour to new situations or new roles. ESP students can exploit these
innate competencies in learning English.

English Ior SpeciIic Purposes - Introduction
ESP (English Ior SpeciIic Purposes) has been reIerred to as "applied ELT" as the content and aims oI any course are determined by
the needs oI a speciIic group oI learners. ESP is oIten divided into EAP (English Ior Academic Purposes) and EOP (English Ior
Occupational Purposes). Further sub-divisions oI EOP are sometimes made into business English, proIessional English (e.g. English
Ior doctors, lawyers) and vocational English (e.g. English Ior tourism, nursing, aviation, bricklaying). You will Iind special sections
Ior Business English and English Ior Academic Purposes elsewhere on this website.
According to Dudley-Evans (2001) the absolute characteristics oI ESP are:
O ESP is designed to meet the speciIic needs oI the learners.
O ESP makes use oI the underlying methodology and activities oI the specialism it serves.
O It is centred not only on the language (grammar, lexis, register), but also the skills, discourses and genres appropriate to those
ESP practitioners are also becoming increasingly involved in intercultural communication and the development oI intercultural
For Dudley-Evans (2001) the deIining characteristic oI ESP is that teaching and materials are based on the results oI a needs analysis.
The key questions are:
O What do students need to do with English?
O Which oI the skills do they need to master and how well?
O Which genres do they need to master either Ior comprehension or production purposes?
Traditionally ESP courses were typically designed Ior intermediate or advanced adult learners. Nowadays many students can start to
learn academic or vocational English at an earlier age and at a lower level oI proIiciency.
ESP has become increasingly important as:
O There has been an increase in vocational training and learning throughout the world.
O With the spread oI globalisation has come the increasing use oI English as the language oI international communication.
More and more people are using English in a growing number oI occupational contexts.
O Students are starting to learn and thereIore master general English at a younger age, and so move on to ESP at an earlier age.
An increasing number oI learners are taught in English medium schools using approaches such as CLIL (Content and Language
Integrated Learning).
In some English speaking countries governments are launching initiatives to help economic migrants obtain the practical English
skills necessary to Iunction in the workplace. For example, the new ESOL Ior Work QualiIications in the UK are designed to help
employers and employees access courses which oIIer them the Iunctional language skills demanded across a variety oI employment
sectors. Content includes topics such as customer care and health and saIety.
Some teachers are aIraid oI making the transition Irom teaching general English to teaching ESP. There is also the danger that the
novice ESP teacher will only use materials that they Ieel comIortable with and will not stretch their learners.
Bell (2002) argues that the depth oI knowledge oI a subject matter that a teacher requires depends on a number oI variables which
O How much do the learners know about their specialism?
O Are the students pre-experience or post-experience learners?
O How speciIic and detailed are the language, skills and genres that the learners need to learn?
Although you perhaps don't need to be an expert in a specialist area, you do need to have some awareness and Ieel Ior a particular
vocational area. Bell (2002) advocates the three Cs Ior helping teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in a particular area oI
O Curiosity
The teacher should be interested in the subject area and want to learn more.
O Collaboration
Teachers should seek out subject specialists, show them their work and ask Ior their Ieedback.
O ConIidence
ConIidence will grow as teachers explore the new subject matter, engage with subject specialists and learn Irom their
Harding (2007) stresses that the general skills that a general English teacher uses e.g. being communicative, using authentic materials
and analysing English in a practical way are also applicable to ESP. He also suggests that teachers should:
O Think about what is needed and don't just Iollow an oII-the-shelI course or course book.
O Understand the nature oI their students' subject area.
O Work out their language needs in relation to their specialism.
O Use contexts, texts, situations Irom their subject area.
O Use authentic materials.
O Make the tasks as authentic as possible.
O Motivate the students with variety, relevance and Iun.
O Take the classroom into the real world and bring the real world into the classroom.
Like it or not, the days oI the EFL generalist teacher may be numbered, so it might just be time to explore the possibility oI working
in ESP!
Acronyms in ESP
CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning)
EAP (English Ior Academic Purposes)
EBP (English Ior Business Purposes)
ESAP (English Ior SpeciIic Academic Purposes)
EGAP (English Ior General Academic Purposes)
EMP (English Ior Medical Purposes)
EOP (English Ior Occupational Purposes)
EPP (English Ior ProIessional Purposes)
EST (English Ior Science and Technology)
EVP (English Ior Vocational Purposes)
EWP (English Ior/in the Workplace)

