b I

"

,' ., -J }

I"_ENEORP A_=ROJ_---T

y /

Orbital Transfer Rocket Engine Technology
Contract NAS 3-23772 Advanced Engine Study Task D.6 Final Report NASA CR-187216 June 1992

Prepared For. National AeronaulJcs and Space Administration Lewis Research Center 21000 Brookpark Road Cleveland, Ohio 44135

(NASA-CR-18?2|6} ROCKET ENGINE ENGIN_ SIUDY 1988 - Mar. 2_2 p

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGY: Final RepoFt, I990 (GenCorp

TRANSFER ADVANCED Oct. Aerojet)

N92-32129

Unclas

6]/20

0108999

Propulsion Division

NASA Aerojet

CR 187216 2459-31-1

NASA

ORBITAL

TRANSFER

ROCKET

ENGINE

TECHNOLOGY

ADVANCED TASK

ENGINE

STUDY

D.6 FINAL

REPORT

Prepared

By:

Warren

R. Hayden

Prepared

For:

National

Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Lewis Research Center

Contract

No. NAS

3-23772

June

1992

RI'F/D041735a-C

:J ,.,.,,d _¢mn.um,,..kl =_

REPORT DOCUMENTATION

PAGE

i. Report No. NASA
4. Title And

CR

187216

2. Government Accession No,

7 Recipienrs Catalog No. 5. Report Dale

Subtitle

Orbital

Transfer Engine

Rocket Study

Engine Final

Technology Report

June

1_992 Code

Adwmced Task I).6 7 Author(s) Warren

6. Performing Organization

8. Performing Organization R. Hayden 10. Work Unit No.

Report No.

9. Performing Organization Org. 9962, Bldg. 2019

Name and Address 11. Contract or Grant No. NAS 3-23772

Acrojet

TechSystems CA 95813

Sacramento,

13. Type ot Report and Period Covered 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address NASA ('lcvcland. I,cwis Research 44135 Center Final Oct Ohio 1988 to Mar 1990

14. Sponsoring

Agency Code

15

Supplementary

Notes

16. Abstract This report documents for manned Ibf. an advanced missions Also, LOX/LH2 engine Mars, evaluated generated of contact study for the use of NASA Parametric over first prime was margins. design a 20:1 and vehicle data range was prime obtained contractors at five in developing thrusts ratio of from 12+1

concepts

to the Moon, task was was dual

and Phobos. engine

engine

7.5 K Ibf to 50K versus The the 6+1 major

a separate Cost data

throttling

and operation and factors

at a mixture in other

nominal.

also lack

for DDT&E, with vehicle cycle

unit production, contractors capable basic

life cycle

costs.

limitation The

of the study Aerojet operational and opcration thermal (named

to resolve of meeting engine By using 13. design

the issues

in vehicle/engine requirements the 20:1

interfaces. with

baseline long

propellant

expander

shown The

all performance readily

an expected

life due to the high up to a mixture margin MLETS) thrust allowed indicates predicted.

thermal ratio

accommodated injector with

throltling vtmslruction transient

rcquircn]enl the sinu]lalion from scc

of 10 without

change. ratio with

platinum engine control

for bafllcd modeling system.

increased code 10%

operation stable

up to mixture engine operation

An initial

an Aerojet rate of 4 Ibf, in.

the baseline are 483. I sec envelopes will

A throttle sec

to 5 seconds ,ind 485.2 exit

to 100%

is also ratio

Performance ratio of

predictions 1200. Ibf. Engine

at 7.5K varied

Ibf, 487.3 from

at 20K

at 50K at 7.5K

Ibf with

a mixture

of 6 and an area in. exit more diameter prime

120 in. length/53 consideration. of the interface

diameter

Ibf to 305

in. length/136 to include

at 50K

Packaging

be an important joint assessrnent

Continued issues.

work

is reconnnended

vehicle

contractor/engine

contractor

17

Key

Words

(Suggested

by

Author(s)) Cryogenic Space Propellants, Transfer

18. Distribution Statement

Rocket Throttling Vehicles

Engine, Engine,

Lunar

Mission, Mining,

Moon

Unclassified

- Unlimited

19.

Security

Classif.

(of

this

report)

20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified

21. No. of pages 27 !

22. Price

tlnclassified
NASA FORM 1626 OCT 86

7

/J

FOREWORD

This planning for manned form data

report and

documents

an engine

parametric

study prime Mars.

expected contractors The baseline of 7.5K

to generate developing engine

useful concepts uses some The an other

design missions

information to the expander the was study moon, cycle

for the vehicle Phobos, within and

of a hydrogen base for starting cycle cycles. highly engine These

the thrust lbf OTV was

range engine

lbf to 50K lbf. design, with

was

the 7.5K There

preliminary

expander engine range Orbital Research

mandated.

no comparison to focus over program the

or tradeoffs it within past a limited

constraints on the (OTV)

on the study technology engine

served

design

dependent Vehicle

developed

decade

by the Lewis

Transfer Center.

technology

sponsored

by NASA

Tile terms interchangeably engines for |he Vehicle engine. developed I,unar (LTV)

Chemical

Transfer

Propulsion the

(CTP) OTV The

engine may

and

OTV

engine one

are

used

in this report under

although

engine specific

be just

of several engine Transfer same basic

the CTP

program.

application engine. The

of a CTP Lunar the

return and

mission Lunar

is designated Vehicles

as a LTV/LEV (LEV)

Excursion

are expected

to use

Interaction Interface A Vehicle

with

and

feedback gleaned

from

the

vehicle from

prime the

contractors NASA-MSFC

was

very

limited. Phase

requirements Studies plus

were

primarily

sponsored

direction

from

NASA-LeRC.

This the Design of the study served

study and and

was

initially

directed Subtask

by Jerry under

Pieper.

The

work

was

continued

through

Parametric preparation Project

the direction report was done

of Judy

Schneider. ttayden

Completion who

of the final

by Warren of performance.

as senior

Engineer

throughout

the period

The

period

of performance

for this study

was

October

1988

to May

1990.

°o° RI' [/I)II417..55a FM

Ul

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

Section

Title 1 and Background 3 3 9 to Current Rocket Engine Technology 14 16 18 and Engine Power Parametric and Cycle Analysis Definition 18 20 42 Mass and Envelope Studies Parameters 71 92 92 108 135 Test and Engineering (DDT&E) 135

1.0 2.0

Summary Introduction 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Background Scope Relevance Significance

of the Program

3.0

Discussion 3.1 Design 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2 Engine 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3

Balance

Performance, Requirement Design High

Variation

for 20:1 Throttling Mixture Study Ratio Operation

Vehicle/Engine 3.3.1

Coordination Development,

Engine Design, Cost Estimates Engine Mission In-Space Engine Issues Weight Parametric Baseline Dual Engine Engine Production Related

3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7 3.3.8 3.4 Engine 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.5

Cost Costs and Servicing Lunar Mission

145 145 155 159 100 Basing 166 166 171 Cycle 171 171 176

Maintenance Requirements in Engine Penalties Data Design

for the

Throttling for Space Requests Update Expander Baseline

Propellant Control

Components of Critical Chamber Technologies Technology

Identification 3.5.1 3.5.2 Thrust

179 179 186

Turbopump

Technology

TABLE Section

OF CONTENTS Title

(cont.)

3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.5.6 3.5.7 3.5.8 4.0 Conclusions 4.1 4.2 5.0

Heat

Exchanger

Technology Valve Technology

188 190 190

Proportioner Oxygen Cooled

Nozzle Nozzle and Health Monitoring System

Extendible/Retractable Integrated Engine/Vehicle and Control

191 191 191 192 192 193 195

Synergisms

Recommendations

Conclusions Recommendations

References

Appendices A. B. C. Detailed l-'ower Chug Engine Balance Stability Thermal at High of OTV Analysis Mixture Ratio Engine A-1 B-1 C-1

20K lbf Advanced

RIH'/D0417.55a-l"M

V

LIST OF TABLES

Table

No.

2.1-1 2.2-1 3.1-1 3.1-2 3.1-3&4

Technology Engine Advanced Expected

Goals

for the New

OTV and

Engine

5 10 Rationale 20 21

System

Requirements Study of the Thrust

Goals

Engine Results

Selection Study Thrust

Parametric

CTP Engine Materials Selection, in a High Radiation Environment Advanced Engine Pump Section Advanced Turbine CTP CTP CTP CTP CTP CTP Engine Section Power Power Power Power Power Power Study

Chamber

Assembly

23 & 24

3.1-5

Turbopump

Design

Point

-

46

3.1-6

Study

Turbopump

Design

Point

-

47

3.1-7 3.1-8 3.1-9 3.1-10 3.1-11 3.1-12 3.1-13

Engine Engine Engine Engine Engine Engine

Balance, Balance, Balance, Balance, Balance, Balance,

Thrust Thrust Thrust Thrust Thrust Thrust

= 20K lbf, MR = 5 = 20K lbf, MR = 6 = 20K lbf, MR = 7 = 50K lbf, MR = 5 = 50K lbf, MR = 6 = 50K lbf, MR = 7 Thrust Levels

56 57 58 59 60 61 74

Performance Loss Accounting for Various (7.5K lbf, 20K lbf, and 50K lbf) LTV/LEV 7.5K Engine Propellant Engine Flowrates Weight Engine Estimate Weight

3.1-14 3.1-15 3.1-16

77 78 Estimate 80

lbf Preliminary

7.5Klbf Thrust Preliminary Complete Engine Preliminary Advanced Advanced Normalized Advanced Advanced Study Nozzle Flight System Engine

3.1-17 3.1-18 3.1-19

Weight

Estimates,7.5K

lbf Engine

80 82

Weight

Estimates Contour

Engine Design by the Throat Engine Engine Design Design

Study Engine Radius Study Study

88

3.1-20 3.1-21 3.2-1 3.2.1-1 3.2.2-1 3.3.1-1 3.3.3-1

Normalized Basic Engine Variation

Nozzle

Contour

89 91 93

Dimensions

Baseline

- Engine

Requirements Turbopump

Advanced Engine LTV/LEV CTP Engine

Expander Power Balance

Engine

Design Down

Specification

98 105 137 153

at 20:1 Throttle Cost

Condition

Engine

DDT&E

Removal

Operations

F,P I'/I_

17.._,5a

I:M

vi

LIST OF TABLES

(Cont)

Table

No.

3.3.4-1

CTP 7.5K

Engine Space Maintainable lbf Thrust Engine CTP Engine

Components

156

3.3.4-2 3.3.4-3 3.3.8-1 3.4-1 3.4-2 3.4-3

Space-Based CTP Servicing

Maintenance Functions Electrical Sensors Power

Functions

157 158

Operational Engine Valves and

Representative CTP Engine Engine

Requirements, Control

Watts

167 172 173

for Engine

Operation State

Sequence During Engine Operation

Component

175

_¢_._x..._-._

vii

LIST

OF FIGURES

Ejgt_r_t:_N_9.
2.1-1 2.2-1 2.2-2 3.1-1 Dual Start Task Expander Cycle-Space Order Cycle Schematic Vehicle Engine Cycle, (Parallel Engine Study Series Activities Flow Schematic, Flow Version) 7 11 12 19

Transfer

D.6 - Advanced

OTV Engine Dual Expander 7.5K Ibf Thrust Engine Our Regeneratively As An Added Heat Stability Damping Cooled Transfer Device

3.1-1A

Baffles Provide a Dual Function Surface as Well as a Combustion

25A

7.5K lbf OTV OTV Engine Attachments 3.1-4 3.1-5 3.1-6 3.0K

Injector/Baffle TCA Sketch

Flow Showing

Circuit Can and Gimbal

28 29

lbf Design:

Fuel OTV

Cooled Engine

Nozzle (Top

Extension

Concept

31 33

7.5K lbf Thrust OTV Engine Turbopump Advanced

View) Layout Drawing -

Preliminary Side Engine Study

Design

35

- Regenerator Design

Channel Engine

Details

37 44

7.5K lbf Thrust Envelope 3.1-11 3.1-12 3.1-13 3.1-14 3.1-15 3.1-16 3.1-17 3.1-18 3.1-19 3.1-20 Component Oxygen Hydrogen Logic The The 7.5K Power CTP Path Oxidizer Fuel

Preliminary

Operating

Modeling Power Power Balance Balance - Combined - Combined a Power First from OX Side Balance Design Power Balance TPA Efficiency Efficiency

45 48 49 51 52 53 54 55 64 Study Alternate 66

TPA Balance

in Computerizing Side is Balanced Results Engine

Side Uses OTV

Ibf Thrust Balance Engine

Preliminary

Results Model Cycle

for 20K lbf Engine Analysis Engine

at MR = 6

for MLETS Advanced

Dual Expander Schematic Advanced Predicted Predicted Advanced Performance Space Transfer

3.1-21 3.1-22 3.1-23 3.1-24 3.1-25 3.1-26

Engine Response Response Engine Loss

Study

Stability

at Rated

Thrust

68 69 70 72 73

to 10% Throttle to 10% Throttle Performance Accounting Propellant

Up Command Down Command

Vehicle

Flowrate

vs Engine

Thrust

76

.°° RI'T/1)0417 55ad:M Vlll

LIST OF FIGURES

(Cont)

Figure

No.

3.1-27 3.1-28 3.1-29 3.1-30 3.1-31 3.1-32 3.2.1-1

Delta

Payload

vs Nozzle Study

Percent Parametric Ratio

Bell Weight Summary

81 84 85 Weight 86 87 90

Advanced Engine Advanced Change Engine Predicted Operating Estimated Advanced NARloy-Z, Hydrogen Enthalpy NARIoy-Z Blanching Uncoated Reduction

Engine Thrust/Weight Engine in Engine Half Section

vs Thrust Versus Thrust

Study Length

Thrust with

OTV Head

Off-Design Loss Due

Performance to Cavitation - Engine

Meets

10:1 Throttling

95 97

Requirements

3.2.1-2 3.2.1-3 3.2.1-4 3.2.1-5 3.2.1-6 3.2.2-1 3.2.2-2 3.2.2-3

Engine Wrought, Circuit Pickup Exposed and

Study

Operating

Range

100 101 102 104

Properties Enthalpy Pickup Circuit Environments

- Oxygen

to Oxidizing/Reducing

110 111 113

Cracking

NASA-Z Cylinder After Oxidation and Test Cycle - 26 Slot Area (1.8% Strain) Cylinder Strain) Gas After Oxidation and Test -

3.2.2-4

Uncoated NASA-Z Center Area (>2.7% Variation

114

of Combustion

Species

with

MR and

Temperature

116 118

Variation in Specific Oxygen/Hydrogen 3.2.2-7 Variation in Specific Oxygen/Hydrogen Variation in Specific Oxygen/Hydrogen Advanced Flowrate Engine Engine Engine Advanced Flowrate

Impulse Propellants Impulse Propellants Impulse Propellants

with Mixture Ratio - 7.5K lbf Thrust

for Engine

with Mixture Ratio for - 20,000 lbf Thrust Engine with Mixture Ratio for - 50,000 lbf Thrust Engine Ratio Versus LOX

119

3.2.2-8

120

3.2.2-9

Engine Study and Thrust Maximum H2 Bulk Maximum Wall

- Mixture

122

3.2.2-10 3.2.2-11 3.2.2-12 3.2.2-13

Temperature

for Pc = 2000

psia,

MR = 12

123 124 126 127

Temperature Wall

Rise for Pc = 2000

psia,

MR = 12 MR -- 12

Temperature

for Pc = 2000

psia,

Engine Study and Hydrogen

- Mixture Ratio Versus Hydrogen Temperature at Maximum Thrust

RI'I'/I)O417.,_a-I:M

ix

LIST

OF FIGURES

(Cont)

l.'igure No.
3.2.2-14

Engine Hydrogen MR= 10 Engine Maximum MR = 10 Engine Pressure

Bulk

Temperature

Rise - Pc = 1917

psia,

128

3.2.2-15

Wall

Temperature

- Pc = 1917 psia,

129

Drops Wall

- Pc = 1917 psia, Temperature

MR = 10 psia,

130 132

Engine Maximum MR = 12 3.2.2-18 Engine Maximum MR = 12 Engine LTV/LEV LTV/LEV I,TV/LEV LTV/LEV LTV/LEV LTV/LEV Nth Unit LTV/LEV Nth Unit LTV/LEV Nth Unit LTV/LEV Nth Unit LTV/LEV Nth Unit LTV/LEV LTV Initial (26.2 MT) 3.3.5-3 3.3.6-1 3.3.8-1 3.3.8-2 3.4.2-1 Lunar CTP Pressure Engine Engine Engine Engine Propulsion

for Pc = 1500

Hydrogen

Temperature

for Pc = 1500

psia,

133

3.2.2-19 3.3.1-1 3.3.1-2 3.3.1-3 3.3.1-4 3.3.1-5 3.3.2-1

Drop

for Pc = 1500 psia, - Design - Fab - Test - Total Program

MR = 12

134 138 139 140

Development Development Development Development System

Program Schedule

Cure

Costs

141 142 146

Engine at Complexity Production Cost Engine at Complexity Production Cost Engine at Complexity Production Cost Engine at Complexity Production Cost Engine at Complexity Production Cost Reference Weight Concepts in LEO

= 1.1 x RL -10 Engine

3.3.2-2

= 1.2 x RL -10 Engine

147

3.3.2-3

= 1.3 x RL -10 Engine

148

3.3.2-4

= 1.4 x RL -10 Engine = 1.5 x RL -10 Engine

149

3.3.2-5

150

161 Versus Isp at Fixed P/L 162

(1 Burn)

Mission Engine

Profile Dual Propellant Nozzle Nozzle Expander Wall Cycle vs Position vs Position Cycle

163 165 169 170 177

0.030--in. 0.050-in. Control Engine

Columbium Carbon-Carbon

Temperature Temperature Expander

Wall Flow

Effectiveness-Parallel

Dual

RI'I/I..N¼17.S5a

FM

X

LIST OF FIGURES

(Cont)

l:igure

No.

3.5-1

Microchannel Thrust Load Modified Modified Water

Test Specimen Design) Injector Element

(Based

on 7.5K

lbf

182

3.5-2 3.5-3 3.5-4 3.5-5 3.5-6

I-Triplet Injector Flow Patterns Property Hydrogen

Elements Pattern Element Temperature

183 184 185 187 189

for I-Triplet Variation with

Structural Dual Spool

Turbopump

RI "1"/I )1.1417 _$,S,.i-I;M

X

i

1.0

SUMMARY

The objective and parametric data

of the

study

was

to develop transfer

advanced vehicle prime

engine

system

descriptions and the NASA. engine included pres-

for use by space data was ranging obtained from

contractors expander the

Parametric at five engine

design thrusts

for a LOX/LH2 7.5K lbf to 50K lbf. over a 20:1 range from a nominal level.

advanced In addition, psia

cycle study

an evaluation sure) studies and

of engine

throttling

(2000

to 100 psia

chamber two variation

operation done

at mixture at the 20,000

ratios

6+ 1 to 12 + 1. The

were

lbf thrust

The President formance was issues. the

study Bush's data lack

was

expanded initiative. and

to assist The first

in preparation Aerojet unit input

of the NASA included costs. various some One

response parametric limitation

to perof the study

space plus

DDT&E with

production to assess task.

of contact

vehicle

primes

vehicle/engine

interface

This

is recommended

as a follow-on

Aerojet propellant oxygen and

and expander

NASA

LeRC

have

an eight This cycle free

year uses

history heated

in the (400°F)

development oxygen

of the dual to drive the system

cycle This

engine. allows

turbopump. pressure During and This range, the

a design

of the need circuit splitting

for a helium for higher

purge

gas pressure

reduces

demands this study

on the hydrogen a cycle variant,

chamber flow

operation. chamber baseline. lbf thrust ratios

the

hydrogen and

between as the

the

baffled

injector

assembly, a 2000 psia

was

examined

accepted over at the to earth Liquid the

design lbf to 50K

cycle

can maintain over use

chamber and

pressure can operate

7.5K

can throttle

a 20:1 range, oxygen

high

mixture

needed

for efficient Based (MLETS) engine

of lunar with

as a supplement Modified to be stable

origin Transient

propellants. Simulation and the basic

on an analysis code, control

the Aerojet

Engine

this cycle valve rate

is predicted

at thermal

equilibrium, linear over was the

operation

is expected from

to be nearly 10% to 100%

throttling predicted

range. using

A throttle the TUTSIM

of 4 to 5 seconds code.

of thrust

dynamics

Performance ratio of 1200

as measured seconds engine lbf, 486.3 dry lbm

by delivered at 7.5K weight lbf, 484.3 excluding

specific seconds

impulse

at MR = 6 and 485.2

an area seconds structure at is

is 483.1

at 20K lbf, and and thrust

50K lbf. 291.8 Ibm

Predicted at 7.5K

gimbal 1362 lbm

takeout

at 20K lbf, and

at 50K lbf using

available

RlYl./iX_417.SSa

I

1.0, Summary,

(cont)

technology. retractable to 304.8 extended. consideration.

Engine section

envelopes varies from

for a 1200:1 120 inches diameter in terms

area ratio length/58

nozzle inch exit

using

one extendible/ at 7.5K the nozzle will be an important lbf thrust

diameter with

inches

length/137 are large

inches engines

at the 50K lbf thrust of envelope.

These

Packaging

The DDT&E well used accepted

cost

data

was generated Launch

using System

a costing (ALS) numbers with

methodology

found

to be as costed MSFC and

on the Advanced typical

program. and tests a program

The program in a NASA start

assumptions The total in 1999. curve,

of engine cost was

fabrication about

program. first flight learning reference.

DDT&E First unit thrust,

$950M

in FY91 numbers, engine

production and

costs

are based factor unit engine RL-10 costs was

on production based cost

engine

a complexity Nth

on an RL-10 is expected to $4M

as the

For the lunar range. $6M.

return

mission,

to be in the and an OMS are

$6M to $12M engine

As references, Generation

the current of life cycle

cost

is $3M

is about

not feasible which

as they

dependent defined.

on the mission

life and maintenance

scenarios

are still incompletely

The latest capable

version

of the dual expander performance technical NASA

cycle

holds

promise including

as a long-life

engine and

of meeting

all mission All major

requirements such

20:1 throttling oxygen The turbine platelet

MR = 12 operation. drive are being

questions LeRC

as the 400°F programs. flight

evaluated

under

sponsored shuttle made

heat

exchanger written,

technology and a vigorous monitoring A continuation to include issues.

is in qualification program system

for space

operations

as this is control

start has been (ICHM) capability

to develop the OTV

the integrated engine

and health program. broadened interface

under

technology should be of the

of this work more vehicle

is recommended,

but the scope

prime/engine

contractor

joint assessment

RPTI DO417-_Sa

2

2.0

INTRODUCTION 2.1 BACKGROUND

AND

BACKGROUND

2.1.1

Orbit

Transfer

Vehicle

(OTV)

Engine

Technology to move payloads space and pro-

The NASA people gram. beyond Over low earth orbit

has had (LEO)

some since

concept

for a vehicle

the inception

of the United

States

the years, concept 1982, (OTV)

the vehicle of a general this concept technology

has had a number purpose has been program. studies while vehicle

of names for a variety

and many of tasks

configurations, beyond LEO has

but the basic persisted. Transfer been rected contract

Since Vehicle

developed

as part of the Orbit Space Research was Flight Center

or Orbital Center has diunder a has

NASA-Marshall NASA reported Lewis herein

responsible main with engine

for the vehicle development. LeRC.

The work

completed

NASA

Over the mission current model from

the

seven

years

of this contract on LEO-to-GEO

there payload

has

been delivery

an evolution missions The

in to the

an emphasis Return been

interest

in the

Lunar has

mission to emphasize system.

and

a manned the reliability space

Mars and and

mission. redundancy

effect require-

on

the engine ments

development

for a man-rated place The health

propulsion

Also,

basing

multimission impulse and engine

capability throttling. integrated gent

a premium very long

on performance service and most life goal control

as measured (500 starts, system. The advanced developed manned and

by specific

20 hours) engine and

mandates resulting highest

a sophisticated from these strinliquid serve until the as

monitoring will be the hydrogen stage main

requirements

technically engine for both

performing It could missions

oxygen/liquid the basic middle upper

propellant engine

in this century. unmanned

of the next

century.

The study ponent, tem. tracts efforts to generate

first

phase and

of the NASA-LeRC innovative levels Aerojet Aerojet the dual

sponsored technology

program concepts O2/H2 were

consisted at the subcom-

of

evaluate system and work.

component, Pratt & Whitney,

and

engine

for an advanced TechSystems initiated propellant

propulsion awarded

sysconduring This cycle

Rocketdyne, of the notable

each new

in 1982

for this phase the most

several

concepts cycle.

this work

of which

was

expander

RItI'/1XI417._5a

3

2.1.1,

Orbit

Transfer

Vehicle

(OTV)

Engine

Technology,

(cont)

improves oxygen

the conventional for use as working chamber

hydrogen fluids with

expander consequent

cycle

by heating

both

hydrogen

and flexibility

improvement

in operating

and higher

pressure.

The Phase Phase I work by evaluating

II program, through

which

is the current fabrication,

contract,

builds

on the crition the compatSystem

analysis,

and testing technology

the concepts has been

cal to the success oxygen ibility, (ICHM). established the existing undergo turbopump an engine Design

of the proposed (successfully preliminary

engine. tested),

The Aerojet the thrust

focus

chamber,

oxygen/materials Health with Monitor NASA-LeRC goals

design,

and an Integrated work 2.1-1 has been summarizes

Control

and development goals. Table

in accordance

technology RL-10 engine

the technology The is better 1988

and gives will

technology as the Lunar

as a comparison. return mission from

requirements

some

changes The

defined. mission system is engine ranging in will to

change

in emphasis on the moon requirements. to generate

an OTV bodies most

for the LEO-to-GEO in the inner likely solar

a vehicle impact thrust. thrust

capable several This

of landing of the engine

or other The

one

to change

study 7.5K

was

planned

parametric mission factor

data

for engines likely engine

from

lbf to 50K lbf as the actual design selection

thrust affecting

is very baseline

to fall within thrust will is the be con-

that range. number required, straints vehicles

An important

of engines but three

per vehicle. or four

For a man-rated may

vehicle

at least such

two

engines

engines

be optimum

when

factors

as length

are considered. for the Lunar

As will be discussed mission may very

later in this report, each.

the current

baseline vehicle The lunar for

use a set of four engines well use only thrust once

An unmanned engines.

LEO-to-GEO mission propulsion

missions

one or two the number

of these

requirements

set the engine

of engines

in the

set is established.

Work concluded in the Spring

on the Advanced of 1990 with

Engine

Study

began

in November

1988

and

this final

report.

RIrf/DOi17.55a

4

2.1, Background,

(cont)

2.1.2

Aerojet

Dual

Propellant

Expander

Cycle

Engine

In a conventional passages ficient oxygen simple, propellant with open in the combustion thermal flow energy circuits. chamber

expander wall

cycle

engine,

hydrogen the wall for both

is routed and

through sufand is fairly as all

where drives

it both

cools

acquires

to power

the turbine

of pumps

the hydrogen This cycle and,

It is then routed forward,

to the injector it offers good

for combustion. performance not have on only seals and must alloys life, long

plumbing

is straight

potential, the losses one

is burned cycles. fluid

in the combustion

chamber,

it does

associated as a

Its limitations which,

are related

to dependence interpropellant power, for the

propellant

turbine oxygen

drive

in turn, requires the needed limit

a purge

gas in the to a for the times

turbopump. very liner.

To obtain near

the hydrogen copper based cycle

be heated employed operating

temperature chamber without expander expander

to the design limits

With

the added

imposed

by high

maintenance, cycle cycle

and 10:1 or greater of only the RL-10. a modest

throttling

requirement, over

the basic the current

hydrogen production

is capable engine,

improvement

The Aerojet by using oxygen as a working

dual fluid

propellant as well turbopump

expander as hydrogen. is driven

cycle This

alleviates reduces

these

limitations on

the demands It also purge injector

the hydrogen eliminates requirement. element combustion of 400°F which

circuit the need

as the oxygen

by heated

oxygen. helium gas-gas

for an interpropellant oxygen high

seal and the associated for the I-triplet

The gasified provides over

is also needed energy

(-100%)

release range.

efficiency The oxygen and

and excellent is heated then to a maximum the 2.1-1. to heat turbine pressure

stability by flowing cooled

a wide

throttling

through nozzle used

a LOX/GH2 extension.

heat exchanger The flow engine schematic study. from

through

regeneratively

is shown The hydrogen

in Figure used TPA

This is the schematic the cold oxygen and provides drop across

for the advanced exchanger energy

in the heat the thermal

is the effluent

the hydrogen

to the oxygen

at an efficiency

cost of some

the heat

exchanger. has proven engine outlet more efficient than originally design. That expected design had considcold cooled

This cycle ering results of the 7.5K routed from

lbf thrust the pump

preliminary

hydrogen

to the regenerator,

to the regeneratively

RP'r/D04,I

7.55a

6

,J

o o

w

_ >. x

o

W _

_

!

e_
L_

M.

Z > LULL (3U-

og

n_l._ clip

_m3::)Q > n D. i-- Z m >
II I'1

m 0.. i-

II

II

_

II

7

2.1.2,

Aerojet

Dual

Propellant through flow

Expander the baffle high

Cycle

Engine,

(cont) the hydrogen but was drops turbine temperature were also high. and the baffled This

chamber drive. limited

and then This series

circuit

before

powering temperatures,

generated walls

hydrogen

by the copper

of the chamber

and baffles. drops

Pressure limited

The combination flexibility injector split design

of wall

temperature effective

and pressure remedy cooled was

the power between

of the cycle. circuit

A very

to split

the flow

and the regeneratively flow version lbf thrust within is capable to 21,000 design

chamber

as shown range

in Figure at the 20,000 wall

2.1-1.

or parallel point

of a 21:1 throttle lbf thrust). limits over

lbf thrust

(1000

Chamber the range

and baffle of thrust.

temperatures

are well

Two the LOX/GH2 from Shuttle 1990. copper Main They heat platelets Engine are very

key components (HEX). the same

in the engine

are the hydrogen copper

regenerator fabricated

and

exchanger using (SSME) compact

Both are NASA-Z technology recently

structures

demonstrated

on the Space to be operational The regenerator be used to trim in

heat exchanger and thermally

program, efficient

and expected heat exchangers. circuit. It will

functions the engine

as a pre-heater output

for the hydrogen

in the baffle valve. with

by the setting gain

of its bypass circuit

The HEX the balance

provides acquired

approximately in the oxygen entering

65% of the enthalpy cooled nozzle

in the oxygen The HEX

extension.

bypass

valve

modulates

to keep

the oxygen

the turbine

at or below

400°F.

An integral baffles. Generally Baffles they on an injector are transpiration In this engine it provides

part of the engine face are commonly cooled with

thermal used

design to enhance

are the hydrogen combustion the baffle

cooled stability.

fuel passing

through

directly but, more

into

the chamber. importantly, the total is passed mixed

the baffle area

is still designed for heat input comes from

to enhance to the hydrogen. flow

stability From

surface

40 to 60% of hydrogen and

hydrogen down one

enthalpy

change

the baffle side

circuits

where

side and back chamber

up the opposite prior

of the baffle

to be collected turbopump.

with

the regen allow cooled

hydrogen

to powering short

the hydrogen compared heating

The baffles hydrogen require,

the thrust thrust

chamber

to be relatively

to a non-baffled They The

chamber

of equivalent percent

hydrogen

capability. volume.

however,

a significant

of the chamber

barrel

section

2.1.2,

Aerojet

Dual

Propellant is increased area divided

Expander

Cycle

Engine, giving Where

(cont) an unusually storable has high propellant of 15.3. contraction engines ratio

chamber (chamber commonly 2.2

diameter injector have SCOPE

to compensate by throat ratios area).

contraction

of 2 to 4 this engine

a ratio

2.2.1

Objective The objective data of the study is to develop transfer advanced vehicle engine primes system and NASA

descriptions planners.

and

parametric

for use

by space

2.2.2

Requirements

The propellant Specific engine Figure engine engine start 2.2-1

advanced

engine developed and tank

continues under goals

the

liquid

oxygen/liquid technology 2.2-1. The

hydrogen program. baseline in

technology system and

the OTV are given

engine in Table

requirements autogenous

cycle

pressurization

requirements

are given

2.2.3

Program The

Description Engine Study is a 15-month activity 2.2-2. with five subtasks.

Advanced

The

subtasks

and 2.2.3.1

their

interrelationships 2 - Design and

are presented Parametric

in Figure Analysis

Subtask

The metric for the Contract data design NAS on advanced is the 7.5K 3-23772. •

subtask engines

objective over OTV generates cycle

is to develop a thrust engine range design

the specific of 7.5K

design

and The

parabaseline LeRC

lbf to 50K lbf. under

lbf thrust This task

developed

NASA

at a minimum, changes over

the following: the thrust range.

Needed

engine

Identification for the advanced

and

assessment engine cycle.

of advanced

technologies

needed

RI'I/I

Xk117

.SSa

9

TABLE Engine Propellants: Vacuum Thrust: Vacuum Thrust Throttling Ratio: Vacuum Specific Impulse: Engine Mixture Ratio: Chamber Pressure: Drlve Cycle: Dlmenslonal Envelope: Length (Stowed/Extended) Dlameter (Maximum) Mass: Nozzle Type: Nozzle Expansion Ratio: Propellant Inlet Temperatures: Hydrogen Oxygen Inlet Net Posltlve Suction Head: Hydrogen Oxygen Deslgn Crlterla: System

2.2-1. and Goals

Requirements

Liquid Hydrogen Liquid Oxygen 7,500 Ibf to 50,000 Ibf (Study Range) 10:1
#

6.0 (Design Point at Full Thrust) 5.0 - 7.0 (Operating Range at Full Thrust)
*

Expander

Bell With Not More Than One Extendible/ Retractable Section End of Regen Section to 1200 (Study Range) 37.8 R 162.7 R 15 ft-lbf/Ibm at Full Thrust 2 ft-lbf/Ibm at Full Thrust Human Rated Aeroassist Compatible Space Based 500 Starts/20 Hours Operation (Goal) 100 Starts/4 Hours Operation (Goal)
##

Servlce Life Between Overhauls: Service Free Life: Maximum Single Run Duration Maximum Tlme Between Flrlngs: Mlnlmum Time Between Firings: Maxlmum Storage Time In Space: Glmbal Requirement: Yaw Angle Acceleration (Maximum) Velocity (Maxlmum) Start Cycle * Englne Parametric Study Result **Vehlcle/Mlsslon Study Result

_#

#*

_tt It t#

(Figure 2.2-1)

10

C
om

B ,m

_=

>

_= _B
x._

8
a w
!

2
w_

o wW_
_

Z_ O_

0

IZ

Zw

_z_
oO

_
>D

Oz
<0

&

_>Oo
--

_0

_w

o_
Ow _
_

zz_ o<

_w Oo

_ _

°m

@

M=

Z_

_0

DD

11

m

,*,l

,,,-

w_

W

o_

0
9_'J _,Q w,.J O0 uJ IIlI

"o

.i

¢-

J
ml

UJ

cO

I

[
_1

1

T
-" _[,_1

__

.-._ [.-)

L_

0

v

)-

r,,_

I-

ei

&

_

m

OR

E

u,.

@

12

2.2.3,

Program

Description, •

(cont) design point chamber pressure for each thrust

Obtainable studied.

Appropriate ance data

thermal, for each ratios

performance, thrust. Power 7 as well

turbopump, balance data

and

power at

bal-

is obtained MR of 6, and

mixture thrust • Plots turbine • Estimates envelope. •

of 5 and

as the design point). related

at a

of 0.1X nominal are generated bypass versus

(10 to I throttle for such thrust. specific impulse, control

factors

as percent

of delivered

engine

mass,

and

engine

A preliminary including line sizes, liquid thrust

definition oxygen takeout

of the engine-to-vehicle and liquid hydrogen and gimbal Studies range (up inlet

interfaces location and

structure,

system.

2.2.3.2

Subtask Defines

3 - Engine the effect

Requirement of increased

Variation throttling and engine

to 20:1)

and

very

oxygen thrust subtask.

rich point

operation selected

(MR by the

= 12 + 1) on the design contractor but approved

performance. LeRC, is used

A single for this

by NASA

2.2.3.3

Subtask Discussion

4 - Vehicle with and

Study/Engine data supplied

Study

Coordination prime contractors

by the vehicle

shall

be used

to generate • • •

the Engine

following: maximum time time single between between time run duration.

Maximum Minimum

firings. firings. in space.

• Maximum • Gimbal

storage requirements.

KJ,r/l_,Tas,

13

2.2.3,Program Description, (cont)
This information There any was of these 2.3 insufficient items contact during the with course was to be supplied primes for each to define thrust the level. NOTE: for

the vehicle

requirements

of the study. ROCKET ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

RELEVANCE

TO CURRENT

There propulsion Launch Project under system System Pathfinder. development

are three

major

program the National

areas

currently

developing Plane (NASP), (CTP) the CTP propellants base

new

chemical

technology: and

Aerospace

the Advanced program under engines program chamcontrol

(ALS),

the Chemical engine programs

Transfer study use a common

Propulsion supports

This

advanced

work.

The

in all three

LOX/LH2 technical and

to meet

performance bers, and

requirements. by high system. cycles

All share speed

in copper

alloy

pressurization health monitoring The engine and

turbopumps,

a need

for an integrated

under

development cycles. The

include dual but

variations

of the hydrogen cycle among compared may rule the should out thrust be conis the gas to an

expander arguably generator

cycle

gas generator sophisticated

propellant variants

expander abound even

the most cycles.

of the cycles, cycles have

Expander but

the merit

of increased as engine support

efficiency thrust,

gas generator expander range sidered Also, under engine the 50%, and has cycle.

cycles,

other

considerations, study, 100K lbf.

such however,

Results

of the current cycle beyond

extending cycle up

for an expander in any engine the trade

A modem

expander

study

for a LOX/LH2 by Aerojet,

engine

development and Pratt

to 500K

lbf thrust.

innovations NASA LeRC

Rocketdyne, demonstrated

& Whitney of ways cycle. transfer

developed of enhancing Examples by about the throttle cycle technology expander cycle are 40range

contracts

have

a number of the expander heat

components

to increase ribbed chamber platelet capability. recent texts

the effectiveness work heat This to improve

Rocketdyne and engine left even the

chamber are used

Aerojet control fairly (Ref.

exchangers recent

that

to increase

improvement propulsion

in expander obsolete concerning

on rocket

capabilities.

1, p 156).

The 20th century The

most is the

important reduction

rocket

engine

development advantages was

trend

in the

last

third engine as was

of the to the

of the theoretical of the RL-10 engines

of a LOX/LH2 achievement

practise.

development

a major

R_r,'DC_iT_.

14

2.3, Relevance

to Current

Rocket

Engine

Technology,

(cont)

Space States single version results evance

Shuttle Space most

Main program important

Engine

(SSME).

Both

of these The

engines

will

see service engine

in the

United

for several space

decades.

