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Original Title: 15 - Pipeline-Soil Interaction[1]

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- 08 - Mechanical Design - Pressure Containment Part1
- 09 - Mechanical Design - Press
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- Upheaval Buckling Assessment by Dr N I Thusyanthan
- Geotechnical Considerations in Pipeline Design
- 05 - Materials Selection
- 03 - Pipeline Hydraulics
- Uplift Resistance of Buried Pipelines and DNV-RP-F110 Guidelines
- Risk assessment
- 18 - Free Spanning Pipelines
- 02 - Pipeline Systems Engineering and Routing Considerations
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Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@engr.mun.ca

Lecture 15 Objective

to examine engineering models to analyse geotechnical loads, pipeline/soil interaction and structural load effects for offshore pipelines

Overview

Geotechnical Loads

Soil mechanical behaviour

Pipeline/Soil Interaction

Load transfer mechanisms

Pipeline mechanical response

Design Considerations

Installation

Pipeline embedment On-bottom roughness

Pre-sweep, clearance Trenching

Rock dump

Operations

Thermal expansion Lateral and upheaval buckling On-bottom stability

4

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Seabed Surveys

Remote sensing In-situ testing and sample recovery Index and laboratory testing

Key Issues

Soil type Strength parameters Loaddisplacement behaviour

Ref: BCOG (2001)

Pipeline/Soil Interaction

Engineering Tools

Guidance documents

Load transfer mechanisms Stress or strain based design Model uncertainty

Ref: C-CORE

Design Checks

Limit States

SLS ULS

Stress

Combined loading

criteria

Strain

7

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Structural Finite Element Procedures

Standard tool Rigid pipeline/structure Soil load-displacement

Axial

Transverse Lateral

Vertical Upward

Vertical Downward

Ref: ALA (2001)

Trench Effects

Engineering Models Load-Displacement

Centrifuge models Large-scale physical models Continuum FEA

10

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Buried Performance

Thermal

Flow assurance

Mechanical

Uplift, flotation, subsidence during pipe lay Upheaval buckling during operations Ref: C-CORE

11

Example 15-01

Calculate the virtual anchor point, axial strain and end deflection due to thermal expansion for a buried pipeline Design condition

Partial restraint

12

2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15

Winter 2008

Example 15-01 Calculate the anchor point, axial strain and end deflection due to thermal expansion for a buried offshore pipeline located outside the 500m excursion limit. DEFINED UNITS MPa := 10 Pa

6

kPa := 10 Pa

GPa := 10 Pa

C := K

kN := 10 N

PIPELINE SYSTEM PARAMETERS Nominal Outside Diameter Initial Selection Nominal Wall Thickness (Sec.5 C203 Table 5-3) External Corrosion Protection Coating Thickness Fabrication Process (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-1) [SMLS, HFW, SAW] Corrosion Allowance (Sec.6 D203) Elastic Modulus Specified Minimum Yield Stress (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-5) Speciifed Minimum Tensile Stress (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-5) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Poisson's Ratio Pipeline Route Length Linepipe Density Concrete Coating Thickness Concrete Coating Density OPERATATIONAL PARAMETERS API Gravity Product Contents Density cont := 1000 kg m

3

Do := 273.1mm tnom := 9.525mm tcpc := 0mm FAB := "SMLS" tcorr := 3mm E := 205GPa SMYS := 450MPa SMTS := 535MPa T := 1.15 10 := 0.3 Lp := 25km tc := 50mm s := 7850kg m c := 3050kg m

3 5 1

API := 38

kg

Design Pressure (Gauge) Safety Class (Sec.2 C200-C400) [L, M, H] Design Pressure Reference Level Temperature Differential Maximum Water Depth Seawater Density Hydrotest Fluid Density

w := 1025kg m t := 1025kg m

3/3/2008

Page 1 of 5

Winter 2008

GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS Undrained Shear Strength Adhesion Factor Cu := 25kPa soil := 0.25

DNV OS-F101 PARTIAL FACTORS AND DESIGN PARAMETERS System Operations Incidental/Design Pressure Factor (Sec.3 B304) System Test Incidental/Design Pressure Factor (Sec.3 B304) Material Resistance Factor (Sec.5 C205 Table 5-4) Safety Class Resistance Factor (Sec.5 C206 Table 5-5) Material Strength Factor (Sec.5 C306 Table 5-6) Maximum Fabrication Factor (Sec.5 C307 Table 5-7) fab := 1.00 if FAB = "SMLS" 0.93 if FAB = "HFW" 0.85 if FAB = "SAW" fab = 1.00 inc_o := 1.10 inc_t := 1.00 m := 1.15 SC := 1.138 U := 0.96