Key Issues in Englisb for Specific Purposes {ESP] Curriculum Development
krlsLen CaLehouse
khoey aL khaeservlcecom
8ased on lnslghLs galned from developlng Lhe currlculum for Language reparaLlon for LmploymenL ln Lhe PealLh Sclences and a
revlew of Lhe llLeraLure on LS Lhls paper ls lnLended Lo offer LheoreLlcal supporL for LSL lnsLrucLors developlng LS currlcula for LSL
ackground Information and Statement of Purpose
n laLe 1999 was asked Lo develop a conLenLbased currlculum for a Lenweek course for a selecL group of lmmlgranLs llvlng ln
CLLawa Canada 1he course was held aL Algonquln College of Applled ArLs and 1echnology and was funded by Lhe Language for
LmploymenL 8elaLed needs ro[ecL (LL8n) 1he currlculum conslsLed of Lwo dlsLlncL phases language dellvery and employmenL
awareness AlLhough Lhe employmenL awareness phase (lndependenLly developed and dellvered by Local Agencles Servlng
mmlgranLs) was an lnLegral componenL of Lhe program Lhe focus of Lhls paper ls on lnslghLs galned from Lhe languagedellvery
Dudley Evans and St. John (1998) identiIy Iive key roles Ior the ESP practitioner:
O Leacher
O course deslgner and maLerlals provlder
O collaboraLor
O researcher
O evaluaLor
L ls Lhe role of LS pracLlLloner as course deslgner and maLerlals provlder LhaL Lhls paper addresses 1he premlse of Lhls paper ls
based on uavld nunans observaLlons abouL Lhe Leacher as a currlculum developer
L seems falrly obvlous LhaL lf Leachers are Lo be Lhe ones responslble for developlng Lhe currlculum Lhey need Lhe Llme Lhe skllls
and Lhe supporL Lo do so SupporL may lnclude currlculum models and guldellnes and may lnclude supporL from lndlvlduals acLlng
ln a currlculum advlsory poslLlon 1he provlslon of such supporL cannoL be removed and musL noL be seen ln lsolaLlon from Lhe
currlculum (nunan 1987 p 73)
nunan recognlzed LhaL lssues of Llme skllls and supporL are key for Leachers faced wlLh Lhe very real Lask of developlng currlcula
1he lnLenL of Lhls paper ls Lo provlde Lhe LSL lnsLrucLor as LS course deslgner and maLerlals provlder wlLh LheoreLlcal supporL 1hls
paper beglns wlLh a dlscusslon of Lhe orlglns of LS Some key noLlons abouL LS are Lhen addressed
O absoluLe and varlable characLerlsLlcs
O Lypes of LS
O characLerlsLlcs of LS courses
O Lhe meanlng of Lhe word speclal ln LS
key lssues ln LS currlculum deslgn are suggesLed a) ablllLles requlred for successful communlcaLlon ln occupaLlonal seLLlngs
b)conLenL language aqulslLlon versus general language aqulslLlon c) heLerogeneous versus homogenous learner group and d)
maLerlals developmenL
The Origins of ESP
CerLalnly a greaL deal abouL Lhe orlglns of LS could be wrlLLen noLably Lhere are Lhree reasons common Lo Lhe emergence of all
LS Lhe demands of a 8rave new World a revoluLlon ln llngulsLlcs and focus on Lhe learner (PuLchlnson WaLers 1987)
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) note that two key historical periods breathed liIe into ESP. First, the end oI the Second World War
brought with it an " ... age oI enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientiIic, technical and economic activity on an international
scale Ior various reasons, most notably the economic power oI the United States in the post-war world, the role |oI international
language| Iell to English" (p. 6). Second, the Oil Crisis oI the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge Ilowing into the
oil-rich countries. The language oI this knowledge became English.
The general eIIect oI all this development was to exert pressure on the language teaching proIession to deliver the required goods.
Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now became subject to the wishes, needs and demands oI people other
than language teachers (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987, p.7).
The second key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on the emergence oI ESP was a revolution in linguistics. Whereas
traditional linguists set out to describe the Ieatures oI language, revolutionary pioneers in linguistics began to Iocus on the ways in
which language is used in real communication. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) point out that one signiIicant discovery was in the ways
that spoken and written English vary. In other words, given the particular context in which English is used, the variant oI English will
change. This idea was taken one step Iarther. II language in diIIerent situations varies, then tailoring language instruction to meet the
needs oI learners in speciIic contexts is also possible. Hence, in the late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to
describe English Ior Science and Technology (EST). Hutchinson and Waters (1987) identiIy Ewer and Latorre, Swales, Selinker and
Trimble as a Iew oI the prominent descriptive EST pioneers.
The Iinal reason Hutchinson and Waters (1987) cite as having inIluenced the emergence oI ESP has less to do with linguistics and
everything to do psychology. Rather than simply Iocus on the method oI language delivery, more attention was given to the ways in
which learners acquire language and the diIIerences in the ways language is acquired. Learners were seen to employ diIIerent learning
strategies, use diIIerent skills, enter with diIIerent learning schemata, and be motivated by diIIerent needs and interests. ThereIore,
Iocus on the learners' needs became equally paramount as the methods employed to disseminate linguistic knowledge. Designing
speciIic courses to better meet these individual needs was a natural extension oI this thinking. To this day, the catchword in ESL
circles is learner-centered or learning-centered.
Key Notions About ESP
n Lhls dlscusslon four key noLlons wlll be dlscussed 1hey are as follows a) Lhe dlsLlncLlons beLween Lhe absoluLe and varlable
characLerlsLlcs of LS b) Lypes of LS c) characLerlsLlcs of LS courses and d) Lhe meanlng of Lhe word speclal ln LS
Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP
1en years laLer LheorlsLs uudleyLvans and SL !ohn (1998) modlfled SLrevens orlglnal deflnlLlon of LS Lo form Lhelr own LeL us
begln wlLh SLrevens Pe deflned LS by ldenLlfylng lLs absoluLe and varlable characLerlsLlcs SLrevens (1988) deflnlLlon makes a
dlsLlncLlon beLween four absoluLe and Lwo varlable characLerlsLlcs
AbsoluLe characLerlsLlcs
ESP consists oI English language teaching which is:
deslgned Lo meeL speclfled needs of Lhe learner
relaLed ln conLenL (le ln lLs Lhemes and Loplcs) Lo parLlcular dlsclpllnes occupaLlons and acLlvlLles
cenLred on Lhe language approprlaLe Lo Lhose acLlvlLles ln synLax lexls dlscourse semanLlcs eLc and analysls of Lhls
ln conLrasL wlLh Ceneral Lngllsh
varlable characLerlsLlcs
ESP may be, but is not necessarily:
resLrlcLed as Lo Lhe language skllls Lo be learned (eg readlng only)
noL LaughL accordlng Lo any preordalned meLhodology (pp12)
AnLhony (1997) noLes LhaL Lhere has been conslderable recenL debaLe abouL whaL LS means desplLe Lhe facL LhaL lL ls an approach
whlch has been wldely used over Lhe lasL Lhree decades AL a 1997 !apan Conference on LS uudleyLvans offered a modlfled
deflnlLlon 1he revlsed deflnlLlon he and SL !ohn posLulaLe ls as follows
AbsoluLe CharacLerlsLlcs
LS ls deflned Lo meeL speclflc needs of Lhe learner
LS makes use of Lhe underlylng meLhodology and acLlvlLles of Lhe dlsclpllne lL serves
LS ls cenLred on Lhe language (grammar lexls reglsLer) skllls dlscourse and genres approprlaLe Lo Lhese acLlvlLles
varlable CharacLerlsLlcs
LS may be relaLed Lo or deslgned for speclflc dlsclpllnes
LS may use ln speclflc Leachlng slLuaLlons a dlfferenL meLhodology from LhaL of general Lngllsh
LS ls llkely Lo be deslgned for adulL learners elLher aL a LerLlary level lnsLlLuLlon or ln a professlonal work slLuaLlon L
could however be for learners aL secondary school level
LS ls generally deslgned for lnLermedlaLe or advanced sLudenLs
,osL LS courses assume some baslc knowledge of Lhe language sysLem buL lL can be used wlLh beglnners (1998 pp 43)
uudleyLvans and SL !ohn have removed Lhe absoluLe characLerlsLlc LhaL LS ls ln conLrasL wlLh Ceneral Lngllsh and added more
varlable characLerlsLlcs 1hey asserL LhaL LS ls noL necessarlly relaLed Lo a speclflc dlsclpllne lurLhermore LS ls llkely Lo be used
wlLh adulL learners alLhough lL could be used wlLh young adulLs ln a secondary school seLLlng
As Ior a broader deIinition oI ESP, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) theorize, "ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all
decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason Ior learning" (p. 19). Anthony (1997) notes that, it is not clear
where ESP courses end and general English courses begin; numerous non-specialist ESL instructors use an ESP approach in that their
syllabi are based on analysis oI learner needs and their own personal specialist knowledge oI using English Ior real communication.
Types of ESP
uavld CarLer (1983) ldenLlfles Lhree Lypes of LS
O Lngllsh as a resLrlcLed language
O Lngllsh for Academlc and CccupaLlonal urposes
O Lngllsh wlLh speclflc Loplcs
1he language used by alr Lrafflc conLrollers or by walLers are examples of Lngllsh as a resLrlcLed language ,ackay and ,ounLford
(1978) clearly lllusLraLe Lhe dlfference beLween resLrlcLed language and language wlLh Lhls sLaLemenL
Lhe language of lnLernaLlonal alrLrafflc conLrol could be regarded as speclal ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhe reperLolre requlred by Lhe
conLroller ls sLrlcLly llmlLed and can be accuraLely deLermlned slLuaLlonally as mlghL be Lhe llngulsLlc needs of a dlnlngroom walLer
or alrhosLess Powever such resLrlcLed reperLolres are noL languages [usL as a LourlsL phrase book ls noL grammar knowlng a
resLrlcLed language would noL allow Lhe speaker Lo communlcaLe effecLlvely ln novel slLuaLlon or ln conLexLs ouLslde Lhe
vocaLlonal envlronmenL (pp 43)
1he second Lype of LS ldenLlfled by CarLer (1983) ls Lngllsh for Academlc and CccupaLlonal urposes n Lhe 1ree of LL1
(PuLchlnson WaLers 1987) LS ls broken down lnLo Lhree branches a) Lngllsh for Sclence and 1echnology (LS1) b) Lngllsh for
8uslness and Lconomlcs (L8L) and c) Lngllsh for Soclal SLudles (LSS) Lach of Lhese sub[ecL areas ls furLher dlvlded lnLo Lwo
branches Lngllsh for Academlc urposes (LA) and Lngllsh for CccupaLlonal urposes (LC) An example of LC for Lhe LS1 branch
ls Lngllsh for 1echnlclans whereas an example of LA for Lhe LS1 branch ls Lngllsh for ,edlcal SLudles
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) do note that there is not a clear-cut distinction between EAP and EOP: " people can work and study
simultaneously; it is also likely that in many cases the language learnt Ior immediate use in a study environment will be used later
when the student takes up, or returns to, a job" (p. 16). Perhaps this explains Carter's rationale Ior categorizing EAP and EOP under
the same type oI ESP. It appears that Carter is implying that the end purpose oI both EAP and EOP are one in the same: employment.
However, despite the end purpose being identical, the means taken to achieve the end is very diIIerent indeed. I contend that EAP and
EOP are diIIerent in terms oI Iocus on Cummins' (1979) notions oI cognitive academic proIiciency versus basic interpersonal skills.
This is examined in Iurther detail below.
The third and Iinal type oI ESP identiIied by Carter (1983) is English with speciIic topics. Carter notes that it is only here where
emphasis shiIts Irom purpose to topic. This type oI ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated Iuture English needs oI, Ior example,
scientists requiring English Ior postgraduate reading studies, attending conIerences or working in Ioreign institutions. However, I
argue that this is not a separate type oI ESP. Rather it is an integral component oI ESP courses or programs which Iocus on situational
language. This situational language has been determined based on the interpretation oI results Irom needs analysis oI authentic
language used in target workplace settings.
Characteristics of ESP Courses
1he characLerlsLlcs of LS courses ldenLlfled by CarLer (1983) are dlscussed here Pe sLaLes LhaL Lhere are Lhree feaLures common Lo
LS courses a) auLhenLlc maLerlal b) purposerelaLed orlenLaLlon and c) selfdlrecLlon
II we revisit Dudley-Evans' (1997) claim that ESP should be oIIered at an intermediate or advanced level, use oI authentic learning
materials is entirely Ieasible. Closer examination oI ESP materials will Iollow; suIIice it to say at this juncture that use oI authentic
content materials, modiIied or unmodiIied in Iorm, are indeed a Ieature oI ESP, particularly in selI-directed study and research tasks.
For Language Preparation Ior Employment in the Health Sciences, a large component oI the student evaluation was based on an
independent study assignment in which the learners were required to investigate and present an area oI interest. The students were
encouraged to conduct research using a variety oI diIIerent resources, including the Internet.
Purpose-related orientation reIers to the simulation oI communicative tasks required oI the target setting. Carter (1983) cites student
simulation oI a conIerence, involving the preparation oI papers, reading, notetaking, and writing. At Algonquin College, English Ior
business courses have involved students in the design and presentation oI a unique business venture, including market research,
pamphlets and logo creation. The students have presented all Iinal products to invited ESL classes during a poster presentation
session. For our health science program, students attended a seminar on improving your listening skills. They practiced listening
skills, such as listening with empathy, and then employed their newly acquired skills during a Iieldtrip to a local community centre