OTV

engine/CTP

will be the and The define its rela

engine

development

of the next half

several

decades, century. help

of this engine of this advanced rocket A high engine

will likely engine engine performance

be in use study

for the first several

of the 21st that

support

statements

to current

technology: (>480 seconds specific impulse) expander cycle

1)

can be produced. engine capable of 20:1 throttling vehicles can be developed requiring engine for the throttling.

2)

A LOX/LH2 Lunar

Excursion

Vehicle

or other

3)

Oxygen are now

cooling practical.

of nozzles

and

hot oxygen

turbine

drive

for turbopumps

4)

Operation than

of a LOX/LH2 (7.94:1)

engine if the

is practical copper

at mixture

ratios

greater

stoichiometric

chamber

is given

a protective

coating.

5)

Current

copper

alloy engine,

combustion but some

chamber increased

technology capability

is acceptable can be expected

for with

an advanced continued

materials thermal

development. design and manufacturing 500 starts control techniques and and give confidence of

6)

Chamber that

a chamber/injector given (ICHM). a modern

will survive integrated

100 hours health

operation system

monitoring

7)

Current control operation

state-of-the-art and health risks proven and

in electronics monitoring extend system engine life.

and that

controls will

makes

possible

a

greatly

reduce

engine

8)

Recently static start

turbopump and engine sub-critical operation

technologies operating requirement.

such speed

as self-aligning designs help

hydromeet a 500

bearings 100 hour

2.3, Relevance 9)

to Current

Rocket

Engine

Technology,

(cont)

Platelet thermal

heat

exchanger

technology

can be used

to improve

chamber

margins.

10)

The can

Chemical now define

Transfer realistic Transfer

Propulsion performance and Lunar

program and

within operating

Project goals

Pathfinder for the main

engine 2.4 SIGNIFICANCE

for Lunar

Excursion

Vehicles.

OF THE PROGRAM

The cessfully needed reported and amply major

NASA-LeRC the Transfer are based relatively

directed propulsion Vehicle on eight moderate

LOX/LH2 industry and years cost Lunar

engine for a low Excursion

technology risk

programs

have

suc-

positioned for Lunar herein The

development The

of the engine study results fabrication should program. be The

Vehicle. design,

of study,

analysis,

hardware work

testing. repaid

of this extended engine

technology development

by the reduction of the

in risk for a full scale then, is its direct and

significance

program, Transfer

applicability

to propulsion

requirements

for the Lunar

Vehicle

Lunar

ExcursionVehicle.

The in the

engine

design The The their

baseline Soviets and have

presented

in this report have now

represents demonstrated with

a real

advance successful comStates by a the

state-of-the-art. engines.

the Japanese already held Without

LOX/LH2 panies would flight United does

Japanese engine

discussions this program

American the United presented that

on licensing have qualified States no high

technology. counter This

technology engine.

to the economic program substantiates engine

inducement

Japanese is still

the position If the

the leader however,

in LOX/LH2 its significance has great

technology.

development and of the United

not continue, lost. rocket has

will be that

of potential

wasted

opportunity States and liquid NASA

This

engine

significance when defense

for the survivability related development

industry

at a time priorities

is vanishing

conflicting

for a limited

budget.

A third form toring of computer capability.

area

of significance and

is the

general

upgrading

of design of control and

tools health

in the moniwhen in

models The

the increased tools can better

sophistication assess what

design limits

is practical This gives

or possible higher

approaching

theoretical

as the OTV

engine

does.

confidence

wr/_,Ts_

16

2.4,Significance of
designs can prior

the

Program,

(cont.)

to reducing deal new with

them

to testable and

hardware. interactions of software that will

The

new

control

sophistication cycle into a

readily while

the complexity and

of a modern algorithms greatly increase

expander

engine health operation advances

sensors

a variety system

can be integrated the safety engine.

monitoring/management over a service

of engine these

life previously

unobtainable beyond

in a rocket drawings.

Without

this engine

could

not be developed

I_]'l'/IX_llT_SSa

| "7

3.0

DISCUSSION 3.1 DESIGN AND PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

This task began engine expander the high sure, preliminary series chamber flow design

with (Ref.

a re-evaluation 2). The cycle in Figure

of the results schematic 3.1-1. work

of the 7.5K

lbf thrust is the dual was prespressure, to the barbut had by going proved version to

for that design

version

as given wall

A concern (2000

in the evaluation psia chamber

and baffle

temperatures

at full thrust idle condition the pump high

mixture

ratio of 6) and at the tank head The flow of hydrogen section and

(200 psia

chamber

mixture ties, and penalties the split that was

ratio of 5).

from

to the regenerator, hydrogen This was When temperatures corrected analysis

then to the TPA in system or parallel

turbine drop

produced wall

pressure flow were

temperature. in Figure 2.1-1.

schematic lowered

shown with

initial

temperatures adopted

no performance

penalty,

the parallel

flow

for the study. proportioner circuit. valve had to be added a worthwhile to the system addition to control the

A hydrogen hydrogen to optimize chamber. tions with split to each

This has proven of both implications

as it can be used cooled now funccooled as

the wall

temperature

the baffles

and the regeneratively life. The The regenerator chamber

This has important

for chamber to the baffles. Also,

on just the hydrogen hydrogen circuit directly is now retain

stream from

directed

is always was

the pump.

the injector flow cycle. decision as 2000

manifolding circuit.

modified respects

the baffle

independent their function

of the chamber in the engine an arbitrary engine

In all other

the components

At the outset nominal concern thrust within greater thrust chamber

of the study, pressure range had design risk.

was psia.

made

to baseline

a design by a

for each would

This was justified type Also, instabilities 2000 psia

that a 20:1 throttle chamber current pressure thermal

lead to system below High worked (see Table engine. the engine in the study

pogo

if the low was well

to be extended capabilities.

100 psia.

chamber out very 3.1-1)

pressure well and

engines

do have

development over design

This selection studied

for a 10:1 throttling accommodated a 20:1

requirement throttling

all the thrusts for a 20,000

lbf thrust bounded used

The task assignment 50K lbf. The intermediate points

thrust

range

between

7.5K

lbf and

are given

in Table

3.1-1.

The 20,000

RI_/D0417

_C,a-3.0-3 .! .2

|

+

!+
L_'_
®2
t-ic,+,m o_ _.r-

r,'J

P_

lg

3.1, Design

and

Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

lbf thrust sultation schematic, Table

point and

was direction

also

selected from the and

for the engine NASA-LeRC the five

requirements program monitor.

variation With

tasks

after

conengine

a baseline (see

chamber could

pressure, be generated.

thrusts,

the actual

study

results

3.1-2)

3.1.1

Engine

and

Cycle

Definition

TABI.E ADVANCED ENGINE STUDY

3.1-1 SELECTION RATIONALE

THRUST

7.5K

lbf

OTV

Program thrust

baseline;

results

available. Lunar Transfer Vehicle of payload. LTV/LEV for and

20K lbf

Minimum Lunar

for a 4 engine Vehicle lbf total losses. for three engine with thrust

Excursion a 100K gravity thrust (LTV)

40 to 50,000-1b for a 4 engine

25K lbf

Provides minimum

35K lbf

Nominal vehicle

LEO-to-moon

orbit

transfer

50K lbf

Nominal thrust stage,

thrust

for two engine engine

LTV.

This

is also

half

the

of the baseline and results Assembly Liner with -- The

for the LEO-to-Mars to that

transfer thrust.

could

be extrapolated

3.1.1.1

Thrust a.

Chamber Chamber

chamber

liner

is a copper on the

alloy

billet The basemetal-

machined line lurgy alloy

to final

dimensions ALl5 is pure matrix. over material

milled

coolant

channels

backside. using

is GLIDCOP This metal capability

manufactured copper The pure small copper with

by the SCM 0.15%

Company oxide oxide low was

powder

techniques. the

aluminum of aluminum

(A1203) greatly

dispersed improves life of the

throughout the machining material. TCA

amount and

enhances alloy which

the

cycle selected

fatigue

An alternate

is the NASA-Z

for the 3.0K

RlVl-/DO417 _Sa. 3.0.3.!

._

20

TABLE EXPECTED RESULTS

3.1-2 PARAMETRIC STUDY

OF THE

Weight, three

Envelope intermediate Balance

and

Performance plus

Predictions a 50K Thrust maximum.

for Engines

at 7.5K

and

at

points Results

Power

at Each

• •

Changes Assessment

in Cycle

and/or

Components

on Scale-Up Thrust Level

of 20:1 Throttling

at a Selected

Assessment thrust level

of high

mixture

ratio

performance

(MR

of 12) at a selected

• •

Identification Preliminary

of Critical Engine/Vehicle

Technologies Interface Requirements

• •

Innovative Interchange

Design with

Solutions vehicle

or Technologies at NASA-MSFC Conferences

primes

Preliminary Vehicle (LTV)

DDT&E and

costs Lunar

for a common Excursion

engine

for the

Lunar

Transfer

Vehicle

(LEV)

Propulsion

analysis

for various

mission

and

operational

scenarios

Final

report

suitable

for use

by vehicle

primes

in assessing

propulsion

requirements

R_"_/l_._7-sso-r

21

3.1, Design

and Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

design.

GLIDCOP

is a dispersion than NASA-Z

hardened as yield

material strength

less sensitive and volume 3.1-3

to the high changes and 3.1-4. are

radiation

environment negligible

of space for expected

mission

radiation

doses.

See Tables

The low improved tional the using stresses. through design converging, use

cycle

fatigue

life and chamber for the coolant in the sections. chamber throat The

thermal channels. with

performance A convenwidening variation induced

are

of a microchannel would use

design

channel

30 mil channels and barrel

channel

in

chamber

diverging, appreciably

temperature to higher design

the 30 mil channels The small reduces

shortens

life due

temperature stresses around for most and

variation improves a blocked effective

in the micro-channel reliability coolant cooling as adjacent channel. with LeRC lowest funded

(11 rail channels, can adevaries The program. basic

10 mil lands) quately in both channel cool width design

channels

the material and was 8) depth

Channel pressure cooled

geometry drop. throat

demonstrated

in the NASA

(See Reference

b. oped under NASA LeRC

Liner

Closeout

--

The

liner

closeout with

utilizes two metals

technology

devel-

contract

for electroforming closeout program. a thinner that could was This closeout be used but

simultaneously.

A nickel cooled

cobalt throat

(NiCo) for the

electroformed 3.0K lbf TCA allowing closeout

demonstrated bimetal and alloy improved

on the hydrogen has 3 times cycle life. and Nickelin could the strength

of a nickel Alternatives Chromium.

electroform, to the Strength NiCo

are Nickel-Manganese there could

would process

be about that would given

the same, give higher

be an improvement liners. copper lbf thrust and This liners. TCA a length will

the electroforming be an important

yields of the E The

of finished machined 20,000

consideration c.

the high

value

Dimensions

and Manifolds a barrel The

chain(L')

ber

has

a throat The

diameter contraction

of 2.5 inches, ratio

diameter hydrogen

of 10 inches, inlet filter manifold

of 12 inches. at a position integral cause part a flow

is 15.3. ratio.

be attached as an

equivalent of the

to a 28:1 area to protect manifold

A platelet

will be designed from any flow debris

manifold The

the microchannels will be designed

that

could and

blockage.

for even

distribution,

RPT/DOt

17.._a-3.0-3,1.2

22

Table CTP Engine

3.1-3 Selection

Materials

THRUST

CHAMBER

ASSEMBLY

IN A HIGH RADIATION

ENVIRONMENT

Swelling

of Neutron

Irradiated Volume

Copper

Alloys After Irradiation 15 dpa 2.

% Increase

Material Copper: Marz**grade (99.999%) OF grade (99.95%) DS Copper: C15720 C15760 Precipitation Hardened: Cu-Zr Cu-Mg-Zr-Cr

3 dpa 1.

1.8 2.1

6.8 6.6

0.8 1.1

0.9 0.6

nil nil

3.6 nil

1. 2.

3 dpa corresponds 15 dpa corresponds

to fluence to fluence

of 0.4 x 1026 n/m 2 (En > 0.1 MeV) of 0.4 x 1026 n/m 2 (En > 0.1 MeV)

dpa = displacements Trade Name SCM Metal Products Cleveland, Ohio

per atom

17.44-7a/rV1

23

.c_
0_ _ (30,--0 U') ,q" (.O _'O O o00,¢ (,O I._ u3

er

uJ o
t_ 0 ',d" "¢
.,,r..,r.

O
('_J

_10 T--

.v',r-_

o3

oc01_

_OOLO 0_000

_ '_" O') C0 '_1" (O

¢..O (.O ',_

_,-o4 o000_

'_:t ',¢ o3

C

_..O .T- O')

I_0O (3")o1",,. OOO0O3

•,- O'_ '_f" o3 I'_ co

f_ r_ O CO _,8 CO ',,onOlo 000,m -r m
.o °.

"Oi/3 cO.,-

goc.o
O c..

c"

i

.o
°°

N

OLO o

I.O

_m

6_
rO

0

O o go a

go
13_

:b

I--g0 rO

2..4

3.1, Design each coolant hydrogen channel

and

Parametric

Analysis, checked and

(cont) compared at the for acceptable uniformity. The to the

will be flow

hydrogen turbopump.

is collected

in a manifold

top of the chamber

for routing

d. and collection inlets two manifolds

Injector

--

The

injector flow

is unusual

in that

it incorporates 3.1-1A) also dome and flow

inlet as well circuits as

for the hydrogen and and oxygen their

to the baffles

(Figure There are The pitch

the usual for the also has

for hydrogen igniters for attaching 3.1-3). (1)

for combustion. laser ignition actuators

GOX/GH2

source. for the

of the injector yaw gimbal (as

a structure in Figure

the gimbal

illustrated

Element is the length

Design I-triplet. of eight

- The

highest

performing very high nearly energy

oxy100% energy in such addressed and injector peris a

gen/hydrogen release short efficiency combustion

injector

element

It delivers inches. The

in a chamber length poses

release has

a chamber contract

compatibility by tailoring to chamber

problem. the element or baffle

Aerojet

this in Task energy will

C.4 of the OTV for element versions element

engine position

performance walls. The and

release five

in relation

have

of the element is designed heat

for maximum for gas-gas exchanger stability This

chamber The and

compatibility oxygen phase entering

formance. accomplished chamber over

This

mixing. (HEX) with

change the

in the LOX/GH2 is in the wide gas phase. range

all oxygen

Combustion

gas-gas

elements for a throttling fluctuations

is excellent range of

a very

of chamber thrust region. (2) bands

pressures. or potential

is needed ratio

20:1 without transits the

excluded two-phase

mixture

as the oxygen

(See Ref. 3). Face Bleed the and - The face, injector has precise wall, and cost etched flow passages plates release near effiin

for hydrogen the injector. The

face This precise

bleed increases

for cooling injector

the chamber

the baffle to energy

chamber used

life at some for face

ciency. the detail struct baselined inum such (See

percentage but and should baffle lbf thrust not

of hydrogen exceed 6%.

bleed

will be determined face bleed and copper

design,

A means instead Recent thrust

of reducing of nickel extensive chambers

is to conas was of platthe risk of

the injector in the metal

plates

of platinum design. engine with

7.5K

engine for rocket it consistent

development has reduced

series

technology and made

all approach Ref. 4)

an ultra-high

performance

engine

design.

RI'T/DI_417.SSa-3.0-3.12

2

_

_-I

_'::'°' /

j,

log 189.035

Figure 3.1-1A

Our Regeneratively Cooled Baffles Provide a Dual Function as an Added Heat Transfer Surface as Well as a Combustion Stability Damping Device

25A

3.1, Design

and

Parametric (3)

Analysis, Injector independent well

(cont) Concept - The spoke These and small hub baffle design areas are breaks readily 1/4

the injector constructed inch body centered covers ment the which thick

face using sections the

into

several

sections. platelet welded posts the are

injector The

Aerojet's

developed beam

technology. and/or pierce element. welded manifolds. brazed the

approximately injector and

will be electron hydrogen element circuit. opening

to the inconel manifold

to form

Oxygen to complete Oxygen

hydrogen The dome

are

in each oxygen also part mixing.

of the injector of this compart-

compartment. divides the

posts

to the base This

hydrogen joints and flow two Baffle as their

and

oxygen there

is a substantial hydrogen and

structural oxygen

with Both the

all welded the oxygen hydrogen the (4)

to assure hydrogen passages ports.

will be no internal

compartments into and out

are partially of the baffles.

segmented They are also

to accommodate tailored

to accommodate

ignitor

Construction function

- The

baffle

flow the heat

circuits input the

are indepento the injector hydrointo to to

dent gen. small

of injector A secondary compartments gas. The

flow

circuits

is to increase

function

is combustion a high

stability. proportion heat

The baffles of wall transferred area

divide in close

to maintain From hydrogen that

proximity

combustion the baffles. cular

40 to 60% of the total is distributed

to the

hydrogen by two

is due semi-cir-

to the baffle used the

compartments to collect mechanical flows

manifolds cooled and the

are welded This

to the manifold weld line forms The

hydrogen connection

flowing between the baffles,

from the

the regen injector around

chamber. regen and up cooled

chamber. side

hydrogen

down system baffle

into

the tip,

the back that are

to a separate to the manifolds and space outlet

collector top side which manifolds

terminating inlet

in two The

semi-circular basic drogen allow injector flow

manifolds design circuits. ports has The

welded

of the

manifold. the hysections

three baffle

separate inlet

are stacked are divided

to form in two

to

the igniter

the necessary

to function.

The tor face. collectors may tors have are They are built up

actual

baffle sections.

plates They

extend are

above

and

below

the and

injecoutlet

as discrete The

welded

to the inlet and outlet

a section

at a time. as there of nickel

sealing

surface

between means

the inlet of welding copper

collector The collec-

to be brazed constructed

is no convenient 200. The baffles are

the joint.

NASA-Z

in the baseline

3.1, Design and Parametric Analysis, (cont) design, but
assembly the are are may be constructed and thermal have with a unit. bonding. of platinum margins a common or platinum required. liquids etched Both alloy the depending copper/nickel is possible. hydrogen machined of the 7.5K on the system The flow to the lbf TCA and

techniques

nickel/platinum formed diffusion from

system platelets into after

so welding passages

baffles which

chemically The

for the is finish

bonded

rounded

baffle

end

correct baffle

dimensions plate.

See Figure

3.1-2 for a cutaway

The of the injector pierced ment gen the the onto oxygen and yaw by the is formed post ignitor engine inside. ports. feeds body oxygen when used

injector

segments compartment. be centered are

are welded The

or brazed

to the

portion is eleoxyof of

as a hydrogen that must

dome

of this compartment The with the complete respective

posts

in the elements. fitted into from ignitor place

the injector

segments

Hydrogen A similar the oxygen dome

is fed to the passage

compartment to the The

a passage port

adjacent

to one side is welded of the

adjacent

on the opposite dome top

compartment. a circumferential extension This injector used

oxygen fusion

compartment weld. At the point into

the hydrogen dome gimbal

with

center

is a cylindrical system. and

as an attachment is slipped

for the

+6 ° pitch openings to

assembly Final

the conforming the injector

in the baffle be welded manifold good braze

assembly to the baffle

manifolds. and the body with

assembly dome

requires to be welded

segments outlet forms a

plates

oxygen

to the baffle alloy and same joint that that alloy. material low

structure. and/or and

The weld

injector joint

will be an inconel injector face

or monel plates,

the nickel

can be used Differences limits temperto the for

for both in thermal the

oxygen

hydrogen

service. must

Manifolds be kept assembly hydrogen given

will be of the within bonded

coefficients thermal baffle cooled

of expansion cycling. circuit The

expected as the has

injector

will operate and the

at fairly

atures injector and

is fed by liquid from heat

hydrogen

stream heat

considerably

up in the LOX/GH2

exchanger

regenerator. e. Stress Relief and Component from damaging Mounting stress Structure or side loads. inlet -The throat This is acmanifold. expansion structure The of for

area

of the chamber by using

must

be protected structure

complished connection the chamber side loads

a "can" manifold

and extends

to the hydrogen

to the inlet

is a sliding direction

joint that allows but acts as a rigid

for thermal stress takeout

in the longitudinal (See Figure 3.1-3).

RPT/D0417.55a-3.0-3.1.2

27

Oxidizer Dome

I Oxygen Inlet

I ,i

I
I

Injector Fuel Manifold

Baffle

Additional Injector Elements

Figure 3.1-2. 7.5K Ibf OTV Injector/Baffle Flow Circuit

28

- -

_

Vehicle Interface (Station 100)

Attachment Structure for + 6 ° Gimbal Actuators

Thrust

Takeout--re,(1 of 2)

Assembly

Component Mounting Can Assembly Rotated 90 ° from True Position Gimbal Ring

Gimbal Oxygen Inlet Manifold

Attachment Inlet

to Hydrogen Manifold

en Cooled

Nozzle

Figure

3.1-3.

OTV

Engine

TCA

Sketch

Showing

Can and Gimbal

Attachments

29

3.1, Design

and

Parametric This

Analysis, "can"

(cont) serves as a convenient the two turbopumps to mount mounting structure for varon it. and to sta-

ious

engine

components. extending lines f. from

In particular,

will be mounted valves

Bracketry bilize

the can will be used wire bundles.

the various

the many

and electrical Gimbal

Structure-This requires inlet the

The throat that

gimbal

system

must the

also serve circular box The actuators, and

as a thrust gimbal gimbal however, are

takeout

structure. to the hydrogen

the flanges be of fairly for a true

connecting robust throat They are

structure structure are

manifold plane

construction. gimbal. placed The

is located located to the pivots change the throat the

near

throat above

on the structure cylindrical the engine from

the engine. injector oxidizer gimbal

90 ° apart of the

connected rods and yaw

top of the about the

dome. point

Movement combination takeout

actuator pitch plished actuator

throat

in any thrust

of +6 °

a centered system loads

thrust

vector.

Actual

is accomstructure. The

where rods

gimbal inertia

attaches related

to the engine to moving

mounting

see only

this engine

mass.

3.1.1.2

Oxygen a.

Cooled

Nozzle detailed design has alloy been swaged completed tube for the oxythat 35. All is

Concept baseline

m No concept

gen

cooled and extend

nozzle. then

The

is a copper The inlet and doubled ring

bundle ratio The

welded tubes extend nozzle

contoured

on a mandrel. limit They for forming are then

manifold then back

is at area bifurcated.

to the practical ratio they of 600:1. are

are

bifurcations of the

to area where

for half

the length

terminated

at the outlet

manifold.

An alternative per ical bility with design three platelet structure structure that that would formed formed is needed have would be formed from two

to the swaged in sections contour

and brazed that are

tube then

bundle welded

is a copinto a con-

be formed

to the final copper that the

on a mandrel. are explosively

A third welded

possitogether A

is a structure flow passages study that

sheets could

that

by material to select some

be removed

by melting Figure 3.1-4

or solution. shows the

trade concepts

best

configuration.

received

study.

RI "I'/DO4 |7 -r"5-3"0"3 "I"2 a

30

a m i-

Q. 4) 0 C 0

C)

I
§

m

C 0

xr-_

M_

C X LLI N N 0

z
"0 0 0

|

m

i Q° I
A

a

,f.e4

IJ.

:o.!! J!
.

,,i
_n, c

31

3.1, Design

and 3.1.1.3

Parametric Radiation

Analysis, Cooled

(cont) Nozzle

Material materials joint lighter requires require are a 2 directional are not

selection wound

governs carbon-carbon

the

design

configuration. and

The

candidate The will be

composite, material. The

columbium.

temperatures but does

compatible the

with

either

carbon-carbon The

have

established

reliability

of the columbium. The both The carbon-carbon and

columbium would

a silicide a silicon nozzle

or other carbide would

coating impregnated have two

to prevent layer stiffening exit and sections performance.

oxidation. to control rings. where

erosion

oxidation. nozzle

The would

columbium have a thicker

carbon-carbon for the

section Both

at the nozzle would have

the pads

retraction/extension weight. Both

assembly would

attach. be contoured

of varying

thickness

to reduce

for optimum

The by 28 volt cable and drive gives DC electric shaft a doubly inside

retraction/extension motors. a circular The three tube. capability reliability that

mechanism motors This shaft are

uses

three

jackscrews connected motor motor

driven by a steel operation can operby the

mechanically

assures

synchronized as any one

redundant The

to the of such

mechanism a mechanism design. engine.

ate all three millions

jackscrews. door

is demonstrated The motors and 3.1-5.

of garage

openers

are of a similar at the top of the

cable

way

are attached

to the gimbal

structure

See Figure

The ments. many ratio sealing The times seal

attachment finger

to the nozzle leaf seal that

and

the

seal

are

critical and

design the

eleseal

is a double significant pressure design an over Oxygen

can readily leak about

make rate.

break the seal

without

wear across intent emphasis

or an increased the seal is to have is only

With

at an area the

of 600, the gas problem. without 3.1.1.4

0.3 psia. seal capable

This

simplifies nozzle

The

a rugged rates.

of many

movements

on leakage

Boost

Pump

The design mance takes problem. potential. the oxygen The Aerojet The

low has

propellant determined head and

tank that rise, boosts

pressures two

pose

a very units stage for feed of the

difficult give the

turbopump best pump high perforthat speed TPA pump

separate four

first

is a low pressure

low speed

boost to the first

at vapor boost

it to 55 psia by a portion

turbopump.

pump

turbine

is driven

stage

RPT/DO417.55a-3.0-3.1.2

32

Throat Glmbal Clearance Zone Ox Tank Pressurization Valve Engine-out Glmbal Centerllne _ t

Throat

Glmbal

Brackets

Nozzle Retractlon Motor (3) 28 Volt DC Motor

/

)t

\\

/

j\\
Flexible Raceway Fuel Tank Pressurization Valve Pitch & Yaw Glmbal Attachment

/

Figure

3.1-5.

7.5K

ibf Thrust

OTV

Engine

(Top

View)

33

3.1, Design output. ation pump

and

Parametric outlet flow

Analysis,

(cont) with design in-series connect Assembly is of the design in the NASA section, lineage LeRC two of the 3.0K lbf thrust funded pump OTV engine stages, and (GOX) operates a full (current with a oxythe pump output. The low elements. flowmeters. turbopump. speed oper-

Turbine allows

is combined ball bearing the dual, motion

a conventional just below

for the rotating vortex generation

This boost Flexible

is installed needed 3.1.1.5

line sections

for gimbal Oxygen

it to the high

speed

Turbopump TPA

The oxygen gen TPA program. admittance testing developed (See and partially

tested

Ref. 5 and 6).

It has an inducer by 400°F

turbine

to be driven

(maximum) The

gaseous rotating

oxygen assembly

limited

to ambient

temperature There

GOX). is no need

hydrostatic system. monel selected further diamond diamond, pure

bearing Materials

assembly. selected where

for an interpropellant and nickel in low These

seal or a purge stress materials areas, were areas are and

for the TPA material with plating

are copper

400 and for best protected film

K-500

strength oxygen,

is demanded. but the potential surfaces

compatibility by silver

rub or friction and a newly

on the non-moving elements. a thermal

developed of than is

coating

on the moving of teflon, and

This diamond conductivity and coatings unassisted

film has the hardness several times driven greater

the slickness With

copper.

this selection

of materials

the GOX (i.e., rubbing)

LOX TPA starts

capable required

of full service in the tank

life and all the required head start operation.

bearing

3.1.1.6

Hydrogen The low

Boost speed

Pump hydrogen boost stage pump pump is very driven similar by hydrogen is 55 psia. from in design from It is located TPA low suit. speed to the the in

low first

speed stage

oxygen

boost

pump. TPA.

It is a four Rated

of the hydrogen below line the

pressure and

at full thrust is separated motion

the line just by flexible speed boost

hydrogen that

flowmeters

the hydrogen Both

sections are

accommodate that

the gimbal can be reached with suitable area that

requirements.

pumps changeout are

in an area

by an astronaut line disconnects. likely

in a space The require high engine

Component TPAs, removal

will be possible packaged (See Figure

however,

in a restricted 3.1-6).

would

for access.

RI'I'/I

)_ ¼ t 7 .c,.C,a- 3.I)-3.1.2

34

1
E
0 I-|

c-

a 0
N N

.J r-

.__
(n c_

¢-

E

\
Q. ec-

0

_>
_3

O
|

>
U) U)

e4

Q_
t)

I,i.

rn
X

0

35

3.1, Design

and Parametric 3.1.1.7 Hydrogen Aerojet

Analysis,

(cont) Assembly a hydrogen TPA very similar in concept engine stages in the same which CTP shaft speed Engine, will rotate does the at to

Turbopump has developed This engine. separate provides the normal and

that which and

needed

for the thrust

CTP

engine.

TPA is used That

on the Air design

Force features shafts

XLR-134

is a low two turbines This the

LOX/LH2 between

engine

six pump contained

divided double critical shaft

contra-rotating for a stout operating balance

housing. not exceed design whatever thrust

system over

rotating range.

assembly For the Each

speed

provides speed is about

for an easier is needed 190,000 The very rpm. tight

assembly

procedure. but

for the output All bearings clearances

requirements, are hydrostatic with a hydrostatic and

maximum

at rated life require temperature

to meet bearing over

operatir/g system the wide

requirements. careful range materials needed

selection for cryogenic high flow

so that

expansion

contraction bind the must

operation

do not either Materials

assembly also lack

or produce susceptibility to

unacceptably hydrogen

around

the bearing.

embrittlement.

3.1.1.8

Hydrogen A regenerator

Regenerator is a heat section This exchanger used to transfer heat from directed usable energy heat the hy-

drogen through

gas exiting the baffle the and

the flow

turbine circuit.

of the TPA converts what

to the hydrogen was waste heat from

stream into the One

for driving exchanger erator overall nology devices. rounded tions. The

turbopump. immediately the hydrogen temperature. developed

The

regenerator from going

is downstream the engine into

LOX/GH2 effect

upstream stream The

injector. The

of the regen-

is to cool injector originally

the injector.

result Aerojet

is a lowered platelet techflow with connecdesign AT's are for the aid regenused in give

regenerator but

is an example finding wide shaped

of the application much

for injectors block used flow

in various

In appearance, structures very fine,

it is a short being

of metal

like a dogbone outlet line

at the ends close

for hydrogen passages

inlet

and

proximity heat transfer the platelets weight

characteristic (See Figure The baseline a silver is to use

of platelet 3.1-7). High

an exceptionally maintained erator the

efficient

structure. streams. either

by counter-flowing copper light

two

materials bonding

are zirconium

with

or nickel beryllium

brazing.

A proposed

alternative

platelets.

Rl'IV_lT_5,-a.0-3.1.2

36

C

C
m ,m

m

a
fJ fJ fJ fJ
II. m

0 e= _=

0

C fJ
|

0

fJ fJ

*0

e=
om

l,J I fi "10 (.1 rm > "10

i

< r,:
I

I1 0 0 0 0 0 0

37

3.1, Design

and Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

3.1.1.9

Liquid The

Oxygen/Gaseous is a critical

Hydrogen element

Heat

Exchanger of the

(HEX) dual expander drive

HEX

in the operation heating one-half

engine. gas

The

engine oxygen

cycle

depends

on the efficient The HEX provides gained

of oxygen to two

for turbine thirds of the

for the

turbopump. needed with the

enthalpy gen out

change

balance

in the oxygen with

cooled

nozzle. coming heat

The from

oxythe

of the high TPA the poor and

pressure outlet. transfer

pump This

is counter gives

flowed high

hydrogen

hydrogen despite appearance passages passages hydrogen prevent oxygen At rated should exiting to have

turbine heat general

a very

AT for efficient The HEX

transfer in more flow flow

characteristics to the with

of oxygen. regenerator. flowrate flow

is similar with

construction pressure drop

It is larger, of oxygen.

to minimize will side unmixed changes thrust take stream depart in that

the high

The used

oxygen on the

from they

the straight will include Two

rectangular turbulence phase and flow

passage

design

generating is caused a problem

devices/geometries by rapid at low and film boiling

to as the

two phase from a liquid

flow.

to a gas

is only

pressure the phase

operation. change change as the

the oxygen uneventfully. enters heat zirconium

traversing The

the HEX HEX cooled

is supercritical

place next

is the preferred nozzle. The

site of the phase oxygen cooling monel must

the oxygen transfer copper

be homogeneous The materials

predictable are

characteristics or NASA-Z

for a critical platelets with

task. and/or

for the HEX tubing

inconel

for propellant 3.1.1.10

inlet/outlet. Engine Valves and Basic Engine Control

The See Figure their 2.1-1 for the

flight valve

engine position below:

requires in the

a set of 12 valves schematic. The

for normal major control

operation. valves and

functions

are described

a. divide cooled the cold chamber hydrogen and

Hydrogen stream

Flow from baffle

Proportioner the pump into

Valve two

--

This

valve feeding

is used

to

streams position to either possible.

the regen split. It

the engine to adjust

plates. +25%

Its neutral of total flow are

is at a 50-50 circuit. It will power flow split.

can be commanded existing DC motor reliability. design driven The

the flow and

There

is no

for this valve valve dominant with

several

mechanisms coils with

be a 28 volt sources The for valve

separate mode

drive

independent to a centered

failure

is to fail safe

RPr/l_iT._s_-33.la _

38

3.1, Design is commanded controller TPA tion to the the low

and Parametric to a particular computed This sets must

Analysis, position optimize

(cont) representing the hydrogen with going valves has a flow-split stream that temperature the engine going bypass regenerator to the posi-

has

will

turbine. which baffles.

be done split

in conjunction

the regenerator through the

valve

the flow Any

for the hydrogen of these valve two

or directly of At to

missetting bypass

is compensated independent flow through

by an adjustment feedback loop.

hydrogen thrust

turbine operation

which

its own more

the proportioner rise while

will direct

the chamber will go to full

control bypass. circuit energy

the bulk At full with

temperature thrust a larger flow TPA.

the regenerator of the hydrogen

bypass flow This will gives

valve

portion through

be directed the greatest

to the baffle thermal

maximum

the regenerator.

to the hydrogen b.

Hydrogen baffle flow

Regenerator through during

Bypass

Valve

--

This

valve

can

direct

all

but

25% of the hydrogen margin the valve always that goes and

the regenerator. overthrust balanced The or other with the

The

25% is reserved operation. so that have operation minor

as a

control When flow

can be reduced open

abnormal regenerator

is fully through

it is pressure

some

the regenerator. flow needed

regenerator chamber

line pressure

may

to be orificed is missettings The valve of fail-

to assure attained. this valve ure will mode

the minimum above, the

for low

As noted by changing of this

the turbine amount

bypass of hydrogen with

valve

accommodates around

bypassed

the turbine. The

valve

is fail-in-place 28 volt Idle

fail-full-open with This

as an alternative. independent valve is designed open power

be powered

by redundant c. Hydrogen tank

DC motors Valve n

supplies. mixpres-

to provide a low

ture sure and

ratio drop closed

control passage

during to the

head

start. On light

On start off the ratio

it is fully valve the total

to provide between turbine and

injector.

modulates hydrogen hydrogen open

full open bypass valve flow the

to assist effective.

in setting Mixture

the mixture ratio

until from

becomes rates. only

is computed designed is to change has the lowest drops.

oxygen operation,

With possible

the

main

shutoff ratio The

valves control

for simple

or closed drop but idle

mixture circuit.

the pressure tank The pressure hydrogen

in either the valve

the oxygen circuit to for

or hydrogen has open a tank more

oxygen

hydrogen

components pressure start

adding drop path the

pressure for some relatively

is positioned balanced

a low head

of the hydrogen. small idle line

With is capable

the circuits

condition,

of the control

needed

RPT/DOll

7.55a- 3._3.1.2

39

3.1, Design and Parametric Analysis, (cont) using a modulating valve. The valve is designed to
that normal system TPA. turbine the other Its failure pressurization signal valve can continue should can also under be given responsibility valve must hydrogen hydrogen Unlike closing. valve. A "close" bypass modulating position close at line pressures output of 200 psia from when ratio leak the the control. free seal on so

increased

by the controller for mixture make a tight, is also

assume the idle

valves, is closed.

Electrical

redundancy

needed

for this

d. leling hydrogen through capable should the circuit through the turbine through

Hydrogen the

Turbine TPA the

Bypass turbine.

Valve

--

This

valve

is in a line paraldirects all flow valve it margin will and When start the a

hydrogen With will

Closing there

the valve will

the turbine. as the circuits at any

valve

full open

still be some

be pressure from closed

balanced. to full open. control engine

It is a modulating At nominal This The thrust control controller thrust

of stabilizing be at the

position position or other position

10% bypass for overthrust to a particular It will ratio new then

for normal abnormal

authority. operation.

can be invaded direct mixture thrust the valve ratio. or mixture

corresponding based on feedback the

to the commanded as to actual turbine bypass bypass

modulate

operation. bypass will

change position.

is commanded The After hydrogen

oxygen

movement the change hydrogen tuning. erator ature bypass circuits thrust flowrate useful

to the

turbine turbine final

valve valve change

will follow has stabilized,

so that the ratio

is synchronized. turbine bypass valve hydrogen to the The both from

the oxygen the

valve

will make

position initial

for mixture

The bypass and

bypass and

will also

compensate valves

for any

missetting

of the regentemperto the and 10% oxygen

proportioner turbine. This uses mixture pressure. speed

as reflected

by the hydrogen up

pressure

compensation flowmeter ratio

will be automatic readings

minimum. to derive calculated calculated at low thrust

controller thrust chamber and

for the hydrogen This is correlated

information. readings

with with

Flowmeter and output

are also This the

compared is particularly errors.

from

turbopump where

pressure. have

operation

flowmeter

readings

greatest

e. the turbine judged is controlled better prior

HEX

Bypass

Valve

--

The valve.

temperature This the HEX valve

of the oxygen

entering side is as

by the

HEX bypass

is on the hydrogen the phase from

it was

to route

all oxygen the oxygen

through cooled

to assure hot

change the

completed

to entering

nozzle.

The

hydrogen

RI'T/DO417

55a-3.0-3.1.2

40

3.1, Design

and Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

TPA oxygen power

turbine TPA

discharge to give

is counterflowed the oxygen about The

with two bypass

the liquid

oxygen

just

discharged needed flow

from to on of

the

thirds valve

of the enthalpy adjusts

change

the oxygen from and from

TPA

turbine. turbine

the hydrogen

based

feedback 400°F

the oxygen the controller thrust.

inlet

temperature positioning the oxygen

for a not-to-exceed corresponding turbine bypass

maximum to the valve will be

for an initial This there valve and

commanded closely instance,

engine

synchronized on receiving position

so that

is no controls

"hunting" the oxygen turbine to hold

during HEX

thrust

changes. will At that and

For go to

a throttle until valve

up command the oxygen

bypass

valve 400°F.

the 25% bypass point, bypass hydrogen regenerator temperature bypass (based the will turbine hold

to the

approaches the selected

bypass a stable

will modulate This

thrust

the HEX as the

temperature. to the regenerator

adds

stability within

to the hydrogen a narrow of movement 25% bypass range.

circuit The to

temperature bypass

will stay a small will operate to cover similar Bypass

valve,

then, The balance

has

only

amount from

related to about range. bypass

compensation. on power

valve runs)

100%

the engine to the Valve

operating

Specifications

for this valve f.

will be very Turbine commands thrust. After pressure The

hydrogen -This

turbine valve

valve.

Oxygen

is used position information

for engine coron total corin step At that engine as perThe table" and a

thrust

control.