3/3/2008

Page 2 of 5

Winter 2008

Diameter Fabrication Tolerance(Sec.7 G200 Table 7-17) Do := max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) if FAB = "SMLS" Do 610mm 0.01 Do if FAB = "SMLS" Do > 610mm min( max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) , 3.2mm) if FAB = "HFW" Do 610mm min( 0.005 Do , 3.2mm) if FAB = "HFW" Do > 610mm min( max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) , 3.2mm) if FAB = "SAW" Do 610mm min( 0.005 Do , 3.2mm) if FAB = "SAW" Do > 610mm Wall Thickness Fabrication Tolerance(Sec.7 G307 Table 7-18) tfab := 0.5mm if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 4mm 0.125 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom > 4mm 0.125 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 10mm 0.100 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 25mm 3mm if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 30mm 0.4mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom 6mm 0.7mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom > 6mm 1.0mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom > 15mm 0.5mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom 6mm 0.7mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 6mm 1.0mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 10mm 1.0mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 20mm Material Derating (Sec.5 C300 Figure 2) SMYS := 0MPa if T < 50C SMYS = 10.00 MPa tfab = 1.191 mm Do = 2.048 mm

SMTS := 0MPa if T < 50C SMYS = 10.00 MPa

fy := ( SMYS SMYS ) U fu := ( SMTS SMTS) U

3/3/2008

Page 3 of 5

Winter 2008

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS PIPELINE GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES Inside Pipeline Diameter (Operations Case) Di_o := Do 2. tcorr 2. tfab Inside Pipeline Radius (Operations Case) Ri_o := 0.5 Di_o Effective Outside Pipeline Diameter De := Do + 2. tcpc + 2. tc Pipeline Steel Area Ast := 4 Do ( Do 2 tnom)

2 2

Di_o = 264.72 mm

Ri_o = 132.36 mm

De = 373.10 mm

Ast = 7.89 10 mm

2 2

Ac = 5.08 10 mm

2

Ae = 1.09 10 mm

2

Ai = 5.50 10 mm

BUOYANCY FORCE (per meter basis) BF := g m ( w Ae c Ac s Ast) Buoyancy Force Check BFchk := "NEGATIVE BUOYANCY" if BF < 0 "FLOTATION" otherwise External Hydrostatic Pressure Pe := w g h l HOOP STRESS (THIN WALL THEORY) h := 2 ( tnom tcorr tfab) Pd Di_o Pe Do h = 248.13 MPa Pe = 0.00 MPa BFchk = "NEGATIVE BUOYANCY" BF = 1.03 kN

SOIL RESISTANCE PARAMETERS Soil Axial Restraint per Unit Length (Eqn B-1 ALA 2001 f := De Cu soil

3/3/2008 3 1

f = 7.33 10 N m

Page 4 of 5

Winter 2008

Distance to Virtual Anchor Point - Assumes constant temperature (conservative) - Equation 9 of Palmer and Ling (1981) OTC4067 Pd Ri_o f

2

z :=

1 2 +

2 tnom Pd Ri_o

E T T

z = 157.51 m

Virtual Anchor Length Check zchk := "VIRTUAL ANCHOR OK" if z < 0.5 Lp "RECALCULATE" otherwise COMBINED STRESS STATE Axial End Displacement end :=

2 fz Pd Ri_o ( 1 2) + T T z 4 E Ri_o tnom 2 E tnom

end = 56 mm

Axial End Displacement [Equation 12 - Palmer and Ling (1981) OTC 4067]

2

Palmer = 56 mm

Axial Stress (For X < Z) x 75 := 0.75 z l_75 := Pd Ri_o 2tnom f 2 Ri_o tnom x 75 l_75 = 39.77 MPa

2 2

eqchk :=

"EQUIVALENT STRESS OK" if eq < 0.9 SMYS "INCREASE WALL THICKNESS" otherwise

3/3/2008

Page 5 of 5

Reading List

http://www.fugro.com/survey/offshore/gcs.asp ALA (2001). Guideline for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe. July 2001, 83p. [2001_ALA_Design_Guideline.pdf] Cathie, D.N., Jaeck, C., Ballard, J.-C. and Wintgens, J.-F. (2005). Pipeline geotechnics state-of-the-art. Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics, ISFOG, ISBN 0 415 39063 X, pp.95-114 [2005_Cathie_PSI.pdf] Palmer, A.C. and Ling, M.T.S. (1981). Movements of Submarine Pipelines Close to Platforms. Proc., OTC, OTC 4067, pp.17-24. Palmer, A.C., Ellinas, C.P., Richards, D.M. and Guijt, J. Design of Submarine Pipelines Against Upheaval Buckling. Proc., OTC, OTC 6335, pp.551-560.

18

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geotechnical_engineering http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_mechanics BCOG (2001). BC Offshore Oil & Gas Technology Update, JWEL Project No. BCV50229, October 19, 2001 DNV (2007). Submarine Pipeline Systems. Offshore Standard, DNV OS-F101, October 2007, 240p. Langley, D. (2005). A Resourceful Industry Lands the Serpent, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 57(10), 6p. Phillips, R. A. Nobahar and J. Zhou (2004). Trench effects on pipe-soil interaction. Proc. IPC, IPC 04-0141, 7p.

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