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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 15: Pipeline/Soil Interaction

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@engr.mun.ca

Lecture 15 Objective
to examine engineering models to analyse geotechnical loads, pipeline/soil interaction and structural load effects for offshore pipelines

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Overview
Geotechnical Loads
Soil mechanical behaviour

Pipeline/Soil Interaction
Load transfer mechanisms

Structural Load Effects


Pipeline mechanical response

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Design Considerations
Installation
Pipeline embedment On-bottom roughness

Mechanical response, free spans Intervention


Pre-sweep, clearance Trenching

Natural in-fill, mechanical backfill

Rock dump

Operations
Thermal expansion Lateral and upheaval buckling On-bottom stability
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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Ref: Langley (2005)

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Geotechnical Loads Soil Mechanics


Seabed Surveys
Remote sensing In-situ testing and sample recovery Index and laboratory testing

Key Issues
Soil type Strength parameters Loaddisplacement behaviour
Ref: BCOG (2001)

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Pipeline/Soil Interaction
Engineering Tools
Guidance documents

ALA, DNV, NEN Structural Continuum

Numerical models Physical models

Full-scale Large-scale Centrifuge Key Issues


Load transfer mechanisms Stress or strain based design Model uncertainty
Ref: C-CORE

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Structural Load Effects


Design Checks
Limit States

SLS ULS
Stress

Combined loading
criteria

Strain

Rupture Local buckling


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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Pipeline/Soil Interaction Analysis


Structural Finite Element Procedures
Standard tool Rigid pipeline/structure Soil load-displacement

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Soil Load-Displacement Relationships


Axial

Transverse Lateral

Vertical Upward

Vertical Downward
Ref: ALA (2001)

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Trench Effects
Engineering Models Load-Displacement
Centrifuge models Large-scale physical models Continuum FEA
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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Ref: Phillips et al. (2004)

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Buried Performance
Thermal
Flow assurance

Mechanical
Uplift, flotation, subsidence during pipe lay Upheaval buckling during operations Ref: C-CORE

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Example 15-01
Calculate the virtual anchor point, axial strain and end deflection due to thermal expansion for a buried pipeline Design condition
Partial restraint

Shore approach Platform tie-in


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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 15 Example 15-01

Winter 2008

Example 15-01 Calculate the anchor point, axial strain and end deflection due to thermal expansion for a buried offshore pipeline located outside the 500m excursion limit. DEFINED UNITS MPa := 10 Pa
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kPa := 10 Pa

GPa := 10 Pa

C := K

kN := 10 N

PIPELINE SYSTEM PARAMETERS Nominal Outside Diameter Initial Selection Nominal Wall Thickness (Sec.5 C203 Table 5-3) External Corrosion Protection Coating Thickness Fabrication Process (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-1) [SMLS, HFW, SAW] Corrosion Allowance (Sec.6 D203) Elastic Modulus Specified Minimum Yield Stress (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-5) Speciifed Minimum Tensile Stress (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-5) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Poisson's Ratio Pipeline Route Length Linepipe Density Concrete Coating Thickness Concrete Coating Density OPERATATIONAL PARAMETERS API Gravity Product Contents Density cont := 1000 kg m
3

Do := 273.1mm tnom := 9.525mm tcpc := 0mm FAB := "SMLS" tcorr := 3mm E := 205GPa SMYS := 450MPa SMTS := 535MPa T := 1.15 10 := 0.3 Lp := 25km tc := 50mm s := 7850kg m c := 3050kg m
3 5 1

API := 38

141.5 131.5 + API

cont = 835 m Pd := 10MPa SC := "M" h ref := 5m T := 50 C h l := 0m

kg

Design Pressure (Gauge) Safety Class (Sec.2 C200-C400) [L, M, H] Design Pressure Reference Level Temperature Differential Maximum Water Depth Seawater Density Hydrotest Fluid Density

w := 1025kg m t := 1025kg m

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EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 15 Example 15-01

Winter 2008

GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS Undrained Shear Strength Adhesion Factor Cu := 25kPa soil := 0.25

DNV OS-F101 PARTIAL FACTORS AND DESIGN PARAMETERS System Operations Incidental/Design Pressure Factor (Sec.3 B304) System Test Incidental/Design Pressure Factor (Sec.3 B304) Material Resistance Factor (Sec.5 C205 Table 5-4) Safety Class Resistance Factor (Sec.5 C206 Table 5-5) Material Strength Factor (Sec.5 C306 Table 5-6) Maximum Fabrication Factor (Sec.5 C307 Table 5-7) fab := 1.00 if FAB = "SMLS" 0.93 if FAB = "HFW" 0.85 if FAB = "SAW" fab = 1.00 inc_o := 1.10 inc_t := 1.00 m := 1.15 SC := 1.138 U := 0.96

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EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 15 Example 15-01

Winter 2008

Diameter Fabrication Tolerance(Sec.7 G200 Table 7-17) Do := max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) if FAB = "SMLS" Do 610mm 0.01 Do if FAB = "SMLS" Do > 610mm min( max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) , 3.2mm) if FAB = "HFW" Do 610mm min( 0.005 Do , 3.2mm) if FAB = "HFW" Do > 610mm min( max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) , 3.2mm) if FAB = "SAW" Do 610mm min( 0.005 Do , 3.2mm) if FAB = "SAW" Do > 610mm Wall Thickness Fabrication Tolerance(Sec.7 G307 Table 7-18) tfab := 0.5mm if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 4mm 0.125 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom > 4mm 0.125 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 10mm 0.100 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 25mm 3mm if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 30mm 0.4mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom 6mm 0.7mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom > 6mm 1.0mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom > 15mm 0.5mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom 6mm 0.7mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 6mm 1.0mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 10mm 1.0mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 20mm Material Derating (Sec.5 C300 Figure 2) SMYS := 0MPa if T < 50C SMYS = 10.00 MPa tfab = 1.191 mm Do = 2.048 mm