where they were partnered up with English-speaking residents.
Finally, selI-direction is characteristic oI ESP courses in that the " ... point oI including selI-direction ... is that ESP is concerned with
turning learners into users" (Carter, 1983, p. 134). In order Ior selI-direction to occur, the learners must have a certain degree oI
Ireedom to decide when, what, and how they will study. Carter (1983) also adds that there must be a systematic attempt by teachers to
teach the learners how to learn by teaching them about learning strategies. Is it necessary, though, to teach high-ability learners such
as those enrolled in the health science program about learning strategies? I argue that it is not. Rather, what is essential Ior these
learners is learning how to access inIormation in a new culture.
The Meaning of the Word 'Special' in ESP
Cne slmple clarlflcaLlon wlll be made here speclal language and speclallzed alm are Lwo enLlrely dlfferenL noLlons L was erren
(1974) who noLed LhaL confuslon arlses over Lhese Lwo noLlons f we revlslL ,ackay and ,ounLfords resLrlcLed reperLolre we can
beLLer undersLand Lhe ldea of a speclal language ,ackay and ,ounLford (1978) sLaLe
1he only pracLlcal way ln whlch we can undersLand Lhe noLlon of speclal language ls as a resLrlcLed reperLolre of words and
expresslons selecLed from Lhe whole language because LhaL resLrlcLed reperLolre covers every requlremenL wlLhln a welldeflned
conLexL Lask or vocaLlon (p 4)
Cn Lhe oLher hand a speclallzed alm refers Lo Lhe purpose for whlch learners learn a language noL Lhe naLure of Lhe language Lhey
learn (,ackay ,ounLford 1978) ConsequenLly Lhe focus of Lhe word speclal ln LS oughL Lo be on Lhe purpose for whlch
learners learn and noL on Lhe speclflc [argon or reglsLers Lhey learn
Key Issues in ESP Curriculum Design
n Lhls secLlon key lssues ln LS currlculum deslgn for LSL conLexLs are examlned 1he lssues explored here are a producL of my
professlonal experlence developlng Lhe currlculum for Language reparaLlon for LmploymenL ln Lhe PealLh Sclences 1hls
experlence has been supporLed wlLh a revlew of Lhe llLeraLure on LS
Abilities Required for Successful Communication in Occupational Settings
Cummlns (1979) Lheorlzed a dlchoLomy beLween baslc lnLerpersonal communlcaLlon skllls (8CS) and cognlLlve academlc language
proflclency (CAL) 1he former refers Lo Lhe language skllls used ln Lhe everyday lnformal language used wlLh frlends famlly and co
workers 1he laLLer refers Lo a language proflclency requlred Lo make sense of and use academlc language SlLuaLlons ln whlch
lndlvlduals use 8CS are characLerlzed by conLexLs LhaL provlde relaLlvely easy access Lo meanlng Powever CAL use occurs ln
conLexLs LhaL offer fewer conLexLual clues
AIter having developed and taught the curriculum Ior Language Preparation Ior Employment in the Health Sciences, I have reached
the conclusion that there are three abilities necessary Ior successIul communication in a proIessional target setting. I have added a
third skill or ability to Cummins' theory in order to complete the ESP picture.
The Iirst ability required in order to successIully communicate in an occupational setting is the ability to use the particular jargon
characteristic oI that speciIic occupational context. The second is the ability to use a more generalized set oI academic skills, such as
conducting research and responding to memoranda. With the health science group, this was largely related to understanding a new
culture. The third is the ability to use the language oI everyday inIormal talk to communicate eIIectively, regardless oI occupational
context. Examples oI this include chatting over coIIee with a colleague or responding to an inIormal email message.
The task Ior the ESP developer is to ensure that all three oI these abilities are integrated into and integrated in the curriculum. This is a
diIIicult task due to the incredible amount oI research required. Close collaboration between content experts and the curriculum
developer was not possible during the development stages Ior the health science curriculum. In retrospect, the experience and
knowledge oI health science Iaculty would have lessened the workload in this area tremendously. Fortunately, there does exist a
wealth oI inIormation on academic and general language skills. The trick involved in the interweaving process is to develop a model
that best integrates the restricted repertoire with the academic and general Ior the learners in question.
In the case oI Language Preparation Ior Employment in the Health Sciences, there were so many possible potential Iuture
occupational settings to research and I had to cope with limited development time. I simply opted to identiIy academic skills that were
transIerable to most health science occupational settings. This required an inventory oI all possible health science occupations,
identiIication oI the past occupational experiences oI the learners in the pilot program, and identiIication oI academic language skills.
All oI this inIormation was then cross-reIerenced with the general language objectives Ior the identiIied group oI learners.
It is my opinion that because ESP requires comprehensive needs analysis and because the learning-centred curriculum is not static, it
is impossible to expect that the developer be in a position to identiIy the perIect balance oI the abilities noted above Ior any particular
group oI learners. In reality, a large part oI this responsibility is that oI the instructors; it is the instructors who are in the best position
to identiIy changing learner needs and who are in the best position to ensure that all students receive a balanced diet oI language.
Content Language Acquisition Versus General Language Acquisition
When flrsL recelved Lhe proposal for Lhe healLh sclence plloL program Lhe raLlo of conLenL Lo language lnsLrucLlon had already
been ldenLlfled 2 hours of conLenL lecLure for every 23 hours of language/conLenL lnsLrucLlon Clven Lhls sLarLlng polnL one of Lhe
cenLral quesLlons LhaL needed Lo be answered was how much Llme would be devoLed Lo vocabulary and conLenL knowledge
acqulslLlon as opposed Lo Lhe Llme spenL developlng general and academlc language skllls
Although a tentative balance was draIted prior to classroom delivery, the balance shiIted on a daily basis. In the end, it was
determined by both instructors that more time need be allotted Ior pure content and more time need be created Ior team-taught
activities. The Iinal weekly breakdown oI 25 hours consisted oI the Iollowing:
4 8 hours of nLegraLed Language Learnlng (LSL lnsLrucLor)
4 hours of PealLh Sclence LecLures (conLenL lnsLrucLor)
4 4 hours of Workplace CommunlcaLlon ([olnLly faclllLaLed)
4 3 hours of ,edlcal Lermlnology (conLenL lnsLrucLor)
4 2 hours of aLhophyslology (conLenL lnsLrucLor)
4 2 hours of Applled CompuLer Skllls (LSL lnsLrucLor)
1he flrsL Lhlng LhaL ls apparenL from Lhls breakdown ls LhaL Llme devoLed Lo developlng general language and academlc skllls far
ouLwelghs Lhe Llme devoLed Lo Lhe acqulslLlon of conLenL knowledge Powever lL was recommended LhaL Lhe conLenL lnsLrucLor be
presenL for a conslderable more amounL of Llme lL was observed LhaL Lhere was such an overlap beLween conLenL knowledge
academlc proflclency and general language LhaL we could beLLer lnLerweave many of Lhe acLlvlLles as a Leam
The learners indicated that they desired more opportunity to interact with the content instructor, in addition to attending the old-style
lecture Iormat. Indeed, both instructors noted that the students were highly motivated to attend the content lectures and yet additional
support Irom the ESL instructor was required because, in order to meet the learners' needs, we could not teach the restricted repertoire
in isolation. What is more, it was highly unreasonable to assume that the content instructor would take on the role oI ESL instructor.
Finally, it was observed that the majority oI the students with post-secondary training in the health sciences possessed a basic
knowledge oI Greco-Latino terminology. Consequently, we determined that less time would be devoted to learning terminology in
order to Iollow the content lectures. Most oI the students could already recognize meaning, but not produce it. It was determined that
more time should be allotted Ior work on pronunciation and learning the spelling oI health science terminology. Moreover, much
more time would be spent on communication Ior the workplace; in this way, they students would be aIIorded ample opportunity to
integrate and practice the restricted repertoire acquired in content lectures and the everyday language acquired in the language classes.
Heterogeneous Learner Group Versus Homogeneous Learner Group
1here are a number of varlables whlch characLerlze a heLerogeneous learner group argue LhaL varlaLlons ln language level prlor
educaLlon and work experlence can be accommodaLed only Lo a cerLaln exLenL ,lnlmum enLrance sLandards musL be esLabllshed ln
Lhe areas of language level moLlvaLlon and prlor educaLlon and experlence ,osL lmporLanLly Lhese sLandards musL be sLrlcLly
enforced aL Lhe Llme of placemenL
Due to the limited time Irame Ior the development oI the health science pilot program curriculum and the Iact that the program was
scheduled to begin in the middle oI the academic term, the minimum general language entrance requirement was dropped Irom high
to low intermediate in order to generate a large enough pool oI suitable candidates. Although no pre or post-test was to be
administered by evaluation team, I was required to recruit twice the number oI students to be admitted to the program: 20 students
would be in the pilot group and 20 would be in the control group. In the end, 16 students Iormed each group. The result was that there
were some genuinely intermediate students mixed in with a majority oI high intermediate, and a Iew advanced students.
Based on observations oI a Iour-week English Ior Business course, Yogman and Kaylani (1996) conclude that there appears to be a
minimum proIiciency level that is required Ior students to participate in predominately content-related activities. This supports my
Iinding that those students who were struggling to catch up with general language proIiciency simply Iound the content activities to be
One student in the health science program commented that she had to learn both the language and the content at the time. This
particular student was at such a disadvantage because, whereas the other students were doctors and dentists, she had no prior
education or work experience in health science. Another student was an experienced doctor, but possessed a very low level oI
language proIiciency. Either case would have been Irustrating Ior anyone. One strategy we began to employ was to have the
intermediate students Iocus on developing their listening skills during the content lecture. Those students without the background
knowledge, who possessed the language skills, were to ask Ior clariIication Irom their peers or instructors. The advanced students
were encouraged to record as much detail as possible, carry out supplemental reading that pertained to the lecture topics and to assist
their peers whenever possible.
Materials Development
uo LS LexLbooks really exlsL? 1hls ls cenLral quesLlon !ohns (1990) addresses Cne of Lhe core dllemmas he presenLs ls LhaL LS
Leachers flnd Lhemselves ln a slLuaLlon where Lhey are expecLed Lo produce a course LhaL exacLly maLches Lhe needs of a group of
learners buL are expecLed Lo do so wlLh no or very llmlLed preparaLlon Llme (!ohns 1990 p 91)
In the real world, many ESL instructors/ESP developers are not provided with ample time Ior needs analysis, materials research and
materials development. There are many texts which claim to meet the needs oI ESP courses. Johns (1990) comments that no one ESP
text can live up to its name. He suggests that the only real solution is that a resource bank oI pooled materials be made available to all
ESP instructors (Johns, 1990). The only diIIerence between this resource bank and the one that is available in every educational
setting -- teachers' Iiling cabinets -- is that this one is to include cross-indexed doable, workable content-based (amongst other)
It is my experience that this suggestion is not doable. II teachers are so pressed Ior time, will they have the time to submit and cross-
index resources? Rather, I believe that there is value in all texts - some more than others. Familiarizing oneselI with useIul
instructional materials is part oI growing as a teacher, regardless oI the nature oI purpose Ior learning. Given that ESP is an approach
and not a subject to be taught, curricular materials will unavoidably be pieced together, some borrowed and others designed specially.
Resources will include authentic materials, ESL materials, ESP materials, and teacher-generated materials.
Note that an excellent point oI departure Ior novice ESP curriculum developers is with lists oI ESL publishers which have been made
publicly available on-line. Browsing publishers' sites takes a Iew minutes, review copies can be requested immediately and copies can
be sent express.
Concluding Remarks
1hls paper has dlscussed Lhe orlglns of LS addressed key noLlons abouL LS and examlned lssues ln LS currlculum deslgn 1he
conLenL of Lhe paper was deLermlned by a need ldenLlfled based on my professlonal experlence as an LSL lnsLrucLor deslgnlng and
dellverlng Lhe conLenLbased language program Language reparaLlon for LmploymenL ln Lhe PealLh Sclences 1hese lssues where
posslble have been supporLed by currenL and perLlnenL academlc llLeraLure L ls my slnceresL hope LhaL Lhese observaLlons wlll lend
lnslghL lnLo Lhe challenges faclng Lhe LSL lnsLrucLor acLlng as LS currlculum developer

