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BROADLA – EM1
Crossover Frequency and Directivity of Speaker
I. Objectives: • • • To be able to identify the crossover frequencies of various capacitance-speaker and inductance-speaker combinations To measure the relative sound pressure level as the crossover frequency is reached To be able to measure the voltage reading at different positions
II. Introductory information There are (3) types of speakers: (1) tweeter, (2) the midrange or squawker, and (3) the woofer. Each type has a different frequency range of operation. To maximize the performance and achieve higher fidelity, crossover networks are used. A crossover network is a circuit which usually employs capacitors, coils or capacitor-coil combination which feeds a specified low frequency range to a woofer, a specified mid-frequency range to a squawker and another set of specified high frequency range to a tweeter. Crossover network is composed of filters used to separate the low, mid, and high frequencies. The network is required to protect the speakers against frequencies. The simplest crossover network will be used in the experiment. The low pass filter will use an inductor connected in series with the speaker, while the high pass filter will use a capacitor in series with the speakers. The values of the inductors and capacitors will determine the crossover frequencies. The crossover or cut-off frequency, fc can be computed as:
fc = fc = 1 2πRC 1 2πL
For RC filters For RL filters
Another characteristic of a speaker in directivity. Directivity is the variation of the force field response with the angle of incidence. This is the pressure response field existing prior to placement.
III. Materials and Equipment to be used • • • • • • • • Sound level meter set Meter stick Speaker Power amplifier Audio Generator Oscilloscope Capacitor (0.1uF, 1.0uF, 10uF) Inductors (5mH, 10mH)
IV. Procedure A. Crossover Frequency 1. Connect the audio generator to the input of the amplifier and the speaker to the output of the amplifier, as seen in the figure. Position the sound level meter, 5 feet away from the speaker. 2. Set the sound level meter knob to A. Measure the ambient sound level with the speakers OFF. Ambient Sound Level = 60 dB 3. Measure the response of the speaker set at a constant volume of 5 and varying frequency. Record the values in the table.
Frequency (Hz) 500 1400 2400 3300 4300 5200 6200 7100 8100 9000 10000 w/o C 71.5 76 73.5 72.4 71.6 64.9 62.8 65.1 58.3 58.3 58.3 Sound Level Meter Reading 0.1uF 1.0uF 10uF 5mH 65.1 68.5 70.1 70.2 71.3 75.4 78.4 79 69.5 70.9 74 70.4 66.7 70.6 68.9 75.2 69.2 70.5 70.4 74.1 62.4 62.7 65.3 64.5 61.4 62.3 64 62.5 62.5 64.4 65.5 64.8 58.3 58.3 57.7 58 57.3 57.3 57.5 57.4 57.5 57.7 57.5 57.7 10mH 68.5 74.7 68.3 62.9 66.3 61.8 60.1 60 57.5 57.2 56.5
Observe the sudden change in the amplitude of the output signal. At what frequency range is the signal distorted? It is expected to have a sudden change in the amplitude of the signal at frequencies from 31 Hz to 2 kHz because this is range where the filters are out of range. It is the range of transition from 4. Connect a 0.1uF capacitor in series with the positive (+) lead if the wire if the speaker and repeat step 3. 5. Replace the 0.1uF capacitor by the 1.0uF capacitor and repeat step 3. 6. Replace the 1.0uF capacitor by the 10uF capacitor and repeat step 3. 7. Plot the obtained data for each value of capacitance used.
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
50 0 0 24 00 33 00 43 00 52 00 62 00 71 00 81 00 90 00 10 00 0 14 0
w/o C 0.1uF 1.0uF 10uF 5mH 10mH
8. C o n
nect a 5mH inductor in series with the positive (+) lead of the wire if the speakers and repeat step 3. 9. Replace the 5mH inductor by 10mH and repeat step 3. 10. Plot the obtained data for each value of inductor used. 11. What is the effect of the capacitors and inductors on the crossover frequencies? Inductors and capacitors are used as a filter in segregating high from low frequencies. Changing the value of the capacitors and inductors will also change the value of the cut-off or crossover frequency following the formula: 1 1 fc = fc = 2πL 2πRC 12. What are the crossover frequencies? Component Value 0.1uF 1.0uF 10uF 5mH 10mH Fc (Hz) 198,943.67 19,894.36 1989.4 31.831 15.915
B. Directivity of Speakers 13. Using the circuit shown below set the frequency to 1 kHz and the volume to 5. 14. Rotate the sound level meter around the speaker at a fixed distance and take readings. Perform readings at 30 degrees interval. Table III.B Interval (degrees) Sound Level Reading 0 78 30 74.2 60 71 90 68.7 120 64.1 150 68.7 180 69.2 210 70.3 240 67.2 270 70.4 300 73.4 330 67.7 15. Plot the curve for the directivity pattern.
330 300 270 240 210 180 150 80 60 40 20 0 90 120 Series1 0 30 60
16. What were your observations on the levels around the speakers? The data we gathered are somewhat erroneous because almost at all directions, they seem to produce the same sound level, unless the speaker we had is an omni directional speaker. From the room setting itself, it is not fit for testing. The room is small and crowded making it even more difficult to perform the said experiment. From the physical topology of the speaker, it is noticed that it is a uni directional speaker with its focus on the 0 degree angle.
V. Guide Questions 1. What are crossover frequencies? It is the audio frequency at which equal power is delivered to each of the channels or speakers. It is the single frequency at which both sides of a crossover network are down 3dB. 2. Define directivity. What are the different directional pattern? Directivity is a quantitative measure of the focusing of acoustic energy. • • • • Cardioid or uni-directional - having greatest sensitivity at the front, only partially at the sides, and little at the back. Bi-directional or figure-of-eight - having greatest sensitivity at front and back, but little at the sides, usually used for interviews. Omni-directional - sensitivity about equal in all directions. Shotgun - highly focused or 'pointed' sensitivity in one direction only.
3. What are the critical specifications in choosing speakers? Always take note of the speaker that will be used, whether it is a tweeter, a squawker or a woofer. Each of these three speakers performs different function in a sound system setup. A tweeter is a kind of speaker that is mostly high-frequency, so it would be expected that the sound that it will produce is full of treble. A squawker is a typical speaker usually at mid-frequency range. On the other hand, a woofer is a lowfrequency speaker; therefore it is expected to hear a lot of base. The directivity of the speaker should be known so that the best acoustic in a room would be heard. Analysis and Conclusion: In this experiment we were able to analyze speakers, and categorize them in terms of their function. We have analyzed tweeters and woofers. Tweeters actually operated in high-frequency producing a lot of treble, while a woofer operates in low-frequency producing a lot of base. Also, we were able to determine the directivity of a speaker. It was quite a manual but accurate method, using the sound level meter in different locations around the speaker to determine its directivity. One thing I noticed why this experiment is quite erroneous is that the working environment is naturally noisy. A lot of people tend to roam around, close and open doors, and chat with one another. That explains why some of the data we gathered are somewhat awkward. But other than that, it’s all good. This experiment is somehow a success because we were able to learn first hand how filters work to specify the functions of a speaker.
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