The to the

controller desired and

it to move the move is used hydrogen

to a designated feedback the position

responding propellant responding with time

is made, to trim turbine

flowrate to actual

chamber thrust.

to a setting moves

engine

bypass position

valve

the oxygen the hydrogen ratio.

turbine turbine oxygen linear

bypass bypass turbine with

valve valve

until

the designated

is reached. commanded control

will modulate valve was master

to establish selected control

mixture cent

The is very

bypass

for thrust valve position

bypass

thrust.

It is the valve

for the engine. in a "look-up

technique for setting position

of commanding thrust indicator requires of high

a modulating both well

to a specific valve

established and accuracy.

operating

characteristics

reliability oxygen with are good

The materials various found ceramic compatible materials

turbine hot oxygen. candidates.

bypass

valve

must

be fabricated several

from and

Copper,

nickel,

of the monels,

RPT/,X_tT_,-3.0-3 1_

41

3.1, Design

and

Parametric g.

Analysis, Ignitor ignitor the have Valves

(cont) m Simple lines. hydrogen poppet The type valves valve are will suitable have for use a calicavities for

on the one brated cooling. Ignitor two must leak

quarter path

inch around will

propellant seat to allow

hydrogen flow through actuation ignitors

the ignitor coils laser

Each flow

valve is routed

dual separate two line

redundant ignitors. separate pressures.

electrical These

for reliability. ignition The with valves

to two and psia)

use

lasers close

in each at high

ignitor (>300

power

supplies

for reliability.

3.1.1.11

Engine Aerojet

Controller has developed that an engine controller for the Advanced engine requirements.

Launch

System 3.1.1.12

(ALS)

engine

can be readily System Engine baselined. overall

modified

to CTP

Health This

Monitoring CTP Advanced system to meet

was

designed All engine

with

an integrated will data and

control have is evalu-

and

health

monitoring sensors monitor are used decisions. of hydrogen

(ICHM) selected

components Sensor streams

designed-in ated by health

system

requirements. Selected data controller,

algorithms for immediate

in a computer. action

computed for later lower Should engine

information maintenance flowrate throat controller ratio change

by the engine throttle-down reduces monitor thrust

or stored the

As an example, through the regen 800°F

during chamber

operation cooling will will

effectiveness. signal require the

temperature that

approach continued

the health at the flow

system load

operation hydrogen to direct and prior some

selected

a mixture in the pro-

to increase valve setting

(and hydrogen

chamber

cooling)

or a change circuit. failure fact that

portioner making would making intelligence

more extend

to the chamber More pressing The

This

is decision-

to protect lead

hardware

its life.

indications this is a decisionand artificial

to a shutdown supports

to a catastrophic software development

failure. using

system

expert

systems

techniques. 3.1.2 Power Balance

A rocket puted at a particular point

engine within

power

balance

is an energy envelope.

and

mass

balance

comdoes

the engine

operating

If a computation

RI'I'/D¢_417.5S

a-3.0-3.1.2

42

3.1, Design

and

Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

balance point

(i.e., there

is a solution within

within the engine

the capability operating

of the engine envelope.

components),

then

the

is, by definition, indicated the selected points the

If there

is no balance number An array by Aerojet could of iteraof balto be sub-

(generally tions), ance define stituted Figure the 7.5K

by a failure point is outside

to close

on a solution

after a defined envelope. ratio is used

of the engine pressure versus

operating mixture

on a plot of chamber engine operating pressure

envelope. to generate envelope

Thrust

or total

propellant

flowrate

for chamber 3.1-10

similar

operating flow

envelopes. dual expander

As an example, cycle used in

is the operating engine

for the series

lbf thrust

design.

3.1.2.1

Power

Balance

Development

A power through gram 3 or 4 iterations from data input

balance

can be hand

calculated OTV

from engine

the basic power savings

equations balance was It is now a series ill flow pro-

in about to printout

4 hours. takes

The Aerojet 15 minutes.

about

This

time

achieved

at a heavy

input with

of programming the most recent cycle.

hours modeling

in developing required

the code. from

its fifth generation to a parallel flow

to change

dual

expander

Each the program. components. five selected Figure

active gives

component some

must

be modeled

for a look-up used

table

within

3.1-11

examples

of the algorithms designs

for various at each true turcalculated on of the of the

For this study thrusts

actual

preliminary

had to be defined This was design

for accurate

component injectors. 3.1-5

modeling. The initial

particularly point for each curves curve, table.

turbopumps bopump (Figures the curves

and the thrust was determined 3.1-12 and 3.1-13).

chamber (See Tables

and 3.1-6)

and performance for each

An equation to an array

is then

developed

or points The thrust at

are converted was

of numbers

for use in a lookup wall

chamber/injector rated studies study nominal thrust/design were

thermally were

modeled below

so that hot gas side the maximum. Also,

temperatures

thrust

preliminary Very thrust

configuration early in the or

completed

to determine chamber (100%

baffle pressure

geometry was

and length. for each point

a common full thrust

2000 psia point

selected case design

as the rated and The

thrust).

A worst

of 2000 psia point would

MR = 5 was chamber

selected was

for the thermal adjusted

maximum

expected

operating temperature

(MEOP). not

design

so that hot gas side wall

exceed

RPT/DO417.55a-3.0-3

.1.2

43

0

z

,,=,

o__
i
Ox P

o
_

8
.
ILl

,

i
P,ressure > 540b psia

I
I

el
I_. I

:'_
: _k.

:
_

___
_'--'-

0J

I_

o,.

............ =.
/
/ /

_
i
i _

I °_
I
I Io

_o i\_ _ "i \ _i_

.I
I l,

_
_ z

o
_"

ol_e_l

a_n_Xll_l

44

m

O

-Im

CD

"O

2 O<o<
II
O

r4) e0 Q.

E
0

0

,.t
e4

O

II

U.

z

2

__

"_ o
X iii
o0 o0 O.

CXl

45

,,,o.

0 _

o,,go

•_

__

•_

__

0

__ O_ _ __ ..... _0_

Q.

E
Q.
,m

0 Q. C O) _.,

Z_

_0_ __

Z_

__

a
S 0 ..Q
L._

_0_ (1) tt X_ a_ 00000 0 II I..i

0__

_

_0_0
9

9 9
4

=1

0__ 9

I-.
>.,, "0 =; 00000 00000 9 9

U)
G) r.. O) r. ILl "0 4) (,1 C a > "0 __0 __0 Z_ _ _ __0 o00_ o0000 _00o0 Z_ _ _ __ 000_ 00000 000oo

M W -M

0 r_ 134-_ Cq D-'- t-- t-- t-.uO {0 _'0 _0 O_ r_ _,_

C_ r,,,O gO o_ M W W

u.;
II

_1C_ 0_ 0 b'_ 09 cO "_; -'_

.,0 m

W 0 \ _0_ _00_ 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 _0000 0 _0_ _0_ _0_ 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 _0000 _0_0 W W W W 96 _ _

I-

_

46

.w,,0

io,°o

O_

__

O_

OO090_O

_--[-_'-_

od_do
(DQ0(D(D(D

0

0

,:::.-.
£-4,-.

_0_

0(00040

_0_ 00_

_0_0_

._

"

_d.dd

..-.

__0 _0_ _0_0

_) 0,1 0,1 0,1 ¢,,1 ,'-0 0 0 0 0 00000

_

00000 _g _OOOO __ 0__ .... 00000

00000 _0_

O_ • _ _

0_1 "_.o_ 00000

_._

__ _0000

_0_ _ .,--I

0 0__
.,-4

0_0 _0_ __0

00000 00000 _0000 _0_0 D>m m>m

00000 00000 _0000 _0_0

47

0

0 0 0

0 0 _

0 0 0

0 0 _

0 0 0

0 0 _0

0 0 0

0 0 _

0 0 0

(e!sd) eJnsseJd e6Jeqos!(] dLund

48

C) 0

0 C)

C) 0

C) C)

0 C)

0 0

0 0

0 0

C) ¢)

(e!sd) eJnsseJd

e6Jeqos!O
49

dLund

3.1, Design the design

and Parametric maximum pressure

Analysis,

(cont) limiting Also, operating point was expected to be cal-

at MEOP. of 2300 would

The power psia

at a chamber culated sarily vative feature opment

and MR = 7. for stress

the pressure

and temperature was not neces-

for this point within design the actual point.

be used

calculations. engine psia

This point thrust chamber

operating

envelope

at all five at 2300

levels. pressure

It is a conseris a useful devel-

The overthrust design. With path

capability

of the engine followed

the components in Figure

modeled, 3.1-14.

the power

balance

the logic The

as shown balance

power HEX

program rate

begins is the

by balancing most the significant hydrogen

the oxygen thermal circuit to assist

circuit coupling

(see

Figure

3.1-15). the circuits.

The

heat

transfer

between Figure ance. progress show tables

It is used operator has

as an entry several in that and property at each be run point

to balancing inputs that can

(see in the balin

3.1-16).

The

be adjusted

It is an interactive on the computer it is not closing.

program terminal Propellant

the operator make real time

can watch adjustments up This

the iterations if the

iterations derived lookup The

data

is looked cycle.

in NBS property

or NASA data

for accurate requires program 3.1.2.2

calculations the program architecture Power

in the

capability actual

on the PRIME

or the spread

VAX sheet

computers. program.

is based Balance

on a commercial Results

The the 7.5K ability example results sures Tables lbf thrust to iterate engine

chart

in Figure thrust.

3.1-17 One

summarizes of the features

the power of the

balance program

results is the In this

for

at rated of turbine diameter

the effect wheel flow

wheel was

diameter used. engine. version Figure

on TPA 3.1-18

performance. gives the power

a 2.35 inch for the parallel are much 3.1-7 lower

balance and pres-

20K lbf thrust parallel flow

The but

operating the chamber and

temperature pressure pressures 7.

for the 3.1-12

is the same. for engines result of

through and

give

the important at mixture ability

temperatures ratios

of 20K lbf thrust the power sure what mance. over over balance the

50K lbf thrust was the

of 5, 6, and to sustain

A gratifying psia chamber explored

work thrust

of the cycle The

a 2000

presto see perfor-

entire

range

of interest. would

engine

envelopes the baseline chamber

were

the maximum For the 2500 psia

chamber

pressure engine

be, given

component

20,000 giving

lbf thrust

the maximum capability.

pressure lbf thrust

at MR = 7 was engine the

a 25% overthrust

For the 50,000

Rl'r/I)0417 5,_,,I-3.0-3.1.2

50

r

e.,

(o

0.--_

u

_
0 elU

I11

0 n m O) c N Im
im L.

E
0

Q

,'_>

_._

C eO. U

l
0

l
ffl

0 -J

4
|

e4

,m

11

if)

>

0

51

,4,,o i.. Im

IJ,.

eB

m O0
It

In

.m

@

3< e-

|

L_

im

IJ.

E ::3 E
.m .m

E
II

O.

52

i
!•,ii_

oo
,l_

o'._
iii ,'_

4)

Ig

.,

ai-

-,

X

Om

w _-

" ;

_" R

E ®

_® _

=: o':,-u.
4.., v

" E
-.--

(U

(0 g

g.

_

=

_

Ii_

_:

q,,_ "l"!

tU

_ o..-c-_

,ii..IIIL

i.,

__

_

•_l II i_. II II

I--

e.. (_.l

"

I II II

I-- _."

P,°

)

[ o. _._ _ _ 2'-_
@r_O

_

k'_'/-\ ) _ _ _ l__h_
o_

-I _I _-a-I
_.L_.

53

II

nIll i'rI,LI
m

v
0 ¢"i1
L

0 ul -I ill I'1" ¢)

m

0 13.

|

e4

.i

U.

55

TABLE

3.1-7 BALANCE MR = 5

CTP ENGINE POWER THRUST = 20K lbf

Oxidizer Tank Conditions P= T= P= T= P= T=
p_

Fuel (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 4363.5 478.4 4122.8 601.5 4319.1 994.1 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 20.0 37.8 4543.4 93.5 (psia) (deg R)

15.0 162.7 3629.8 182.4 3319.7 537.0

Pump

Conditions

(psia) (deg R)

Ox: Side Fuel: Side Regen

Cool Heat Cool Regenerator Jacket Exchanger

T=
p_-

T= Baffles
p_

T= Ox Nozzle Cooling P= T= P= T=
p_-

3292.2 860.0 2307.6 794.4

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 2595.7 723.2 2409.8 462.0 2224.1 373.9 (psia) (deg R)

Turbine

Conditions

Hot

Side

HEX

T= Gas Side Regenerator
p_

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

T= Injector P= T= Combustion Chamber, Pc 2009.6 800.4 (psia) (deg 2000 R) psia

2003.3 373.9

TABLE

3.1-8 BALANCE MR = 6

CTP ENGINE POWER THRUST = 20K lbf

Oxidizer Tank Conditions P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= Cooling P= T-P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= Chamber, Pc 2015.4 792.5 (psia) (deg R) 2000 psia 3411.3 855.0 2343.3 786.1 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 2397.5 759.5 2300.5 435.6 2169.8 365.7 2002.9 365.7 15.0 162.7 3764.2 183.1 3441.0 555.0 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 3822.5 466.3 3635.0 646.1 3782.5 1012.5 20.0 37.8 3958.7 87.1

Fuel (psia) (deg R)

Pump

Conditions

(psia) (deg R)

Ox: Side Fuel: Side Regen

Cool Heat Cool Regenerator Jacket Exchanger

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Baffles

Ox Nozzle

Turbine

Conditions

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Hot

Side HEX

Gas Side

Regenerator

Injector

Combustion

_r/_7.ss,.r

57

TABLE

3.1-9 BALANCE MR = 7

CTP ENGINE POWER THRUST = 20K lbf

Oxidizer Tank Conditions P= T= P= TP= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= Ox Nozzle Cooling P= T= P= T= P= T= Gas Side Regenerator P= T= P= T= Chamber, Pc 2011.6 792.9 (psia) (deg R) 2000 psia 3512.8 856.8 2378.2 785.2 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 15.0 162.7 3875.3 183.8 3547.1 586.8 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 3600.7 403.7 3393.0 675.9 3573.1 1009.7 20.0 37.8 3705.1 84.9

Fuel (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Pump

Conditions

Ox: Side Fuel: Side Regen

Cool Heat Cool Regenerator Jacket Exchanger

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Baffles

Turbine

Conditions

2305.8 776.7 2231.8 377.0 2133.4 349.4 2002.9 349.4

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Hot

Side

HEX

Injector

(psia) (deg R)

Combustion

TABLE

3.1-10 BALANCE MR = 5

CTP ENGINE POWER THRUST = 50K lbf

Oxidizer Tank Conditions P= T= P= T= Ox: Side Fuel: Side Regen Cool Heat Cool Regenerator Jacket Exchanger P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= Cooling P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= P-T= Chamber, Pc 2006.2 799.3 (psia) (deg R) 2000 psia 3317.4 860.0 2311.9 793.2 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 2504.7 862.7 2351.7 585.6 2224.1 448.5 2003.6 448.5 15.0 162.7 3670.7 182.9 3404.6 560.0 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 20.0 37.8 5555.5 104.7

Fuel (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Pump

Conditions

(psia) (deg R) 5479.5 606.9 4044.3 554.7 5376.1 1354.0 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Baffles

(psia) (deg R)

Ox Nozzle

Turbine

Conditions

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Hot

Side

HEX

Gas Side

Regenerator

Injector

Combustion

59
RPTI DO417-SSa-T

TABLE

3.1-11 BALANCE MR = 6

CTP ENGINE POWER THRUST = 50K lbf

Oxidizer Tank Conditions P= T= Pump Conditions P= T= P= T=
p_

Fuel 15.0 (psia) (deg R) 20.0 37.8 4722.9 95.9 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

162.7 3800.3 183.6 3523.0 582.0

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Ox: Side Fuel: Side Regen

Cool Heat Cool Regenerator Jacket Exchanger

T=
p_

4665.6 589.1 3588.6 589.6 4577.5 1368.6 3425.8 860.0 2346.0 790.1 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 2357.1 896.7 2253.1 550.2 2169.7 453.1 2006.1 796.9 (psia) (deg R) 2000 psia 2004.6 435.1

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

T= Baffles

p_

T= Ox Nozzle Cooling P= T= P= T=
p_-_.

Turbine

Conditions

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Hot

Side

HEX

T= Gas Side Regenerator
p_

T= Injector P= T= Chamber, Pc

Combustion

Rl'l/i;_o417-_,-'r

60

TABLE

3.1-12 BALANCE MR =7

CTP ENGINE POWER THRUST =50K lbf

Oxidizer Tank Conditions P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= P= T= Cooling P= T= P= T-P= T= Gas Side Regenerator P= T= P= T= Chamber, Pc 2011.6 792.2 (psia) (deg R) 2000 psia 3553.1 857.8 2387.2 784.6 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 2271.3 929.5 2194.8 15.0 162.7 3943.0 184.4 3658.1 607.8 (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) 4149.4 562.0 3315.1 611.3 4058.4 1399.9 20.0 37.8 4193.9 90.3

Fuel (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Pump

Conditions

Ox: Side Fuel: Side

Cool Heat Cool Regenerator Jacket Exchanger

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Regen

Baffles

Ox Nozzle

Turbine

Conditions

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Hot

Side

HEX

506.4 2135.1 419.6 2004.8 419.6

(psia) (deg R) (psia) (deg R)

Injector

Combustion

61
RITr/DOIIT-_a-T

3.1, Design maximum increasing completed. was kept

and Parametric chamber thrust, With throughout pressure

Analysis, was

(cont) 2100 psia at MR = 7. before There is a dropoff calculations chamber with were pressure

about was

but it is less than these encouraging the study. Additional

expected

the study of 2000

results

the baseline

psia

power

balances

are given

in Appendix

B for the high

mixture

ratio

operation.

3.1.2.3

Modified Analysis The power

Liquid

Engine

Transient

Simulation

Program

(MLETS)

balance operation

program with

discussed

in the previous of the time mass engine and

paragraphs dependency energy balances The of

assumes the engine but adds MLETS

steady

state

engine The

no consideration performs similar and which

operation. the time

MLETS

program

dependent recent

features version

of the components

system.

is the most years

of the LETS program is about

has been of magnitude engine

in development greater systems some results and than and

for several

at Aerojet. balance

Its complexity It was

an order

the OTV power has had

program.

also developed In its present the OTV

for other form

to be adapted to make below show

to the OTV engine. it easily usable with

it still requires

development presented control

engine,

but the preliminary engine operation

it to be a valuable

tool for predicting

requirements. a. Uses design of the MLETS concerns are: Program -The MLETS can provide valuand

able insight lines.

into many

as it includes

models

for all components

Concerns

of current

interest

Power

balance

(backup

to the independent

power

balance

program).

• •

Engine Control operating

sensitivities sensitivities scenarios.

to component to component

design

changes. and engine

operation

Rl-r/ixnlT.SSa-3.0-a.l

._

62

3.1, Design

and Parametric •

Analysis, Engine

(cont) stability in operation.

Engine start,

transient throttling, assessment code

response and

time

and linearity.

This includes

shutdown. engine due configurations to its modular without structure.

Ready extensive

of different reprogramming

The much more than given a preliminary above b. engine numbers schematic refer used

program

hours

assigned

to this task transient desired.

were

insufficient None

to do of

assessment addressed Results

of the engine in the depth

operation.

the concerns

were

Preliminary

of the MLETS is given

Analysis

-3.1-19.

The simplified The LI

for the MLETS model

analysis

in Figure line.

to the hydraulic sections while

for that particular

PU 101 and PU 201 refer for the TPA be evident to model that these

to the TPA turbines. the MLETS

pump The HEX analysis

TU 101 and TU 201 refer

to the models It should used

is HE 101 and the regenerator is limited by the accuracy In particular, until actual

is HE 102.

of the algorithms dependency and

and the other performance pressure performance operating a valuable circuit.

components. is suspect

the time

of component rates of temperature and

components

are built

change

are measured. were was

In practise, adjusted found.

the component

lags, operator

efficiencies, until

and other stable

parameters configuration design tool.

by the program

a relatively makes

The ability

to do this in real time design design can be adjusted point has been

the MLETS the this design.

In effect, shows

the component that a stable design team

to match determined

When

this program

can be fed back

to the component 1.

to be used

for details side

of the actual of the circuit

Bootstrap over

Capability. the throttle

The oxidizer range. circuit. This The

"bootstrapped" insensitivity scenario MLETS calls analysis

very to control for thrust

effectively changes

reflects current turbine

its relative engine bypass operating valve. The

in the hydrogen by use

to be adjusted

of the oxygen scenario.

confirmed

this as the preferred

63
RPT/DO417 _SSa-3.0-.3.1 2

Fuel Circuit 15

I BC201

BC 101 LI209 LI101 38

OX Circuit

LI201 16'

12

_1. 23
E101 I 3 LI102 TUI01 11,

17

_,_,,,_ 15_
37 LI202 44 122

18

LI103 19 2O 21 LI203 LI211 45 LI208 24 f

29

LI204

36 LI105

35

38

LI205 27 10

LI207 r46 32 26

LI206

25

LI 104 Iog16.1.9

Figure 3.1-19.

CTP Engine Model for MLETS 64

Analysis

3.1, Design

and Parametric

Analysis,

(cont) valve placement regenerator of ways: of thrust bypass for the valve oxygen dependent until going operact the causes bypass considerable valve setting in

The HEX bypass interaction particular. with This the hydrogen circuit

and hydrogen

interaction

can be reduced Allow ating only points

in a number a small

number

for the HEX limiter This

it must into

as a temperature Ox TPA regenerator Reverse the engine turbine. bypass

will prevent

"hunting"

of the

valve. of the This from HEX and the regenerator decouples circuit. due the There may delta is be in

the position circuit. circuit

effectively the oxygen

hydrogen a penalty temperatures. given

in a larger

sized

HEX schematic

to the lower for this option

A circuit 3.1-20.

in Figure

There cuit. Turbine efficiency but may was adjusted

was

a "bootstrapping" turbine was bypass

problem decreased than has energy not been

in the hydrogen until the circuit

cir-

and

"bootstrapped," indicate. energy There should

the required be an error than

bypass in the

far lower that throttle

requirements detected. response.

would Available

algorithms over the

be more

adequate There was

range between

for quick

one mismatch

the MLETS coupling.

algorithms

and

the proposed

control

operations for the HEX HEX

that increased bypass valve to the bypass

the circuit and the turbine valve

An algorithm sufficient

has not been energy mum range, valve oxygen thrust

developed in the

program

assumes

extraction value.

so that oxygen oxygen turbine

is at 400°F. is within As the

This is a maxicontrol bypass the for of the

As long

as the

the normal turbine and usable

the oxygen approaches temperature control

to the turbine 10% bypass, until 400°F

can be less the HEX

than 400°F. must

oxygen

bypass That

reduce

the bypass

increase range

is reached. With

marks

the end of the schematic,

on the oxidizer valve should

side.

the present

engine

movement

HEX bypass

be limited

to a few set points

to reduce

the circuit

coupling.

_-,r/_7_,-3.0-312

65

w f_jffWO_ff_JUa_ff_Wf_ffOU_ad

w

W

0

66

3.1, Design

and

Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

2. shows engine without very the engine at thermal any control drift. to minor is either variation equilibrium. changes. The change

Operating with time

Stability. from

The

composite thrust

plot

in Figure point with

3.1-21 the

the rated the

operating is allowed variables it could

At t = 126 seconds By t = 148 seconds is so slight in the and

engine

to operate have shown be a

the operating that

minor

so regular

as easily

attributed The engine

round

off errors

algorithms

as to actual thrust point

engine or very

instability. close to it. More What

dynamically testing

stable

at the rated

analysis

and

experimental does, baseline however,

will be needed that control.

to establish should slow

the actual be readily control

condition. controllable. rates should

the analysis The design

is confirm loop

the engine Relatively

is for closed

be

adequate

for stability. 3. Engine for each while Throttling. circuit. the A simulation Thrust was circuit bypass mixture In each of engine throttling was the to follow plus A numevenprobI IF.X

attempted oxygen the thrust

using turbine change controllers were

a controller bypass setting

controlled controller valve. ratio case

by changing attempted Proportional commands. the engine this control through the

hydrogen turbine thrust

by adjusting were made used using There should modeling

the hydrogen for both different was the

integral

and gains.

ber of runs tually lem, and went but from

controller time

unstable.

not enough from reducing and

available

to solve coupling system. modeled

a solution better

come

the circuit flow lags

of the thermal The 7.5K

in the was

lbf thrust

engine

using

a different flow dual be

dynamic expander completed response to lags from faster. needs

code cycle

called

TUTSIM.

(See Ref. 7). Throttle 3.1-22 The and 3.1-23. flow time) The engine

response

for this series in thrust

is shown

in Figures

A 10% change expander

could

in about time.

0.3 seconds. ratio

parallel

dual

should

have thrust

a similar range due

Throttle

(A thrust/unit speed.

decreases should Throttling for the

in the low be capable down vehicle

in the turbopumps 10% thrust This to 100%

at low thrust

of accelerating

in 4 to 5 seconds. number

will be somewhat prime contractors and

is an important defined

performance early

to be better

in the engine

development.

RI_/DOt

17 .$5a-3.0-3.1.2

6 7

0

k.

r-

I

4me

n-

00

m

i Im

O)
1

LLI •g) ¢3 eCO

,(

O)

O i • , r 1 ! r | r

elsd 'Od 'emsse:d _eq,.,eq:_

d/O 'olleH eJnlXlW

tud: 'peeds dmnd -oqJnl ueOo, pAH

tudJ 'peed S d-,ndo(pnj. ue6_xo

G8

106.4 104.4

I

I

I

I

I _ j

I

'i

1

I 7.0 6.0 5.0 _

_102.4 _ 100.4 ___

_

Mixture Ratio . ,----,

98.4
96.4 _ o. 94.4 92.4 90.4 88.4 86.4 1.0000 Time, sec

4.0
3.0

1.5000

Figure 3.1-22.

Predicted

Response 69

to 10% Throttle

Up Command

lO_4_[,,,
102.4 100.4 98.4 96.4 n" 94.4 o. 92.4 90.4 X _,---'_z-----'-_

104.4

,R.t,o, ' '
I Thrust (Actua)

Mixture

7.0 .__,6.0

| 3.0

°"

86.4 0.500000

I

I

I

I

I

!

I

I

I 1.0000

Time, sec

Figure 3.1-23.

Predicted

Response

to 10% Throttle

Down Command

7O

3.1, Design

and Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

3.1.3

Performance,

Mass

and Envelope

Parameters

3.1.3.1 formance formance area ratio is shown impulse calculated kinetic measurement comparison (Ae/At)

Performance with over of 1200. both

N Specific propellants range ratio

impulse and used

is the best area ratio

standard

for perAn initial perand

specified. pressure

the thrust Mixture

a chamber

of 2000 and thrust

psia

was

plotted 3.1-24.

on the X-axis

variation specific was first for

as the family at steady from state

of 3 curves engine

on Figure

This plot is for delivered engine (ODE) (ODK) performance and with

operation.

The theoretical model program

the One

Dimensional

Equilibrium Kinetic losses. (Two

then corrected further

losses

using

a One Dimensional layer using

corrections

for divergence layer lossess

and boundary are calculated

The corrections Dimensional loss accounting

for divergence Kinetics program)

and boundarv and BLM for

TDK

_Boundary the 7.5K

Layer lbf thrust

Model). engine.

The performance Table over 3.1-13

is plotted

in Figure

3.1-25 for 7.5K,

summarizes of 5 to 13.

performance

corrections

20K, and 50K lbf thrust

an MR range

Performance studied. ered Also, with tage There is no significant Thrust specific variations designers ratio

changes advantage selection impulse

with

thrust

are very engine

minor thrust

over

the range deliv-

in changing be based over

to improve

specific

impulse.

should is delivered

on other a mixture

design ratio

considerations. range of 5 to 7

the maximum only minor

from

the peak

at MR = 6.3. an active to use

This can be used

to the advansystem that

of the vehicle

by baselining within this range penalty.

propellant all available

management propellant

can program with system engine

mixture

in the tanks

no delivered average specific

performance specific impulse. impulse.

The result

is a maximization important than

of the propulsion the nominal

This is usually

more

The dropoff composition weight of the exhaust causing

in specific

impulse At higher

above mixture

MR = 6.3 reflects ratios the average

the changing molecular

gas species. a reduction

increases

in the jet velocity,

Vj, according
1/2

to the equation

Rr'r/DOi17_SS.-3.0-3 aa

71

,,e.._

V 03

"_l') ('_1 r,..

•r ="

.#=-

S
°_

0 t_

rr

x

--

CO

o e" 0 r,, W 'O Q o c al > 'O
m

,I{ ,4
|

Q
L. OR

ti.
--f43

O O)

I
o 03

I
O I_

I
O (.10

I
O I.o

i
O ,,_

I
O c")

I
O C_l

,I
O v-

I
O O

I
O O'J

I
O 0O

o

!

6

uJql 1 dSl peJe^!loa oes-tqu

72

w_ _a OO

D

a

_

O,I

C
m ,4.,,*

O

t.._ 0 U U

.<
O
.D

(n o _1 Q

r_

E
0 -- aO Q

ft.

|

--

.o
in

I,L

-

(.O

--

I
O O 14) O O_

I

I
O

I
O r,D

I
O

I
O

I
O'_ _

I

I
"--

t
O

I
O q,)

I
O co cO O o0

O 00

mq I ] oes-lqll

dSl _e^lle

G

73

TABLE PERFORMANCE THRUST

3.1-13 FOR VARIOUS 50K lbf)

LOSS ACCOUNTING LEVELS (7.5K, 20K, AND

7.5K MR ODE ODK TDK ABLM P.I. & Del 5 491.1 490.0 488.0 7.4 480.6

lbf Thrust 6 494.4 492.5 490.5 7.4 483.1

Level 7 494.5 490.5 488.5 7.4 481.1 11 409.7 424.9 423.2 7.4 415.8 12 413.9 409.8 408.2 7.4 400.8 13 399.7 396.2 394.6 7.4 387.2

Pc=2000

Throat

Radius,

rt = 0.765"

20K lbf Thrust MR ODE ODK TDK ABLM PT & Del 5 491.1 490.3 488.3 6.6 481.7 494.4 492.9 490.9 6.6 484.3 6

Level 7 494.6 491.4 489.4 6.6 482.8 11 429.7 425.7 424.0 6.6 417.4 12 413.9 410.5 408.9 6.6 402.2 13 399.7 396.8 395.2 6.6 388.6

Pc=2000

Throat

Radius,

rt = 1.25"

50K lbf Thrust MR ODE ODK TDK ABLM PT & Del 5 491.1 490.5 488.5 6.1 482.4 494.4 493.3 491.3 6.1 485.2 Throat 6

Level 7 494.5 492.1 490.2 6.1 484.0 11 429.7 426.3 424.6 6.1 418.5 12 413.9 411.1 409.4 6.1 403.3 13 399.7 397.3 395.7 6.1 389.6

Pc=2000

Radius,

rt = 1.97"

3.1, Design and Parametric Analysis, (cont) where
M __

average
=

exhaust gas

gas constant

molecular

weight

Ru

universal ratio

7= N j=

of gas specific factor

heat

at constant theoretical

pressure and

and

constant jet velocity

volume to the engine

efficiency losses stagnation stagnation jet pressure ratio decreases

relating

delivered

T 0

=

chamber chamber

temperature pressure

Po =

P j= The To/M

at the exit plane consistently point (MR as mixture = 7.94). At any ratio increases despite the maxima the amount of this of

To at the

stoichiometric oxygen mixture

MR above stream.

stoichiometric The operation there

of unreacted engine formance at high

steadily ratios

increases (>7) must

in the exhaust be an economic

decision;

is no per-

justification.

One the five per total thrust engine propellant levels. basis.

other

engine Figure gives with

operating 3.1-26

parameter

derived presents

from flowrate

performance for each This by four. (burn

is of the is on a This at

flowrate. Table 3.1-14

graphically

the propellant a four the engine total

flowrates propulsion

in more

detail.

For a vehicle used

set multiply operating time

figure rated engines, figures of:

can be readily thrust for a given

to calculate load.

propulsion

time)

propellant is about

For instance, A 288,000 (LTV). residuals

for a set of four Ibm propellant propulsion

20,000 load

lbf thrust is one of the time

the flowrate used

174 lbm/sec. Vehicle Propellant would have

for the Lunar

Transfer

For a total and

operating for attitude propellant time

288,000

+ 174 = 1655 seconds. propellant use

a correction from

control weight without

system

to be subtracted For a 4 hour 8 missions.

the loaded operating

to determine maintenance,

the usable

propellant. about

total

engine

this represents

3.1.3.2

Engine

Mass

Computations and center of mass computation task engine (Task weight for the 7.5K D.5). from The lbf results

A detailed thrust are engine was completed 3.1-15.

weight during The

the preliminary interface

design

presented

in Table

for separating

vehicle

RFr/Do_7_,-3.0-3.1 a

75

1

UJ

E
m

w,--

.Q

>
._J

o i== a. Q i
.1

2 >

o

Q
Q.

G_
@d
|

o
L-°l

LL.

I

I

c)

o o
1,--

o cO

0 m"

o

o

76

TABLE LTV/LEV ENGINE

3.1-14 FLOWRATES

PROPELLANT

Thrust

7.5Klbf

20Klbf

25Klbf

35Klbf

50Klbf

Propellant • • • Total

Flow

Rate to Engine 16.38 14.04 2.34 43.49 37.28 6.21 54.36 46.60 7.77 75.96 65.12 10.85 108.29 92.82 15.47

(lbm/sec) (lbm/sec) (lbm/sec)

Oxygen Hydrogen

Autogenous • • • Total Oxygen

Tank

Pressurization

Flow

Engine 0.82 0.70 0.11 2.17 1.86 0.31 2.72 2.33 0.39 3.79 3.26 0.54 5.41 4.64 0.77

(lbm/sec) (lbm/sec) (lbm/sec)

Hydrogen

Propellant • • • Total

Flow

for Combustion 15.56 13.34 2.22 41.32 35.42 5.90 51.65 44.27 7.38 72.17 61.86 10.31 102.88 88.18 14.70

(lbm/sec) (lbm/sec) (lbm/sec)

Oxygen Hydrogen

Notes: 1. 2.
°

Autogenous Table based

propellant on a mixture

flow ratio

assumed of 6.

to average

5% of flow

to engine.

Propellant extrapolation down.

flow at thrusts below nominal are higher than would predict as specific impulse decreases

a straight line as the engine

is throttled

77
RPT/D0417-SSa-T

U.

113

78

3.1, Design weight sidered interface ation plane. could was

and Parametric the mounting this plane define

Analysis, plane. and

(cont) actuators and ICHM system were convalid oper-

The gimbal

above would

are not included weight takeout

in the weight of all items

summary. necessary lines Several above

An equally for engine

engine

as the sum structure

exclusive These

of the thrust additions with

and propellant in Table 3.1-16.

the mounting interfaces as delivered on a contract

and a total some validity.

are given

other

be defined

For example, definition

the engine of engine

dry weight weight based

to the vehicle requirement.

contractor

is a reasonable

Table could be applied

3.1-16

includes

a figure It does

for engine not include There

insulation thrust

although

this as

after engine a function to secure

delivery. of the vehicle

takeout

structure

this is commonly snubbing There Those system

design.

is no weight nozzle does

for any nozzle is retracted. one. without it

the nozzle purge a helium

when system

the extendible as this engine often Users

section

is no weight engines

for a helium

not require weight

that do require

system system.

compute of engine same

engine weight basis

on the assumption to put each are made. vehicle required

that it is a vehicle weight

data are cautioned before comparisons to the

manufacturers Note

computations system

on the can add

that a helium and would

purge

several

hundred

pounds

weight,

not normally assembly source material

be considered of a conventional

as engine expander weight

weight, cycle

but it is engine. is material though it will

for the turbopump Another

of variability

in engine

estimates even

selections. is unlikely favor Table

A lightweight to be used. over

still in development may be design An example of four

can be proposed that, cooled when

Also,

there

uncertainties

resolved, material. be selected Part

one material 3.1-17

another. the weights

is the radiation

nozzle could

contrasts design,

nozzles,

any one of which lightest

for the final selection ture, and load

yet there

is a 2:1 weight on structural versus

ratio from requirements, delivered

to heaviest.

of the

criteria

will be based

part on operating payload. An example 3.1-17. used

temperaof pay-

part on a trade-off is given

of weight 3.1-27

sensitivity

in Figure

for the four nozzles results 3.1-18.

of Table

The weight Advanced components Engine Study

computation in Table

for the engines Note

in the weight for the

are given normally

that this is the contractor

as would

be delivered

by the engine

to the vehicle

P, PT/rx_17 s5,-30-3.1.2

79

TABLE 7.5K LBF THRUST PRELIMINARY COMPLETE

3.1-16 ENGINE ENGINE WEIGHT ESTIMATE

Component

Current

Weight

Estimate

Propellant Hydrogen Oxygen Primary Engine ICHM Insulation

Flowmeters Main Main Gimbal Out System Shutoff Shutoff

(4) Valve Valve (2)

3.0 Ibm 8.5 8.0 17.0 14.0 12.0 10.0

Actuators Actuator

Gimbal

Electronics

Sub-Total Nominal (From Gimballed Component Table 3.1-15) TOTAL Weight

72.5 298._____! 370.6

TABLE PRELIMINARY NOZZLE 7.5K

3.1-17 ESTIMATES,

SYSTEM WEIGHT LBF ENGINE

Columbium 0.020-in. Nozzle Nozzle Nozzle Ballscrew Gearbox Ball Nut Skin Attach Stiffener (3) (3) (3) Motor (6) Strut (6) (per TCA) (3) 48.3 18.1 4.7 8.4 8.1 5.4 9.0 4.2 5.0 111.2 0.030-in. 72.4 18.7 4.7 8.4 8.1 5.4 9.0 4.2 5.0 135.9

Carbon-Carbon 0.050-in. 20.6 7.0 1.5 8.4 8.1 5.4 9.0 4.2 5.0 69.2 0.060-in. 24.7 7.0 1.5 8.4 8.1 5.4 9.0 4.2 5.0 73.3

28VDC

Flex Cable Support

TOTAL

I<pL/]_..-sso..

80

O

O

O

6
l

6
.=
0_

.Q

.D

C.)
¢.=

¢.= .N in o o

co o o

&
O O

0_

6
O

0

I11
4-.m

U

o'_ II J_ ¢=. (P o II1

D.

0 Z
> "0 N 0 Z
i

_o
N N O Z
u

0

>,,

O I-

D.
m

|

o

e_

(P

s0 •

._o.>
O ."