Instructor Dr Senem ||d|z
Course Cverv|ew and Cb[ect|ves
Lngllsh for Speclflc urposes (LS) ls known as a learnercenLered approach Lo Leachlng Lngllsh as a forelgn or second language L
meeLs Lhe needs of (mosLly) adulL learners who need Lo learn a forelgn language for use ln Lhelr speclflc flelds such as sclence
Lechnology medlclne lelsure and academlc learnlng 1hls course ls recommended for graduaLe sLudenLs and forelgn and second
language professlonals who wlsh Lo learn how Lo deslgn LS courses and programs ln an area of speclallzaLlon such as Lngllsh for
buslness for Clvll Lnglneerlng for Academlc urposes and for healLh servlce purposes n addlLlon Lhey are lnLroduced Lo LS
lnsLrucLlonal sLraLegles maLerlals adapLaLlon and developmenL and evaluaLlon
Ls ob[ecLlves lnclude
O 1o develop an undersLandlng abouL Lhe facLors LhaL led Lo Lhe emergence of LS and Lhe forces boLh LheoreLlcal and
applled LhaL have shaped lLs subsequenL developmenL
O 1o asslsL sLudenLs develop needs assessmenLs and genre analyses for speclflc groups of learners
O 1o provlde guldellnes Lo adapL or creaLe auLhenLlc LS maLerlals ln a chosen professlonal or occupaLlonal area and Lo
crlLlcally evaluaLe currenLly avallable maLerlals lncludlng Lechnologybased ones
O 1o become knowledgeable abouL assessmenL procedures approprlaLe for LS and apply Lhls knowledge ln developlng
course and lesson evaluaLlon plans ln Lhelr professlonal or occupaLlonal area
O 1o asslsL sLudenLs ln preparlng a syllabus lesson and assessmenL plan based upon Lhelr needs assessmenLs and genre
Course Scbedule
Jeek 1op|cs kead|ngs Act|v|t|es and Ass|gnments
AugusL 30
SepLember 3
CeLLlng Lo know each