( T 50 C) 30MPa if 50 C < T < 100C 50 C 30MPa + ( T 100 C) 40MPa otherwise 100 C


SMTS := 0MPa if T < 50C SMYS = 10.00 MPa

( T 50 C) 30MPa if 50 C < T < 100C 50 C 30MPa + ( T 100 C) 40MPa otherwise 100 C


fy := ( SMYS SMYS ) U fu := ( SMTS SMTS) U
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fy = 422 MPa fu = 504 MPa


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EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 15 Example 15-01

Winter 2008

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS PIPELINE GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES Inside Pipeline Diameter (Operations Case) Di_o := Do 2. tcorr 2. tfab Inside Pipeline Radius (Operations Case) Ri_o := 0.5 Di_o Effective Outside Pipeline Diameter De := Do + 2. tcpc + 2. tc Pipeline Steel Area Ast := 4 Do ( Do 2 tnom)
2 2

Di_o = 264.72 mm

Ri_o = 132.36 mm

De = 373.10 mm

Ast = 7.89 10 mm

Concrete Area Ac := 4 ( Do + 2 tc) Do


2 2

Ac = 5.08 10 mm

Effective Outside Pipeline Area Ae := 4 ( Do + 2 tc)


2

Ae = 1.09 10 mm

Inside Pipeline Area Ai := 4 Di_o


2

Ai = 5.50 10 mm

BUOYANCY FORCE (per meter basis) BF := g m ( w Ae c Ac s Ast) Buoyancy Force Check BFchk := "NEGATIVE BUOYANCY" if BF < 0 "FLOTATION" otherwise External Hydrostatic Pressure Pe := w g h l HOOP STRESS (THIN WALL THEORY) h := 2 ( tnom tcorr tfab) Pd Di_o Pe Do h = 248.13 MPa Pe = 0.00 MPa BFchk = "NEGATIVE BUOYANCY" BF = 1.03 kN

SOIL RESISTANCE PARAMETERS Soil Axial Restraint per Unit Length (Eqn B-1 ALA 2001 f := De Cu soil
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f = 7.33 10 N m

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EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 15 Example 15-01

Winter 2008

Distance to Virtual Anchor Point - Assumes constant temperature (conservative) - Equation 9 of Palmer and Ling (1981) OTC4067 Pd Ri_o f
2

z :=

1 2 +

2 tnom Pd Ri_o

E T T

z = 157.51 m

Virtual Anchor Length Check zchk := "VIRTUAL ANCHOR OK" if z < 0.5 Lp "RECALCULATE" otherwise COMBINED STRESS STATE Axial End Displacement end :=
2 fz Pd Ri_o ( 1 2) + T T z 4 E Ri_o tnom 2 E tnom

zchk = "VIRTUAL ANCHOR OK"

end = 56 mm

Axial End Displacement [Equation 12 - Palmer and Ling (1981) OTC 4067]

P R 1 d i_o Ri_o E tnom ( T T) 2 Palmer := 1 + E tnom T T f


2

Palmer = 56 mm

Axial Stress (For X < Z) x 75 := 0.75 z l_75 := Pd Ri_o 2tnom f 2 Ri_o tnom x 75 l_75 = 39.77 MPa

x 1 := 1.00 z l_1 := Pd Ri_o 2tnom f 2 Ri_o tnom x1 l_1 = 76.19 MPa

AXIAL STRESS (FOR X >= Z) l := Pd Ri_o tnom E T T l = 76.19 MPa

EQUIVALENT STRESS CHECK eq := h h l + l


2 2

eq = 293.73 MPa eqchk = "EQUIVALENT STRESS OK"

eqchk :=

"EQUIVALENT STRESS OK" if eq < 0.9 SMYS "INCREASE WALL THICKNESS" otherwise

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Reading List
http://www.fugro.com/survey/offshore/gcs.asp ALA (2001). Guideline for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe. July 2001, 83p. [2001_ALA_Design_Guideline.pdf] Cathie, D.N., Jaeck, C., Ballard, J.-C. and Wintgens, J.-F. (2005). Pipeline geotechnics state-of-the-art. Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics, ISFOG, ISBN 0 415 39063 X, pp.95-114 [2005_Cathie_PSI.pdf] Palmer, A.C. and Ling, M.T.S. (1981). Movements of Submarine Pipelines Close to Platforms. Proc., OTC, OTC 4067, pp.17-24. Palmer, A.C., Ellinas, C.P., Richards, D.M. and Guijt, J. Design of Submarine Pipelines Against Upheaval Buckling. Proc., OTC, OTC 6335, pp.551-560.

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geotechnical_engineering http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_mechanics BCOG (2001). BC Offshore Oil & Gas Technology Update, JWEL Project No. BCV50229, October 19, 2001 DNV (2007). Submarine Pipeline Systems. Offshore Standard, DNV OS-F101, October 2007, 240p. Langley, D. (2005). A Resourceful Industry Lands the Serpent, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 57(10), 6p. Phillips, R. A. Nobahar and J. Zhou (2004). Trench effects on pipe-soil interaction. Proc. IPC, IPC 04-0141, 7p.

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2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15