0

ql 'POl,_ed

etleO

81

TABLE

3.1-18

ADVANCED

FLIGHT

ENGINE

WEIGHT

ESTIMATES

Enqin_ Thrust, PoundsForce Material Component 7.5K 20K 2_K 35K 50K 7.5K 20K 25K 35K 50K W_i_t in Povnds GlidCop & NiCo Ni Base ZrCu Thrust Chamber Injector Baffles 36.66 64.51 84.95 131.34 197.63 14.79 Percent of Total Weiqht 13.47 13.93 14.68 14.51

24.08 8.50 69.24 14.20

45.97 9.79 120.27 38.80

56.24 14.03 155.22 49.50

79.07 22.08 232.48 71.80

121.15 35.17 353.95 109.10

9.71 3.43 27.93 5.73

9.60 2.04 25.10 8.10

9.22 2.30 25.45 8.11

8.84 2.47 25.98 8.02

8.89 2.58 25.99 8.01

TCA SubTotal Be Ox Cooled Nozzle Rad. Cooled Nozzle Ox TPA Ox Boost Pump Fuel TPA Fuel Boost Pump TPA SubTotal Be H2/H2 Regenerator Be H2/O2 HEX HEX & Reg SubTotal Valves, Lines, & Misc. SubTotal Total Orig. Total

C-C

73.34

143.95

175.11

248.50

378.37

29.58

30.05

28.71

27.77

27.78

10.00 18.60

16.67 31.00

23.33 43.40

36.67 68.20

56.67 105.40

4.03 7.50

3.48 6.47

3.83 7.11

4.10 7.62

4.16 7.74

10.00 6.40

16.67 10.67

23.33 14.93

36.67 23.47

56.67 36.27

4.03 2.58

3.48 2.23

3.83 2.45

4.10 2.62

4.16 2.66

45.00 0.84

75.00 7.12

105.00 7.10

165.00 7.06

255.00 8.58

18.15 0.34

15.66 1.49

17.21 1.16

18.44 0.79

16.72 0.63

3.98

14.10

16.40

20.90

30.00

1.61

2.94

2.69

2.34

2.20

4.82 41.32

21.22 79.85

23.50 101.67

27.96 149.15

38.58 227.00

1.94 16.67

4.43 16.67

3.85 16.67

3.12 16.67

2.83 16.67

206.60 247.92 291.80

399.23 479.08 486.33

508.33 610.00 680.87

745.74 894.89 1069.93

1134.99 1361.99 1653.53

83.33 100.00

83.33 100.00

93.33 100.00

83.33 100.00

83.33 100.00

3.1, Design

and Parametric

Analysis,

(cont)

prime. based choice

A graphical on materials could add

presentation choices

of the engine in Table

weights 3.I-18.

is given A more

in Figure conservative

3.1-28.

This is

as indicated

materials

10% to the totals

as given.

Figure the range of interest. for each

3.1-29

plots cycle

the thrust/weight optimizes Another engine weight at about graphical weight

ratio

versus

engine with of the

thrust a ratio same

over of calthrust.

This engine pound

20K lbf thrust presentation

28 lbf thrust culations This plot

of engine. 3.1-30 where engine

is given

in Figure

is plotted

directly thrust

against

can be used

to estimate

at intermediate

points.

3.1.3.3

Engine

Envelope for the nozzle Aerojet 110% RAO chamber length is an area programs found ratio were of 1200:1 used with a con-

The criteria tour engine formance very large for optimum thrust, performance.

performance nozzle and was

with

each peris a

and a common psia

to deliver area 3.1-31.

maximum

for the 2000 engine. engine nozzle

pressure

the selected in Figure and

ratio. Note

The result

Engine

half sections with This The

are shown

that the 50K with the radiaAt the an aero2(IK

lbf thrust tion cooled

is 25.4 ft long retracted.

the nozzle is the length

extended behind

13.1 ft long

the aerobrake is serious enough interact such

doors.

lbf thrust investigation brake

it is 106 inches. of either or of using

impact the

on the vehicle engines where

to warrant with as a plug thrust These the

mounting

they

do not nozzle contour and

design

an alternative

to a conventional and nozzle in Tables 3.1-32

cluster. can be tables and

The engine calculated should lengths using be used in terms the parametric

configuration data with given Figures half

for any 3.1-20.

3.1-19 which

in conjunction of a rocket

defines

the symbols

engine

section. study engine dimensions is given in

A summary Table 3.1-21.

of the basic

_r/_Tss.._.o-3.1_

83

iiiiiiiii
0

E E
O0 or )

.Q

(I)

E
m

Od

..C m-

"0

iEi:i:i:i:i:i:i:
C
Qm

C mmm "0 0 od (.1 m > "0

<[
(_1
|

r_

0 0 • _t

0 0 Od

C) 0 C)

0 0 CO

0 0 CO

0 C) "d"

0 C) Od

0

C c- .._, OOZE

o_'_ .o
0

o

D
B

oo oo o o o

8
D

°ooO
D D
n oO_ c0 0 O O

0

a. ttG
m

0 0 0 v-

C "' C_
|

o
0

o
0 'I

D_
I
0
0 0 0 _A

0 0

_s.CD
2 _ c-

85

F1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0
m

[1

0 0 0 _0 CO

,m

eO'J Q

>

o o
I-

n
-

o_
c_ 2
erIAI "O eO O O LO >

D

o_ o
Od

c_
|

O O O O

e_

8
IA

n
I
O O LO OJ

O O I_.

I

I

I
O O O O,I

IIII
O O CO

I

I

I

I
O O O

I

I

I

I
0 0

I I I I
O

-_

86

Engine

Half Sections

Engine

Mounting

Plane

I
I
i

i

1 I
10'

_
59"

,

i,

J

7.5K--_106" Engine Length Wlth Nozzle Stowed For Aerobrake

I 167

I
18.3'
i

115' 20K
I r _

136"

157"

._3_
25K--

Overall Engine Length
m

L
35KL 50K, --

I

21 .7

°

! i

25.4'

I
I
I

20K

I

;

25K

I!

._t_

35K

I

50K IbI Thrust

Figure 3.1-31.

Change

in Engine Length With Thrust 87

TABLE ADVANCED ENGINE NORMALIZED

3.1-19

DESIGN STUDY ENGINE CONTOUR BY THE THROAT RADIUS

Engine Throat Parameter Chamber Barrel Chamber

Thrust, Radius,

lbs inches, rt

7.5K 0.765

20K 1.25

25K 1.395 Normalized

35K 1.65 Dimensions 9.09 6.14 4.55

50K 1.97

(non-dimensional) Length, L' Lc at 13.73 6.81 6.86 9.60 6.58 4.80

9.32 6.34 4.66

8.12 5.30 4.06

Section Inner

Length, Radius rc

the Injector, Radiused

Transition, ri

Barrel

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

to Converging, Radiused verging Radiused Throat Nozzle Nozzle Transition,

Conru

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

to Throat, Transition, to Nozzle,

2.0 rd 141.318 re 34.641

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Length,

Ln

141.318 34.641

141.318 34.641

141.318 34.641

141.318 34.641

Exit Radius,

Angular Chamber Barrel to Section, Divergence
0i

Relations 30 ° 30 ° 30 ° 30 °

30 °

•Converging Iintial Nozzle On 0e

30

30 °

30 °

30 °

30 °

Angle, Nozzle

Exit,

4.9 °

4.9 °

4.9 °

4.9 °

4.9 °

TABLE ADVANCED NORMALIZED

3.1-20

ENGINE DESIGN STUDY NOZZLE CONTOUR*

Nozzle Station 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Engines contour. of any thrust

Length/Throat L/rt .75 2.50 5.00 7.50 8.459 10.344 12.100 15.727 19.152 23.758 30.096 35.370 41.893 56.310 65.471 78.448 103.304 123.367 141.318 in the 7.5K

Radius

Nozzle

Radius/Throat r/rt 1.2842 2.3357 3.8379 5.340 5.916 7.006 7.949 9.727 11.243 13.089 15.349 17.036 18.927 22.513 24.458 26.865 30.589 32.936

Radius

L=Ln to 50K lbf thrust range have the

34.641 same nozzle

r=r e

89
RPT/D0417.SSa-T

a_ (D

q,lm l m

"!-

I-C_
| ,i,E

!---

C_ 1,1.
em

90

TABLE ADVANCED BASIC

3.1-21

ENGINE DESIGN STUDY ENGINE DIMENSIONS

Thrust, Parameter Throat Throat Chamber Contraction Baffle Radius, Area, inches, inch 2 inches Geom. Area, Less 17.3 L', inches inch 2 inches 10.5 2208 53. 1395 10 12 5868 86.44 1200" 10 13 7344 96.70 1200" inch 2 rt 7.5K 1.53 1.84 7.64 24.9 14 20K 2.50 4.89 9.80 15.3 26 25K 2.79 6.12 10.92 15.3 32

lbf 35K 3.30 8.54 12.89 15.3 45 50K 3.94 12.18 15.40 15.3 64

Diameter, Ratio

Cross-Section

Contraction Ratio Baffle Area Chamber Nozzle Nozzle Nozzle Length, Exit Area,

10 15 10,248 114.73 1200"

10 16 14,616 136.42 1200"

Exit Diameter, Area Ratio

*Assumes

e = 1200

is fixed

ILPTID0117.E6a.T

91

3.2

ENGINE

REQUIREMENT

VARIATION

STUDIES

The first of the two extended missions land throttling within range.

variations the new there

from

the engine

baseline

was

to look

at an for engine needed to is

With

program

emphasis

on engine for a throttling

capability main range

Project

Pathfinder, Phobos,

is a requirement The exact

a vehicle

on the moon,

or Mars.

throttle

engine

a function

of the number

of engines

in the set and the g-load the Apollo was mission 20,000 g-load

requirements were with used

of the and the thrust set.

vehicle/maneuver. selected, after

For this subtask considerable was

coordination,

lbf/engine No

a four engine rate was given

The throttle although

range

20:1 versus

10:1 on the baseline. number

throttle

this is recognized

as an important

for mission

planning.

The second gation reason of the effects

variation of high

from

the baseline ratio

engine

requirements

was

an investidesign. Lunar The rocks

mixture

(MR > 7) operation of using a high oxygen

on the engine mined from point

for this investigation For

is the possibility of the study,

as a propellant. was investigated.

this portion

MR operating

of MR = 12 + 1

A summary given mixture Table ratio 3.2-1. study material. The

of the basic

engine

design

parameters

used

for the

variation but

study the

is high

mechanical platinum

design alloys

of the engine for the baffle

is unchanged plates as well

evaluated

as the

base-

line NASA-Z

3.2.1 3.2.1.1

Design

for 20:1 Throttling Design design conditions psia and points for the 10:1 throttling pressure 5 (hydrogen engine psia were and mix-

Component The turbopump

selected ture were ization. case ratio

using

worst

case TPA)

design or 2000

at a chamber mixture ratio plus engine of 20,000

of 2300 TPA).

7 (oxygen based

Flowrates tank pressur-

calculated

on flow 3.1.1 point

at these

conditions

5% for autogenous baseline. lbf was

See Section design

for the

10:1 throttling thrust

For the 20:1 throttling calculated.

a single

at a nominal

A normalized Figure 3.2.1-1. This performance

performance curve

chart

for this TPA to a single

is given

as TPA.

is applicable

stage

for either

tll-r/I)O4iT.tS_/31-3.8

92

TABLE STUDY BASELINE - ENGINE

3.2-1 REQUIREMENTS VARIATION

Parameter, Engine Specific Mixture Chamber

dimension lbf (Nominal) lbf-sec/lbm

20:1 Throttling 20,000 484 5to7 Pc, psia, Wall (Nominal) Thrust 2000 1050

High

Mixture TBD Varies 7 to 13 TBD 1050

Ratio

Thrust, Impulse, Ratio

Range

Pressure,

Maximum Gas Side Chamber, °F Baffle • •

Temp.,

Plate Maximum Wall Temp., °F Copper (NASA-Z Alloy) Platinum (pure or 10% Rhodium) Turbine Inlet Temp., °F

1050 2000 400

1050 2000 400

Oxygen TPA (Maximum) Chamber/Baffle Turbine

Hydrogen Minimum

How Flow,

Split, % Flow, %

%

30 to 70 10 25 % 10 0tol0 NASA-Z Copper

30 to 70 10 25 10 0 to 10 NASA-Z Gold NASA-Z Gold Copper, Plated Copper, Plated 28:1 35:1 600:1 9.8

Bypass

Regenerator LOX/GH2 Fuel

Bypass HEX

Minimum

Bypass Range,

Minimum

Flow,

Idle Valve

% of H2 Flow Material

Regen Cooled Chamber (for Property Data) Oxygen Cooled (for Property Regen Oxygen Oxygen Chamber Chamber Cooled Cooled Internal Nozzle Data) Inlet Nozzle Nozzle

Material

NASA-Z Copper

Area

Ratio,

¢ Ratio, Ratio, ¢

28:1 35:1 600:1 9.8

Inlet Area Exit Area inches

Diameter,

Rr, r/Do_lT.ss.-T

93

TABLE STUDY BASELINE

3.2-1 VARIATION

- ENGINE REQUIREMENTS (CONTINUED)

Parameter, Chamber Radiation AE/At Nozzle • • (_)

dimension Contraction Cooled Ratio, Ainj/At Ratio,

20:1 Throttling 15.3:1 1200:1

High

Mixture 15.3:1 1200:1

Ratio

Nozzle

Area

Contour To E = 35 To _ = 1200 27 ° Angle 27 ° Angle

Rao, Optimum
Bell in Throat .011" x .083" Depth

Rao, Optimum
Bell

Regen

Channel

Geometry

Channel

Land

Width

in Throat,

inches

.010

.010

94
RPT/D0417-55a-T

.................................................... r.......+, "_ _ " I......... 'z.......... ........ " : L I _ I ...
_ __ ! ........ JJJ _ i,, _ ........ • ....... _ ',4,--

il

i

o

......

4

O

ua

.....

i_

r

t

#"

J

| I...- _

i

q

i

: !

: :

-.

o

'r"

Itl_L: I <,_
I

-i, .... _f .... _I

I
"I"

" i i _

i ......i : I ,
°

ii ,
:

~o
"-

-_
4i

I
I "
!

11
# _1
-"_I

I_'_ o
l_i

I

!/_ o:
li_i

: .,

1_o
I: f g

i
_ii

e.--.-../_.,._ t I I I

I i_<>
i-tli

r_._/'1.,,..
/ %1

/,

i

!
I

_. _>
o _

! !-'1"----.-I I P_

_P',,,! _' I<_
\.'_i,,, %11
"
_ O

1 I _I !.=--._L_ _

If _i_ _l--i-i_ __ _,' _ ' I I!
I
O O O

_PH/H

I

d
O3 =3
iI

u.

_95

3.2, Engine

Requirement Note

Variation that

Studies,

(cont) (N/N design) This have a negative was The stall from predicted for this TPA slope

the speed

ratio lines

from

Q/Q

design necessary line

= 0 throughout to avoid is also Y-Axis. low

the operating speed stall

range. and other

characteristic

considered engine design where

instabilities. The

throttle

plotted

on this figure performance specific

for reference.

line

falls on the head

Cavitation against

can be inferred speed. was

Figure

3.2.1-2

loss is plotted

suction in designing

The concern performance pump at low chamber at the low

for 20:1 throttling point was

the TPA to assure stable

pressures. speeds

The design corresponding in particular, 3.2.1-1 will

selected

performance

to a 100 psia the overthrust only give

chamber

pressure. The

This changed selected capability TPA

the top end design points

performance, given band

capability.

in Table

a 5% overthrust speed controllability

at MR = 7. Broad The engine With

performance envelope

is traded is depicted

for low in Figure

and stability.

operating a wide

3.2.1-3. injector shown a low

throttling or "chug".

range Tests

it is important of the I-Triplet

to consider injector Appendix have

frequency stability discussion

combustion over a range

stability

representative

of the 20:1 in this study. stability. at the low throttle With

C includes

and

test reference Extended

for "chug" operation

limit

is dependent

on the chamber

chamber liner

and baffle

temperatures

at equilibrium. operating

NASA-Z/Narloy-Z is 1050°F based

and baffles, at 1700°F

the maximum for 2 hours

temperature at 900°F

on material versus temper-

heat

treated ature

with material

aging

for 4 hours. 3.2.1-4. chart.

A stress

plot for the Narloy-Z strength to annealed normal curve

is given

as Figure

The design There

allowable

0.2% yield reversion desired

was

added

to the Rockwell that will is 900°F.

will be a gradual for the chamber. The

properties

at 1050°F limit

set a life limit

operating

temperature

The chamber to exceed hydrogen per baffles, flow path 900°F. flow the and With platinum

at the 20:1 throttle baffle and plates

down

point

should

be designed by biasing With

not the cop-

this is readily temperatures length. enthalpy

accomplished reach This shortens

to the chamber recourse transient

letting the

baffle chamber the shows for each

2000°F.

is to reduce time. thrust., thrust It also Figure

the hydrogen that pickup

reduces 3.2.1-5

pickup

of the hydrogen circuit enthalpy

is needed required

at nominal

the hydrogen of the three

for the nominal

condition

active

components:

,,Q.-

I

I
,
]

Ee_

!

i

.

;

:_ o

_ _

_.-,',- N--

_'-

_

0

_--

....

t

;

:

_

i
•rO Z _:_ - -_ • r_ _h. 13 _, E_ _, X :_ ,-O "_ En E: (1,1 I:_. 0 or),-

>

L

,

, _ o .......

OO ___. .....

J ,.

"0

'-_

0

C_

Z

"'-" (..)

¢-

.E

_D E:

o

.... o

[.___L._ ' I....

' "b'-:.' :'-_._.-."_,. i ........

O0 "," 0

=

Z

.............

_o

(D 0

o

_. _P

{J') t_J rm

___ ....

(J o
-!

.....

t

- _

o
.._

--

f T

........ _ -_!_

7 """_'--q: .... ..............

:

t ............ 1 ----'---_, ......

r - "--.. t"-'1 '......._

..... c_.

_o .... _ .......

"o "r" "0

E
ffl

I

o

N ----|

.................... t .............................. -t-4 --U
P.

N

I

-t

_

-J

---,-----

t
, , i _ L

0 ,

z V1 0 I--

:

..........
......

_L ........................

_
..... ;
'

I
,
i

o

,

J e,j
, { i

i

,

t

!

:

i

i

i

i
• _ ._ 0 _ ....... _ M')

i
__[ '

_ .[
aV3H

1o

o

,

, .

:

i ,

'

1

........
NOIIVIIAV9

i,-_ .........
01

-+ t
i

,

,

.........

1N33_13d

3NG S507

97

ORIGINAL

P_.QE

OF POOR QUALI_

TABLE ADVANCED Engine Rated Throttle Chamber Overthrust Propellant Propellant Propellant To Low To TPA's Inlet Inlet Speed Temp., Pressure, Boost °R psia Pumps** Conditions Thrust, Range Pressure, Pc, psia Pc, psia F, lbf EXPANDER ENGINE

3.2.1-1 DESIGN Fuel SPECIFICATION Oxidizer

TURBOPUMP Value 20,000 20:1 2,000 2,300*

LH2 38

LOX 163

20 5O

15 5O

Pump

Conditions Density

Dimensions lb/ft rpm Pressure Pressure Rise Rise (cavitating) psia psia psi ft lb/sec gpm (Based Head) on rpm % h.p. h.p. Head ft rpm x _zc)m I/2 ft 172 x _zDm 1/2 ftf72 3

Fuel 4.42 150,000 4,650 50 4,600 138,231 5.903 599.4

Oxidizer 71.2 55,230 4,650 5O 4,600 9,313 35.42 223.3

Propellant Shaft Total Total Total Total Weight Capacity Speed

Discharge Suction Pressure Head Flow

Specific Speed Cavitating Efficiency Fluid Shaft Net Horsepower Horsepower Positive

1,448 65 1,483 2,279 1,792

1,464 68 600 881 111

Suction Speed

Suction

Specific

13,334 TBA 2.44 3.993 x 10 -3 x 10 -6 4.043 3.053

24,133 TBA 2.44 x 10 -3 x 10 -6

INLET

DIA. DIA.

in.

DISCHARGE Q/N AH/N 2

in.

6.144

TABLE ADVANCED EXPANDER

3.2.1-1 DESIGN SPECIFICATION

ENGINE TURBOPUMP (CONTINUED) Dimension

Turbine Gas Shaft Gas Gas

Conditions

Fuel GH 2

Oxidizer GO 2 908 31.9 400 2.1 1,920 55,230 80 4,038 0.414

Power Mass Inlet Flow Total Ratio Back Speed Pressure Temperature

h.p.

2,349 5.31 770 1.67

lbm/sec oF

Pressure Static Shaft

psia rpm %

2,460 150,000 80 4,109 0.324

Efficiency Gas Inlet Total Area Heat Heat Ratio Pressure (effective)

psia in.2 BTU/lb°R

Nozzle Specific Specific Gas

(1) (1) (1)
2.77

(2) (2) (2)
2.42

Constant Mean

ft/°R in.

Diameter,

REFERENCE

(1) Hydrogen (2)Oxygen

---

NBS Technical NBS Technical

Note Note

617 384

April

1972

July1971

The design point was based on a 15% overthrust rating. The power balance confirm this as a viable operating point. The TPAs are slightly overcapacity this design point.

did not using

Refer boost

to the engine schematic in Figure pumps to the high speed TPAs.

3.1-1

for the

relationship

of the low

speed

Rr, r]_;7-ss.-+

99

!_

i

i

i

i

i

........... ]

'

:

:

'

:

_i_®_

?

i

i,._ ,-._

x---__'

-- _

_

_

i

: rj

:

:

:

Z

i

........... i-7o--y _ i _, ! i .°, ............. i ............. ....................o ............. _ "... "... ............ ............ _ ............ ............

............ !o,._.i_ ............. i .......... -.'-..d ..........8, ............. ..----I..- ............ -i.................... .......

.= ............ ....... ............. _ _ _ _.......... l..x......i ............ I ............ ............ ......... ............ ,,i .....I..- ! ............... ............ . . ..........

............. ! i.......................... l........................................................ i.......................... i................ ............. ......L. 1 ........................ _

i
0
,m

_=

!i

i

eni-iii

o_1

i

_-

!

"_ ;

"-

m_ _o

e= I,i,I

I
_,,

............. I i.......E i............. i.......... i .......

_, ..........._ ...... _

............. _. . ' ............ '................. • ....... , ............ I ............ ..... ...... ..... 1 ,®

"

"

i _.

i

i ._1 i

I

I __ _

- _

............ .'....I._ l _o __ i i.....x...,...i ...... ............. ! ............ ............. i ............ ....... ............ ......


JE

r= i,= UJ

i i \i i : _ z _,, ._............ _ :: ............ _ i ............ .......... ........................._ _............................................m o...,
i=*

............i............i............................................................ _. i............i............ i.-X.....i _ i............ ........... i............. i

I T,=,

i._

....................................................i............ !........................ t; ......i............ " i............. X !............i............ i........,............... '_ ....... ............ !............ !...... ...., '_t _! ............ i............. + i............ !........ ..x.. ........... i............ . . ............ i............. i............. i iii \,. _,'_i il
!

.__
U=

i

!

i

i

i

":

i

!

i

_

i

\

_]=

E

i
• _

" :,

i

i

i
_

i

i

i

i

i.

i.

.i, ,i,

,_ _

_---_._ I.=..-.._ i............ ....... ............i.............

i

i

i
:

!
=

i
:

:

_ _'_
Ii •

i
_

_ _

o

aHNV Z-,OM'_eEl oJn|x!_

tO0

NARIoy-Z

WROUGHT"

1700UF-2

h-WQ,

900°F-4

h

ROCKWELL ¢_b INTERNAT IONAL DiVISlCN HT 17001: 2 I_S 9001" 4 _ _

7002.26. t'V_qLOY Z

I O. 70-01

_D61LE S_ni

,2B .IP

MATERIALS PROPERTIES MANUAL
tO0 T_n"T"_Tl"n'nrm'_'rrrrI"

WO.o_ SIA Q_9-t-_ PAOE I'_.kIBER [DITION P_L'¢I- "/.B.2. !._,]_

n lTn'Wl'e'n_n'rl TEMPERATURE, I'n'_'_FrmPnYIrn'le"lw'rr'lnWI__'_r'1"_nr'l./O0] '; .... I""1 .... C

........ I............................. _o ........................ I.......................... I. '.............J
_ ' "dl

I

\

I

.......

7

tO

l EMPERATURE,

F

Figure 3.2.1-4. 101

7OOO E
I-

6000 ,50(_ 4OOO

'_
d
09 0 c-

3000
t-

'"

2£E_ 1000 0 7.5 20 25
Thrust Level, Ibf

35

50

Regenerator

Jacket -,:_.-_ Baffles

Figure 3.2.1-5.

Hydrogen

Circuit Enthalpy

Pickup

102

3.2, Engine

Requirement

Variation

Studies,

(cont)

hydrogen

regenerator, level would

regeneratively the regen require and jacket more weight.

cooled input energy

chamber, is very

and hydrogen important.

cooled

baffles. the enthalpy with

At

the 20K lbf thrust input sequent throttle in the jacket increase range.

Reducing

extraction

at the regenerator

a con-

in its size

This can be one of the penalties

for a wide

For reference, given HEX pound pounds in Figure with 3.2.1-6 The oxygen

the enthalpy picks

pickup 2/3

plot for the oxygen of its enthalpy The

circuit

is in the per

up about cooled

increase

the balance

acquired lower

in the oxygen than

nozzle.

enthalpy flowrate

increase is six

is substantially per pound

for the hydrogen, conditions. must from

but the oxygen There in size

of hydrogen

at nominal

is some if more turbine

interplay energy by the is HEX. down

in HEX

and regenerator extracted regenerator operation, valves from

sizing.

The regenerator hydrogen temperatures are effectively most

increase

the incoming delta

the turbopump transfer. The flow

The

has lower all components

for heat "oversized".

During regenerator

throttle

and HEX components.

bypass

will be bypassing 3.2.1.2 Power

of the hot hydrogen at 20:1 Throttling

around

these

Balance

A power uate actual sec/lbm. 20,000 from throttle the engine throttle operation ratio

balance

was

run at a chamber 20:1. Results

pressure

of 100 psia 3.2.2-1. is 453.7

to evalThe lbf at

when

throttled is 20.67:1

are given specific from

in Table impulse

at this point

and predicted

This represents lbf thrust. Losses layer

a decline come from

of 30.6 lbf-sec/lbm a small decrease

the 484.3

lbf-sec/lbm

in mixing

efficiency optimum

but mainly size at the

boundary down

losses.

The thrust

chamber

is no longer

conditions.

Temperatures out of the regen Maximum (assumed the baffle. temperatures, wall cooled chamber with

are within is at 587°F a 50/50 is 1030°F split

the design

limits.

Note

that the hydrogen

and out of the baffles hydrogen split from cooled

it is at 653.7°F. the proportioner chamber valve for

temperature

by the power

balance) valve

for the regen

and 810°F these

The proportioner but they

should design

be changed limits.

to better

optimize

are still within

_r,t_lT_s.,3_.3_

103

Oxygen

Circuit

E
D m

2OO

d

oo o e-

150

¢L
e" W

IO0

5O

0 75 20 25
Thrust Level, Ibf

35

5O

Hex

Ox Nozzle

Figure 3.2.1-6.

Enthalpy

Pickup

104

Table 3.2.2-1 Engine Power Balance At 20:1 Throttle Down Condition
÷ ............. | + ............. ( Off-Design + ............. I 4. ............. [ ( I I 4. ............. Tank Condltlona Run ÷ ............................... I R 670.70 (In/deC R) 4. ............................... | R 0202.00 (In/dog R) 4. ] 4. 8 out • 20.00 37.80 -117.36 4.34 (pule) (dec (BTUt#) (t/©utt) R) ÷ ............................... I Oxidizer ÷ ............................... OTV ENGINE POWER ÷ ............................... BALANCE ÷ ............................... I Fuel Page 1 + ÷

4. ............................... I I I _ Pout Tout Hour Rho out 15.00 182.70 -67.17 71.17 (pule) (dec (BTU/t) (e/cult) R)

4. ............................... Pout Tout Hour Rho

4. ............................... Pin P In out 15.00 15.00 0.00 162.70 -87.17 71.17 71.17 8.03000 (pile) (p$1a) (pml) (dec (BTUIt) (t/cult) (t/cult) (In^2) R) Pin Pout Delta T H Rho Rho CdA 4" ............................... ,. in out (hyd) (meh) le.00 107.0S le2.70 164.37 71.1705 70.9094 1.919 0.360 1.000 7361.48 2.34 .O010438 (rpm) (HP) (gpm/rpm) (pale) (pall| (dec (dec (Ib/ft3) (Ib/ft3) (ibluac) R) R) Pin Pout Tin Tout Rho Rho Wdol Eft Eft N HP O/N 4. ............................... P T in out • : 137.85 123.20 14.45 104.87 184.87 0.00 -Sd.SO .5e.30 71.00 71.00 0.00 1.92 (do (dec (dog (BTU/t) (gTU/t) (#l©uft) (tlcuft) (STU/I) (e/sac) (pule) |pale) (psi) 9 R) R) R) Pin Pout Delta T|n Tout Delta HIn Hour Rho Rho Qdot Wdot % bypaes In out • • 25.oo ÷ T P 16e.88 158.27 0.42 43.44 67.30 23.85 -97.38 122.O2 4.17 0.88 28.41 0.12 (pale) (pale) (psi) (dec (dec (dec (BTU/t) (BTUI#; (#/cult) (t/cult) (BTU/I) (#leec) R) R) R) (hyd) |mch) in out ,, • = • = • • = 21 158.66 37.83 43.44 4.3340 4.1748 0.320 O.301 1.000 17529.54 8,07 .00leeS0 (gp_Irpm) 4. (rl_n) (HP) .00 (psia) (pale) (dec (deg (Ib/fl3) (Ib/tl3) (Ib/sec) R) R) in out • m P • 20.00 20.00 0.00 37.80 -117.35 4.34 4.34 10.00000 (pals) (pale) (psi) (dec (BTU/I) (tloutt) (#/Cult) (in^2) + R)

8hut-off Valve

Pout Delta T H Rho Rho CdA

4" .............

÷ ............................... Pin

Pump Condltlona

Pout Tin Tout Rho Rho Wdot Elf Eft N HP QIN

4" ............. OX: Side Cool Heat

4. ............................... Pin Pout Delta Tin

Exchanger Fuel: Side Regenerator Cool

Tout Delta HIn Hour Rho Rho Odor Wdot

..............

4. ...............................

4. ..............................

105

Table 3.2.2-1 Engine Power Balance At 20:1 Throttle Down Condition
÷ ............. I ÷ ............. ÷ ............................... I .............. Oxidizer ÷ ............................... OTV ENGINE POWER ÷ ............................... BALANCE ÷ ............................... Fuel Peg# 2

(Cont.)

÷ ................................................................ Pin Regen Jackal Pout Delta Tin Tout Delta HIn Hout Rho Rho Wdot In out T P = 166.68 143.92 12.76 43.44 1043.44 1000.00 -97.30 3302.64 4.17 0.03 0.16 (deg (deg (deg (BTU/#) (BTUI#) (#/cult) (#/ouft) (#/seo) (pile) (pile) (p|l) R) R) R)

÷ .............

÷ ...............................

÷ ............................... Pin = P = T in out 166.27 148.74 7.53 57.31 1113.31 1056.00 67.74 3805.88 0.99 0.03 0,16 (deg (deg (deg (BTU/#) (BTUI#) (#/tuft) (#/¢uft) (#/see) + (pile) (pile) (pll) R) R) R)

Baffles

Pout Delta Tin Tout Delta HIn Hout Rho Rho Wdot

+ .............

+ ............................... Pin Ox Pout Della Tin Tout Delta Hlfl Hour Rho Rho Wdot in out = . T P 123.20 123.12 0.08 164.37 540.70 376.33 -56.30 116.87 71.00 0.06 1.92 (deg (deg (deg (BTU/@) (BTU/#) (e/cult) (#;¢uf_) (#/eec) (pile) (pale) (psi) R) R) R)

+ ...............................

Nozzle Cooling

÷ .............

÷ ...............................

÷ ................................

4. .............

4. ...............................

÷ ...............................

106

Table 3.2.2-1 Engine Power Balance At 20:1 Throttle Down Condition
4. ............. I 4. ............. I 4. ............. Turbine Conditions 4. ............................... OTV 4. ............................... I Oxidizer ENGINE POWER 4. ................................ BALANCE 4. ................................

(Cont.)
Page Fuel 3

4. ................................................................. Pin Pout Wdot Tin Tout Hin Hour Rho Rho Eft. HP PR U/Co Wheel %bypass dla in out = = • = = = 123.11 111.82 0.885 840.10 532.ge 110.67 115.00 0,08 0.83 0.032 2.33 1.100 0.206 2,542 46.64 (Pin/Pout) (fps/fpm) (in) (HP) (psle) (pale) (Ib/seo) (dog (dog (BTU/e) (BTU/#) (e/cult) (#/ouft) R) R) Pin Pout Wdot Tin Tout H|n Hour Rho Rho Eft. HP PR U/Co Wheel die in out = = = : 143.92 120.31 0.129 1078.33 1084.34 3684.19 3835.02 0.02 0.02 0.400 8.95 1.122 0.090 3.090 59.74 (Pin/Pout) (fps/fps) (in) (HP) (pale) (pale) (Ib/sec) (dog (dog (BTU/@) (BTU/#) (t/cult) (#/cufl) R) R)

4. .............

4. ...............................

% bypaIc 4. ................................ Pin

P = T = In out = -

128 127 I 1072 1072 0 3684 3364.45 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.23 25.00

31 31 O0 73 79 O0 45

(pale) (pale) (pit) (dog (dog (dig (BTUI#) (BTU/Ol (#/cult) (#/cuft) (BTU/s) (#/sac) R) R) R)

Hot Side Heel Exchanger

Pout Delta Tin Tout Delta HIn Houl Rho Rho Qdot Wdot % bypass

.............

4. ...............................

............................... Pin P T tn out 127.31 125.51 1.30 1072.79 1047.38 24.81 3664.45 3876.42 0.02 0,02 -20.41 0.30 (p$ie) (pale) (p_l] (dog (dog (dog (BTUI# (BTU/@ (_/cuft (e/cult (BTU/s (e/sac R) R) R) Pout Delta Tin Tout Delta HIR Hout Rho Rho Odor Wdot

4.

Gee Side Regenerator

+ ............. Injector

4. ............................... Pin Pout Tin Rho Rho Wdol Drop CdA in out

+ ............................... = • 111.82 100.07 338.74 0.02 0.53 1.827 11.88 1.08918 (pale) {pale) (dog (#/cuft) (#/gull) (Ib/sec) (pile) (In^2) R) Pin Pout Tin Rho Rho Wdct Drop CdA 4. ............................... 100.00 0.18 1.000 987.20 (Ibf) (pale) (pale) MR Wdol Dthroel Is0 3.00 2.13 2.600 453.66 (O/F) (Ib/sec) (in) (sac) in out 125.51 09.37 1047.83 0.02 0.02 0,305 25.64 0.679_3 (psla) (psla) (dog (e/cult) (#/cuft_ (Ib/sec) (psle) (In^2) R)

+ I I

I

;

t 4. I I I I

4. ............. I ] I I Combustion Chamber

4. ............................... _ I I I PC DPcc ERE F

107

3.2, Engine

Requirement 3.2.1.3

Variation

Studies,

(cont)

Conclusions

The with only a shift and

baseline

engine

design

readily points

accommodates through 3.1-1) the control to assure

20:1 throttling of the low speed at

in the turbopump back pressure Thermal The

operating valves margins penalties capability 20,000 or life. Ratio Operation

hydrogen performance the come throttle

oxygen and

(Figure are

stable

control. condition. engine

adequate

for unrestricted versus

operation

down

for 20:1 throttling as usable

10:1 throttling is reduced seems to 21,000

in top end 23,000 effect 3.2.2

overthrust nominal weight

overthrust There

lbf from significant

lbf for the on engine High The 1)

lbf thrust

engine.

to be no

Mixture ground The

rules

for the design

high

mixture for the component

ratio

subtask

were: variation is to be

engine

defined major

20:1 throttling changes.

used

for the high

MR variation 2) 3) 4) Throttle Maximum

without ratio

at high could

MR need be below

not be as great the nominal the

as at nominal for MR = 6.

MR.

thrust

A thrust/MR operation Oxygen

combination without violating above (oxygen the

is within thermal oxygen

operating limits. design

envelope

if it is

capable

of continuous 5)

design TPA

flowrates envelope

point

were

not

considered

in the operating 6)

side

limitation). either side wall the regen cooled chamber below (Hydrogen design side or

Hydrogen insufficient throat)

flowrates to keep are outside

through the gas

baffle limits

plates (1050°F

that

were

temperature envelope.

wall,

800°F

of the operating

limitation).

7) outside gram of the operating to evaluate high

Any

high

MR region (There stability).

where were

control insufficient

instability hours

is encountered available

is

envelope. MR control

in the pro-

k_-r/,_,,7__s_/32-3 _

108

3.2, Engine

Requirement

Variation these

Studies, groundrules

(cont) say that the engine any used for nominal change or

In essence, MR operation special that plates, envelope must be used One

for high of the

MR operation results

without

design was

modification.

gratifying includes baffle

of this analysis up (See

the confirmation copper baffle

the engine and

operating

envelope platinum

operation plates. engine.

to MR = 10 with Figure 3.2.1-3).

to MR = 13 with is unusually 3.2.2.1

The

operating

expanded Thrust Chamber

for a rocket Life surface

at High (>600°F)

Mixture

Ratios oxidize a major in the presence issue at any MR = 10, atomic pressure atom to form psia, there where = of

A hot copper even small amounts

will rapidly

of free oxygen. (MR

Chamber

life becomes

approaching oxygen 3000 allows copper will

stoichiometric

= 7.94)

or higher.

For instance, percent

at MR (chamber

is present psia, gases

in the combustion at chemical

gases

at 1.6 volume The small

equilibrium). lattice

diameter with

of the oxygen a copper atom

it to diffuse oxide.

into the metal subsequent atomic oxide

where

it reacts where

During

operation hydrogen

the MR = 7 and

Pc = 3000

be 2.7 volume

precent

that diffuses copper and

into the copper form water vapor. with

surface Later

it will reduce thermal pressures formed cycling

the copper and water psia.

to elemental

coalescence Grain

can generate

water

bubbles

internal are for

of 200,000 in the surface

boundaries

are enlarged,

and cracks

and blisters 3.2.2-1

of the metal.