nLroducLlon Lo Lhe

racLlclng Cncourse and geLLlng Lo
know each oLher
SepL 10 1he developmenL of
LS hlsLorlcal and
uoJleyvoos 5t Iobo (uL
S!) ChapLers 1 and 2

Iobos Lngllsh for speclflc
purposes (LS) Ls hlsLory and

Lhe hlsLorlcal developmenL of
slmllarlLles and dlfferences
beLween LS and LC
conLrlbuLlons of LS Lo Lhe fleld
Sep 13 17 needs analysls u 5I ChapLer 7 needs
Analysls and LvaluaLlon

Iobos ltlceMocboJo
Lngllsh for speclflc purposes
(LS) 1allorlng courses Lo
sLudenLs needsand Lo Lhe
ouLslde world

denLlfylng as compleLely as posslble
a real group of Lngllsh language

Clve and recelve feedback on each
oLher's LargeL populaLlon

Sep 2024 needs analysls Basturkmen: ReIining
procedures: A needs analysis
ulscusslng lssues relaLed Lo Lhe
deslgn of needs analysls Lools for
project at Kuwait University

West: needs analysls ln
language Leachlng
your speclflc group of learners

Ass|gnment 1 ueslgn a needs
analysls plan for your LargeL
populaLlon LhaL you would carry ouL
lf you had sufflclenL Llme and
money (uue on Sep 27)

Sep 27 CcL 1 ulscourse/Cenre
u 5I ChapLer 3
Language ssues ln LS

uoJleyvoos Cenre analysls
A key Lo a Lheory of LS?

ueflnlng whaL genre ls and
operaLlonally ldenLlfylng dlfferenL
Lypes of genre
CcL 4 8 ulscourse/Cenre
8botlo Applied genre analysis
and ESP
Ass|gnment 2 llnd wrlLLen or
spoken LexLs for analysls LhaL are
approprlaLe for your learners and
conducL genre analysls (uue on CcL

CcL 11 13 LS course deslgn u 5I ChapLer 8
Course ueslgn

ulscusslng lssues relaLed Lo plannlng
concepLuallzlng developlng
lmplemenLlng and evaluaLlng LS
CcL 18 22 LS course deslgn 8osbet 5molkoskl lrom
needs analysls Lo currlculum
ulscusslng how Lhe resulLs of your
needs analysls help seLLlng Lhe
parameLers of your LS course
deslgn Clve and recelve feedback

Ass|gnment 3 ropose a course
deslgn plan (uue on CcL 23)