(See References

9 through

11, and Figure

photomicrographs). Chamber Blanching oxidation/reduction chamber wall that have Blanched severe Surface areas have greater OFI-IC, reaction been described above due

The progressive leaves visual effects on a copper penny

termed

"blanching"

to the whitish, interconnected running (Center parallel

new-copper by subsurface to the

appearance.

surfaces

are commonly porosity, and cracks CLA

"wormholing," flow passages. Blanched

interconnected roughness indicated than ZrCu, until

coolant

of 300 microinch surface 1700°F. etc.) are

Line Average) of 1988°F

is common. with substrate

temperatures Structural severely chamber fails

on the order properties degraded

temperatures (NASA-Z,

of all common at such

copper

alloys

temperatures. of coolant

Blanching channels

can progress and subsequent

the thrust chamber

due to crack See Figure

penetration 3.2.2-2.

burn

through.

ij,,_Gtm_l_ BLACK AND WHITE

FAGIPHOTOGRAPh

Mag 2000X

%1_i ili_¸

i

Mag 2000X The TGA Specimen Exposed to a Reducing Environment Shows a Reasonably Smooth, Undulating Surface (Top), While an Oxidized Specimen Shows a Granular Surface (Bottom) Figure 3.2.2-1. NARIoy-Z Exposed to Oxidizing/Reducing Environments

110

, ....

pHOInGRAP_

o ,.-,w

I

_m

v

_u e,

IB

c u c

i I
i

c

c c
ii

i

|

1 I"
u t,m Jr" 0 L_ I-

in

_k

111

3.2, Engine

Requirement The

Variation high surface

Studies,

(cont) are thermal due to the porosity due are given The and increased of

temperatures the material

surface contact Figures nation material

roughness at many 3.2.2-3

which points. and 3.2.2-4 wall over

decreases

conductivity surface

to the loss in combiof

Photomicrographs where temperature, several cycles the increase reduced leads

of a blanched in roughness structural to cracking. discussion

is apparent. integrity Strain and

of increased properties Refer

degradation

is an effect

of blanching, as it

not a cause. relates

to Reference chambers.

11 for an in depth

of the phenomenon

to rocket

engine

Another gen/hydrogen One of the momentum objectives wall pattern. by greatly will have

chamber ratio at the NAS

concern "I'-triplet 3-23772

is the

progressive

imbalance ratios the and

in the

oxy-

element Task

as mixture

increase. ele-

of Contract compatibility Reduced increasing

C.4 is to improve ratio

ment/chamber impingement tailoring stream

by tailoring hydrogen the momentum flow

the momentum restricts ratio.

hydrogen of this element

the effectiveness MRs the

At high

oxygen

rich

more

wall while

contact

than

at lower

MRs.

In short,

element/wall stream increases. This is

compatibility of particular face. injector Careful and

degrades concern design the first

the oxidizing of the hydrogen

potential chamber face and

of the gas within bleed baffle

in the portion of the injector inch

2 or 3 inches openings walls, but protect

of the injector the face of the

or so of the chamber the best means blanching

element compatibility. some element

optimization The next best

is considered solution

of assuring from

injector/chamber occurring despite

is to prevent

asymmetry. Blanching Preventive wall tective becomes and temperature surface evident reduction, coatings. The Prevention measures 3) reducing SSME Narloy smoothing roughness it is done. method, tried oxygen to date include 1) surface at the smoothing, wall, after and 2)

concentration

4) pro-

Z chamber the surface and It also wall

is refurbished

blanching of peening in application and is

by mechanically This reduces each The surface time

by a combination but engine reduction, 600°F. This is limited

grinding.

porosity, requires

as material manhour nel tical, cooling and

is removed intensive. that may

disassembly depends may not

second the wall

temperature at or below deposits

on chanbe prac-

will keep be ineffective

temperature channel

as coolant

form

or injector

element

Rr, ,_lTss,/3a-3_ r

112

%e,-_ = ,. _ _ _. I

_

_-_ _ _;_

_

BLACK

i -At'%") ?,,';-'J-f _: _-_,..3t I'r_, t_r'_ ,.,,.-,_{APH

a

b

Tested at 11000F, MR = 10, 300 psi, O2/H 2 Cycle

a) b) c)

Cu-Skin Indication of Blanching on Cu.Skin Oxide Layer Beneath Cu Skin

Figure

3.2.2-3.

Uncoated Cycle-26

NASA-Z Slot Area

Cylinder (1.8%

After Strain)

Oxidation

and Reduction

Test

113

St.ACK

/_r',i,..m. r:,T. F DHQi.'-',7,-_:i, :--'. - "" '_ ,-',.

a # •

Tested at 1100OF, MR = 10, 300 psi, 02/H 2 Cycle

a) b) c)

Cu Skin Indication of Blanching on Cu Skin Cu Skin and Oxide Layer Underneath

Figure

3.2.2-4.

Uncoated Center

NASA-Z (>2.7%

Cylinder Strain.)

After

Oxidation

and Test -

Area

114

3.2, Engine asymmetries hydrogen

Requirement lead film to higher

Variation wall

Studies, temperatures.

(cont) The third method would require ratios below engine to the cop7

cooling of engine

for the complete operation The

chamber

or operation lead or tailoff).

at mixture This

for all phases operating per surfaces.

(no oxidizer is to apply selected of the gas 3.2.2-5) shows

compromises coating

flexibility. This was An

last option

a thin

non-oxidizing

the method evaluation

by Aerojet. species that rapidly vapor with distribution atomic above the and over molecular the engine oxygen in a

mixture fully

ratio mixed

range

(see Figure gas

combustion oxygen to operate coating

stream only

increase to water cope alloy

MR = 6. At MR = 13 species present. The An use engine of a

molecular expected nonoxidizing results

is second at high

among the hot liner that three were bomb

MR must

oxygen must

present.

or a noncopper program The MCA types (Reference

chamber

be considered. are practical. nickel

The

of the MCA

11) show tested

such

coatings

investigators of nickel

coatings: deposited

aluminide, test articles resistests. some test articles in the

nickel, by a gas tance The

and

gold.

Two

aluminide were

on copper

diffusion

process.

The and

coatings oxygen

tested, and from

checked then

for oxidation to bend suffered

at high nickel

temperature

concentration, surface was but

subjected but

aluminide

protected test.

the copper The nickel

blanching plated

tensile and

cracking There and,

in the bond was

brush many

on the copper were

tested.

no cracking many that

or spalling transverse an effective

pin holes cracks had

observed

material specimens. some

on sectioning, It was concluded time. The gold thick called After

subsurface nickel

formed would

in some require

plating

technique

development

coating nickel

was strike.

excellent Without due

in all respects the nickel to the gold

when strike

gold there

plating was a void

was

done

on a 30 millionths typically surface. has

formation, the copper

Kirkendall reviewing

voids, the

propensity report

to diffuse (Ref. 11) the

into

discussion

in the MCA the gold

Aerojet choice protection operational

team

no reservations blanching

in recommending of the copper design

plating is cheap

as the method enough is not an

of

for preventing to baseline requirement.

chamber. even if high

This

it for the engine

MR operation

R / I)O417/ 3.2I'T .5.S 3 a .8

115

G) ::2
L_

Q.

E
dUm'L IleM @
g

i

I-

q)

"0 C

n,"

ql'

Q.

_
q,,,

o
qJ

o.

,m e,,0

(e_d) _nmm_OI,m_ed
Wo 'wm_t,mdt_.t.

Qi

J I
0

|

I
/ /

I
/

I

|

_3 JQ

E
0 0 C 0

im

.m L_

c_

>.

&

0') U,.

116

3.2, Engine

Requirement 3.2.2.2 High

Variation Mixture

Studies, Ratio

(cont)

Performance

For specific impulse:

a constant

propellant

mass

flow

rate

engine

thrust

will vary

with

F = Isp m

Where

F = Thrust

Isp and:

= Specific

Impulse Flowrate

M = Propellant FI2 _ Isp @ 12
F6

Isp @ 6

Subscripts

Refer

to Mixture

Ratio

but:

T = Absolute Isp @ 12 Isp@6 o_ _/T12/Ag. T6/Ag.

Temperature

of Combustion

Gas Mol Wt. @ 6 Gas Mol Wt @ 12

_-__ 0.81

The gen flowrate should

baseline

OTV about

Engine

operated thrust.

at MR = 12 and A more mixture

maximum and is given engine

oxymore in baselined

produce of engine and

81% of rated

extensive ratio thrust

rigorous Figures under chamber 20:1.

presentation 3.2.2-6, the current pressures are 3.2.2-7, OTV

performance Figure

change 3.2.2-6

with

3.2.2-8.

is for the 7.5K have This and a family represents it should

engine

contract. 100 psia and

All 3 charts 2000 psia.

of curves a throttling not

for range that of

between theoretical over

These

performance the entire engine,

predictions charted and range. Figure

be assumed

an engine prediction engine. at any impulse which ular

can operate

Figure

3.2.2-7

is the performance for a 50K lbf thrust higher psia impulse and the thrust specific at MR -- 6 gas moleccases

for a 20K lbf thrust Note that there

3.2.2-8 improvement

is the chart for the Pc = 2000

is a slight

performance

given

MR and

chamber above

pressure. 400 seconds. based

At MR = 12 and This

is at or slightly confirms the

is 83% of specific temperature

simpler

analysis

on combustion

weight

changes.

Rl'r/Do417._Sa,'3.2-3.8

1 17

o o _N

o OC
o

._.c

E_
m m

|

C
,D

_
C

r- 0s o_._ •£ o

(D

&
4)
,I I I I I I

O)

LL.

!

O

O

O

Wql/Oes-Jql 'd$1

118

o o

0

o

2

t-- c
0 u rr

2

(¢) _B r-

m

I

c
iI

_
ik_

e- w o=

|

i,J

:3
i I I I
Im

14=

WqllOes-lql

'dsl

119

co

mqllOaS-lql

'dsl

120

3.2, Engine

Requirement

Variation

Studies,

(cont)

These release triplet inches. efficiency element Baseline psia, (ERE) efficiency

delivered is attained. and

performance

predictions

assume

a 100% energy based than (MR on I10 = 6,

This is not an unreasonable afforded and by a chamber

assumption length

the mixing for the 7.5K

greater engines is expected down

performance E = 1200)

20K, and 50K lbf thrust specific impulse (Isp)

Pc = 2000 483:1,487.3, 2000 high

measured

in delivered respectively.

to be from to

and 485.2

lbf-sec/lbm, pressure greater, from

The Isp loss The

in throttling

to 100 psia mixture

chamber is much recovered Under

is 30 to 45 lbf-sec/lbm. and lunar can only material. for the high balance be justified

loss in Isp by going

ratio

by the economies

realized

by using

oxygen

the guidelines

MR study, over

engine

thrust

could used a

vary

from

the nominal oxygen

at MR 6 + 1. Power capacity was

runs

the full MR range parameters.

maximum point

turbopump turbopump that this was

as one of the limiting set at the flow operating condition point design. of oxygen.

The design psia

for the oxygen

for MR = 7, Pc = 2300 overthrust).

on the assumption the design point

a realistic

(15%

This was 20,000 lbf

in the 7.5K lbf engine of 43.66

preliminary

For a nominal The design The flattens 3.2.2-9

thrust includes Figure reaches

engine

this is a flow

Ibm/second

flowrate curve in

an additional 3.2.2-9 plots

5% for autogenous oxygen flow

tank pressurization. This curve curve in Figure

lower

to the injector. The upper peak

at MR = 9 as it plots thrust versus At

LOX TPA shows mixture

rated

capacity. thrust

MR and higher however. does not

an engine ratios

at slightly

above

MR = 8 (near cycle does thrust engine

stoichiometric). balance loss

thrust

falls off rapidly. of this analysis

The engine

at MR = 13, MR at

An interesting become a concern

result until

is that engine maximum

at high

MR > 10. Actual

thrust

is attained

MR = 8.3 where

an overthrust

of 21,200

lbf is reached.

The baseline extensively chamber 2000 about Results hydrogen NASA-Z psia 1550 at MR = 12 for their pressures: was 2000 psia

regen thermal 1500

cooled

chamber

and The

baffle

plates

were was

evaluated at two that was plates. the

performance. psia. Later

evaluation balance the actual and and work

done

and

power while NASA-Z

showed

not attainable The analysis

for MR = 12 operation also evaluated both in Figures

maximum baffle With

psia.

platinum 3.2.2-11.

of the

2000

psia

analysis preheating

are given hydrogen temperature

3.2.2-10 plates

regenerator or Narloy

to the baffle is above the

(Tin. limit

= 499°F)

the of

baffle

wall

thermal

for all settings

x,_/,_lT_,/32-3.s

121

Engine Thrust, F, Ibf
O O 0 0 0 0 0

p.

l-

!

_

--1-

"0 c-

|
-

I

!

O i1

I

X

0
.J

>
: i : ! a Im

0

0 ...... _....... ............. 4...... _.
om

X
|

I$

0
....... im

C ........I..... t ............... ........ 4-........ _ i ......... . I
I i

"O G) 0 m >

'lO

<
I

O)

¢_

It.

122

Cq

d

II

.m

m 0 0 0 II

_0

L_

d_

i__

0
tl,.-

-

2

I--

0 _ _ 0 c_

m E
.m

E

-'t._
-0

-

_:

- 2

ee-

&
t_
IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII' IIII1111! IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII

0 0 cO

0 0 _D

0 0 _

0 0 C_

0 0 0

0 0 oD

0 0 _D

0

N e4

(,4)

e_n_.teduloj_

I,L

123

00 0

I-1

ot I!

L_

I:I: o J .... I_ I _" I ,_ II C I I

_i.

L

cff oCD
el 0 0 0 II

¢)

L___

JI

_

_l_
I_ ffl

._. IX;
C:)

_o
m_

o

"k
I L I __.L___ I I _ I

° ,.-.I

n" Q)
L_

1:1
"_ 0 C:; .,,.,t
I.

Q)

0

E
Q) I'm m

'

', /I,
I I I
_111111111 Ilillllllllllllllll

V\\

i
.',_l-

- -,-

_Z

_._
I_ I--

"r" Q) r't_ rU.I
T--

IIIIIIIII

IIIIIIIII

Illllllll

0 0 ',-

0 0 0

0 0 (:_

0 O _

O 0 I_

0 0 (D

0 0 u_

O

&
Q)
i._

(_)

_Jrnl_.Iadma,I,

t_ U.

124

3.2, Engine the flow

Requirement proportioner at proportioner

Variation valve.

Studies,

(cont) baffle, where however, the chamber the is well is also regenerator For this to the more within below design thermal at all

A platinum settings Figure chamber

capability design and

valve chart, the has

limits.

The enters valve baffle

next

3.2.2-12, and

assumes baffles

is not used case, the

hydrogen

both setting

at 90°R. flow would bulk

optimum and as the

proportioner copper indicated Figure alloy

54% of the hydrogen A platinum 3.2.2-13 gives baffle

going provide

chamber, margin rise

is adequate. Figure the Design actual

on the plot. 3.2.2-10 gave

the actual wall

temperature

where

maximum and capability This

temperature. life are set by the hot gas side wall rise for for temof

margins power

engine

peratures, the hydrogen various continued gains setting.

but

the

engine

is a function in Figures valve and

of the bulk 3.2.2-14 MR = 10.

temperature and 3.2.2-15 goal

in the

channels.

is presented

settings

of the hydrogen

proportioner would

A design

development

of this engine and baffle

be to optimize as well

the sum

of the enthalpy valve

by adjusting

chamber

geometries

as the proportioner

One of pressure pressure are drops drops over

issue the two

that

has

to be addressed hydrogen

in the design Figure valve. baffle Two circuit it mixes

is the equalization 3.2.2-16 possible shows the

parallel

circuits.

for various the velocity 2) orificing

settings and

of the proportioner pressure outlet The drop in the

solutions the

to 1) increase size, outlet and

by restricting with the regen

channel chamber downstream equalize desired

the baffle pressure

circuit criteria

before

to increase of the

drop. valve with

is to equalize

the pressure they from will that

drops

proportioner and,

circuit change valve.

elements. the flow

Otherwise, distribution

hydrodynamically and commanded Chamber A high

in effect,

at the proportioner and mixture Baffle ratio Wall

3.2.2.3

Temperature a reduced where flow)

Limits hydrogen flow rate for this

implies 3.2.2-13

design (which the

study. includes

This

is shown

in Figure

hydrogen is plotted ratio. the power

flowrate against The

to the TPA mixture ratio thrust has small at

5% autogenous of maximum engine

pressurization thrust for that process to have

condition

mixture during

maximum and

condition errors smooth that

is determined cause

by an iteration as plotted

balance,

the curve

some

minor

inflections.

It should

be a

curve.

R1,r/l:x_,7._/3.2-3._

12 5

(:E)

6

L

-P--

"

II

L I I I

C)

.p-I

Im

I L I I I I I I
III III IIII

E :3 E
X m Q C

llJ

_q

&
cq 0 0 ¢D
Z--

0 0 00

.m

U=

126

Hydrogen Temperature From Cooled Chamber and From Baffles, °F
0 0 r

I

!

:

aas/wql

'au!Gu3 o], eleJMol-I uaGoJP_H

127

_-.__

o

0 II

!

0
eu

o.a
-0

Q. f,.

II

t

-0

p
I I I --I I I 4I I I I.... I I I I I -I. 0
,@.I

2L
E
lm

0

I.I I I

no
ro
L-

I
I I I I I I
I I"I I I I I I| I l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II II I I I IIII III IIIII

I I I I I I

o

"0 >,

-rC r-c") -o

LU
'1""

I
o
I IIIII

& N e4

I o o o

o o o
.,,,-.4

o

o

o o

0 0

tl

(,4)

oan eaod oj.

128

0

'=;_

o
,II

"
-©rj - c;
-

_

0:
m "+
Q.

l:::l
(_

t,T'1"

-_rJ

II

-_. -o

o. u

I I I L I L Q =

_

E
X

I I I I -iI I I
llllllllllllllllll 0 0 IIIIIIIIII O_ 0 O IIII!!1111 0 0

<:_

0,1

r-

I,u

I I I
II II III I I 0 0 (_ IIIIIIIII

, _ 0 0 ¢) p,.

& N (6
_ L

_

.__
I1

129

0

Ir,.+

_ _._._

O II

| +m

m

Q.
T-T--

II

I

I I I II_ --I

a, o

a
O
L_

G.
O r=
.i

L_

e= 0

W

_5 &
--e'3 -0 Q

°_

IIIIIIIII

r ' i Q o P3

1,1= i i i i i i i i o o lllllllll o o 0 IIiiiiiii 0 0

Q

(p!sd) do J(] eJnsseJcl

130

3.2, Engine

Requirement

Variation

Studies,

(cont)

As hydrogen chamber The result slows and the residence temperature limits wall

flow time

is progressively of the hydrogen flow

reduced,

the velocity channels

through

the

in the heated This is shown program

increases. 3.2.2-

is a bulk

rise at lower set in the power temperature

rates.

in Figure

13. The thermal mum ature throat near

control

balance

correspond a chamber wall

to a maxitemper-

hot gas side the injector

of 800°F and baffle

(1259.6°R), a baffle would

face of 1050°F alloy baffles.

(1509.6°R),

gas side increase

wall the

temperature allowable wall

of 1050°F temperature alloy

for copper to 2000°F

A platinum The plots

(2459.6°R).

as shown outlet

in Figure flow

3.2.2-13

are for copper would be little compenenthalpy does

chamber

and baffles, were

but hydrogen used

baffle

temperature

changed sates pickup not

if platinum

as the lower wall

thermal

conductivity This indicates

of platinum that actual

for the higher is relatively

hot gas side independent

temperature.

of the material capability.

selected

and

the use of platinum

compromise

performance

The design mixture ratios above 10 the wall

concern

is the chamber begins proportioner temperature point copper

maximum to exceed valve

wall

temperature. limit

At

temperature

the design is adjusted This

of 1100°F more is setting

for the NASA-Z hydrogen shown

material.

If the hydrogen circuit, Note the baffle that the

to route relationship valve

to the chamber in Figure 3.2.2-15.

increases.

crossover for the setting the two

is at a proportioner chamber and baffle.

of 0.52 flow inum baffles

fraction are used,

to the regen

chamber

If platwall design At

the proportioner between up

can be increased, circuits give have establishes adequate

reducing

chamber

temperature. limit. mixture chamber engine chamber At any ratios

This

relationship ratio

an important design margin.

mixture from

to 10, copper baffle limits.

baffles would The

10 to 13 a platinum within mixture design ratios

to be used baffles could

to keep also

the regen improve lower

temperature life at lower temperature.

platinum point

would be biased

as the operating

towards

Similar the regen there 1500 psia chamber maximum separation temperature

plots

are given condition. should

in Figures Again,

3.2.2-17, the platinum life. versus discrepancy

3.2.2-18, baffle

and allows

3.2.2-19

for

pressure that

for a lower 3.2.2-18 that where evened

chamber is some bulk

improve for the

engine copper This

Note

in Figure

of the curves rise

the platinum

baffles

hydrogen

is evaluated.

can be readily

Rx'r/_7_,,/3_-3.8

131

__PI I I I _ II

I ,

II)_@ ,_ _

..-'-"

,
t _ iX

,zm
I Xt /

_
t,,,cf -

8
"

, m i r ....

, ' -',.....

\

,

'V

'

¥' '7_ ' "_r .... ,7- _--r-

,

,
I

\,
I

y

\ ,

-o .,-,
. *lml

E

, I
' ,

............

i i'#i
' ' , , ,

,

_,
E =I

, :°I_

,
I I I I

,
I I I I
IIII

,
I I I I '

,
I I I I

,
I I I I
II I

. _

==
"_ LI,I _v_

I,
oo

,,,,i,,,,,,,,,l,,,,,,,,,I,,,,,,,,,i,,,,,,,,,I,,,,,
o o o o °o

, -_
°°

'_
(6

(_[) az[n_,_aadcua,l,

E

132

..
I I _ I I I_ I¢0 I i

7,

I

_

I

IE"

I

||

___ _ __ +- ...... i i
I I '' I_ I I

+_---_--i_ /
I i_ : I

g
_ B
-_. _
-0 -r-I

..
_
_

zm

, \

\

,/

,

X

.... r---

_ -_--'....

._. _
0

m

@
_

,..
°_

c-

II1111111

I11111111'

I11t11111

'111111111

II1111111

II11111

I

0 C) ---

0 0 0

0 0 _

0 0 O0

0 0 r--

0 0 co

o

_

(d)

o-Inl_-t_dm°±

u.

133

p..

(p!sd) do_o eJnsseJd

134

3.2, Engine

Requirement

Variation

Studies,

(cont)

out

by a slight and

adjustment baffle valve. pressure The

of the regenerator drops circuit

bypass

valve. the range

Figure of the

3.2.2-19 hydrogen

gives

the

chamber proportioner drops

at MR = 12 over would have

baffle

to be orificed

to equalize

the

pressure

prior 3.3

to stream

mixing. STUDY COORDINATION

VEHICLE/ENGINE

One engine vehicle study study

of the teams teams.

study with

objectives

was

to coordinate work

the work and

of the three Martin-Marietta are under

contractor

the simultaneous Pratt and while

of the Boeing and vehicle Rocketdyne primes

Aerojet,

Whitney, the two required

contract contract the NASA An The were let. initial to

to

the NASA NASA centers problem Advanced The

Lewis

Research Space

Center

are under between attendance. contract. contracts

Marshall on data was the

Flight

Center. format,

This

coordination and meeting study study

requirements, late start

distribution, primes on the before

of the two was well also

vehicle vehicle

Engine

Study effort new that start

underway affected

coordination Bush's to support at the

was space effort. of the

by the NASA's Nearly all of the

need material

to prepare

a response was

to gen-

President erated

initiative. The study kind was had

in this section contractor In particular,

of vehicle never very

prime/engine

coordination the material In some as submitted. that

envisioned engine/vehicle follows instances Also, some

accomplished. little work

interface

definition

or discussion. to LeRC and

The MSFC.

is an edited corrections material 3.3.1

version were

of the original made where based

submission errors were work Test

found done and

in the material in the study. Cost

is updated Engine Design,

on later

Development,

Engineering

Estimates

During system System costs, cost estimating (ALS). and initial section The

1988 and techniques

1989, Aerojet during contract

TechSystems work was used on the

made

major

changes Launch

to

Advanced

improved

cost methodology from reviewers were

in estimating

ALS engine 14 has a of was

comments covering areas such

highly

favorable. to the ALS test. The was same

Reference with

summary costs used priate

the application as design,

of the system and

a breakout

in specific to cost for the

fabrication, The

methodology appro-

DDT&E following

for the CTP reasons:

engines.

methodology

considered

m,r/D0417_,/32.3.a

1 35

3.3, Vehicle/Engine

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

Customer as MSFC version

test and

acceptance

requirements

should

be very and

similar

is the customer of the CTP engine.

for both

the ALS engine

the flight

• • •

Both engines Production As both technology

use cryogenic runs are within would

propellants. the same order of magnitude. at the same time the

engines

be in development capabilities of the two

and industry size difference cost.

are the same. engines has only a minor effect

Physical

on DDT&E

The basic The study endar start would year assumed of design

assumptions

for the

cost study

are given

in Table A breakout

3.3.1-1. by calwould testing and

an on-contract, and engineering

full funding costs

start on 2 Jan 1991. in Figure 3.3.1-1.

is given

Fabrication

in 1992 with also start

completion

in 1998 as shown in Figure in Figure

in Figure These Note

3.3.1-2. three

Development charts

in 1992 as shown cost

3.3.1-3. 3.3.1-4.

are totaled is about related

summarized $950M in 1990

by cumulative dollars. shown

that the

total cost

It should in Table

be emphasized Costs will tests

that the costs increase

are directly

to the as the in the

assumptions number table.

3.3.1-1.

or decrease, from

for instance,

of development The development

and qualification schedule is given

are changed 3.3.1-5. costs

the 960 given

in Figure

Following gories and numbers of tests

submission was requested.

of the DDT&E

a clarification a total

of the cateof 58 equivafor relia43

The 960 tests This includes

assumed

lent engines component bility engines and

for the development development

program.

15 equivalent

engines

and a total of 43 engines life testing, flight readiness

for development, firing, and cluster

qualification, testing. The

demonstration, have

an average The

life of 30 full duration testing program

tests

with

appropriate to 36 engines

refurbishments x 30 tests/engine

major

overhauls.

is equivalent

= 960 tests.

Table 3.3.1-1. LTV/LEV Engine DDT&E Cost

ASSUMPTIONS:
e1990 FIXED $ ENGINE THRUST FOR LTV/LEV RANGE 20-30K MISSION LBF

eCOMMON eENGINE eFIRST eENGINE eNUMBER eTOTAL eSINGLE

UNIT PRODUCTION

COST=$9-13M

LIFE = 30 MISSIONS CURVE USED ENGINES TESTS = 0.990 = 32 = 960 OF DEVEL/QUAL # OF DEVEL/QUAL ENGINE LEVEL MONITORING OF ALS STME

e.85 LEARNING

RELIABILITY

@90% CONFIDENCE eCONTROLLER/HEALTH SYSTEM DERIVATIVE PROGRAM

137

O 0

f-. (/)

i
(3

Z
m

Z Iii Z
m

W
0

(_$) 1800

7VnNNV

LL

Z

0
I-,

0

GO

!11

a z

z LU n

OJ

0
.-I

UJ LU 0
0 0 0 0

oO

_

_

0_1

0

(IAI$) ZSO0 -iVnNNV

139

m

GO

0

|

|

i

i

,

--

i

0 _D

0 _t"

0 0_1

0 0

0 O0

0 _D

0 _

0 O4

0

(_$) 1SO0 qVnNNV
140

0
0

O0 0')

_O) LLI
_._l

,-I

,4
I

0
i2. I--

0
O)
:}

C_I CI)

.u

I,I.

0
I-

0 0 0

0 CO

0 0 (,0

0 0

0 0

0

(_$) iSO0 qViOi IAINO
141

,,
_ <...

°o°

"-

,-

<:

-_

I1=_

II_ IJ _
o. ee

II _

--

°
ffl

<b

u

_ -,"_

II

!

O.

a<
0

F,
O.

2

-I

<
|

];Z IJ.l a >< Z
.-I LU

Z Z LU a I-Z_: I-

i-. Or) I,LI I-Z I-

o
o 0
n ::D

o
I:I: ILl I-Z

Oa
LU C_

rr n

Lu< a>

142

3.3, Vehicle/Engine

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

Test

program,

test type,

and

facilities

are planned

as follows:

a) the oxygen and

Component

development and

database 2 new

acquisition: stands existing Oxygen and inlet GG's heat

2 stands for chamfacility and

each

for

hydrogen Tests

turbopumps,

or existing using

ber/injector zone control

testing. room, tests the warm

will be performed and gas tank

at Aerojet farm

"J" area

instrumentation, will use new facility and

facilities. (GG's)

hydrogen (HX's) flowrates fed

turbopump to obtain and

generators

exchangers

gas

oxygen engine

hydrogen

at required exit conditions. tests

temperatures, will

pressures design. with

to simulate All thrust facility thermal the use

chamber

be a pressure will (bomb), level. cooled be

O2/H2 performed ratio, tests

chamber/injector pressure and

at the component Combustion can be performed capabilities due

level stability at this to the

fed propellants. tests diffuser

mixture These thrust

throttling, may require

performance altitude

of J area ratio.

chamber/nozzle

expansion b)

Breadboard - may without health require

and

prototype

engine chamber These and

testing: at sea level tests also

2 additional expansion

test ratio and uses

stands to vali-

required allow date

in "E" area system testing and room

workhorse diffuser. systems

vacuum monitoring with

demonstrate Testing for facility

controller control

instrumentation. provisions

existing

capabilities

supplemental and development. testing:

controller/engine

controller c) Engine

interface level - also

systems requires

will

utilize

the

2 additional room and

test instru-

stands mentation

required

in the

"E" area

supplemental

control

capabilities. d) Reliability control with demonstration room and existing of radiation high (>1000) testing: altitude cooled area requires 1 additional Full extension and long with up test stand

in J area testing facility burns.

using will

existing

capability. nozzle ratios

engine (possible

be done

the exception level at very

limitation Also

for thrust

duration altitude

requires

I additional

identical

facility

at (TBD),

possibly

capabilities.

Rr-rjD0417 ssa/32-3.s

143

3.3, Vehicle/Engine

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

e) f) cells at SSC - verifies May

Engine

qualification Flight transients

testing: Readiness and

same

as reliability (PFRT):

testing Adaption thermal

(d) above. to test radiation configu-

Preliminary system require level

Testing engine

interactions, engine

environments. ration envelope.

a diffuser

adapter

for unique

cluster

nozzle

g)

Flight

Readiness

Testing:

same

as PFRT

(f) above.

h) tested in J area

Acceptance conditions

testing: (same

each

engine

will be individually

acceptance

at altitude

as d).

One failures assumed

question

asked program.

by reviewers The short violence failures failures One of the

concerned answer

the

number if the damage

of engine type of failure

test

for the test This would

is "none"

is catastrophic. well as destroy

be of sufficient Less serious

to seriously

a test stand

as

the test engine. From and

can be expected can be expected goals of the test The

where based on

a test article the test

is no longer history

usable.

6 to 10 of these SSME and engines. preclude

of the RL-10 system engine,

program total

is to use number of some

the ICHM tests per

to predict however,

catastrophic engines

failures. exceeding

will result

in some

design

life, and

failures

can be expected. To summarize:

• •

6 test

stands

required

in J area

for component control room

development required in E area for

2 test stands prototype

and an additional and engine level

testing. in J area for reliatesting at altitude conditions.

1 engine

test stand

required

bility/qualification/acceptance

1 test stand at altitude

required conditions.

at (TBD)

for reliability/qualification/testing

Special

diffuser

may

be required

for cluster

PFRT

and

FRT

development.

_',riDo_17a.13_-3J

144

3.3, Vehicle/Engine
3.3.2

Study Engine

Coordination, Production Cost

(cont)

Estimates comparison, comparison in the portion 2) the is the engine Pratt and

of engine thrust, and

production 3) an expected RL-10 that engine.

cost require learning This flat.

1) a baseline curve. The mature a 15,000 a thrust higher The due

for baseline product lbf in the level study to for this using with range of used a for now

Whitney curve

is a fully It is also to have

of the

learning where CTP

is essentially engine

(nominal)

thrust

engine The

the CTP with and,

is expected

of 20K to 30K lbf. technology series will

engine,

its increased therefore, more to gauge were

capability costly the

and to build. impact

be more

complex from

of complexity Learning 85%

factors curves

10% to 50% 90%

cost

complexity. engine thrust, with percent

of 80 and figure. and

considered cost was

likely then

bounds

a good

median curve, factor

Production

parameterized agruments

learning

production chart. The

quantity results

as the entering are given

a different through

complexity 3.3.2-5.

on each

for Figures

3.3.2-1

The a thrust, appropriate say

charts

are used curve,

by selecting say 85%; and

a production then entering N th unit 1.3 6.6 1.4 7.2

quantity, the cost chart ($M) 1.5 7.7

say

48 engines; the

20K lbf; a learning complexity factor.

with is:

For the example Factor 1.1 5.5

given, 1.2 6.0

Complexity N th Unit Cost

($M)

These not ment support. can

are

1990 over

dollars. production

A basic

assumption cost. likely but

is that This makes

DDT&E a clean

costs break

are

sunk

costs

and

are

spread and

engine One

between

developengineering the customer

production This was

costs.

area is highly

of additional discretionary

cost

is continuing case;

not estimated any level

in any subject

expect

to get

of supporting

engineering

desired

to funding

constraints.

3.3.3

Mission

Related

Costs

One DDT&E some costs concerned engine

of the the

questions impact

asked of having

after

receipt

of the

Aerojet

input only

on versus

planned

engine

servicing

unplanned

servicing.

_/_17_,,,3.2-3.s

145

C) cO

@
(N

.i

Tm

II

m

G

oO 0 c m_

_

C

_

g

(MS)iso3 ilNnHiN

146

$
@

ILl

II

_z
o

"_

,,>,_
-I F-

14 e.i

&
cO -_("4 Cb 03 ca _f ("4

(mS) ISOO fiNn HiN

147

00

(3"}

03

o l,i

P

iiii 0
|

-I II: x

1!.
>FZ <I: -m 0 Z II

c)
I--

o_ _c: la._o
0 _ t_

/
l
i

w_
._I

<I:
F-

0 I

-IZ

_

Cb

2
U.

O0

u3

_I-

O4

C3

03

u3

O4

(IA_) ZSOS ±INnHIN

148

$
I

im

4) r"

tUJ 0
1-,. |

.-I

rrx

J_
z <_ G Z

II >., q) Q.u)

oO (j e4C 0 =

EO

Q

t
14
i

0) 0 C ,uJn I_1 r-..,..

0

Y

¢9 q)
_m

I

ol U.
,m

(_)

ISOO

llNn

HIN

149

©

@

$
=m

@ e"

e. U.I o
T,= |

-I I¢
X

>tl--

m.
Ip=,.

Z ,,<

II

0

=
_.= Eo
'_

-I-

oO 0 ,'0 @ 0 C

=. .1

J

wa. u,l'E

•1" I !

I-0 I--

_z

j,
Q i.n c]

Q

|

@

1,1.

(mS) lso9

J_lNn H..LN

150

3.3, Vehicle/Engine

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

The and whether

answer

is dependent control and

on what health scenario

the mission system Some

architects is used guidelines

plan

to do, time may

the integrated decisions

monitoring is needed.

for real that

maintenance assist the

A maintenance

planners

are:

An engine capability "Don't pay

should

not be designed to be available you don't

for in-space during need."

maintenance its operational

if the life.

is not going for something

Series nance

production capability and

of an engine to space-based newer engines

can be used maintenance are built.

to expand as the

the facility

mainteis

developed

The first

basic

in-space

maintenance and this

capability

that Even

must a block

be developed I design

is engine should

removal include

replacement. capability.

vehicle

The

vehicle

design

must

provide in a space

access suit. room.

to the This

space

maintainable the

components suits require

to a person

is non-trivial,

a lot of maneuvering

A realistic is needed out versus

assessment to determine engine costs

of in-space the

maintenance

costs

and

timelines change-

cost effectiveness

of component

change-out. include:

Maintenance - Training - Facility - Downtime - Spares and

Spares

Storage Devices

- Tools/Diagnostic - Personnel Costs

- Inspection/Certification - Administration

k_/D_7_/3.2-3.S

15 1

3.3, Vehicle/Engine

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

In-space mal shops - Vacuum

maintenance or flightlines: Environment Tool Kit

presents

problems

not encountered

in nor-

- Specialized

- Lack of Gravity - Limited - Access • Reliability
concern.

Assistance Working Time in Space lines after Suits maintenance is a

Effective Problems

for Mechanics flow

in reconnecting

Insulation complicate

and connections component

for health out.

management

sensors

change

Actual, more

demonstrated time consuming lbf Thrust

in-space

repair

operations than expected.

have

been

far

and fatiguing Engine

The Aerojet careful develop ations look at designing

7.5K

Preliminary (see Ref. 2).

Design The first All engine

included concern removal

a was to

for in-space engine

maintenance changeout nozzle

a rapid, except

uncomplicated

procedure. are done

operinter-

for the extendible/retractable All operations can be done

at the engine/vehicle suit, Table within 3.3.3-1 normal

face plane. arm reach the required mover engine.

by one person,

in a space interface.

once

access

is gained steps.

to the vehicle/engine is the reverse

is a list of

removal

Replacement

of this sequence. physical

A prime of the

of some

sort is expected

to be available

for the actual

handling

Engine for instance, requires should only has a design two

removal

can be done

with

a tool kit of very to the thrust

few

items. structure

Aerojet, that

for the engine

attachment

takeout

ball lock devices more than

for keeping once

the engine is gained

in place.

Engine

removal inter-

not require

an hour

access

to the engine/vehicle

face area.

Some various design

of the questions In general,

asked there

related

to the effect unless

on DDT&E requirements

cost

of exceed

requirements.

is no impact

RP_/_17_,/32-3J

152

TABLE CTP ENGINE

3.3.3-1 OPERATIONS

REMOVAL

• • • •

Engine Propellant Electrical Manual ---

Centered, Isolation Power Operations:

Nozzle Valves

Extended Closed from the Engine

Removed

Electrical

harness

Disconnnected, Screw

Connectors Assemblies

Capped, Secured,

Harness Regen

Stowed Cooled Nozzle

Extendible Nozzle Removed, Edge Protector Installed Main Main Hydrogen Oxygen Line Line

----

Disconnected

Below Below

Shutoff

Valve, Valve,

Capped Capped Below Shutoff

Disconnected

Shutoff Line

Hydrogen Tank Valve, Capped Oxygen Tank Valve, Capped Engine Control Handling Gimbal

Autogenous

Pressurization

Disconnected

--

Autogenous

Pressurization

Line

Disconnected

Below

Shutoff

-----Engine

Fixture Actuators

Connected Disconnected Engine Covered with Protective Material

Flex Lines Prime Engine Moved

Restrained, Connected Structure of Engine

Upper

Mover Thrust Out

to Engine Locking Devices Removed

Compartment

kmvi_,_-_,-'r

153

3.3, Vehicle/Engine those listed requirements. between

Study Coordination,

(cont) as throttle regarding range and reliability of uses

in Table 2.1-1.

This is true of such things by questions is expended requirement the engine design operation missions. control change. of things

Life cycle costs are implied and whether

the number

missions

after five missions. is for five missions system a removal prior with to

The OTV engine engine removal and refurbishment. During early after two or three by the integrated for an engine video are a number (by remote operational history.

This would

be for a mature

some

of the vehicles

and inspection or out of limits system (ICHM) for an a

may be planned operation would engine in space. service every hours

In all cases anomalous and health monitoring could system Our design

recorded be justification change. (Skylab

Also, an optical astronaut) that are hard

inspection detect routinely to predict

of the engine a cause when building maintained has following of 20 versus space design is

after each mission new system.

unit and/or

There

We do not have experience is a possible exception). on the maintenance would

with a complex The number scenario.

of uses prior

to the end of requirement (equivalent

life is dependent fifth mission. operation

been an operational

life equivalent The engine

to 40 missions be discarded The economics

with periodic of refurbishment are not defined. facility. assuming

maintenance in space The present

after 40 missions

and 500 starts). to earth engine

returning station important returned emphasizes

the engine design a quick to earth

for refurbishment for a maintenance capability during

has no provision feature

Our baseline

engine

change-out

that will be the most If the engine of a space to operation at a in terms

maintainability

the early

years of operation. it could,

for refurbishment be considered

after five missions expended even though

deployed system, later date.

it was returned

The LTV duty lunar orbit burn, a de-orbit pre-airbrake seven about engine correction burn,

cycle (typical) return

would burn,

have

a translunar burn

injection

burn, a

a

and earth

two midcourse circularization

correction

burns,

and a post airbraking

for a total of for

starts each mission.

Total LTV propellant

(288,000 Ibm) is sufficient A fifty mission

1655 sec operation 24 hours would

on 4 engines operation program.

of 80K lbf total thrust. and about With 5 reuses and about 350 starts. 2.4 hours

life would

total about each engine

of engine accumulate

This is close to the life maintenance time. To put this shuttle operating

goal set for the OTV engine

prior to scheduled

35 starts

in perspective,

this is about

7 times

the operating

time accumulated

by the space

,m'z_17__,,z32_.s

154

3.3, Vehicle/Engine

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

main gone such

engine seven

(SSME) missions

on an orbiter without with Meeting

mission.

We are not aware Some

of any SSME storable

that has engines, this be a

extensive a fairly it with

maintenance. high-margin, a high

propellant

as the OMS

engines

conservative

design,

can meet engine will

maintenance challenge.

free goal.

performance

cryogenic

One and storage. At some necessary such 3.3.4

of the capabilities time in its evolution,

needed

at the Lunar

base is engine capability there.

changeout may be

a greater Vehicle

maintenance (LEV) is based

considered establishing

if the Lunar will

Excursion

The cost of

a capability In-Space

be substantial. and Servicing addressed cost. in-space maintenance addresses assessing features was given with from design the standof

Maintenance section

The previous point of factors comprising

the life cycle that engine

This section

features

the Aerojet ability received because

version

of the engine The rapid emphasis.

will be of concern removal/replacement replacement

when

the maintain(see less Table 3.3.3-1)

of the engine. major design

Component

consideration in place.

of the concern

for reliability

in component

changeout

the engine

With nents that could (subject engine and/or

a competent to limitations design

in-space

maintenance be replaced sensitive.

capability is given Without

the engine in Table access

compo3.3.4-1. the

as noted) design of these

The list is both vehicle structure

and vehicle some

through

aerobrake

components and servicing

will be inaccessible. functions These were involving adapted tile from the critical

The full range engines the Phase are given A vehicle health in Tables studies.

of maintenance and 3.3.4-3

3.3.4-2

respectively.

In three system

of the six servicing This system a scheduled the decision ICHM system

operational would appear

functions, to be very plan,

engines

monitoring operation there time."

is used. Despite problem

to the mission system indicates

and safety. is an engine With

maintenance is likely

if this not to well be at

to be "fix it now, difficult very

the scheduled adhere engine

a sophisticated plan.

it will be very maintenance may

to a timephased condition

maintenance not time

Preventive

determined,

determined.

wr/t_7_./3_.3.8

155

TABLE CTP ENGINE

3.3.4-1

SPACE MAINTAINABLE COMPONENTS 7.5K LBF THRUST ENGINE

Component Hydrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Valve Oxygen Valve Hydrogen Main Main Shutoff Valve Valve (Low (Low Press) Requires Requires Requires Requires Requires Access Access Access Access Access

Comment Near Near Near Near Near Engine/Vehicle Engine/Vehicle Engine/Vehicle Engine/Vehicle Engine/Vehicle Interface Interface Interface Interface Interface

Shutoff Pump

Boost Boost

Pump

Press)

Autogenous

Pressurization

Autogenous

Pressurization

Requires

Access

Near

Engine/Vehicle

Interface

Regenerator

Bypass

Valve

Design Dependent; Manifold Design Dependent; Manifold Requires Requires Ready Access Access Access Access Access

May

be a Bolt-On

to a

Oxygen

Regenerator

Bypass

Valve

May

be a Bolt-On

to a

Gimbal Gimbal Extendible Extendible Extendible

Motors Actuators Nozzle Nozzle Nozzle Deployment Dep. Motors

Near Near

Engine/Vehicle Engine/Vehicle

Interface Interface

Requires Requires Design Pressure Design Pressure One Plugs

Near Near

Engine/Vehicle Engine/Vehicle be Bolt-On

Interface Interface to Low

Mechanism

Fuel Flowmeters

Dependent; May Boost Pump Dependent; May Boost Pump Removable

Oxygen

Flowmeters

be Bolt-On

to Low

Controller

or Two

Boxes

with

Cannon

Sensor

Signal

Conditioning

Units

Designed to Allow Sensors only Electronics Changed Recalibration) Dependent on Access

to Remain in Place, (Requires System

Miscellaneous Hardware, Brackets, Wires, External Sensor Elements

RPT/r_lT-SS,-T

156

TABLE SPACE-BASED CTP ENGINE

3.3.4-2 MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS

Perform

scheduled

maintenance

Transfer Perform Determine Replace packaged Replace Perform Service Replenish Perform unscheduled

propellant visual LTV ACS

to and from

LTV engines)

inspection fault status

(includes

(Altitude

Control are used) (after

System)

modules

(after

each

mission

if

storables engine system batteries stored

module* operational and fuel

TBD

mission

time)

testing cells (if used)

helium

maintenance

Perform Verify Isolate Perform Perform

damage any fault electrical

assessment failure

(beyond

scheduled

inspection)

to replaceable repair "remove

unit

damage required

and

replace"

due

to failure

The vehicle can be developed engine replacement. In-space design solution. Table 3.3.3-1 design concept.

with replaceable propulsion modules or for individual handling requirements may dictate one or the other lists the steps in removing an engine in Aerojet's

RI'I'/I)0417-._a-T

157

TABL_ CTP ENGINE SERVICING

3.3.4-3 OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS

BERTH • • •

LTV LTV with LTV at Station Station

Rendezvous Capture Berth

LTV at Station PROPELLANT Interface Integrity Leak Check Propellant from LTV To Station Tank Farm

TRANSFER • • • Verify Perform Transfer

Propellant Residual LTV Visual

INSPECT • • • Perform

Inspection Status* Detected* Assessment Test Routine Routine Plan* (TV/EVA) to Verify Fault

Determine When Fault Perform Initiate Initiate

LTV Fault or Damage Damage Electrical Fault

Isolation

Formulate

Integrated

Maintenance

PERFORM • • • • Perform Mission Perform Deactivate

LTV MAINTENANCE Scheduled/Unscheduled Reconfigure System and Operational Stow Testing* for mission at that time) Maintenance Tasks*

LTV (if not required

MATE • • • •

LTV AND Payload

PAYLOAD to LTV to LTV Interface Integration Test

Transfer Mate Verify Perform

Payload

LTV/Payload LTV/Payload LTV/PAYLOAD Prelaunch Propellant LTV/Payload*

LAUNCH • • • Perform Transfer Launch

Operations* from Station to LTV

* Operations

where

the LTV engine

Health

Monitor

System

is used.

a_T/_IT-SS,-T

158

3.3, Vehicle/Engine 3.3.5 3.3.5.1

Study Engine Vehicle

Coordination, Requirements Concept provided studies MSFC

(cont) for the Lunar Mission

NASA-MSFC Mission. With the actual The vehicles. Freedom. One This is the vehicle NASA

a vehicle just started of the

concept

for the Lunar may support at Space change.

Return

the concept lunar base

concept

proposes Station

two

lunar

transfer vehicle

vehicle built

(LTV) up form

which three

is based modules:

is a modular

LTV Core stage sion

Stage.

This

is a single Four is part

tankset engines

structure comprise stage.

with the

the

basic propul-

propulsion array. An

system. aerobrake

main

of the core has

Separable four During tanksets

Tanksets.

The core vehicle shaped injection emptied. and pattern (TLI) The

provisions the

for attaching core vehicle. tanksets for com-

in a cross

around burn two two

the trans-lunar when

of these

are jettisoned pletion excursion moon to earth Crew of the

other

are retained

TLI burn (LEV). soft

to transfer are then

propellant released base.

to the lunar for impact The LTV on the

vehicle

They landed in the

or, possibly,

at the core

lunar tankset.

returns

on the propellant Module/Cargo This

Module. can consist

A payload

of 27 metric ton crew logistics to the

tons

is plus

proposed. cargo mission. orbit The set of landing is serviced four engines with legs along

of a 4.8 metric

module support LEV

or can be all cargo The crew the module cargo

for an unmanned can be transferred module. excursion the lunar based

in lunar

with

second

vehicle operation from the

is the lunar to and LTV and to those used

vehicle surface.

(LEV)

which

has above,

a it

for actual

from

As noted

propellant LEV are

is actually on the on LTV

at the lunar the been only

station.

The

on the

identical extension for the

LTV except engines has

extendible/retractable reduces the length

nozzle required

removed. two

This

landing

legs.

During

operation,

engines

RlYr/I)O417.55a/3.2-3.8

159

3.3,Vehicle/Engine Study Coordination,
are than operated those above for the pumped LTV. idle thrust

(cont)

as the thrust

requirements over

for the LEV are lower the touchdown of both point vehicles

The vehicle

is capable

of hovering Conceptual 3.3.5-1. using

and of a controlled with dimensions

landing and weights This vehicle

at a fraction are given concept

of a "g". in Figure

sketches

was evaluated items was

an engine

set of four

20,000

lbf thrust weight baseline The

engines. earth

One of the study orbit

to determine

the sensitivity specific

of the LTV impulse for the 3.3.5-2. has

in low

at the start of the mission The results impulse

to the engine

27 metric

ton payload. of a high specific

of this trade engine

are presented The curve

in Figure as plotted used shown

importance

is evident. built What goes into

inflections the vehicle 440 seconds curve a direct could

that were weights specific

a result based

of the assumptions concept. weight

the program

to generate is why, at a

on the MSFC the initial

is not dearly infinity. versus

impulse,

towards payload on payload.

A companion specific impulse however, is for

be prepared

that would

have

maximum impulse

evaluation shows

of the effect why

of specific

As it stands, performance 3.3.5-3.

this curve necessary.

the OTV engine lunar mission

program profile

emphasis is given

on high in Figure

The proposed 3.3.6 Issues The • • •

in Engine

Throttling over any range, and change are: rate. down. at low system

issues Control Hot

in throttling, system

stability

section

temperature liquid-to-gas

rise on throttling phase change

Oxygen pressures.

circuit

Combustion

stability

over

the

throttling

range.

160
RPT/DO417.K$a / 3.2-3.8

-

I

.....

I
L_

161

==
i " . .1

:

i

_Z

'-'

i

i

/

,.Y

S i= i
i ! ! i ! i !fl ,:

,,,,,,,,,,,,"""'
_==

_==.
"E"

® ,,o,
.J e¢3)

!

i

i

,_

N
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ¢o

¢4
4)
=._ =l

(mql_) lqO!eM AZ'I le!llUl

IL

162

;o_ .o I i_._1

_=_.

_

_

_

_z_.l

UJ ..4 a LL. 0

m im

0 C 0
Im

Z 0 al
N

om

m

m c _I

e4 m Iz:

0
n,, Z _4

d_

'_.

_

, _

L.

I1

!iI'
_1

'
!_ _ "'1 _

_1

i_ .!

163

3.3, Vehicle/Engine •

Study

Coordination, operating

(cont) range.

Turbopump

• •

Engine Specific

operating impulse

envelope degradation

restrictions. as thrust decreases.

As the throttle with the may alloy hot section lower mass (primarily flow and thrust velocity level

range

increases gas

beyond side wall

10:1, there temperature

is increased increases throttle or lower may lead

concern due range (copper show to some to

chamber)

of the hydrogen the wall where

coolant.

A maximum reads operating change. 1050°F

be set by the chamber).

thrust This

where the range

temperature turbopump pressure rate. phase

is also

curves This can

dis-proportionate control system

speed instability

changes

for the output response

or a lower problem

A special sures the oxygen At lower the due erratic makes

is the oxygen to gas

change. with

At high predictable "dome" flow

system

presat

the transition where properties and and 2-phase energy performed removes

uneventfully enters

properties of the rates are could element T-S

all times. diagram erratic show with

pressures

the oxygen

the 2-phase and mass

thermodynamic to film mixture phase boiling ratio

are unpredictable flow. release A gas-liquid changes.

combustion Aerojet heat uses

element a gas-gas (HEX)

the oxygen

change This

in a LOX/GH2 the problem from

exchanger

upstream component.

of the injector.

the combustor

to a less critical

The chamber resulting full thrust. in the cold channel chamber length

hot section and

temperature

rise

establishes variations energy regenerator section resulting effectiveness

the regeneratively in throttle needed where ratio to run the

cooled

geometry. to transfer

For wide

is too short

the thermal circuit TPA section. shows Note

the cycle energy with can

at

A solution gas

is to use a hydrogen exiting from the hydrogen the pump 3.3.6-1 thrusts.

the excess

hydrogen hydrogen thrust

turbine The the that

is counterflowed heat transfer

the

entering by 40%. engines thermal Refer

increase regencon-

the engine erator tributor

Figure

of the

hydrogen

for CTP to the

of various energy

the regenerator above 7.5K

is a significant lbf. throttling.

for the cycle

at all thrusts

to Section

3.2 for additional

discussion

of engine

l_'r/D_,7_,/3.2-3.8

164

Hydrogen Circuit Enthalpy Change

o_ o;
¢0 ¢3

0.8

........

1

_c Q.
t-UJ

0.5

0.4-

O2

0 7.5K 20K Thrust 25K Level, klbf 35K 50K

Regenerator

Jacket

Baffles

Figure

3.3.6-1.

CTP

Engine

Dual

Propellant

Expander

Cycle

165

3.3, Vehicle/Engine 3.3.7

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

Weight Space

Penal_es basing may

for Space actually

Basing save some engine weight as an inert gas

purge

system

is not needed are self-purging baselined

for the AT version under vacuum does

of the CTP engine. and

The cryogenic driven seal purge LOX gas.

propellants turbopump

conditions not require

the hot oxygen

for the engine

an interpropellant

Valve nal conditioning statically controlled units

actuators, will need

control

electronics, and

gimbal thermally pounds will directly

actuators conditioned weight

and

sensor with

sigthermo-

to be insulated This will weight

heater The most

circuits. significant

add a few penalty not add

to the assembly. spares and but

be in engine

maintenance must

equipment/facility. into orbit

This does for a space-based

to LTV or LEV weight capability.

still be carried

maintenance

3.3.8

Parametric Aerojet

Data responses

Request8 to request for various in Section was outside types 3.1. of parametric requests data could scope are not

included, be answered study. generate

for the most

part,

in the information of the information

Some

as generation that specific

of the contract

for this should

Now

areas

of interest

are

known

a follow-on in Section

to this study 3.1 are given

that information.

A few items

not covered

below.

Electrical Electrical engine (worst preliminary case) in watts 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 design

Power power task

Requirements requirements Table were determined gives for the the power The 7.5K lbf thrust

(see Ref 2). engine

3.3.8-1

required state points are:

for 13 different Nozzle Engine Configure Chilldown Chilldown Engine Tank Start head

operation

state

points.

extension/retraction Out Gimbal engine 02 TPA H2 TPA (tank idle head) (2 engine for chilldown vehicle prior configuration) to start

Rvr/_17._,/32-3_

166

i-

E
4)
L1

-i O" 4) rr
L_

0 a. C (2) C Q >

I1

C

Q. IIC

I

m

,D

167

3.3, Vehicle/Engine 6 7 8 9 10 11

Study

Coordination, Idle Mode Operating

(cont)

Pumped Normal Overthrust Normal Normal Operational

range

Shutdown Gimbal Storage

External

Radiation thrust

Environment chamber inlet would

(Buried be cold (area

Engine) to the touch even point at full above to for

The engine thrust operation With from

the hydrogen inside circuits

manifold

ratio

28) to some 3.1-5) and

the throat. and from the upper

the chamber

a can structure insulated,

(see Figure radiation

the lines

the injector/baffle portion

external external

will be negligible of the oxygen The outside

of the engine. be 400°F nozzle 3.3.8-1

The maximum

temperature ratio much 600). higher

cooled

nozzle

would

near the exit manifold will, gives unless insulated,

(area have versus

extendible/retractable temperatures. nozzle. engine curve). Figure curves curve)

the temperature to account to space variables

area ratio of heating

for a columbium by an adjacent (far nozzle side extension.

The two (near Figure side

are needed or exposure the same Constraints

for the effect for direct

radiation

cooling

3.3.8-2

gives

but for a carbon-carbon

Cluster

All Aerojet between engines at the nozzle

design

work

to date The

has assumed

a 12 inch

clearance is dependent length and dis-

exit plane.

adequacy movement,

of this clearance engine nozzle

on side loads, flexibility, cussion

mechanical

constraints system primes Points tolerance.

on engine

and gimbal with the vehicle Attach

This is one of the items

that requires

some

to determine. and Gimbal Method

The pair of the two made nuts, with bolts, two sets

engine

is actually brackets.

attached Aerojet

to the thrust has a design

takeout where

structure

by one is

of gimbal

this attachment in a space

ball lock devices fastening

that can be connected The pitch and

by a person yaw

suit; no to a

or other

devices.

axis gimbals

are attached

0 _00 O0

ioo
O0

g

[
o
_130
°_

e

I-

-

0 rY o

0

Z

o
-OO -0']

<

d q
o
I

-_)

I,..

-I
.I

_L

-0

169

-

-00 0"_

O _00 u_
i

L

¢:

,--

O

_ -

0 C 0

00 "_

£

u_i-5
q
o

-O
-r"_,,_-

e4
|

m
OH

O'1

u.
I I I I I I l 1 I I t I I t I I _ I 1 I i l

O00g,

OOgL .J ';gJr'i°JSdWg.]_

000[
_0

-_0 r_

-C
-,'r3j ,F)

170

3.3, Vehicle/Engine

Study

Coordination,

(cont)

structure

at the

top of the gimbal.

engine The

injector. gimbal

Actual actuator

placement arm

of the

gimbal

point

would could be

be for a true done

throat

connection so that

to the no tools

engine were

by slip-on

clamps

with

securing

by thumbscrews that

required can be

for assembly made making 3.4

or disassembly. without tools.

It is possible This in space. DESIGN would

all engine-to-vehicle simplify the task

connections of an astronaut

or broken an engine

greatly

changeout BASELINE

ENGINE

UPDATE

3.4.1

Dual The

Propellant parallel flow

Expander version given design to the

Cycle of this cycle 2.1-1 should was be an excellent at the beginning dual propellant 7.5K although hydrogen from the lbf thrust the

performer. of the study expander engine version regenerator oxygen surface same

The

engine

schematic thermal

in Figure results series flow

developed flow

based cycle

on the

for the parallel cycle engine The latter developed design version

when

compared design task.

in the baseline has the

preliminary in Figure

It is the

current

3.1-20

should

be evaluated. for better

upstream circuit. area It may

of the HEX be penalized lower The minimization. margins

isolation

of the in HEX Either based

hydrogen weight version on engine due

circuit

by an increase delta temperatures. would The

to increased would give the

needed

for the

engine and

performance. weight thermal

choice

be made

control flexible

capability with cycle

resulting long life.

engine

promises

to be highly expander

excellent

for very

It represents

the current

state-of-the-art.

3.4.2

Engine

Control

Baseline

This valves, system engine given The and an array The

engine of sensors basic

will require for input valves

a dosed

loop

control control

system, and in Table

a dozen health 3.4-1.

control

to the integrated and sensors 3.4-2. component Analysis

monitoring The basic is 3.4-3.

(ICHM). operation in Section

engine

are listed A discussion states

sequence 3.1.1.10. Liquid that

is outlined The

in Table

of valve are given

function

corresponding Transient

in Table

Modified indicate

Engine the engine

Simulation and

(MLETS) stable

preliminary once it is at

results thermal

is controllable

is dynamically

equilibrium.

RI'r/tX_7._S,/3_-3.8

17 1

I/I 0
m

>
m

m Q C

I,LI G. I-0

172

Table Engine

3.4-2 Sequence

Operation

Table Entry Number O0 Nozzle Extension Retraction Engine Gimbal Configure Engine for Chilldown

Actions/State 28V DC Motor Driven Ball Screws by Limit Switches/Torque 28V DC Driven Actuators Close Open Close Open Open (2) Terminated

0 1

Fuel and Ox Turbine Bypass, Fuel Regen Bypass Valve, Fuel Idle Valve, Hex Bypass Valve, Ox Igniter Valve (Ignition Off)

2

Chilldown

02 TPA

Open Ox Main Valve (Gaseous 02 Flows Through the TPA Pump, Hex, Ox Cooled Nozzle, TPA Turbine, Injector, and Out the Engine Nozzle). Close Ox Main Valve on TPA Reaching Operating Temperature, Close Ox Igniter Valve Open H2 Igniter Valve, Open Fuel Main Valve (Gaseous Hydrogen Flows Through the LH2 Pump, Chamber and Baffle Circuits, H2 TPA Turbine, Regenerator, Injector, and Out the Engine Nozzle). Close Fuel Main Valve on Reaching the TPA Operating Temperature, Close H2 Igniter Valve. Open Ox Main Valve, Open Fuel Main Valve, Open Igniter Valves, Actuate Igniters Modulate Fuel Idle Valve for Mixture Ratio Control, Hydrogen Proportioner Valve for Chamber/Baffle Temperature Control, Engine Temperatures Stabilized, Combustion Smooth, Igniters Off Modulate Turbine Bypass Valves Towards Closed, Close Fuel Idle Valve, Close Regen Bypass Valve, Close Hex Bypass Valve until Ox Turbine is 400°F. Accelerate TPA's to Pumped Idle Speed, Hold by Modulating Turbine Bypass Valve, Stabilize Engine Temperature. Evaluate Health Monitor System Readings. Begin Main Tank Autogenous Pressurization.

3

Chilldown

H2 TPA

4

Lightoff

5

Tank Head Idle

6

Pumped

Idle Mode

17,44-Ta/rV2

173

Table

3.4-2

(cont.)

Table Entry 7

Normal Operating Range

Command Engine Thrust. Ox Turbine Bypass Valve Moves to Thrust Schedule Setting With Fuel Turbine Bypass Valve Following. Regen Bypass Valve Moves Towards Closed Position to Meet Thrust Requirement Hex Bypass Valve Modulates to Keep Ox Turbine Inlet Temp at 400°F. Hydrogen Proportioner Valve Adjusts to Keep Throat Temperature Within Limits. Mixture Ratio Trimmed by H2 Turbine Bypass Valve. Command Engine Thrust With Override on Turbine Bypass Control Lower Range. Increase Mixture Ratio to 7. Ox Turbine Bypass Moves to Thrust Schedule Setting With Other Valves Following as in Normal Operation. Health Monitor System Will Reduce Thrust on a Trend Towards Unsafe Temperature. Thrust May Fluctuate as Controller Maintains Mixture Ratio With a Turbine Bypass Valve at Zero Bypass. Shutdown Command Initiates Throttle Down

Overthrust

9

Normal Shutdown

to Pumped Idle Range. At Idle TPA Speeds the Fuel and Oxygen Main Valves are Closed, Turbine Bypass Valves Commanded Full Bypass, Regen Bypass and Hex Bypass Valves to Full Bypass. Idle Valve Full Open. Igniter Valves Open, Ignition On. Residual Propellant is Vented to Space Through the Nozzle. Engine Centered. 10 Normal Gimbal 28 V DC Gimbal Actuators are Activated Per Controller Instructions at Any Time During Engine Operation. Thermostatically Controlled Heater Power for Valves and Sensor Electronics and DC Motors, Thermal Control Power to ICHM System, Engine Centered, Nozzle Extension Retracted.

11

Operational Storage

174
17.44-7a/rt/3

o
W

o
W

0
_

0

r
if)

g
o

_ _
g
o ,-.-

_._. _ _z_z_
_ O00z
O) IJ.l ¢,Z) ILl

o

o

g

o

_

o8

8_

t.-

a_
0

_0

_o_
_,-

ggg
000

o
0

o

¢_

_.
0

0

S
0

W _J

ILl

ILl

I/J

o "

o "

==

o
I.U oO W oO I/J

I/J

I/,,I

gg8 ood

_

_

lib oo

B o

111 IJJ

ILl

I.U

0
im

C 0

_ o
(t) ILl

o _ o,o_ oo
I_I

o_ _

o _ o _o

l_

a) o.

0
0
,I

z lla n 0

z uJ o. 0

_ _-,0. n

o ooZZ_= _ _ o oo....o g g • _00_ o o
w

_,:_ 0

o o ._
_

O)

o_tU
I

z

z
Q.

o=

Ii

joe_

0

I_.

0

,-

,-

_ bbbz

o

o

o_

C q) (.. 0 Q.

£:) tu o)

z

no.

g

o

_.

o

®"

®

_z_z a
OoOz

a _

_

o o

8 _
o oo

_ _ a

a d

z

@ 0

E

0
n

z b
o o

8 d
o o9

_m o_
o. o. o_

mzz

_

_

_

o

-oodz

o

o

o_

z

_cA
I--

ir

o

o _o o _

z_ 8 gg

ill

Ill

g

g

tu 0. 0.. 0
I-I.-

z

8
z nO 0 z
O. m

z
I-

0
O.

z i,,u o _II

0 o

o_

a. 0

175

3.4, Engine

Baseline

Design

Update,

(cont)

Basic valves. pass The valve oxygen following a control bypass thrust

engine

control bypass

is accomplished valve sets the engine

with

the

two with The

turbine the

bypass byvalve

turbine and

thrust ratio.

hydrogen bypass section. hydrogen and and

then

modulating oxygen is used The

to hold temperature

mixture

HEX turbine in the

is primarily The regenerator

to regulate valve levels.

to the OX TPA available between Other purge energy the cooled valves system

to supplement split valve.

stream baffle

at higher circuit

hydrogen

chamber

the for

is controlled or tank

by the proportioner There engine

are for start or required just five valves.

shutdown lines and

pressurization. Once The operating, power turbine chamber were as well. percent balance

is no helium control was

helium

valves.

is done used

through

program valves.

for an initial shows of the

assessment turbine bypass and

of the flow

control plotted

curves against

for both engine

bypass pressure. used The error There

Figure

3.4.2-1

Discrete

settings

HEX

bypass These that very

regenerator are indicated balance curves pressure to tank was power power will

bypass

valves

to reduce linearity

the control is very good

interaction. considering These are

settings the power

on the plot have a few

in the valve

settings.

acceptable chamber pumped program also that idle

for controls points head idle.

modeling. curve

will be an upward as the engine crossed because

inflection transitions

at low from

on the

(Pc < 100 psia) psia the curves to give there

At 2000 the other

the power at this point. flow

balance Note

set to adjust margin available in the pressure 3.4.3

variables at which

a 10% bypass bypass 2000 margin

condition, to the TPA (and Engine The

is positive until more

available

to increase With some

turbine, design thrust)

is not critical points even

psia

is reached.

adjustment chamber

is available

for additional

at the top end.

Components component baseline. discussion During in Section the study, in the design each it had 3.1.1 represents was such the latest sub-

engine

design jected

thinking

for the engine reevaluation.

component to survive

to a complete as: • •

To remain

questions

Can Can

the engine its function and

operate

if it is removed? to another component at a savings in

be assigned

weight

complexity?

,u,r/,_7_,/3.2-3._

176

°_

G) e=

"_

I,IJ t,)

0
L_

rX Iii

D

m m

¢B n I

tO

0

&
I l l i I I | l i l I I I * i I I I a i I i i a

G)
L_

% 'ssedX8

eu!qJnj.

.i

!1

177

3.4, Engine

Baseline

Design

Update,

(cont)

• • •

Can the design Is it producible? Does it have

be changed

to save

weight?

safety

implications?

If so, what

are the

failure

modes

and effects?

Is it an engine improve

life limiter?

If so, what

changes

are needed

to

its life?

Some ation included:

of the potential

design

changes

that came

out of the re-evalu-

1) tioned on grounds 2) patible with either

Combine

the regenerator may

and HEX into one with one,

unit.

This was

ques-

that packaging Eliminate

be difficult

massive

unit. as it was incom-

the regenerator. engine. with

This was

rejected

a 10:1 or 20:1 throttling 3) Use a stepped valve valves.

only

3 or 4 positions have merit

for both but requires

the hydroconsulin reli-

gen regenerator tation ability with

and

the HEX bypass designers a continuously

This may

the valve over

to be sure variable

that there valve.

will be any improvement

or cost

4) This tional would would valve

Provide

a recirculation dumped The valve

loop

for chiUdown but would

of the turbopumps. add a line and where an addiits failure idle in

use the propellant to each circuit. start.

in chilldown would

also have

to be positioned operation severe

preclude stages

engine

A preferred

option

is engine without

at tank head or pressure

the latter fluctuations.

of chilldown

if that can be done

popping

5) This was considered scenario. several

Add

line quick until baseline cable

connects/disconnects the NASA decides

for each on a specific engine actuators,

major engine

component. mainFour propel-

premature The design electrical

tenance lant lines,

calls for simplified two gimbal

removal. and

connectors,

locking

Rr-rlr_17_.i32_J

178

3.4, Engine
devices through

Baseline points

Design on the large 6) Add

Update, thrust

(cont) takeout structure would be in one plane processed suit. was have rejected dual open

at two

an opening

enough redundant

to accommodate valves

an astronaut

in a space This

for critical

applications.

as adding actuating on a ground open against

complexity coils powered

without

necessarily

improving separate

reliability. circuits. shut-off that these

All valves Each

by physically the system. and latched

electrical propellant

circuit are

will

fault

within

The

main

valves releases valves

powered is can be

a spring an engine

force

in place

by a solenoid to build The engine

if power so they

lost to effect manually erational 3.5

shutdown. from

It is also the on the crew

possible station. mode.

closed or fail

or opened safe depending

valving

is either

fail op-

failure

IDENTIFICATION

OF CRITICAL

TECHNOLOGIES

A major LOX/LH2 approaches progress discussion technology has engine to put been

goal

of the OTV issues

engine and

technology develop design,

program

is to identify and believe this goal. to pursue

the

critical

technology them made

materials,

systems a great The deal of

to practice. over

Aerojet

program

personnel to fulfill

the life of the contract a status report

following additional

should efforts. 3.5.1

be considered

as well

as a call

Thrust Performance

Chamber

Technology -Performance specific impulse for a LOX/LH2 (Isp). The rocket Aerojet will, engine version

3.5.1.1 is usually

Improvement figure for delivered performance

stated

as the using

of this engine deliver mixture using 95% our using

Aerojet's

computation of 2000 record

methodology psia, area ratio

theoretically, and a

484 lbf-sec/lbm ratio of 6).

(at a chamber In general, With Aerojet injector

pressure has

of 1200:1, verification greater coaxial,

a good

of test stand (ERE) and 100% real

of lsp than a it

methodology. well established

energy designs

release such

efficiencies coaxial nearly

element chamber

as the very

swirl ERE. gains

reasonable will be

combustion difficult may to pick come

length

will yield engine

Although in vehicle

up additional from:

Isp in the future,

performance

Rlrl-/D(3417.55

a/ 3.2_3.8

179

3.5, Identification

of Critical •

Technologies, of initial

(cont) chilldown propellant dumping prior to engine

Reduction start. Maintenance throttle injector

of injector (there

energy

release

efficiency

over

the entire most

range

is a drop

off at the lower

range

with

elements). Propellant on each Management mission. (APM) systems to minimize tank

Active residuals

Reduction vehicle shutdown. body through Improving by using engines Reduction ating

in hydrogen specific impulse

boiloff during

and consequent periods utilize when

reduction the engines

in are

One approach to deep space

would with

the engine hydrogen

as a black circulating

radiator

the liquid and back

the regen

cooled

chamber

to the tanks. control system

the efficiency a high during pressure their

of a LOX/LH2 gas supply

attitude

pumped

up by the main

operation. physical a high size and weight. ratio over The engine oper-

in engine

envelope

includes

mixture

(MR _>7) overthrust nominal) that can be numpres-

capability used

(5 to 25% increase engine size

in thrust Weight selection, premium with

to keep

down.

is a function thrust, and

of the chamber and

ber of components, sure. strong, chamber Long There

materials

is a continuing materials engine. life.

in developing a high (2000 psia

using

lightweight pressure service cost using

or greater)

engine

Every

item

carried

into space

has

a large

transportation maintenance, cost $100,000 life for a space lent of higher lant expanded

that usually people

exceeds suits

that of the item. has been costs

In space to

in space

estimated

per hour. based specific

These

formidable Long service

mandate

a long

engine. impulse

life can be the equivathe amount of propel-

as it reduces mission.

to support

the actual

RI'r/_17.._./3.2-3.8

180

3.5, Identification

of Critical Engine

Technologies, throttling

(cont) performance A high throttle aspects. range There The One requires is a small other is the range:

has two requires. valve and

10:1, 20:1, or whatever Aerojet weight design) reduction

the mission control range

(for the engine

an added as throttle is throttle

a regenerator. from time). 20:1.

is decreased per unit

performance 3.1.1, a

consideration preliminary without

rate analysis

(A thrust indicates

As noted change should

in Section in 0.3 seconds be adequate

transient violating

a 10% thrust This be verified

is possible for present

engine engine

operating controllers,

parameters. but must

state-of-the-art for mission

by the vehicle

prime

contractors

suitability. 3.5.1.2 Thrust 3.1.1. Chamber Design i The Aerojet TCA design features: thermal strain and and is defined in

some

detail

in Section

It embodies

several in the

state-of-the-art throat

Microchannel better Figure heat 3.5.1

design transfer.

for reduced

See Appendix test

A for dimensions specimen. closeout. Three to increase nickel

for a machined bimetal and

Codeposited (NiMn, NiCo,

electroformed NiCr) over has

combinations strength

are recommended a conventional been demonstrated

by a factor closeout. technology Optimized triplet best

of three The NiCo

electroform in the OTV

program. I-triplet injector elements. 3.5-2 Aerojet has selected as having elements. face. is not a wall 3.5-3 the the It I-

element performance

(see Figure potential

for construction) injector

of all LOX/LH2 4 to 8 inches chamber, high under patterns energy Task are

can attain This needed allows

N100%

ERE within a short ERE. The

of the injector as a long release C.4 chamber prompted

baselining high

to get

modification compatibility. based and water The sured

of the element The resulting

to assure

better

shown ratio

in Figure between

on adjustments hydrogen flow success and streams. the

to the momentum The various

the oxygen by 3.5-4).

patterns plotted

were (See

verified Figure will

mass

distributions modification life.

of the element

program

be mea-

by an increase

in chamber

Rlrl'/DO417.&%

/ 3.2-3.8

"t'cT
i

Channel Depth CO

J

Scale 40X

LAND

CHANNEL

tLT
0.01094

tLB
0.00875

tor

tc_. B
0.01156

® ®
NOMINAL

0.01109

0.01125

0.01125

0.0109

0.01078

NOMINAL

0.011

+_.002

0.010

+ .002

Figure

3.5-1.

Microchannel

Test

Specimen

Based

on 7.5K Thrust

Level

Design

182

! Z

0
U

0 D
e_ n-

_j_
WIJ u.

Z

e-

E

<s2 0
O.

m

0

m

e"

0
e_ Z

tu
_

om

I-m |

WU

¢_"
mm DI

0

e_

im

&l.

183

Predicted

Mass

Flow Patterns

for Fuel and Oxidizer

Elements

Left Baffle Element

Right Baffle Element

Center Element Wall Element

3K Element

OX

Fuel

Figure

3.5-3.

Modified

Injector

Element

Patterns

184

SCMMLt

1

...,>: DISTRIBUTION


1

I
I

7OO

5 O0

I
0 O0 I I i ! i

g

g

g

g

g

8

0 0 o

j t6"
')

iA\
I

-4

%

SCI']P1LL1

OX

HASS

DISTRIBUTION

Figure 3.5-4. Water Flow Patterns For I-Triplet Element
185

3.5, Identification

of Critical

Technologies, cooled cooled

(cont) baffles. chamber By dividing and baffle the hydrogen plates the heated result flow between sur-

Hydrogen the regen

metal

face area is increased dance of energy pressure

by 80%.

The practical

is an abunpressure. life may be

that can be turned is effectively extension reduction

into chamber only

Chamber capabilities. possible in throttle

limited

by hot section to 3000 size psia

A further with consequent

of capability in engine

and an increase

range.

The major the use of improved copper sion alloys from materials. the SCM

area for improvements Aerojet company has begun using copper,

in TCA

technology

will come family

in of

an investigation dispersion These

of a new hardened alloys

by the incluhave excelto pure 3.5-5 that and

of finely

dispersed

aluminum very

oxide little

particles.

GLIDCOP conductivity temperatures

lent machining copper,

characteristics, mechanical Work

loss in thermal at elevated in copper very

compared (See Figure

and excellent

properties done

for a comparison). show other some noble promise. metals

is also being

metal

matrix

composites platinum be the

Aerojet to thrust plates

has also been chamber despite engine

successful Platinum cost.

in adapting may well

applications. the raw life while

material

of choice work

for the baffle

material reducing

The emphasis weight.

in future

should

be on increasing

engine

3.5.2

Turbopump Aerojet

Technology an oxygen turbopump bearing with 400°F with 50°F oxygen turbine of gas

has tested

drive

gas (See Reference turbopump

5 and 6) and a hydrostatic work including operation

system. oxygen overall during the

A continuation turbine efficiency. rubbing drive

the oxygen should work required

concentrate on low friction

on reducing surface

seal leakage treatment system

and improving wear

Minor starts

to minimize would

in a hydrostatic

bearing

be worthwhile.

186
RPT / DOll 17,&'.'Sa3.2 -3.8 /

¢'I

:I
0
C')

¢_

0

0

0

©
O_

>.

z=
0 ell

_. _ _=_ _; z_ _
0

_

0

A U. o

.=

x.

o
O_

E
)-

0 0

L-

iD

ii

C_

!s_l 'ql6ueJls le!A p 187

3.5, Identification

of Critical

Technologies,

(cont)

The hydrogen the-art Figure uses 3.5-6 hydrostatic bearing

turbopump systems design) tested spool with

technology a dual

currently spool

considered (see

state-of-

configuration operation. engine

for a representative pump was

for subcritical

speed XLR-134

A dual program

spool in late TPA

six stage 1989 and uses with

hydrogen early 1990.

for the Air Force concept was

The dual ball bearing

proven

practical,

but the XLR-134 technology

a conventional a hydrostatic

system.

A demonstration

of this critical

bearing

system

is needed.