CcL 23 29 nsLrucLlonal
approaches ln LS
u 5I ChapLer 10
Classroom pracLlce and
Ass|gnment 4 repare a sample
lesson plan (uue on nov 1)

nov 1 3 ssues lnvolved ln LS
u 5I ChapLer 9 1he role of
ulscusslng facLors lnvolved ln Lhe
ldenLlflcaLlon of LS maLerlals

nov 8 12 ssues lnvolved ln LS
Ass|gnment S WrlLe a reflecLlon
paper on selecLlng maLerlals for your
LargeL populaLlon (uue on nov 13)

nov 13 19 1echnology as a
resource for LS
LocaLe an arLlcle on Lhe use of
Lechnology for Leachlng
Lngllsh for your LargeL
ulscusslng lssues relaLed Lo how
Lechnology can enhance Leachlng
LS and lmporLanL polnLs Lo
populaLlon conslder when lnLegraLlng
Lechnology lnLo classroom pracLlce

nov 22 2 1PAnkSCvnC 88LAk
nov 29
uecember 3
AssessmenL and
LesLlng ln LS
u 5I ChapLer 11
AssessmenL ConLlnuous
assessmenL and LesLlng

ulscusslng sLudenL evaluaLlon
uec 11 AssessmenL and
LesLlng ln LS
ulscusslng lssues relaLed Lo Lhe
evaluaLlon of Lhe LS course

Ass|gnment 6 ropose an
assessmenL plan Lo evaluaLe your
own LS course (uue on uec 14)
Revised ESP course projects are due on Dec 20
1. Needs analysis plan (10): IdentiIy a real group oI English language learners. Describe this speciIic group oI learners and
design a needs assessment plan Ior them that you would carry out iI you had suIIicient time and money. Use class readings
as guidelines. Include all methods and tools such as questionnaires/surveys/interview protocols that you plan to use to obtain
inIormation Irom this population with your reasoning behind them.
2 ulscourse/Cenre analysls (10) |nd authent|c wr|tten texts for ana|ys|s that are appropr|ate for your |earners Cut||ne your
goa|s for your ana|ys|s |nc|ud|ng
4 audiences, contexts, and/or communities Irom which the discourse arises
4 the apparent purposes Ior the discourse and speciIic ways in which the speaker or writer attempts to achieve his/her
purposes with the audience
4 the macro-structure oI the discourse.(e.g., problem/solution)
4 the headings and metadiscourse Ieatures that are employed to hold the entire text together
4 the repeated, or essential, grammatical Ieatures and their relationship to discourse Iunction
4 the lexical Ieatures and their relationships to each other and the complete text
4 the visual or extra-linguistic Ieatures.

3 Course des|gn p|an (10) uevelop Lhe maln componenLs of a course deslgn plan for your LargeL populaLlon L should
lnclude a syllabus ouLllne based on your selecLed sLudenLs' ouLcome goals Lhe duraLlon of Lhe program lengLh of lessons
class slze placemenL conslderaLlons number of lnsLrucLors and so on AnoLher componenL of Lhls asslgnmenL ls for you Lo
researcg currenL forelgn language meLhodologles LhaL are approprlaLe for Lhe needs of your LargeL populaLlon
4 Samp|e |esson p|an (10) uevelop a sample lesson plan for your LargeL populaLlon whlch lncludes
a 1oplc and llsL of Lask sLeps (eg sLeps Lo glvlng a shampoo or manlcure checklng Lhe suspenslon of a car checklng
a paLlenLs blood pressure preparlng vegeLable soup for 30 eLc)
b new vocabulary (320 expresslons)
c Cne or Lwo grammaLlcal sLrucLures (hlnL Lask sLeps are usually wrlLLen ln Lhe lmperaLlve and ofLen conLaln
preposlLlonal phrases of locaLlon)
d CulLural lnformaLlon relaLed Lo Lhe Loplc (eg proper way Lo greeL cusLomers Lalk Lo superlors or colleagues eLc)
e LlsL of maLerlals and resources needed
f Cne learnlng acLlvlLy
g Cne evaluaLlve acLlvlLy
3 kef|ect|on paper on mater|a|s se|ect|on (10) 8eflecL abouL Lhe Lypes of maLerlals LhaL would be besLmore approprlaLe
glven Llme avallablllLy eLcfor your proposed course SubsLanLlaLe your poslLlon wlLh lnformaLlon from course
dlscusslons readlngs and your own experlence
Course assessment p|an (10) ropose a plan Lo evaluaLe your own LS course WhaL crlLerla for evaluaLlon would you
use? Who would you lnvolve? WhaL would you do wlLh Lhe lnformaLlon should your LS course were one LhaL you
regularly Leach aL an lnsLlLuLe unlverslLy eLc Why?
kev|sed |na| ro[ect (10) repare a porLfollo LhaL lncludes Lhe revlsed verslons of all Lhe asslgnmenLs you have done for Lhls
course Also lnclude a shorL reflecLlon paper LhaL dlscusseshe sLrengLhs and weaknesses ofyour lesson or of your currenL
orum part|c|pat|on (30) nLeracLlon ls aL Lhe hearL of any learnlng communlLy and Lhe research conflrms Lhls sLaLemenL
suggesLlng LhaL much lf noL mosL of onllne academlc learnlng Lakes place ln Lhe lnLeracLlon L ls exLremely lmporLanL LhaL
sLudenLs fully parLlclpaLe ln all CnCourse forum dlscusslons or vla emall wlLh Lhe lnsLrucLor or Lhelr peers SLudenLs are
requlred Lo lnLeracL and exchange ldeas wlLh Lhelr peers and wlLh Lhe professor parLlcularly abouL Lhelr successes and concerns
as Lhey engage ln course acLlvlLles SLudenLs wlll be evaluaLed accordlng Lo wheLher (a) Lhey posLed aL leasL Lwo or more
enLrles and (b) Lhe posLlngs reflecL knowledge of Lhe LS lssues under dlscusslon and a crlLlcal lnLegraLlon of whaL has been
learned from lecLures readlngs and Lhe sLudenLs own experlence