Such capability 200,000 could with at turbine rpm, and

a hydrogen

pump

should 2000

also be designed ft/sec, rotating Various capability could

to verify assembly static

design speeds seal of

tip speeds pressure using

greater rise TPA

than of 7500 hardware

pump

to 8000

psid. seal

systems be assessed the design by the range. for the

be designed the same at the transfer critical and basic

for test TPA.

so that hydrogen cycle in the

could identify needed

This demonstration limits for any expander

TPA

problems chemical The CTP current

operating propulsion

turbopump 7.5K

program could

for engines be demonstrated

to 50K lbf thrust projected engine

technology also Heat

for any

program 3.5.3

for NASP. Exchanger Technology

The Aerojet has now exchanger advanced with reached the flight

platelet

heat

exchanger with

technology current 3.1.1 testing

using

copper

alloys heat

qualification Main

stage Engine.

of a platelet

on the Space engine

Shuttle

Section (HEX)

has a discussion

of the used is by using the a

LOX/GH2

heat exchanger cycle

and the hydrogen of these greatly

regenerator components increased

the dual

propellant size

expander

engine.

The value range

twofold: regenerator, oxygen A bonus ponents.

1) chamber

can be reduced provides

and throttle

and 2) the HEX with

about

65% of the energy the stream leaving bypass cycle

needed

to operate

turbopump is the ability Nearly

excess

heat from

the hydrogen around these

turbopump. comfrom one

to trim

the engine

operation

with

any variant

of a hydrogen

expander

engine

can benefit

_'r/L_7_./3.2.3.8

188

o or)

i
i

I
0

0 Or)

I
!

E
¢/_ b-::3 0
s_

I,

:3

IC 0
t-

"0 >,

.Ira
"10 0

m

_6

tJ)

,m i.0

cCO e,m

U3 ._o

1,1. u._--

o
>, -T-

._o
.,,.,, t-

o

_E
LLO.

O

0

189

3.5, Identification

of Critical

Technologies,

(cont)

of these technology

heat

exchangers. for the platelet This material in copper oxygen

The price

is some

added would

complexity

and

weight. of their weight concerning

A critical fabrication over 70%

heat exchanger substitution alloy. There

be a demonstration the component questions

in beryllium. from the weight

could

reduce

are also serious

beryllium

compatibility

with

that need

to be resolved.

A design the oxygen gas phase mechanical exit as a two side under mixing phase

issue

for the HEX turbulent velocity channel

is the selection of liquid heat

of a channel oxygen transfer

geometry

for

that will assure conditions from stream,

mixing

as it reverts rates.

to the

of high designed-in

and high turbulence transfer

Without would would

generators coefficient

the oxygen for the HEX

and the overall

heat

be greatly

reduced.

3.5.4

Proportioner

Valve

Technology

Engine tioner valves (see history and Figure

control 2-1.1

and

thermal

balance

is dependent None main

on several

proporhas a are pre-

and Section

3.1.1.10). The

of the proposed development

valves issues

production cision engine these power type

in the desired reliability.

configuration. The valve

metering design valves. supplies failure

preliminary

design

task for the 7.5K lbf thrust would coils be adequate with separate for

(see Reference Aerojet proposes

2) confirmed that each needed

that 28 volt dc motors valve have dual actuating

for the redundancy leave the valves

for a man-rated

system.

A loss-of-power by the controller. A

would

in the last position would have

commanded system

critical

technology and

demonstration with response Oxygen 400°F

an oxygen

turbine in normal engine

bypass engine control

valve

fabricated operation.

tested

oxygen

at pressures based

expected on current

Control 3.5.5

would Cooled

be verified Nozzle

models.

The dual energy sion. LeRC needed The (Ref: to operate

propellant the oxygen

expander turbopump has been Rocket technology

cycle from

extracts

about

35% of the thermal cooled nozzle tests exten-

the oxygen

use of oxygen Cooling

as a coolant Pressure

demonstrated Thrust Chambers

in chamber With

at NASAOxygen, by

of High

Liquid

NASA-TM-81503). designing, fabricating,

This is a critical and testing

that should cooled nozzle

be reduced

to practise

an oxygen

on a test bed engine.

R_r/r_17s5,/32-38

190

3.5, Identification
3.5.6

of Critical

Technologies,

(cont) Nozzle

Extendible/Retractable

The NASA-MSFC materials the contract successful, and joint had for an OTV engine

is expected

to fund

a program nozzle. and

to demonstrate

the

extendible/retractable Assuming it is funded

As of this writing

not been

awarded.

the development the include an assessment technology with so

a follow-on

program

should

be considered for reliability. numerous

to assess This should This

deployment/retraction of the long seal for leak free

mechanism(s) operation nozzle retraction Control after

cycles.

is a critical an aerobrake

as the CTP extension 3.5.7

engine and

is required required. and

to operate

through

alternate

Integrated

Health

Monitoring

System

(ICHM)

This continued (Task engine. E.7 task task work

has been under NAS

recognized engine addresses is likely

by NASA technology in depth

LeRC

as a critical The

technology most recent

with task

the OTV 3-23772)

program.

E.7 to Contract Additional work.

the requirements

for the coming

CTP the

development

based

on recommendations

from

3.5.8

Engine/Vehicle

Synergisms

The Section several extended design, control 3.5.1 requires

list of areas the The gimbal

for vehicle

performance and

improvement system should

given

in for be door

collaboration collaboration design,

of vehicle

propulsion designers

designers also

of the items. to include optimization system with The

of engine/vehicle thrust tank take-out pressurization, and flight structure

design,

aerobrake of the attitude

of propellant the main engine vehicle intended items of both

integration station

system, prime/engine

control interfacing

and has

display not that been a takes

information. carried number place. improved. out

proposed

contractor of the study. when design

to the extent

at the start

Aerojet such

believes

of critical Also,

technology

will be identified vehicle and engine

a collaboration will be

the efficiency

(synergy)

Rr,,'_lTa_,,'32-3j r

191

4.0

CONLUSIONS 4.1.

AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSIONS

Three goal of producing

conclusions a new high

stand

out due

to their LOX/LH2

importance rocket

in meeting engine

the ultimate transfer

performance

for space

applications: 1) the-art ment risks. The NASA rocket LeRC-sponsored engine technology with work has materially point where advanced an engine the state-ofdevelop-

in LOX/LH2 program

to the

can be started

at any time

relatively

low

technical

and schedule

2) expander RL-10 margins, cycle

The Aerojet-developed engine in terms is a major of delivered control collaborative engine design contractor is rapidly on study is needed.

parallel advance specific over

flow

version

of the

dual

propellant by the

the 1960

technology

represented envelope,

engine

impulse, monitoring

operational capability. to President as thrust, are needed and

thermal

and modern 3) The vital

and health efforts

in response such

Bush's showed

space that basis.

initiative vehicle This

helped prime engine primes where

define

parameters interchanges towards and

contractor/engine development are working

on a regular application; interest on the real

moving contracts; The

a real

vehicle

vehicle missions

there needs

is national to focus

in specific near-term

this engine

program

application. Conclusions 4) expander ments, where and long cycle The specific development thermal operating operating of the benefit to engine technology flow and study results include: Aerojet requireof choice

of the parallel margins, envelope. flexibility Aerojet

version pump

of the original output pressure cycle

improved the life and

reduced

expanded engine

This may

well

be the

are emphasized. cycle is the of the elimination overall of any vehicle helium

5)
purge system. requirements. 6) baseline design

A major

benefit

This is a major

in the context

design

A throttle with only

range minor

of 20:1 is well adjustment

within to the

the

operating

capability points.

of the

turbopump

design

RZr/_175S,/4.0-5.0

192

4.1,Conclusions, (cont) 7)
baseline gold engine plating

High
cycle of I 1/2

mixture and mils.

ratio

(MR

> 7) operation Protection

is readily copper

accommodated chamber will

by the require of a

components. Above thermal

of the

MR = 10, the baffle margins. specific impulse

plates

should

be constructed

platinum

alloy 8)

for better Engine

delivered

is very

close

to realistic specific

upper

limits.

New

work

should 9)

emphasize

improvements scenario versus component needs

to propulsion to be developed engine

system

impulse. need and for engine

A maintenance changeout will limit

to assess

the

individual packaging connect

component constraints features.

complete

removal. any

Access quick

changeout

despite

connect/dis-

10) development. chamber use,

Materials In particular and beryllium

technology

remains

a major copper

area

for continued and platinum

research alloys

and

the GLIDCOP for heat of places

alloys

for thrust materials

exchange

versus metals.

lightweight

composite

can be used

in a number

to replace

11) answered

The

question TPAs with

of turbopump hydrostatic

life as a limiter bearing systems.

to engine

service

life may

be

by using

12) remain sion sensor a fruitful industry

Integrated area

control

and

health

monitoring

system future.

development The new rocket

will propuland

for continued a decade

work behind

for the forseeable other industries

is at least

in adapting

electronic

technology

to rocket

engines.

13) cation hold 4.2 great

Work

with

the MLETS in reducing

code

showed

that risk,

analytical but they

tools

of this sophistiintensive.

promise

development

are time

RECOMMENDATIONS

The was needed

study

work engine

was and

left incomplete vehicle

in those

areas The first

where three

a cooperative recommendations

effort

between

contractors.

address

this need:

_'r/_;_,,/4.o-s.o

193

4.2, Recommendations,

(cont)

1) coordination head start,

The study among vehicle

should

be continued and and

with

more

specific

tasks

requiring topics should as tank be

contractors

the engine takeout

contractors. structure

Such design

gimballing for resolution.

requirements,

thrust

included

2) as possible cooperative 3) included

A maintenance

scenario design

for these

engines

needs

to be developed as one

as soon of the

as it has engine tasks

implications. contractors

This should working with system vehicle

be included engine

for the vehicle

contractors. impulse should be

A focused

task to improve study. Again,

propulsion this requires

specific

in any follow-up

and engine

contractor

collaboration.

4) include

Continued

work

under

the OTV engine tasks.

technology

program

should

a number

of materials

development

5) bearings,

A demonstration rotor design,

program

for a hydrogen

TPA

using would

hydrostatic resolve concerns

subcritical component.

and a variety

of seal designs

on this key

6) throughout Expander

Development the industry

of an engine be funded.

steady (This

state may

analysis

code

adaptable

for use

should

be a product

of the Advanced

Test Bed Engine

program).

7) opment. be adapted

ICHM

capability some

should

be improved of artificial system.

by continued intelligence

research

and develshould

In particular, to handle

techniques

decision

making

this propulsion

RP'r/D0417.55./4.0_.0

] 94

5.0

REFERENCES

°

Sutton, 80027-9,

George Wiley

P., Rocket Interscience,

Propulsion U.S.A.,

Elements, 1986.

fifth

edition,

ISBN

0-471-

.

Hayden, Final 23772,

Warren

R., and ATC Report

Sabiers,

Ralph,

"OTV NASA

Engine

Preliminary Contract October

Design NAS 1988. 3-

Report", NASA

2459-34-1, Center,

CR XXXXX, Ohio,

Lewis

Research

Cleveland,

°

Schneider, Aerojet Lewis Franklin, Corrosion", Sacramento, Buckmann, Technology, Testing",

Judy,

"Baffled

Injector

Design,Fabrication, NAS Ohio, Chamber 87-12-NLRFC1, 1987. 3-23772,

and Task 1990.

Verification", C.4, CR 4387, NASA

TechSystems, Research Jerrold, IR&D Center,

NASA

Contract

Cleveland,

January

.

E., "Combustion Report ATC August

Gas-Side Aerojet

Oxidation/Reduction/ TechSystems,

California,

°

P.S., et al, "Orbital Final Aerojet Report,

Transfer

Vehicle

Engine and

Oxygen

Turbopump Bearing B.4 and 1989.

Vol I: Design, NASA Research

Fabrication, Contract Center, NAS

Hydrostatic Task

TechSystems, NASA Lewis

3-23772, Ohio,

B.6, CR 185175,

Cleveland,

August

°

Brannam, Technology Aerojet NASA

R.J., et al, "Orbital Final Report,

Transfer

Vehicle and

Engine

Oxygen

Turbopump Testing",

Vol. II: Nitrogen Contract Cleveland, NAS

Ambient Task

Oxygen

TechSystems, Lewis Research

NASA Center,

3-23772, Ohio,

B.7, CR 185262 1989.

October

°

Holtzman, Management, Technology TechSystems 1988.

W.A.,

and

W.R. II Task NAS

Hayden, Final 3-23772,

"Integrated Report", Task Orbit

Control Transfer

and

Health Engine

Phase Program,

Rocket Aerojet Ohio,

E.3, CR 182122, Center, Cleveland,

for NASA

Lewis

Research

October

.

Schneider, Chamber NASA Research

J. and Assembly

Hayden, Hot

W., "Orbital Fire Test

Transfer

Vehicle

3000

lbf Thrust CR-182145, Lewis

Program", Aerojet September

Interim TechSystems 1988.

Report,

Contract Center,

NAS

3-23772-C.2, Ohio,

for NASA

Cleveland,

RPT/DO4175Sa/4.0-5.0

195

5.0, References,

(cont)

.

Anderson,

R.E.; M. Murphy;

D.C.

Rousar; Chamber

J.A. van Kleeck, Environment

"Effects on Copper

of Alloys",

Oxygen/Hydrogen Aerojet TechSystems, Technology

Combustion Technical

paper

for the Advanced Space Flight

Earth-to-Orbit Center, Alabama,

Propulsion May 10. Price, 1986. H.G.,

Conference,

Marshal

"Cooling

of High

Pressure NASA-LeRC,

Rocket June

Thrust 1980.

Chambers

With

Liquid

Oxygen," 11.

NASA-TM-81503,

Kobayashi, Technology Report No.

A.C.

and Morgan, Aerojet NASA

D.B.,

"Main

Chamber NASA

Combustion Contract 1989. pp. 5-13, NAS

and Cooling 8-36167,

Study", 1370-F-1,

TechSystems, MSFC,

Alabama,

August

12. 13.

Klueh, Klueh,

R.L., "Bubbles R.L. and

in Solids", W.W.,

Science "Some

and Technology, Observations

1969.

Mullins, of Silver",

on Hydrogen Society of AIME,

Embrittlement Vol.

Transactions 1968.

of the Metallurgical

242, pp. 237-243,

February

14.

Brandt, 90-98,

W., "Channeling March 1968.

in Crystals",

Scientific

American,

Vol.

218, No.

3, pp.

15.

Bair, Engine Vol. NASA

E.V., and Schindler, Configuration NAS

C.M.,

"Space

Transportation Report,

Main Executive

and

Booster

Studies", 8-36876

Final Study and NAS

Summary, for

I, Contract Marshall N.,

8-36855,

Aerojet August

TechSystems 1989.

Spaceflight "Chug Stability 1990.

Center,

Alabama,

16.

Ostrander, 9984:0055G,

of 20K CPT

Engine,"

Engineering

- EAR

5 March

_,r/_lT__s,/40,_ 0

196

APPENDIX DETAILED ENGINE

A ANALYSIS

THERMAL

CONTENTS

Introduction Design A. B. C. Methodology Regeneratively LOX/LH2 Oxygen HEX Cooled Conditions Cooled Chamber and Baffles

and Hydrogen Nozzle

Regenerator

Boundary Discussion A. B. C. D. E. A.5 A.6 A.7

Geometry

Allowables Cooled

- All Components Chamber

Regeneratively Baffles Heat Exchanger Cooled

and Regenerator Nozzle

Oxygen

Conclusions References Nomenclature

I_t417.55a-App

A

A" 1

A.1

INTRODUCTION

The material Engineering 1989. dual lead

contained Report: the first expander

in this appendix "OTV in-depth engine. High

was

derived Feasibility

from

Aerojet

TechSystems 10 May of the the

Analysis

Thrust

Study",

9985:0234, flow version was

It documents propellant analyst The

thermal

analysis

of the parallel the report's thermal

cycle

K. Dommer, TCA

author,

also

for the 7.5K analysis was

lbf thrust evaluated

OTV engine designs

design. 50K lbf thrust. point. The 25K

thermal engine

for 20K, 35K, and

lbf thrust A.2

assumed

to be very

similar

to the 20K design

DESIGN

METHODOLOGY

A preliminary oxygen rate and cooled

analysis

indicated

that the five HEX,

major

components could had

(thrust

chamber, as sepathermal Estimates thrust were over to the

nozzle,

H2 regenerator, entities,

and baffles)

not be analyzed to consider approach. for each their

and independent hydraulic assumed from

but rather This

that the analysis

interdependence. oxygen

led to an iterative pump discharge Group Because

analytical conditions

of the obtained

and hydrogen

the AT Systems ratio and

Engineering thrust range.

and were

considered inlet

constant condition the

the entire regeneratively

mixture

the hydrogen on the other

cooled of the

chamber chamber was

is not dependent was conducted

components, an inlet

characterization pressure made. was

first.

Next,

temperature predictions cooled

and were chamber inlet. The

to the baffle The mixed

assumed temperature

and its thermal of the baffle the hydrogen defines across

and hydraulic and

mean

the regenerative

then

determined. drop through

This

defines

temperature inlet defines

at the turbine pressure

pressure

the chamber drop energy

the hydrogen the turbine to operate

to the turbine. condition minus to the

The temperature the heat exchanger. of energy

and pressure The total available This defines inlet

the H2 inlet turbine

required defines

the oxygen of energy

amount

in the nozzle

the amount HEX

transfer inlet

in the

heat exchanger. The hot hydrogen possible temperature baffle

the hot hydrogen

exit/regenerator then defines can attain. is greater

condition.

temperature

to the regenerator the regenerator the regenerator is evaluated. to give baffle

the maximum If the resulting than the assumed is considered

temperature of the

the cold H2 entering hot hydrogen entering

inlet temperature, when

the regenerator is sized

Finally,

the solution

converged hydrogen

the regenerator equals

an outlet

temperature

on the cold

side which

the assumed

inlet temperature.

l)041735a-App

A

A-2

A.2, Design

Methodology,

(cont)

Table gives

A-I gives design

the analytical parameters. components.

assumptions Tables

for the start

of the analysis. summarize

Table the inlet

A-II

chamber

A-III, A-W,

and A-V

conditions A.

for all the

REGENERATIVELY

COOLED

CHAMBER

AND

BAFFLES

The regeneratively computer acteristics. ysis. level. Table code to predict

cooled

chamber

and baffles drop

are modeled and bulk constant which

using

the SCALE rise char-

their hydrogen defined the parameters

pressure

temperature throughout

The parameters A-II defines

in Table

A-I are held

the analthrust

and their values

are varied

for each

A preliminary ture and pressure

power

balance

provided cooled

estimates chamber.

of hydrogen The pressure discharge baffle

inlet drop

temperathrough is assumed the com-

for the regeneratively is typically small; pressure

the regenerator to represent O2/H2 ponents estimated baffle Figure was A-1

therefore, to the baffle

the H2 pump as well. work, The

pressure analysis

the H2 inlet

preceded of these

heat exchanger is interelated. initially. evaluated through

and hydrogen An estimate As a result,

regenerator of the H2 inlet thermal

but the operation to the baffle

temperature and hydraulic The

has to be of the in

the initial

characterization trends are shown

as a function A-6.

of H2 inlet

temperature.

At each the regeneratively This channel acteristics

thrust cooled

level

evaluated,

an optimum

channel

geometry

profile

through

chamber profile

is determined constant design

for the MR = 6 operating and the thermal is determined of the chamber and

condition. hydraulic ratios in charequal

geometry

is then held channel

of the chamber

cooling

at mixture are shown

to 5 and 7. The thermal Figures A-7 and A-8.

and hydraulic

predictions

The baffle gas-side wall thickness,

channel

configuration back-side baffle with and

(channel wall

and land

widths,

channel lbf design

depth, (Ref. 1) is are in

channel The

thickness)

of the 7.5K area

is maintained assumed evaluated Figures

for this study.

cross-sectional thrust, thrust however. levels.

and number The baffle

of channels

to increase at the A-9 and three

proportionally mixture ratios

characteristics are shown

The predictions

A-10.

_17.._,-^pp ^

A-3

TABLE OTV RELATED TO ANALYTICAL REGENERATIVELY

A-I

ASSUMPTIONS COOLED CHAMBER

AND

BAFFLES

I.

Operating

Conditions

and

Flow

Splits:

Chamber Chamber Mixture

Pressure / Baffle Ratio

(psia) Flow

2000 Split 5,

50/50
6, 7

II.

Regeneratively

Cooled

Chamberz

Actual Contraction Ratio Geometric Contraction Ratio Inlet Area Ratio Gas-Slde Wall and Land Material Close-Out Material Maximum Aspect Ratio Radius of Curvature upstream of convergent section / throat radius Radius of Radius of Curvature upstream throat / throat radius of Curvature downstream

I0 15.3 28 Narloy Ni-Co i0

Z

2.0 2.0 2.0 40.0 5500 0.030 0.011 0.010 0.025 0.020 0.060 0.060 0.020 60.E-06

of throat / throat radius Convergence angle (degree) H2 inlet pressure (psla) Maximum channel width in nozzle (in) Channel width in throat (in) Land width in throat (in) Land width in Barrel (in) "" Gas-Side Wall Thickness at Throat (in) Gas-Side Wall Thickness in Nozzle (in) Gas-Slde Wall Thickness in Barrel (in) Back-Side Wall Thickness (in) Channel roughness (in)

III.

Regeneratlvely

Cooled

Baffles:

Gas-Side Close-Out Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel

Wall and Land Materlal Material width (inch) land width (inch) wall thickness (inch) backside thickness (inch) depth (inch) roughness (in) A-4

Pt-ZGS Pt-ZGS O. 020 0.020 0.025 0. 020 O. I00 60.E-06

TABLE

A-II

REGENERATIVELY COOLED CHAMBER AND BAFFLE GEOMETRY AND PROPELLANT FLOW RATE ASSUMPTIONS VERSUS THRUST

THRUST 2 OK

(Ibf) 35K 5 OK

Throat Barrel Barrel L'

area

(In**2) (in) (inch)

4.89 9.76 6.31 12

8.54 12.89 7.49 15 6.45

12.18 15.40 7.01 16 7.01

Dlameter Length

(inch) Length (inch)

Baffle Baffle Area

4.86

Cross-Sectlonal (In**2) 26 45 64

Total Propellant Flow Rate (Ib/s)

41.32

72.17

102.88

A-5

TABLE

A-Ill

REGENERATIVELY

COOLED CHAMBER, BAFFLE, COOLANT INLET CONDITIONS THRUST 20 K

AND

NOZZLE

(Ibf) 35 K 50 K

A.

CHAMBER Inlet

- coolant

- H2

Pressure (psia) MR - 5,6,7 Temperature MR" 5,6,7 Flow MR MR MR Rate 5 6 7 (°R)

5500

5500

5500

Inlet

90 (Ib/s) 3.44 2.95 2.58 H2

90

90

Coolant

6.01 5.16 4.51

8.57 7.35 6.43

B.

BAFFLE Inlet

- coolant

Pressure (psia) MR m 5,6,7 Temperature MR - 5 MR6 MR - 7 Flow MRMR MRRate 5 6 7 (°R)

5500

5500

5500

Inlet

503 499 497 (1b/s) 3.44 2.95 2.58

459 459 459

430 430 430

Coolant

6.01 5.16 4.51

8.57 7.35 6.43

Co

NOZZLE Inlet

-

coolant

-

02

Pressure MR-5 MR-6 MR-7

(psia) 4862 4849 4844 (°R) 610 (ib/s) 34.43 35.42 36.16 A-6 60.14 61.86 63.15 85.73 88.18 90.02 610 610 4908 4897 4888 4906 4895 4887

Inlet

Temperature MR" 5,6,7 Flow MR-5 MR-6 MR-7 Rate

Coolant

TABLE A-IV

HEX

INLET

CONDITION8

THRUST
..... " _ I II

20K
IUmililI _ _ _ L --

35K

I

50K

02

INLtTTn(P_TURZ MRm5,6,&7

(°R) 188. (PSIA) 5168. (°R), 805. 841. 874. (PSIA) 3229. 3287. 3295. 2971. 3096. 3180. 2601. 2829. 2980. 869. 905. 940. 868. 903. 940. 5168. 5168. 188. 188.

02

INLET

PRESSURE MR'S,6,&7

H2

GAS

INLET

TEMPERATURE MR'5 MR'6 MR-7

H2

GAS

INLET

PRESSURE MR-5 MR'6 MR'7

TOTAL _LOW _TZ

(LSS/SZC)

41.32

72.17

102.9

H2 FLOW RATZ WITH 25t sypASs (LBS/SZC)
MR-5 lqR-6 MR-7 5.17 4.43 3.87 9 • 02 7.73 6.77 12.86 11.02 9.65

02 rLOW RATX (LBS/SZC) (lO5% OF rLOW_Tm)
MR'5 MR-6 MR-7 36.15 37.19 37.96 63.15 64.95 66.31 90.02 92.59 94.52

A-7

TABLE A-V

REGENERATOR

INLET

CONDITIONS

THRUST 20K _ 35K _ 50K

H2

HOT

INLET

TEMPERATURE MR-5 MR-6 MR-7

(oR) 579. 572. 564. (PSIA) 3096. 3190. 3221. (°R) 90. (PSIA) 5500. 5500. 5500. 90. 90. 2838. 3001. 3109. 2448. 2725. 2904. 642. 633. 624. 641. 631. 624.

H2

HOT

INLET

PRESSURE MR-5 MR-6 MR-7

H2

COOL

INLET

TEMPERATURE MR_5,6,7

H2

COOL

INLET

PRESSURE MR-5,6,7

H2

HOT

FLOW

RATE

(LBS/SEC) MR-5 MRI6 MRs7 6.89 5.90 5.17 (LBS/SEC) 12.03 10.31 9.02 17.15 14.70 12.86

H2 COOL (50% OF

FLOW FLOW

RATE RATE) MR-5 MR-6 MRs7

3.58 3.10 2.69

6.32 5.41 4.74

9.00 7.72 6.75

A-8

b,.

Lr)

II
r_ rY r_

0 r-O _.00
m

I I I I I

"0

_.

2 .o S o
r_

.-

'
_
-

E
(1.) _
_

E

Y 0 O_

-O_

(1)

i
X

• I-"

II

12) f"

u_

E m
lid
l

.E

F--

,_

-

_
_

_
jlllllllllIillllllllllllillllliiiiiilllliiiiiiiii I

__
ii

-O O O

O 0 0 p,.

0

0

0

C)

c;
oO LO

o
LO LO

(:5
_LO

o
oJ (.0

d
O tD

(aaJ6ap)

aJn],0JadLua]

D}la(]

A-9

II

II

II

0 -0 o3

I I

i i I I I

I I I I I -0 -0 I_,

2

rc
0
V

E
ira
C

Q)
t,-.

-

Z3

'I-

-o 2
.cO(]') O_

E
_ .._

0 ..I Q
L_

Q

c_
O4

I._

_

_

2:
Q

-o _c °
if-)

rn

m

Q
I.-

01
a n

LI.

-0 '0
I I ! I I I ! 1 1 I i I I I I I I I I i i I I I I I I I I I

0 Ln

0 L._ rO

0 L_ C',,I

0 urb

(p!sd) _Jnss_Jd

011_C]

A-IO

II

II II

0 -0
-GO

I I I I I

I I I I I I I i I I -0
I,--

-g
4:3

r_ 0 C" "0-U} el'_ -• m I1)

_


m

lJ
i" I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I i I i i i ! I I I i i ! I I i I 1 i I i

0 0 0

Q 0 If) C_

0

0

0

d
0 O_

d
_ O0

d
0 O0

d
LID t'--

(ggJ6gp)

gjnloJgdLug I o_iga

A-11

L_

cD

r'-.

II

II
ry

0 -0

I I I I I

I I I I I

I I I I I o

o

rr
v
0

E
I"
Q

(D
t,--

£L

E
I--

0 ...I Q

Q i_ D.

_ -o
--O

© (-"

-r
m

Q m

-u3

m

,f
,II
..C H,m

IJ.

I

I

I

I

I

I

l

I

I

|

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

|

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

-0 0 0 If) Cq

0 u'3

0 _

0 uO

0 IF)

(p!sd)

aJnssaJd

0 iaC]

A-12

II

II II

0

I
I I I I

II
II II II II

n

..D

0 u')

o-E
:D
5,,,.

-0--

¢I-'-

_: e
in

[

I

I | I I I I I |

[

i

I I

I i , , '

i I I I

' ! I , , '

, I | '

I I , I | , I

o o o o 0 cx_

_L

o o 0 0

o o ,.f') O_

0 0 0 O_

o 0 if) 00

(eeJBep)

eJnl0aedwel

011eC!

A-13

i.r)

_

r-,,

It r_ t I t I i

It r'r t I I I I

II rY" I I I I I

o -o
-00

2 _.=

-o °
"E"
0

i
E
P
m

v
L

3::

:CO

Q)

,..10

Q-

m

E
(1)

"
_

Y
0 Lr) "

__.
_

2
"1-

-0
. L.f')

_
C

®
m

5") (.}-o L_ I&.

0 0
I I t I I I I I I i i I I I I I I I I i t i I t I I t t I i I I i i I I i i i i t I I 1 I

o
0 r'-,,.

0 0 _0

0 0 L.O

0 0 _

0 0

(p!sd)

@Jnss@Jd o_1@@

A-14

0 0 _D

0 _3

0 0

0 tO

0 0

(3_03G)

3WDIVW3d_N31
A-15

V1930

LO

0
I-

_2
c_

II.

I

I

I

I

' I 0 0 0,4

0 0 O0

0 0 _t-

0

(p!sd)

3_JnSS3_Jd

VIq3@

A-16

II II r_

I I I I I

I I I I I

!
o fOfOm

_>=

OE
ol..

|

o
lit

(aeJBep)

3_I"I.LWl3dI,_3J.

VI-130

A-17

L.r')

(4D

P"

II
[E

II
rY

II
rY

I I I I I

I I I I I

I I I I I

_Lr) _r3

_0
-Lo

m

r_

_>>

0

ur3

D I OG.

| m

Q L-m

U.

E

IIIIIIIIIII1

IIII

IIIIIII111111

lill

Illll

II

O Lr)

O _"

O tO

O C,J

O ,--

(p!sd) 3EINSS3EIcI V173C]

A-18

A.2,

Design

Methodology,

(cont) HEAT EXCHANGER AND HYDROGEN/

OXYGEN/HYDROGEN HYDROGEN

REGENERATOR

The steady mine H2/O2 uses the pressure

state

counterflow the energy

heat exchanger exchange

model,

HEXSS,

is used fluids

to deterin the code

drops

and (HEX)

between

the working

heat

exchanger

and the H2/H2 the steady

hydrogen state

regenerator.

The HEXSS

an iterative and

technique heated and

to solve fluid

energy

and momentum the core

equations length, to run and the in Table

for the cooled fluid

streams.

The channel fluid outlet and

geometry,

inlet conditions Design

the desired

conditions

are provided regenerator

program. A-VI.

parameters

for the HEX

hydrogen

are given

The the same of the two similar

heat exchanger

and the regenerator engine to increase

channel design with (Ref. thrust,

geometry 2).

are assumed

to be area a

as those

of the 7.5K lbf/thrust are assumed

The cross-sectional to maintain

components

however,

mass

flux per channel of channels

as that of their

corresponding needed

7.5K lbf engine to obtain condition

component. fluid thrust

The total outlet level. thrust HEX

number

and the core length

the required for each

temperature The thermal level are then

are determined and hydraulic determined A-11 A-18. inlet

at the MR = 6 operating characteristics using through

for the complete geometry.

MR range The predictions predictions

at each for the

that baseline A-14.

are shown A-15 The

in Figures through 02 liquid

The regenerator

are shown

in Figures

temperature The 02 outlet required The

and pressure temperature

to the HEX from turbine

were

determined is based

in

a preliminary estimate in the drop

power

balance.

the HEX and

on an available

of the total energy oxygen cooled nozzle.

to run the oxygen pressure

the energy

H2 inlet cooled

to the HEX

is based

on the pressure the turbine. power group. and is regenis This

through loss using

the regeneratively percentage turbopump is based design value

chamber

and a 37% loss across loss used

pressure balance

on the turbine points provided

in the preliminary

by the turbomachinery inlet temperature the baffle

Because effects iterated erator

the initial of the

of the baffle

is unknown inlet

the performance until

downstream inlet

components,

temperature

the corresponding than the assumed

temperature

to the hot side of the hydrogen This assures that there

is greater

baffle

inlet temperature.

_, 7.ss,-^ ^ n,

A - 19

TABLE

A-VI

DESIGN PARAMETERS AND ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE H2/O2 HEX AND H2/H2 REGENERATOR

HEX

WALL

MATERIAL DEPTH DEPTH WIDTH BETWEEN 02 H2

ZrCu .03 •04 .06 IN. IN. IN.

CHANNEL CHANNEL CHANNEL WALL LIKE

THICKNESS CHANNELS

.043 BETWEEN CHANNELS PRESSURE

IN.

WALL THICKNESS HOT AND COLD OXYGEN

.036 730.

IN. PSIA

CRITICAL

REGENERATOR CHANNEL CHANNEL CHANNEL WALL LIKE DEPTH DEPTH WIDTH

WALL H2 H2

MATERIAL COOL HOT

ZrCu .02 .04 .056 IN. IN. IN.

THICKNESS CHANNELS

BETWEEN .043 BETWEEN CHANNELS PRESSURE IN.

WALL THICKNESS HOT AND COLD HYDOGEN

.034 188.

IN. PSIA

CRITICAL

ASSUME

INCOMPRESSIBLE

FLOW

A-20

_ ¢0 P,-

II II II
n- n,, n,-

o o

o o

o

d

NIVO

A-21

/,D

_r_ nf,

illillll

0

0 0

0

0

0

c5 (_o) SS07

c_
0

c5

3_n.LV_3dF_3J.

A-22

_0

|

0 O O O O O 0 O t'N

(5

c_
F_

d
F3

d
_'N

d

(015d)

SSOq 3anss3ad

A-23

¢Ii II:

I_ I_

_o
m

.oA
: 2
D •

: _

_,

un

_
N

nl

123
Jllllllllllll iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iliiiiiiii IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII _

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

c_
to)

c$
_I"

6
CN

o
0

o
00

o
¢0

o
_I"

(alSd)

SSOq 3anss3ad

A-24

t.v,o::rv. 0

.o
/ /

/ 0

(l:Jo) 807 31_nlvl_3dlAl31 8

A-25

I_ i'I,,._ I

/ / I

ii

I
m

I,I,.

(19o)NIV9 3wn1Yw3d_31

A-26

Ix :E _0 u*)

/

/
/
I

0 0 0 0 0 0

(5
0

_

o
LrJ

c_

(OISd) SS07 3WnSS3Wd

A-27

0

0

0

0

d
0 e,,l

c_ (OlSd) £SOq

(5 3_lnSS3;_a

o

0 0

A-28

A.2,

Design

Methodology, energy to result and sized available

(cont) in the hot H2 from baffle the HEX to transfer to the cold H2 from is then dis-

sufficient the pump evaluated charge

in the assumed to achieve are assumed

inlet temperature. baffle inlet

The regenerator temperature. to the cold

the assumed to be the inlet

The H2 pump side of the

conditions

conditions

regenerator.

The are given C.

HEX

and hydrogen A-VII. COOLED

regenerator

geometries

as determined

in the

analysis

in Table OXYGEN

NOZZLE

The region of 28 to 635) is modeled drop Table and the bulk

of the nozzle using

that is regeneratively computer code The

cooled

with

oxygen the coolant defined

(area

ratio

the SCALE

to predict parameters

pressure

temperature constant power

rise characteristics. throughout balance

in

A-VIII

are held

the analysis. provided the estimates temperature cooled portion of the required requirement oxygen with turan

A preliminary bine inlet temperature of the total oxygen drop

and pressure. energy inlet available termperature

Coupling

estimate

in the oxygen to the

of the nozzle

results

in an assumed Since

nozzle

of 610 R for all thrust low and the oxygen effects is assumed pressure

levels. enthalpies are to be drop vari-

the pressure insensitive

through

the nozzle in the oxygen range inlet Figure

is typically

are fairly neglected equal ation

to pressures The

of this study, pressure A-19

pressure

in the estimate. 02 outlet

to the nozzle summarizes the

to the HEX with thrust

condition.

for all components. geometry profile through thrust aspect The profile throughout thrust the regeneratively level. ratio The cooled nozzle is depth the

A channel determined profile design mum assuming

an MR = 6 for each allowable program. inches

maximum

channel using

(assuming option channel

a maximum of the SCALE depth of 0.500 constant ratios A-20 equal and

of 10) is determined modified Holding and The

is then the nozzle.

to reflect this

a maxichancharacare

cooling

nel geometry teristics shown

profile

at a given to 5 and

level,

the thermal determined.

hydraulic predictions

at mixture in Figures

7 are then

A-21.

t_lT._,-AppA

A-29

Table

A-VII

H2/O2 Hex Geometry

Thrust 20K Ibf Core Length (in.) 17.6 58.8 02 H2 966 966 35K Ibf 15.0 87.1 1679 1679 50K Ibf 15.1 125. 2392 2392

Core Weight (Ibm) Total No. of Channels Total No. of Channels

H2/H2

Regenerator

Geometry

Thrust 20K Ibf Core Length (in.) Core Weight (Ibm) H2 - Hot H2 - Cold 15.4 41.08 861 861 35K Ibf 8.6 39.73 1491 1491 50K Ibf 7.4 48.2 2100 2100

Total No. of Channels Total No. of Channels

17.44-7a/rl/4

A-

30

_kr)

_kr) ,@

:

v rO__ Or) D n" I F-

U.

e
n

IL

u')
illllllllllllllllllllllll %.--,

0 0 0 O0

0 0 0 _l"

0 0

(p!sd)

3_Jnss3_ld A-31

V173C]

Lr]

(D

r_-

II
rY

II
rY

II
rY

:E I I I I I

:E I I I I I

:E _0 I I I I I
m

E

o
-0
m

d
I

i

_6 0
I I i 1 I I I I i I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I i I I 1 I I

0 0 LQ r_

0 0 _0

0 0 rO

0 0 04

0 0 C_

0 0 u_ CN

(aaJ6ap)

3wn±vw3d ]±
A-32

v±]]0

I"',- _0

L_

II

II

il

_0

I I I I I

I I I I I

I I I i I 2o

z_
0

.:--°
:
_c_
n,.

-1--

$
o

-__o1_

: o

J"'l

I

!

!

I

I

I

I

I

|

I

i

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

J

|

I

i

I

!

I

I

I

I

i

I

I

I

I

I

t

I

I

I

' 0 0 0

0 0 09

0 0 tO

0 0 _t-

0 0 t_l

(p!sd) 3_nss3ad

vJ_fl30

A-33

A.3

BOUNDARY

CONDITIONS

The Bartz regeneratively

equation cooled

is used chamber

to evaluate and baffles:

the gas-side

heat

transfer

coefficient

for the

08 Nuf= 0.026 Cg(z)Ref"

04 Prf"

Symbols equal

are defined to the average and

in Section of the wall

A.7.

All properties and from

are evaluated the adiabatic the TRAN

at the film temperature wall temperature. program. in the present however, Reference fluxes the 3 asserts the All

temperature

property

temperature

data are obtained contraction ratio

72 computer levels

The 15.3 to I chamber study is smaller near than

assumed used

for all thrust

the near

17 to 1 value

in the 7.5K

lbf design,

heat fluxes that gaseous

the fore end of the barrel injectors exceeds states often yield

are assumed higher

to be similar. heat chamber engine

hydrogen velocity designer GH2

than nominal isentropic the OTV is assumed

when

GH2 injection The injector the actual

the one dimensional with

gas velocity. injector. same Because as that of the of 1.0 ratio. value of

that this is the case used

injection design,

velocity

in this study

to be the flux should barrel

the 7.5K same should

lbf engine

the magnitude the relative

of the fore end heat in Cg over study due

remain value

as well.