Teaching Foreign Language for Specific Purposes: Teacher Development
Milevica Bojovic, MA, lecturer
Faculty oI Agronomy Cacak, Serbia
Foreign Language Teachers Ior SpeciIic Purposes have a lot in common with teachers oI
general Ioreign language. For both it is necessary to consider linguistic development and
teaching theories, to have insights in contemporary ideas regarding their own position and
role as well as the position and role oI Ioreign language learners in education and to Iace new
technologies oIIered as an aid to improve their methodology. The needs to understand the
requirements oI other proIessions and willingness to adapt to these requirements diIIerentiate
the Ioreign language teachers Ior speciIic purposes and their colleagues teaching general
Ioreign language. ESP teaching presumes teaching oI English as a Ioreign language regarding
speciIic proIession, subject or purpose.
Key words: ESP, teacher, teacher development, methodology.
The teaching oI English Ior SpeciIic Purposes (ESP) has been seen as a separate
activity within English language teaching (ELT). It is believed that Ior some oI its teaching
ESP has developed its own methodology and its research draws on research Irom various
disciplines in addition to applied linguistics this is the key distinguishing characteristic oI
ESP. ESP, iI sometimes moved away Irom the established trends in general ELT, has always
been with needs analysis and preparing learners to communicate eIIectively in the tasks
prescribed by their Iield oI study or work situation. The emphasis oI ELT is always on
practical outcomes. The theory oI ESP could be outlined based on speciIic nature oI the texts
that learners need knowledge oI or need-related nature oI teaching.
As with most disciplines in human activity, ESP was a phenomenon grown out oI a
number oI converging trends oI which we will mention three most important: 1) the
expansion oI demand Ior English to suit speciIic needs oI a proIession, 2) developments in the
Iiled oI linguistics (attention shiIted Irom deIining Iormal language Ieatures to discovering the
ways in which language is used in real communication, causing the need Ior the development
oI English courses Ior speciIic group oI learners), and 3) educational psychology (learner`s
needs and interests have an inIluence on their motivation and eIIectiveness oI their learning).
DeIinitions oI ESP in the literature are relatively late in time, iI we assume that ESP
began in the 1960s. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) deIine ESP as an approach rather than a
product meaning that ESP does not involve a particular kind oI language, teaching material
or methodology. The basic question oI ESP is: Why does this learner need to learn a Ioreign
language? The purpose oI learning English became the core.
Strevens` (1988) deIinition oI ESP makes a distinction between 1) absolute
characteristics (language teaching is designed to meet speciIied needs oI the learner; related
in content to particular disciplines, occupation and activities; centred on the language
appropriate to those activities in syntax, text, discourse, semantics, etc., and analysis oI the
discourse; designed in contrast with General English) and 2) two variable characteristics
(ESP may be restricted to the language skills to be learned, e.g. reading; and not taught
according to any pre-ordained methodology).
Robinson`s (1991: 3) deIinition oI ESP is based on two criteria: 1) ESP is normally
goal-directed`, and 2) ESP courses develop Irom a needs analysis which aim to speciIy what
exactly it is that students have to do through the medium oI English, and a number oI
characteristics which explain that ESP courses are generally constrained by a mted tme
perod in which their objectives have to be achieved and are taught to aduts in homogenous
casses in terms oI the work or specialist studies that the students are involved in.
Each oI these deIinitions have validity but also weaknesses. Considering Hutchinson
and Water`s deIinition, Anthony (1997) noted that it is not clear where ESP courses end and
General English courses begin because numerous non-specialist ESP instructors use ESP
approach in that their syllabi are based on analysis oI learner needs and their own specialist
personal knowledge oI English Ior real communication. Strevens` deIinition, by reIerring to
content in the second absolute characteristic, may conIirm the impression held by many
teachers that ESP is always and necessarily related to subject content. Robinson`s mention oI
homogenous classes as a characteristic oI ESP may lead to the same conclusion. However,
much oI ESP work is based on the idea oI a common-core oI language and skills belonging to
all academic disciplines or cutting across the whole activity oI business. ESP teaching should
always reIlect the underlying concepts and activities oI the discipline. Having all these on
mind, Dudley-Evans and St John (1998) modiIied Strevens` deIinition oI ESP
1. Absolute characteristics: a) ESP is designed to meet speciIic needs oI the learner;
b) ESP makes use oI the underlying methodology and activities oI the disciplines it serves;
and c) ESP is centred on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse and genres
appropriate to these activities.
2. Variable characteristics: a) ESP may be related or designed Ior speciIic
disciplines; b) ESP may use, in speciIic teaching situations, a diIIerent methodology Irom that
oI general English; c) ESP is likely to be designed Ior adult learners, either at a tertiary level
institution or in a proIessional work situation; it could be used Ior learners at secondary school
level; d) ESP is generally designed Ior intermediate or advanced learners; and e) Most ESP
courses assume basic knowledge oI the language system, but it can be used with beginners.
ESP is traditionally been divided into two main areas according to when they take
place: 1) English for Academic Purposes (EAP) involving pre-experience, simultaneous/inservice
and post-experience courses, and 2) English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) Ior
study in a speciIic discipline (pre-study, in-study, and post-study) or as a school subject
(independent or integrated). Pre-experience or pre-study course will omit any speciIic work
related to the actual discipline or work as students will not yet have the needed Iamiliarity
with the content; the opportunity Ior speciIic or integrated work will be provided during inservice
or in-study courses.
Another division oI ESP divides EAP and EOP according to discipline or proIessional
area in the Iollowing way: 1) EAP involves English Ior (Academic) Science and Technology
(EST), English Ior (Academic) Medical Purposes (EMP), English Ior (Academic) Legal
Purposes (ELP), and English Ior Management, Finance and Economics; 2) EOP includes
English Ior ProIessional Purposes (English Ior Medical Purposes, English Ior Business
Purposes EBP) and English Ior Vocational Purposes (Pre-vocational English and Vocational
English); in EAP, EST has been the main area, but EMP and ELP have always had their
place. Recently the academic study oI business, Iinance, banking, economics has become
increasingly important especially Masters in Business Administration (MBA) courses; and 2)
EOP reIers to English Ior proIessional purposes in administration, medicine, law and
business, and vocational purposes Ior non-proIessionals in work (language oI training Ior
speciIic trades or occupations) or pre-work situations (concerned with Iinding a job and
interview skills).
The classiIication oI ESP courses creates numerous problems by Iailing to capture
Iluid nature oI the various types oI ESP teaching and the degree oI overlap between
'common-core EAP and EBP and General English - e.g. Business English can be seen as
mediating language between the technicalities oI particular business and the language oI the
general public (Picket, 1989), which puts it in a position between English Ior General
Purposes (EGP) and specialist English. ThereIore, some authors suggest (Dudley-Evans and
St John, 1998) the presentation oI the whole oI ELT should be on a continuum that runs Irom
General English courses to very speciIic ESP courses as illustrated in Table 1.
Regarding positions 2 and 3, it is only the overall context oI the program that decides
whether a particular course is classiIied as ESP or not. At position 4, the work is speciIied in
terms oI the skills (it is important to choose appropriate skills to Iocus on - e.g., some doctors
will need to read some medical journal, others will need oral skills to talk with their patients)
taught, but the groups are not homogenous Irom one discipline or proIession (scientists,
engineers, lawyers, doctors), so the individual members can need texts dealing with their
speciIic proIession. Teaching materials prepared need contexts acceptable and understandable
to all branches. At position 5 the course becomes really speciIic the key Ieature oI such
courses is that teaching is Ilexible and tailored to individual or group needs.
Tab.1 Continuum oI ELT course types
General SpeciIic
Position 1
English Ior
Position 2
Intermediate to
advance EGP
curses with a
Iocus on a
particular skills
Position 3
courses based
on commoncore
and skills not
related to
discipline or
Position 4
Courses Ior
disciplinary or
areas (e.g.
Report writing
Ior Scientists
and Engineers,
English, Legal
skills Ior
1) An academic
support course
related to a
2) One-to-one
work with
business people
Considering the characteristics oI ESP courses, Carver (1983) states that there are
three characteristics common to ESP courses:
1) authentic materials the use oI authentic learning materials is possible iI we accept the
claim that ESP courses should be oIIered at an intermediate or advanced level. The use oI
such materials, modiIied by teachers or unmodiIied, is common in ESP, especially in selIdirected
studies or research tasks. The students are usually encouraged to conduct research
using a variety oI diIIerent resources including the Internet;
2) purpose-related orientation reIers to the simulation oI communicative tasks required by
the target situation. The teacher can give students diIIerent tasks - to simulate the
conIerence preparation, involving the preparation oI papers, reading, note-taking and
writing. At Faculty oI Agronomy in Cacak, English course Ior Agribusiness Management
involves students in the tasks oI presenting a particular agricultural product, logo creation,
negotiating with the clients (suppliers and buyers), telephone conversation. They also
practice listening skills, though the application is restricted because they employ newly
acquired skills during their ESP classes with their colleagues and teacher.
3) selI-direction means that ESP is concerned with turning learners into users. For selI
direction, it is necessary that teacher encourage students to have a certain degree oI
autonomy Ireedom to decide when, what, and how they will study. For high-ability
learners it is essential to learn how to access inIormation in a new culture.
Since ESP courses are oI various types, depending on speciIic scientiIic Iield or
proIession, and have speciIic Ieatures, teachers teaching such courses need to play diIIerent
roles and acquire certain knowledge.
As ESP teaching is extremely varied some authors (Dudley-Evans and St John, 1998)
use the term 'practitioner rather than 'teacher to emphasize that ESP work involves much
more than teaching. ESP practitioner can have several roles.
The ESP practtoner as a teacher ESP is a practical discipline with the most important
objective oI helping students to learn. However, the teacher is not the primary knower oI the
carrier content oI the material. The students, especially where the course is speciIically
oriented towards the subject content or work the students are engaged in, may know more
about the content than the teacher. The teacher has the opportunity to draw on students`
knowledge oI the content in order to generate communication in the classroom. When the
teaching is a speciIic course on, Ior example, how to write a business report, it is vital that the
teacher adopts the position oI the consultant who has the knowledge oI communication
practices but needs to 'negotiate with the students on how best to explore these practices to
meet the objective they have. The relationship is much more oI a partnership. In some
situations the role oI ESP teacher extends to giving one-to-one advice to students (e.g., in
non-English speaking countries students will have to publish in international journals and
need advice in both language and discourse issues). ESP teachers need to have considerable
Ilexibility, be willing to listen to learners, take interest in the disciplines or proIessional
activities the students are involved in, and to take some risks in their teaching.
The ESP practtoner as course desgner and matera provder Since it is rarely possible
to use a particular textbook without the need Ior supplementary material sometimes no
really suitable published material exists Ior identiIied needs - ESP practitioners oIten have to
provide the material Ior the course. This involves selection oI published material, adapting
material iI it is not suitable, or writing it. ESP teachers also need to assess the eIIectiveness oI
the teaching material used whether it is published or selI-produced. However, since the
teachers are encouraged by their employees to write new material there is a danger oI constant
re-invention oI the wheel; advantages oI published materials are ignored even when they are
suitable Ior a given situation.
The ESP practtoner as researcher Research has been particularly strong in the area oI
EAP (genre analysis). Regarding the research into English Ior Business Purposes, there is a
growing interest in investigating the genres, the language and the skills involved in business
communication. ESP teachers need to be in touch with the research. Teachers carrying out a
needs analysis, designing a course, or writing teaching materials need to be capable oI
incorporating the Iindings oI the research, and those working in speciIic ESP situations need
to be conIident that they know what is involved in skills such as written communication.
The ESP practtoner as coaborator It is believed that subject-speciIic work is oIten best
approached through collaboration with subject specialist. This may involve cooperation in
which ESP teacher Iinds out about the subject syllabus in an academic context or the tasks
that students have to carry out in a work or business situation. Or it may involve speciIic
collaboration so that there is some integration between specialist studies or activities and the
language. It might involve the language teacher speciIically preparing learners Ior the
language oI subject lectures or business presentations. Another possibility is that a specialist
checks and comments on the content oI teaching materials that the ESP teacher has prepared.
The Iullest collaboration is where a subject expert and a language teacher team-teach classes;
in EAP such lessons might help with the understanding oI subject lectures or the writing oI
examination answers, essays or theses, while in EOP they might involve the language teacher
and a business trainer working together to teach both the skills and the language related to
business communication.
The ESP practtoner as evauator The ESP practitioner is oIten involved in various types
oI evaluation - testing oI students, evaluation oI courses and teaching materials. Tests are
conducted 1) to assess whether students have the necessary language and skills to undertake a
particular academic course or career which is important in countries such as the UK, USA,
Australia where large numbers oI international students do postgraduate course or research
and need internationally required tests, e.g. International English Language Test Service
(IELTS), Test oI English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), and 2) to asses the level oI their
achievement how much learners have gained Irom a course. Evaluation oI course design and
teaching materials should be done while the course is being taught, at the end oI the course
and aIter the course has Iinished, in order to assess whether the learners have been able to
make use oI what they learned and to Iind out what they were not prepared Ior. Evaluation
through discussion and on-going needs analysis can be used to adapt the syllabus.
Most teacher training courses contain Iour basic elements:
1. Seecton, initial and terminal, is necessary because not every human being would
become an adequate language teacher. Each teacher has continuing responsibility
throughout a career which can last Ior thirty years or longer. This responsibility makes
it essential that potentially ineIIective individuals should be discouraged Irom entering
the proIession by adequate pre-training or post-training selection procedures.
2. Contnung persona educaton Teachers should be well-educated people. Minimum
standards accepted Ior teachers vary Irom country to country. There are variations in
how the trainee`s personal education is improved either simultaneously with his/her
proIessional training; or consecutively where Iirst two or three years oI study with no
elements oI training as a teacher are Iollowed by the Iourth year containing
methodology oI Ioreign language teaching or one year post-graduate course oI teacher
training; or, as in many countries, by in-service courses. Either way, the assumption is
that graduates` level oI education is to be regarded as insuIIicient.
3. Genera professona tranng as an educator and teacher This element involves what
a teachers need to know regardless oI which subject they teach the components are
as Iollows: a) educational psychology, the study oI child development, social
psychology, and the principles oI educational thought the component intended to
lead the trainee to understanding oI the nature oI education; b) an outline oI the
organization oI education in a particular country the teacher should be aware oI the
diIIerent kinds oI schools, oI normal and unusual pathways through educational
network, oI responsibility, control and Iinance, oI sources oI reIorm and change, oI the
main Ieatures oI history oI education in the country where he will teach; c) an
awareness oI the moral and rhetorical Iunction oI the teacher: the building oI
standards, character, enthusiasm;
d) knowledge oI, and skill in, class management, discipline and handling oI various
groups oI students; e) knowledge oI, and skill in, basic instructional techniques, and
understanding teacher-learner interaction; I) Acceptance oI the Iundamental need Ior
the preparation oI lessons; g) understanding the role oI curriculum, syllabus and
teaching materials; h) a teacher should be committed to keeping in touch with the
teaching proIession.
4. Speca tranng as a teacher of a foregn or second anguage The complexity oI this
training which constitutes the core oI most teacher training courses can be made
simpler iI the distinction is to be made between three aspects oI it. They are:
1) The skills component which includes three diIIerent skills required by the
teacher: a) command of the anguage the teacher is teaching this component must
ensure that teacher`s command oI Ioreign language is at least adequate Ior class
purposes; b) teaching techn6ues and classroom activities the major part oI teacher
training is to assimilate a great body oI eIIective techniques; c) the management of
earnng it is a crucial part oI teacher`s classroom skills to learn how to assess Irom
moment to moment the progress oI each individual in the class and how to manage the
classroom activities so that most able learners are not Irustrated by being held back,
while the slowest are not depressed by being leIt behind.
The skills component requires practical training in perIorming the skills
themselves. There is a great range oI activities which can be summarized as Iollows:
a) the observation oI specially-devised demonstrations oI speciIic techniques and oI
complete lessons; b) the observation oI actual class; c) practice in the preparation oI
lesson plans; d) micro-teaching the teaching (by the trainee) oI several items or
techniques with the possible use oI camera recordings; e) peer group teaching (i.e.
teaching Iellow-trainees) as a Iorm oI exercise; I) being a teacher`s assistant in real
class; g) teaching real classes under supervision; h) discussion oI the trainee`s
teaching; i) post-training, in-service courses oI various kind (ESP courses Ior teaching
EMP or EBP).
2) The information component the needed body oI inIormation can be
divided into three parts: a) nformaton about educaton about diIIerent approaches
to the task oI teaching language; b) nformaton about the syabus and materas he
will be using the syllabus, the prescribed textbooks, other teaching materials
(readers, workbooks, etc.) and aids (Ilashcards, wallcharts as well as tape recorders
and language labs) make up the tools oI the teacher`s proIession; c) nformaton about
anguage when the teacher enters his course oI training, his understanding oI the
nature oI language is likely to be scanty; this inIormation reIers to knowledge oI
normal stages in the inIant`s acquisition oI his mother tongue, the existence oI
common speech deIects and whose job is to treat them, relation between speech and
writing, literacy and education, notions oI the correctness` and social judgments on
language, language variety including dialects and accents, language in contact,
artiIicial language, language and thought, and many more. The information content
can be learned Irom reading or lectures.
3) The theory component the language teaching proIession makes
connection with theoretical studies in several disciplines such as linguistics,
psychology, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, social theory, education. The
theoretical studies are likely to Iind a place when the trainee has attained a suIIicient
level oI personal education and when he is preparing to teach high-level learners.
Alternatively, they can be included in postgraduate teacher training as the
interdisciplinary approach oI applied linguistics which integrates appropriate parts oI
the disciplines most relevant to language teaching. The theory component can be
assimilated Irom discussion, practice in solving problems, tutorial explanations and
time to absorb new ways oI thinking.
Currently, in Serbia ESP teacher training courses are run as in-service courses; as
high-education level courses they are Ior the Iirst time included in new curriculum as an
optional subject in Iundamental academic studies (the Iourth year oI study) at the institutions
dealing with educating language teachers, Faculty oI Philology in Belgrade in particular
(Faculty oI Philology, 2006).
Using skills as a Iramework oI ESP, ESP teachers are provided with the necessary
knowledge and tools to deal with their own students` specializations. It should be remembered
- ESP teachers are not specasts n the fed, but n teachng Engsh, their subject is English
Ior the proIession but not the proIession in English. They help students, who know their
subject better than the teachers do, develop the essential skills in understanding, using, and/or
presenting authentic inIormation in their proIession. A proIessional ESP teacher must be able
to switch Irom one proIessional Iield to another without being obliged to spend months on
getting started. He/she simply brings the necessary tools, Irameworks, and principles oI
course design to apply them to new material. The material (the content) should be provided by
the professors or experts n the subfect It should always be authentic (the main purpose oI
teaching skills is to enable students to deal with authentic inIormation despite their level oI
English), up-to-date (the inIormational exchange is growing more intense), and relevant Ior
the students` specializations (they ought to be given the inIormation representative Ior their
target anguage use stuaton)
UnIortunately, ESP teachers oIten Ieel isolated both Irom proIessionals in their
students` specializations and their colleagues in other institutions. They also have diIIiculty in
getting or exchanging inIormation in the Iield. We can conclude, thereIore, that the necessary
ESP network should be provided.

Needs Analysis - Presentation Transcript
1. N E E D S A N A L Y S I S
2. WHY DO LEARNERS NEED TO LEARN ENGLISH? All courses are based on a perceived need oI some sort. WHAT IS THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ESP AND GE? ' In theory nothing, in practice a great deal.
4 GE learner`s needs are not speciIiable.
4 This is the weakest oI all arguments
4 It is always possible to speciIy needs
4 There is always an identiIiable need oI some sort.
G E N E R A L E N G L I S H (GE)
4. WHAT DISTINGUISHES ESP FROM GE? It is not the existence oI a need but rather an awareness oI the need. It is not so much the
nature oI the need which distinguishes the ESP Irom the General course but rather the awareness oI a need, i.e. the awareness oI a target
situation, the need to communicate in English. Thus, any course should be based on an analysis oI the learner needs.
5. ANALYSIS FOR ESP AND GE: Questions will be the same, but the answers will be diIIerent WHAT DO WE MEAN BY 'NEEDS?
According to the language-centered approach: it is 'the ability to comprehend and/or produce the linguistic Ieatures oI the target situation.
Target needs : what the st needs to do in the target situation Learning needs : what the st needs to do in order to learn.
6. 1. TARGET NEEDS It is like the umbrella term, which in practice hides a number oI important distinctions.
a) Necessities : according to the demands oI the target situation, this is what the learner has to know in order to
Iunction eIIectively in that situation.
b) Lacks : according to what the learner already knows, we decide what necessities are missing. There is a gap between
the existing proIiciency and the target proIiciency.
c) Wants : according to what we have considered Irom an objective POV, we have to say that a need does not exist
independent oI a person. It is people who build their images oI their needs on the basis oI data relating to themselves
and their environment`
7. Thus, objective and subjective views oI needs can conIlict motivation. The ESP course designer or teacher has to be aware oI such
diIIerences and take account oI them in materials and methodology. Important decisions are to be made. To undertake Medical Studies To
succeed in Agricultural or Veterinary studies WANTS Means oI doing Medical Studies (Presumably) areas oI English needed Ior
Agricultural or Veterinary Studies LACKS To reluctantly cope with a 'second-best situation The English needed Ior success in
Agricultural or Veterinary studies NECESSITIES SUBJECTIVE (i.e. as perceived by students) OBJECTIVE (i.e. as perceived by course
8. 2. GATHERING INFORMATION ABOUT TARGET NEEDS The analysis oI target needs involves Iar more than simply identiIying the
linguistic Ieatures oI the target situation
4 DiIIerent ways in which inIormation can be gathered about needs :
4 Questionnaires
4 Interviews
4 Observation
4 Data collection
4 InIormal consultations
4 Important : the choice will depend on the time and resources available. And, needs analysis is not a once-Ior-all activity. It
should be a continuing process.
4 Why is the language needed?
4 How will the language be used?
4 What will the content areas be?
4 Who will the learner use the language with?
4 Where will the language be used?
4 When will the language be used?
It is obviously necessary to obtain answers to the questions Irom a variety oI sources, and then negotiate a satisIactory compromise.
10. 3. LEARNING NEEDS Using our analogy oI the ESP course as a journey, ehat we have done so Iar is to consider the starting point ( lacks
) and the destination ( necessities ) and where the destination should be ( wants )
4 What we have not considered yet is the route. How are we going to get Irom our starting point to the destination? The whole ESP
process is concerned not with knowing or doing , but with learning.
4 We need to take into account the destination or needs oI a learning situation:
4 A task that is enjoyable, IulIilling, manageable, generative, etc.
4 A project in class can be guided in terms oI its general orientation by the target situation, but its speciIic content is a response to
learning needs.
4 |Example taken Irom James Herbolich`s box kite project (1979), page 61|
4 CONCLUSION: The target situation alone is not a reliable indicator oI what is needed in the ESP course. It can determine the
destination, BUT we must also choose our route:
the conditions oI the learning situation
the learner`s knowledge, skills and strategies
the learner`s motivation
4 For example, in a target situation students may need to read long, dull, complex texts, but their motivation may be high because:
They like the subject in general
Job/Promotion prospects may be involved
They will carry out interesting experiments or practical work (based on the texts)
They like and/or respect the teacher/boss.
4 A Iramework Ior analysing learning needs:
4 Why are the learners taking the course?
4 How do the learners learn?
4 What resources are available?
4 Who are the learners?
4 Where will the ESP course take place?
4 When will the ESP course take place?
13. ' From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs (Karl Marx)
UTN Group 1 What is ESP - Presentation Transcript
2. CHAPTER 1: THE ORIGINS OF ESP ESP was not a planned and coherent movement, but rather a phenomenon that grew out oI a number oI converging trends.
4 The demands oI Brave New World.
4 A revolution in Linguistics.
4 Focus on the learner
4 1) The demands oI Brave New World
4 End oI WWII in 1945 heralded an age oI enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientiIic, technical and economic activity on international scale.
4 This expansion created a world uniIied and dominated by 2 Iorces: TECHNOLOGY and COMMERCE, which generated a demand Ior an international language.
4 English became the accepted international language. It created a new generation oI learners WHO KNEW SPECIFICALLY WHY THEY WERE LEARNING A
4 Time and money constraints created a need Ior cost-eIIective courses with clearly deIined goals. English became subject to the needs and demands oI people other
than language teachers.
4 2) A revolution in Linguistics
4 Main idea: iI language varies Irom one situation to another, it should be possible to determine the Ieatures oI speciIic situations and then make these Ieatures the basis
oI the learner's course.
4 Late 1960s and early 1970s: greatest expansion oI research into the nature oI particular varieties oI English.
4 Example: English Ior Science and Technology (EST). For a time EST and ESP were considered synonymous.
4 Guiding principle oI ESP: 'tell me what you need and I will tell you the English that you need
6. 3) Focus on the learner
4 Emphasis on the central importance oI the learners and their attitudes to learning
4 ' Relevance to the learners` needs and interests were paramount.
4 All 3 Iactors seemed to point towards the needs Ior increased specialization in language learning.
4 ESP has undergone 3 main phases oI development.
4 It is now in a 4 th phase with a 5 th phase starting to emerge.
4 ESP has developed at diIIerent speeds in diIIerent countries.
4 The concept oI special language: register analysis
4 Beyond the sentence: rhetorical or discourse analysis
4 Target situation analysis
4 Skills and strategies
4 A learning- centered approach
4 1)The concept oI special language: register analysis
4 1960s and early 1970s.
4 The aim was to identiIy the grammatical and lexical Ieatures oI the diIIerent registers. Teaching materials then took these linguistic Ieatures as their syllabus.
4 Register analysis revealed that there was very little that was distinctive in the sentence grammar oI ScientiIic English beyond a tendency to Iavour particular Iorms
such as the present simple tense, the passive voice and nominal compounds .
4 The main motive behind register analysis was the pedagogic one oI making the ESP course more relevant to the students needs.
4 The aim was to produce a syllabus which gave high priority to the language Iorms students would meet in their Science studies and in turn would give low priority to
Iorms they would not meet.
4 ESP has Iocused on language at the sentence level, on sentence grammar
4 Description oI surIace Iorms.
4 2) Beyond the sentence: rhetorical or discourse analysis
4 ESP Iocused its attention on the level above the sentence, as ESP became closely involved with the emerging Iield oI discourse or rhetorical analysis.
4 The leading lights in this movement were Henry Widdowson, Larry Selinker and Louis Trimble.
4 Attention shiIted to understanding how sentences were combined in discourse to produce meaning
4 The concern oI research was to identiIy the organizational patterns in texts and to speciIy the linguistic means by which these patterns are signaled. These patterns
would then Iorm the syllabus oI the ESP course .
4 Basic hypothesis: ' we take the view that diIIiculties which students encounter arise not so much Irom a deIective knowledge oI the system oI English, but Irom an
unIamiliarity with English use, and that consequently, their needs cannot be met by a course which simply provides Iurther practice in the composition oI sentences,
but only by one which develops a knowledge oI how sentences are used in the perIormance oI diIIerent communicative acts (Widdowson , 1974)
4 3) Target situation analysis
4 What it aimed was to take the existing knowledge and set it on a more scientiIic basis, by establishing procedures Ior relating language analysis more closely to
learners` reasons Ior learning
4 The purpose oI an ESP course is to enable learners to Iunction adequately in a target situation, that is, the situation in which the learners will use the language they are
4 The ESP course design should proceed by Iirst identiIying the target situation and then carrying out a rigorous analysis oI the linguistic Ieatures oI that situation. The
identiIied Ieatures will Iorm the syllabus oI the ESP course. This process is usually known as NEEDS ANALYSIS.
4 The target analysis stage marked a certain 'coming oI age Ior ESP. Learner need was apparently placed at the centre oI the course design process.
4 4) Skills and strategies
4 The principal idea behind the skills-centered approach is that underlying all language use there are common reasoning and interpreting processes , which, regardless
oI the surIace Iorms, enable us to extract meaning Iorm discourse . There is thereIore, no need to Iocus closely on the surIace Iorms oI the language.
4 The Iocus should rather be on the underlying interpretive strategies , which enable the learner to cope with the surIace Iorms, Ior example guessing the meaning oI
words Irom context, using visual layout to determine the type oI text, exploiting cognates, etc.
4 This approach generally puts the emphasis on reading or listening strategies .
4 The characteristic exercises get the learners to reIlect on and analyze how meaning is produced in and retrieved Irom written or spoken discourse.
4 The language learners are treated as thinking beings who can be asked to observe and verbalize the interpretive processes they employ in language use.
4 Description oI underlying processes
4 5) A learning- centered approach
4 The 4 stages outlined above are based on descriptions oI LANGUAGE USE. Our concern in ESP is not with LANGUAGE USE- although this will help to deIine the
course objectives- our concern is with LANGUAGE LEARNING .
4 A truly valid approach to ESP must be based on an understanding oI the processes oI language LEARNING .
4 The learning- centered approach will Iorm the subject oI this book.
4 What ESP isn`t
4 It is not a matter oI teaching 'specialized varieties oI English
4 It is not just a matter oI words and grammar Ior each area
4 It is not diIIerent kind Irom any Iorm oI language teaching
4 ESP must be seen as an approach not as a product
4 ESP is not a particular kind oI language or methodology, nor does it consist oI a particular type oI teaching material.
4 It is an approach oI language learning which is based on learner`s need .
4 All decisions as to content and method are based on the learner`s reason Ior learning.