However, than

increase

the generic

be lower

in the 7.5K Cg's two

lbf engine

to the smaller to the generic profile reflects

contraction barrel a constant

The corrected 1.0. The higher

barrel of the

are determined is assumed. This infers

and compared The resulting

Cg value the the

of 1.0 throughout one-dimensional high from fore end heat the

the barrel. isentropic fluxes

that due to the smaller has become sufficiently

contraction large

ratio,

gas velocity created

to overpower

by the injector

element

characteristics. cooled profile

The Cg profile nozzle is in Figure A-

aft end of the barrel from the 7.5K

to the end of the regeneratively design. The complete

maintained 22.

lbf engine

is shown

The Hess heat the transfer heat

and

Kunz

correlation for hydrogen the regenerator.

(Ref. 4) is used in the baffles, This

to describe

the forced

convection chamber,

coefficients and

the regeneratively is:

cooled

exchanger

relationship

Nuf=

0.0208

Ref 0.8 Prf0.4. (1.+

0.01457

g_°b)

gbOw

r_lT.ss,-^p_^

A-34

U'1 -r,-) _D

o
rl--

o

&
mi
-0
|

o
u. 0
Jllll I l ! I l I I I I I I I I I

I
C> 0 r---

0 0

C) 0 0

0 0 0")

0 0 aO

_-

c_

c_

6

83

A-35

A.3,

Boundary

Conditions,

(cont) (Ref. 5) used to evaluate the convective heat

The supercritical transfer coefficients

LOX correlation of oxygen is:

NUb=

Nuref*

(pb/[3

w)"'5. (kb/kw)5*

(Cp/Cp_

2/3.

(P/Pc_
, 04

"'2. [1 + 2/(1/d)]

where

NUref=.0025*Re

b Pr b"

The coolant chamber calculated and as:

pressure relates

drop the

for a cooling exit static

channel

within inlet

the regeneratively stagnation pressure.

cooled It is

baffle

pressure

to the

A Ps = A Pinlet + A Pfric + A Pdyn

One half of the dynamic flow contraction.

head

loss is assumed

at the channel

inlet

to account

for

The flow two components.

through

the HEX

and regenerator results

is assumed

to be incompressible loss estimate

for the when

This method

in a conservative drop assumption.

pressure

compared

to a compressible factor

pressure

The friction is:

calculation

(Ref. 6) used

in all friction

pressure

loss evaluations

f:00 5 [1
A roughness fles, and regenerator. A.4 DISCUSSION A. GEOMETRY ALLOWABLES - ALL COMPONENTS of 60.0 and E-6 inches a roughness is assumed of 125.0 nozzle E-6 inches

Re;'l
for the regeneratively is assumed cooled for the chamber, HEX and baf-

The maximum bending loads applied

channel

width

to wall

thickness

for all components as:

considers

to fully-elastic

hot walls

and is described

_17._,.^pp ^

A-36

A.4,

Discussion,

(cont)

The maximum considers tensile loads

channel applied

width to fully

to land elastic

width

criteria

used

for all components as:

hot walls

and is calculated

B.

REGENERATIVELY

COOLED

CHAMBER

The geometric in the regeneratively III describes The straddle mill

assumptions chamber

and general are summarized inlet conditions

descriptions in Tables

of the coolant A-I and A-II.

channels Table A-

cooled

the assumed cooling rather

hydrogen

to the chamber. to be fabricated allows with a transichannel with

channels than

in the chamber width cutter. width

are assumed This method to minimize used

a constant

a smooth loss. The design

tion in increasing sizes indicated

or decreasing in Table

channel

pressure

A-I are based and land

on those widths

in the 7.5K

lbf engine

the exception chamber barrel

of the channel section.

at the throat

and the

land width

in the

The rel were pressure 0.010

channel from

width those

at the throat values used

was

increased

and the land lbf engine design

widths

in the

bar-

decreased drop.

in the 7.5K

to decrease rather width than center

The channel

width

at the throat design.

is increased Because design, inches ratio

to 0.011 the total

inches

inches

used

in the 7.5K lbf engine is maintained to 0.010 inches from from

channel widths

to center

spacing

the earlier the 0.011

the land used

are decreased Coupling width) this limit

correspondingly assumption results mum with

previously. depth/channel

the maximum flow area depth. region

10 to I aspect increase

(channel

in a channel allowable

and flow

velocity levels

decrease

of 21% at the maxithe design and of the

channel

For the three are, in general, area 0.040 saves inches

thrust

evaluated, limited The

channels overcooled.

in the throat

geometrically pressure used drop.

are therefore land to 0.025 width inches.

The increase was decreased

in flow from

maximum

in the barrel

in the 7.5K lbf design

r_lr.ss.-^pl, ^

A-37

A.4, Discussion, (cont) Becausethe total number
the decrease approximately through engine is that not in barrel 27%. land Wall however The must only width temperature the total of channels is determined by the throat width depth with land and of profile the 7.5K lbf geometry,

results

in an increase control dictates flow area

in channel the channel larger

the barrel, assumption. the lands

coolant

is still

constraint structural

applied support.

to the minimum Fabrication

width

definition were

provide

weight

issues

considered.

The flow split

system

schematic upstream

was

changed

to the

parallel A-23).

flow The

version

with

a 50/50 power psia was

occuring was evaluated

of the regenerator and with a low

(Figure

preliminary of 5500

balance assumed.

parametrically coupled significantly flow version

a pump hydrogen the delta dual rise

discharge inlet pressure

pressure temperature through expander drop

This flow

pressure path

of 90 R related the cycle. chamber as

to the new compared

reduced of the

to the series The bulk

propellant and pressure in Figures

hydrogen cooled ratio

temperature chamber and the the amount the

versus A-8,

thrust

trends

for the regeneratively Because each the the the contraction level level. root rise

are shown channel

A-7 and throat channel

respectively. constant with with in bulk for

geometry

at the per

remain

thrust thrust square

evaluated, This occurs

of coolant throat and

flowrate chamber pressure

increases increase a decrease

because

diameters drop and

of thrust. as thrust

An increase increases

in hydrogen is the result.

temperature C.

BAFFLES

The the inlet regeneratively conditions

geometric cooled

assumption baffle are

and

general

description in Tables

of the coolant A-I and A-II. The

channels hydrogen

in

summarized A-III.

are summarized

in Table

The design. NASA-Z maximum inlet The

initial current

baffle effort

material started in the

assumption with a platinum work. In the high The

differed alloy NASA-Z

from

that

of the 7.5K baffle rather

lbf than the

(Pt-ZGS) baffle the

baffle

assumed wall

earlier

is limited required

to a 1050°F hydrogen a wall

gas-side

temperature. was

previous

study, and

temperature less

to the turbine than 1050°F

(1000°R/540°F) exit plane

maintaining was

temperature

at the coolant

of the baffle

difficult.

_,7._,-^p_^

A-38

_.II .I" /

3

\ _-'_;

:,.,i

_o \

• ,_ e" C

Jill iD • II r,. • H _-. O) c II

i- I_. _!:_-, OD II U

_ o) _

I t_ I_

II li 0.1--

4) "£ ILl

°_
,,>i_-I
_i

_
_.<:> i,,,:_
i,i_ C-

i,i IiI _i

P->=J

i

>'0

e_4
A-39

_

A.4,

Discussion, was

(cont) chosen (similar as the baseline to Nickel) showed to mixture that ratios and copper _< 10.0. material its high alloy for this effort wall baffles temperature could because of its high (up thermal to 2000°F).

Platinum conductivity A later operations

capability be used

evaluation up

for all engine

The 7.5K lbf engine

cooling design;

channels however, are is taken

in the baffle the core not analyzed as either is smaller. a rectangular the

are assumed baffle

to be identical is the only region

to those evaluated; study. or 1/2 section exposure The

of the the

of the

tip and maximum chamber desirable higher 1/2 tions. baffle levels

the corner baffle diameter, in order heat flux

regions length

for the present length

parametric section the barrel to prevent

of the barrel longer shape than and

the is not to than

whichever to maintain conditions was

A baffle baffle the

associated not

with

convergent

section.

A baffle stability criteria for the

longer consideradefines

the barrel At the length. evaluated.

diameter 20 and Figure

considered levels, the the

because

of combustion stability lengths

35K lbf thrust A-24 illustrates

combustion baffle

the

resulting

three

thrust

The turn, trends Section to the baffle baffle remains which baffle The The affects

selection turbine the

of the baffle inlet

length

affects Figure for the

the A-25

total

heated the

surface bulk

area

which,

in rise

the

temperature. and the baffle rise area

shows

temperature in

for both A.4B,

chamber

MR = 6 condition. the chamber goes to thrust.

As discussed down The with thrust

the bulk

temperature surface

through and

due the

relationship has are the

of heated trend,

H2 flowrate the number and the

H2 through channels

opposite

however. directly levels. heated goes with

Because thrust baffle area

of coolant flux per

in the

assumed constant

to scale

H2 mass then

channel parameter levels. Because

for all thrust the total

The surface

length for the

becomes thrust

the

differentiates length turbine sum increases inlet of these

different

as thrust

up, so does

the bulk

temperature

rise in both

of the fluid. components. levels inlet

temperature temperature

is a function increases

of the delta is very close

temperature for the 35 and

50K lbf thrust turbine heated

(963 and temperature area.

960 R, respectively). is lower A-26

At the 20K lbf thrust 68 degrees turbine inlet

condition R due

the resulting

by approximately the resulting

to the limited

surface of thrust.

Figure

shows

temperature

as a function

190417.$5a-^

pp A

A-40

r"

('_) "0_ • ) (:L)

_u") uF)

•_

..E)

_u')

:3 L_ r_Q

,y,, LO _0_O0 D " _ I _-'v

Q
I

|

:3
m

IA.

-aO

_O
I i I I i I I I I I I I I I I I i I f I ! I I I I I i i i i i i i i i i i i i I

0

0

0

0

0

(u!) HION37

37JJ'v'8

A-41

1,1 ._1 i, 133

bJV W<

<

(eeJBep)

3_IFI/V_I3d_31

V173Ci

A-42

i

_uO U'D

_

4.--

JO

o
u') (/3 ID Of I I--

i
Q
I

_

C
m

Q e"
m L_

LO C_
|

Q
L_

,m

U.

_0
rl ii ii iiilll il ii iiii ii ii Ii iii i ii iii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii i i iiii ii iii

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6
03

6
_D

c5
_-

c5
C,_

c5
0

6
O0

c_
<0 o3

(Wo) 3WFIIVWHd_31

137NI

3NI8WI71

A-43

A.4,

Discussion,

(cont)

The to those assumed effect

pressure

drop

also

increases An orifice

with

thrust.

The losses downstream

are

small

compared is

of the chamber, to achieve

however.

directly

of the baffle

the same

exit pressure range

as that of the chamber. of this study. drop versus

The Joule-Thompson

is negligible The bulk

for the pressure temperature baffle

rise and pressure

thrust

trends A-9

for the and A-10,

regeneratively respectively. D. HEAT

cooled

for the MR = 5-7 range

are shown

in Figures

EXCHANGER

AND

REGENERATOR

The and cold

divergences regenerator number mass

in pressure are small

drop

for the H2 and three thrust

02

in the HEX evaluated. directly range. The

and

the hot This is to

H2 in the the total a similar drop and

at the

levels

because maintain in pressure conditions

of fluid flux per

channels channel

is assumed throughout thrust levels

to increase the thrust are

with

thrust

differences fluid inlet

for the fluids the overall

at the three of the enthalpy

attributable

to the

length

HEX

or regenerator. insensitive to the the baffle percent balance HEX and to pressure is approximated the regeneratively temperature design curves for the pres-

Because sure 50/50 chamber based by the range

the hydrogen the

is fairly

of this study, of the fluid

H2 inlet

temperature from The power

as a cooled loss was supplied

mixture and on that

temperatures the turbine.

a 6% loss across assumed group. = Mixture

of turbine using

in the preliminary

turbopump T

.94"(.5"T Regeneratively Cooled chamber

+.5*T Baffle

)

The nozzle resulting regenerator. bypass

HEX

is sized

to vaporize inlet

the oxygen

prior

to entering

the

02

cooled The of the

to achieve hydrogen

a turbine exit

temperature are used

of 860 R (max) as the inlet was

at a MR = 6 condition. to the based hot side

conditions

conditions assumed

A 25% bypass

of H2 around lbf analysis.

the HEX The

on the optimum side of the

determined

in the 7.5K by:

inlet

temperature

to the hot

regenerator

is determined

A -44
L,X_I 7.SSa-A pp A

A.4, Discussion,

(cont)
TMi×ture = .75 * TH2outHEX + .25 * TH2inHE X

The inlet and A-V, ratio. respectively.

conditions These

for the HEX and conditions

the regenerator as a function

are listed of thrust

in Tables and

A-IV

are given

mixture

The geometry in Tables heat A-VI and A-VII. are shown loss across

and the dimensions The delta in Figures

for the HEX trends

and the regenerator for the 02 and Figure

are listed of the shows level.

temperature A-11

H2 sides A-13

exchanger

and A-12,

respectively. as a function and

the pressure The inlet assumed is constant perature

the HEX for the oxygen

stream

of the thrust levels outlet Because HEX are

pressures to be equal throughout at the HEX thrust

and temperatures to the pump the thrust inlet is low levels

for all mixture discharge conditions.

ratios

thrust

The oxygen ratio. the

temperature the H2 tem-

range

for a given

mixture

at the 20K lbf thrust for the lower and baffle

condition, driving surface

is longer The low

than

at the higher temperature rate ratio.

to compensate chamber drop

potential. area

is due to the low A higher pressure a thrust

heated case

to hydrogen tend

flow to to the

at the lower

thrust

results.

The curves temperature

flatten HEX.

out beyond

of 35K lbf due

to the similarity

in H2 inlet

Figure ture stant, thrust ratios. while levels

A-14

illustrates pressure

the HEX

H2 side from

pressure

loss

trends

for the three relatively two

mixcon-

The H2 delta at a thrust are similar While

for thrusts

20 to 35K lbf remains The pressure of the HEX than drops axial

of 50K lbf losses because the low

increase.

for the

lower

of the interaction thrust (due HEX

length

and

the H2 the

inlet conditions. lower H2 dynamic

is longer

that of the 35K lbf design, and lower inlet

pressure

head

to the higher length.

H2 inlet pressure The H2 inlet however, due

temperature) lengths head

compensates

for the additional 50K lbf thrust

temperature the dynamic

and HEX pressure H2 inlet

are similar and total

for the 35 and

engines,

pressure

loss for the 50K lbf design

is higher

to the lower

pressure. The temperature and cool respectively. perature cold hydrogen streams losses and gains as a function are depicted to maintain of the thrust level A-15 for the and hot

of the regenerator in order more

in Figures

A-16, tem-

At the 20K lbf level, of approximately 500°R,

the specified to transfer

H2 baffle from

inlet

energy heated

is required surface area

the hot to the flow rate in

H2 to compensate

for the reduced

per hydrogen

Lx_17_,-App A

A-45

A.4,

Discussion,

(cont) and baffle. loss across As a result, the temperature gain across the cool side and the

the chamber temperature condition.

the hot side of the regenerator

are the highest

at the 20K lbf

The H2 pressure function the inlet thrust of the thrust temperature and level

drops

across

the hot and in Figures

cool A-17

side of the regenerator and A-18, stream respectively. is constant

as a Since for all

are depicted

and pressure outlet level,

for the cool

hydrogen from

levels

the required thrust

H2 temperature the required

the regenerator length length and

to the baffle the pressure

is

the highest loss of the also becomes

at the lowest cool

regenerator The axial the pressure goes down

H2 is largest the driving even

at the 20K lbf condition. in determining

of the regenerator hot H2 side up. low head Since

parameter though

loss on the goes

of the regenerator the velocities throughout attributable E.

the inlet pressure the regenerator range, pressures

as thrust

of the hot H2 through the mixture ratio

channels deviations and

are relatively in dynamic

and thrust hot H2 inlet NOZZLE

pressure are small.

to the different OXYGEN

temperatures

COOLED

Table

A-VIII

summaries cooled nozzle.

the geometric The assumed

assumptions

for the coolant are listed

channels in

in the regeneratively Table A-HI.

inlet conditions

The cooling fabricated pressure optimized channel of both allowed inches. channel with drop.

channels

in the regeneratively rather

cooled

nozzle width

are assumed cutter

to be

a straddle The

mill cutter

than a constant channel

to minimize do not reflect

assumptions They

for the cooling based

configuration reasonable throughout

values. width,

are, rather,

on maintaining wall thickness

ratios

between Strength profile to 0.050

land width, wall

and gas-side

the nozzle. depth

the gas-side

and the land aspect ratio

width

are considered. widths

The channel less than

for a maximum As a comparison width than

of 10 for channel cooled with ratio

or equal

to the hydrogen is 0.056 inches

portion

of the chamber, allowable 02

the maximum aspect ratio nozzle the of

in that region allow

a maximum

10. Rather region (the

a maximum

aspect

of 10 for the entire as 0.200

cooled

channel allowable thickness.

widths channel Due

are assumed depth

to be as large

inches

near the exit), a more

maximum total wall

is set at 0.500 coolant

inches

to represent

reasonable

to the low

velocities

in the region

of the nozzle

_17_,-^_p^

A-46

Table

A.Vill

Oxygen Cooled Nozzle Assumptions

20K
Coolant Coolant Inlet Area Ratio Exit Area Ratio 28 635 4.89 41.32 .200 2.0 0.5 Yes (in.) .100

Thrust (Ibf) 35K 28 635 8.54 72.17 .200 2.0 0.5 Yes .100

50K 28 635 12.18 102.88 .200 2.0 0.5 Yes .100

Throat Area (in. 2) Total Flow Rate (Ibs) Maximum Channel Width (in.) Width to Land Width, max Depth (in.)

Ratio of Channel Maximum Channel

Single Bifurcation Channel Width at Bifurcation

17.44-Ta/r

t/4

A-47

A.4, Discussion,

(cont)

affected mum drop

by this prescription, 0.500 related The inch channel depth

the additional assumption

pressure is negligible ratio

drop

penalty

related

to the to the the

maxipressure

when

compared

to a maximum resulting are shown and decrease

10 to I aspect delta

maintained and A-21, rise

throughout pressure across The

nozzle.

coolant

temperature A-20 and

the oxygen increase thrust in is similar to the to

cooled pressure the

nozzle drop seen

in Figures in bulk

respectively. with and rate increasing is also scale

temperature cooled and

trend

for the regeneratively the surface area

chamber flow

attributable with thrust.

manner A.5

in which CONCLUSIONS The thermal

propellant

and

hydraulic

predictions power drop

were balance

based and

on

02

and

H2 pump

exit

condi-

tions values.

determined Adjustments pressures (discharge

in a preliminary in pressure for either pressure Since

should

be viewed should

as reference if the pump reference to account to pressure assuming for the 02

for each

component are 5500

be made from the

discharge values

the oxygen

or hydrogen and

altered psia,

of 02 and

H2 are 5168 02

respectively) insensitive directly 188°R

for density for the the

variations. range

the H2 and the

enthalpies trends

are fairly

pressure pump

of this study, temperatures

thermal (90°R

can be used and

same

discharge

for the H2 pump

pump) Of the are the five components components evaluated, the regeneratively delta pressure cooled chamber 02 and the HEX

limiting

for the system

on the H2 and

sides,

respectively. Prohibitively chamber is used upstream the inlet pressure hydrogen when and high the 50/50 H2 pressure flow split drops (50% occur through the regeneratively and flow 50% split from higher The cooled to the baffle) is moved the pump, density difference

of the H2 to the chamber When the coolant comes

H2 is preheated of the regenerator drop through

by the and

regenerator.

the H2 to the chamber is substantially to the lower

directly The

the chamber

decreased. temperature.

is predominantly rise

attributable through

in H2 bulk flow versus

temperature series flow

the regeneratively 2%.

cooled

chamber

for the parallel

is small,

approximately

_lT.ss.-,,pp ^

A-48

A.5, Conclusions,

(cont) at the inlet The to the turbine corresponding 590 psid. slightly lower reaches a peak value drop (963°R) at an

The H2 temperature engine exit thrust

of 35K lbf thrust. inlet

H2 pressure For the than twice that

from

the pump condition, the case,

to the

turbine inlet

is approximately is only delta available for any length pressure to heat chamber

50K lbf thrust of the

H2 turbine but

temperature

35K lbf thrust loss. to obtain a

the pump-to-turbine If the total energy balance

is nearly

the 35K lbf thrust is not sufficient level,

the hydrogen pressure

system

power

or thrust Because (L,baff provide

it is recommended length is already

than

an increase limited and due

in chamber to combustion

(L') be considered. considerations U would

the baffle < 1/2 more

stability additional

D,barrel) heated case

for the 20K lbf area only is

35K lbf thrust

engines,

surface the baffle

in the outer currently additional baffles. The

chamber's limited surface

cylindrical

section.

For the

50K lbf thrust section.

length L', and the

by the length area could pressure heat

of the cylindrical be obtained drop in both

barrel

By increasing section

the outer have

cylindrical

additional of the pressure side

penalty

would

to be considered, be reduced pressure of the

however. by allowing drop penalty is small in the a small on the No

The weights higher on hydrogen

exchanger through exchanger

and regenerator the components. and on both chamber delta

could The sides

drops heat

the hydrogen to that

of the

regenerator at thrusts

compared range effect oxygen attempt

of the

regeneratively

cooled additional

(particularly pressure would pressure to reduce

of 35K lbf to 50K lbf); therefore, on the side was The 02 hydrogen of the made cooled heat side

have drop weight.

of the system could the

balance.

Additional

exchanger

also be investigated HEX cooled or hydrogen at the inlet Mechanical

to weight-optimize nozzle is adequately pass

regenerator. area design ratio of 28 and nozzle throughto

out

the

nozzle

for a single the so that The

of the oxygen. section manifold is a small

of the

accommodate flow cooled design nozzle.

extendible/retractable the collection only penalty

of the nozzle away

requires from drop

a pass-and-a-half the due end of the in the

can be located increase

in pressure

to loss

180 ° turn.

In summary, margins

the

parallel expander

flow cycle

schematic engine.

has There

significantly are no major

improved thermal

the

thermal limits

for the dual

design

for the required

operating

envelope.

_17.ss,-^pp ^

A-49

A.6

REFERENCES

1.

Dommer, ATC TAR

K.T.,

"OTV

Regen-Cooling 14 Jan. 1988.

Jacket

and Baffle

Preliminary

Design,"

9985:008,

2.

Hayden, Contract

W.R., NAS

and

Sabiers

tL, OTV 1988.

Engine

Preliminary

Design

Final

Report,

3-23772,

October

3.

Ito, J.I., "A Physically Thermal Compatibility," H.L., and Kunz,

Mechanistic ATC H.R.,

Design

Dependent 21 Aug.

Approach 1987. Heat

for Estimating

TAR 9980:2024, of Forced

4.

Hess,

"A Study Paper

Convection 1963.

Transfer

to

Supercritical

Hydrogen,"

ASME

63-WA-205,

5.

Spencer, Contract Ewen, Fuel

R.G., NAS R.L.,

and

Rousar,

D.C.,

"Supercritical 1977. and Cooled

Oxygen

Heat

Transfer,"

3-20384,

November, Chamber Cooling ALRC,m

°

Calorimeter and 3-21030,

Resonator Report No.

Design,

High

Density

Combustion NAS

Investigation, 31 May 1978.

TFD 9752:0185,

Contract

_7-_.-^pp ^

A-50

A.7

NOMENCLATURE Cg Cp C F d D f Fry k L 1 L' Land Nu Nuref P Pr Re T tw V W Greek Turbulent Specific Integrated inside diameter friction Yield factor Strength conductivity tube Pipe Heat Average diameter Specific Heat from Tw to Tb flow Correlation Coefficient

Thermal Length Length Axial land

from length

Start of Heated from injector

Tube to throat

to Temperature

Measurement

width Number Nusselt Number --- .0025 * Reb * Pr_

Nusselt Reference pressure Prandtl Reynolds

Number Number

Temperature Wall Thickness

Velocity Channel Letters: dynamic viscosity Width

e p

roughness density

E_ZSS,-Ap_ A

A-51

A.7, Nomenclature,
Subscripts: b
cr

(cont)

Evaluated Critical Dynamic Evaluated friction Hydraulic inlet maximum minimum static Evaluated

at bulk property

temperature

dyn f fric H inlet
max

at Film Temperature

min
S W

at Wall

Temperature

A-52
D0417.55a-App A

APPENDIX ADVANCED ENGINE

B POWER BALANCE

CONTENTS B.1 B.2 B.5 B.8 Introduction Power Power Power Balance Balance Balance At Mixture At Mixture At Mixture Ratio Ratio Ratio = 8 = 10 = 12

B.1

INTRODUCTION

This appendix normal Variations 10, and line operating subtask 12 were

contains range

power

balance

results

at three balance ratio

mixture work

ratios supports Balances

outside

of the

of MR = 6 + 1. This power of high near mixture

the Engine at MR = 8, A

investigation at or very points

operation. thrust point

made such

to the maximum thrust

for the engine. operating

connecting

marks thrust

the high limit

boundary

for the engine TPA

envelope. flowrate

This maximum or by a design cooled

is set by either limit

the oxygen

maximum cooled chamber

point

temperature Another limit

for the regeneratively energy

or hydrogen pumps. hydrogen power confirms all other

baffles. high

is set by available chamber flowrate design wall

for the turbolimited and These

In general TPA balances wall copper

MR operation before

is both the oxygen

temperature

energy

limited

limitation

is effective.

are supported temperatures surfaces)

by a detailed will be within

thermal design points.

(see Appendix

A) that 1050°F for

limits

(800°F

for the throat,

at these

balance

DO417.55a-App

A

B-- 2

J

a.
0

II

--4. 9-

_

4"--4-

....

@

IT D m I L m •

• .,,:.-..+
_ _ '_ 1::1 a +1:1 rs OQ_O_ 0

[+[

;;;.....--..
v

G

• ,i

0 I D II | I I II U I l I I l I • II

0.. c 0 tM 0 C_ O_ _ 00( _ I

10,41 / l-I U m -0

_ :I 0 0 0 OJI

• IL

;=;o
0 • --+ .... +

_+;o

oo--

z

II

I--

_o _?. o_'io
!1 II -m' I[Ir qk qk

11 S| +,
_Z _ _

I

i
_v_ 00_o_

i +
UI • N II I |I|O | I I I t l I I I ! I I I

4"4 I _ _0 q" _ 0 (_ I_ ...... qO.O 114_ IIIIIIII I I + I l I I

Q q" Ik. qN 4i _L_ 11_ aID _4 t_i * • IIl_l_l_" slr_4

II_ _1 * U) • I,,.

*1)

lID OlD *

.

.lllq' v-. Ill I

Ill

c 0 =8mO 000_ C :1-41 _ 0 0 O(

:

+_+ F. _

II _

0 0

c+_c:oo7

+ -

z

= a, -a: m i; 0 0 ,ill I: +.. I-I--'U I; 0 (..1 0 0 *, ,G In 41 --lie 0 II • 0 • 18 4)'-

S"
O. U d= ,0 4.

m

_z:
ee_ • .1I OI-J o

..-;
--g • L • I I

0

B-3

D I O.

_

O000*

L

II

D

II

|

II

I0

I

II I |

II II .

iilil II I

* i

L ¢: W U_ OO4( Z _ 0 : II -0

+ m cr

_+

+

UJ Z

v_

Z UJ

o N

0

||l|#l|i • |

|

Iilll • |

* I

L • m -0 • _-00_

_.

+

_+

÷

Im C • • n, • ,V I .-_ I m

N

,1_

iow

:::
Z(J m O,

B-4

--+--÷ I

--

.........

+ A_A il. 41

C

D LL'_ L qk q, ¢ O* V 0 Q_i_ 0 Q _ _ Jl

g

I

O

_

0

Q

_

_Ig

_ e

0

oo_owmo_

• * qr ...... v.- eV • t Q qllO Ir QO +- 0i II Q IQ qe m I | I Im

IQ _o i_ |

g f.h. I_

0

0

. O 0 a I' • I_ _ _ 0 • o O • • • A _ i.- O _ _. sII | I | II 41 I

OOO OmO • • •4r

lid IX

+" Illillil III I I Illiliil ill • •

O

I)

'+"" O

mm II

|

I

|

I

l

l

I

II

I

I

# W G O C 311: :l O Oq• • (._ • II >,+ ._

a

--0

_

t

--O

c --

O 0 0 04[ OAm

18 O

oo

c_

am 0

;. o | ?. o i o +..1 .+.. = _ | ,t _
•I. 4" 4.

||_,
A g o _skq) -v _ I m _

+i

+m+

W

i .
N 0 --

v O * O P* , * • S'L* m O ID _r • lO I". _ _) ID • "l)

41 _t O O

oleo ooo • o A o

o • +-

,o.
0
illllliiilllNNi I I | m I l

+.+
I II | II I I

c -+ _ _ O

_ • O O Oq[ u U,

+

.I.

b I:: J_ O ,,C II 01_ O T' + I 1O "T' X _ + 41 G UI 0 w o q I:

T,
h o ,0

:l

I-

I: 0

B-5

,..--.,

,4. ....

+

_.

+

÷

¢11 ii G.

-00_ ......

0oo0_ _ 0_00_ mO_ON__O

,plllll Io n io U |l _! II II II t" l II -_, .c 0 II|||||l |1| I |

0 tU 0 ©=--

--0 O0

'-

0

_--_

Z

c_--_--¢_0000_

_z_:_
E

[_
i m rivv_ c Z 0 v vv_ vv ¢LCLO 0 _ "-. _

,,

_..
v_

.o

N

0

_o;_
0 IlllIIII | | I I I lilil_

| I||l I

II

II

II

II II II II

0 c =-0 O< ¢=--©_--¢_0000

÷

+

................

+

_ 0 •_ Q -_ 0, _ :l • > m ill _ ¢: o 0 0 o'r (.1 • *'0 O OI c el 0

O _ ..-• O 'g_ _ 0 ¢ Ok

II _ I--'U

o
+ _+ _ 4"

u

Omw

"_

¢

B-6

÷

m

,i*

_

.I.

4"

÷

4*

m 8. vv

_OO_ _ m O L

_.-_

IIIIllI| | I

I

IIINIIll O+ I

U

IIIm| O in

t |

L G I C_ -Q I I -@ ©_ @ O_

4'

÷

I,l*

÷

oo_O_Sm_

_v , Ill b • N .... .... m

vv

OO

_'._

B|I|IIOB N O • I

B

II|ll l I

• l

Q

--O

4"

4" --4"

m c llo • • N X N OoO ZO O 4Jr @ 8 n0 p • 0 al 0_' -. 0.

all m

÷

--4"

--+

B-7

+

_+ l0

i+ _AA_AAA_ A_

÷

°

+

_-

¢D II L V VV _b vv N _m omo_ o_o_ om,_ 0 =m U. _ _0 1600 _0 ill I IIIIIIII # A III I IIN )_ IIIIII l 0 ° v

|m|||HNIIM|tU

l

IIII

C_ -0 UJ

__.
• o _ _D

I _=--¢_000

--

0 _0000_

_

0 0

0 J= I_

t

C_OC_C=OO

ll_-"
+ A

+ ,lh

..:_)_

;;._:-_

°"
II. II,

;

,

.....

_,_

0_0_ OmO_ .,0 _._ m o

illilililillill

llllUllJ

Jill

-¢ :_ _ 0000

0 _[

+

b _ .Q 0 m c II b G )¢ 0 o_ II -C) O[ + m •

b 0

I

0_

m

ii
o

o
+ _+ _+ .

B-8

÷ n. m 18 m Q ¢ v 00_, ..... 'q" 5r q* v Q qh v

÷

....
vvv

.
m v_

, ||m| l

llmll IN n iNIH|IINNK|N A "O .r. II | II I

tu

o--rw + 4[ _0 4. _ 44- _ C .......

(j 4÷ ............. _AA_ _A_

alll--_'q,--.

8. IU Z

"0 c v _vqk v q, vv_ 0l

OO_

Oo

v_

ILl =) I0

• N 'O -g,.*o lull I

|l|l| IN

0 :1 :_ 000 n,, ::1 0 J:

0

Q

al -I- "0

b 0

8-9

÷

--

--

+

@
AAAAAAA

iI r: _v vw

II

II

II

li

II

m

It

H U |

N

mlmlNmml

i

_EUEI I I

• I

_ 0 Z J

c_ --

0

_

_

0 c=

I

--0 00_

_ vv

_

_

_v_ _

_

.........
Z W _ • N "0 li il U il il ii li II

_._

......

._:

_,-

0

--

IO | O

l

l

am II

II II ii |

--0 ¢=-00(

4-

m

°_
C • • I nl m N _< N 000 zO 0

n

B-IO

+

+

+

_---

Q 1 v_w m

• _-_00._0,

a

||llll|limmlmll

k

II

I

II

lii

lillllgl

|

I

I

_ W

G_ --0

C_ --0

o i i

||;
_ +_+ + + A_ II II

IL v_-W _v

¢L

Q.

i Ul • N

• ° 0 _'_ _D *ID

0

l|l||lllDlllNlB I|1|1111 II |

0 • 0 e _ C3C0000_

0 _J O_ n G

_

+

+

_

c

0 ¢: II

a

0

b

J_ b ::= *o l© 0 U + _ _* _+ ÷

_E
J_ t:

0 -zm-rw

_(

_,_-

(_

B-11

APPENDIX

C

CHUG

STABILITY

OF OTV

20K LBF ADVANCED

ENGINE

CONTENTS C.1 C.2 C.3 Introduction Technical References Discussion

TABLES C-1 C-2 Hot Hot Fire Data Fire Data (Ref. 1)

(Ref. 2)

FIGURES C-1 C-2 C-3

Injection Data Data Plot Plot

Velocity/Effect - Ox Pressure - Fuel Pressure

of Throttling Drop Drop

C-1
D0417.SSa-App C

C.1

INTRODUCTION

A study instability, OTV engine. The lbf thrust, tling sources (2). ratios This and range.

was

performed known

to assess as "chug"

the potential arising from

for low deep

frequency throttling

combustion of the advanced

commonly

engine

parameters mixture

used ratio

in the study of 6, chamber

include, pressure

a GH2/GO2 of 2000

system psia and Some

with

20,000

a nominal The

a 20:1 throtexcellent (1) and mixture

injector data type never

is composed for hot-fire was tested

of Premixed testing

I-Triplet

elements. are given

of stability element was

of this injector range evidence

as references and

over

a wide The

of chamber from

pressures

observed

to chug.

reference

(2) is especially

compelling. In the OTV characterization. injector losophy by simply series, The only injector more the 7500 for that of the lbf chamber chamber same size more has was undergone from If one size detailed geometry 3000 same lbf phithen

derived

the previous assumes that

using

elements. of the same

for the 20,000 has already

lbf injector been size

(using

injector

elements), of the

the injector (1) program. the series, experimentally stability C.2

demonstrated element must

to be chug be used must level

stable

by virtue

reference in

If a larger then the chug

for the

increased-thrust by analytical rationale

chambers rationale that until

stability The

margin

be inferred in the

verified. high.

confidence

analytical

predicts

is very

TECHNICAL

DISCUSSION

It is generally chugging bustion. Delta P/Pc

understood between important

that

the low

frequency feed

combustion system and

instability the initiation are

called of comthe injection

is a coupling The two most and using the

the propellant variables time

characterizing lag. the time

the process

ratio

combustion

In a system The and stable injection the droplet

liquid orifice

propellants, size, rate. the The type

lag is dependent element, is that the

on many atomization will

factors: length, be chug

velocity,

of injector situation down

vaporization

typical

an injector Delta P/Pc

at full Pc, but

as the engine

is throttled

the injection

decreases,

IX'_17,SSa-App C

C- 2

C.2, Technical

Discussion,

(con0

the injection injector

velocity chug

decreases, unstable.

and the combustion This is why throttling

time

lag increases concern

and

thus

the

becomes

is a great

for liquid

propellants.

That propellant and

is not the case Delta P/Pc

for a system

using

gaseous time

propellants. lag are only and mass time shows injector lines

In that situation, a function flow rates of mixture are both therefore

the ratio

ratio

and combustion Since

propellant

temperature. to Pc, the injection of Pc.

the gas density

linearly be

proportional independent velocity with being

velocity

and combustion in Figure C-1. This

lags will

This is illustrated

a plot of injection for two cases: and the first

as a function

of Pc for a hypothetical as incompressible changes (solid (liquid) lines).

OTV-type (dashed

the gas being the actual

treated

on the plot),

the second is throttled

density

This shows

that as the engine velocity

for the case Pc. with that

of an incompressible case Pc.

propellant, flow,

the injection gas

falls off with slightly over

For the actual decreasing range

of compressible solely the

the injection

velocity

increases

This is due

to the fact that C* decreases curve would have been

by 3 percent fiat.

of pressures.

Otherwise,

With ization ment

gaseous

propellants, but there slow

the combustion

time

lag has no component due to mixing. With

due some

to atomele-

or vaporization, types that have

can be a component characteristics, may type such

mixing

as impinging to cause

like-on-like chugging, for OTV if designed (the pre-

doublets with

or shear delta

coaxes,

this component the element the time

be enough under

a low

P. However, as to bring and

consideration

mix I-triplet) The

is such

lag due to mixing and hence incipient

to an absolute combustion when

minimum. actually occurs from

impingement the injector

of fuel face.

oxidizer,

within the

So the propellants

are already

burning

they

emerge

injector.

There element data from Table these C-2. have

exist

several hot-fire

sources conditions.

of data on low These as Table in Table

frequency above

stability

of this type (1) and

of injector (2). as both of The

under

are listed

as references reference

reference

(1) is given note

C-1, and data the tests

from

(2) is given 115.

Of particular mixture ratios

C-2 are less than

numbered

122 and for OTV tests

are slightly

that considered with the two

(5.4 and 5.6,

respectively).

The difference

in chamber

pressure

is 106 versus

_lTs,-^ppc

C- 3

HOT-FIRE

DATA (REFERENCE

1)

For

Stability Single-Element

Data Injectors,

1973

DelP Test No. 135 138 139 140 141 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 -i Pc Chamb. -3 MR 6.01 7.63 2.05 3.97 4.02 0.99 3.93 2.03 6.01 4.12 3.94 2.06 3.90 5.99 4.14 6.08 1.96 (psia) 291 258 325 522 103 302 303 304 291 98 317 329 524 290 103 91 105 Pc .182 .181 .410 .227 .217 .707 .226 .438 .166 .221 .221 .398 .218 .176 .213 .185 .420 ox

DelP Pc .208 .194 .581 .291 .278 1.159 .291 .625 .191 .279 .283 .569 .283 .203 .270 .208 .600 f

Stability Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable

-2

-3

C-4

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful