You are on page 1of 5

BubbleDeck Design Guide

Thetwowayhollowdeck Thewaytonewsolutions

BubbleDeck Design Guide

B u b b l e D e c k , as a twoway hollowbody oor slab, is generally designed using the conventional design methodsfor solid oor slabs in accordance with the current reinforced concrete construction standard DIN 1045 (1988) or DIN 1045 (2001). The reduced intrinsic loadistakenintoaccounthere,resultinginadvantagesfortheindividualstaticverications. Therequiredsolidzonesaredenedusingthe alculatedshearloadbearingcapacityofthe c BubbleDeckwithoutshearreinforcement. The advantages of B u b b l e D e c k become apparent when it comes to the deformation calculation bendingstrengthdesignpenetrationdesignloadtransfertosupports,wallsandfoundations crackreinforcement design earthquake desi n determination of resonant frequencies and g determinationofauxiliarysupportsduringtheconstructionphase. The hollow balls are rst combined with upper and lower reinforcement mats and lattice trusses at the factory to form a BubbleDeckmodule. This module can already include the necessary lower bending reinforcement. If the reinforcement is a purely structural reinforcement,themoduleisreferredtoasaBubbleDeckbasicmodule. B u b b l e D e c k semiprecast modules are produced by pouring a concrete layer on the BubbleDeck moduleatthenishedcomponentfactory. Both the ball grid spacings and the dimensions of the prefabricated modules are variable. The resulting exibility ensures that the modules can be adapted to any oor plan and can accommodate lines, pipes and installation parts. Openings can also be included, even subsequently.

Dependingonrequirements,BubbleDeckcanbeconcretedinsituwithconventionalformworkorit canbedesignedasasemiprecastmodulewithauxiliarysupportorasanishedcomponent. Combination with other construction methods,e.g. prestressing, is also possible. Any concretequalityanddensitycanbeused.Allconnectiondetailsandsimilarrequirementscan beplannedandexecutedinthesamewayaswithaconventionalsolidslab.

AllrelevantdatafordesigningBubbleDeckiscontainedinthefollowingtable.Theaxisspacingof the balls can be varied. The load reduction must then be adapted depending on the remainingnumberofballspersquaremetre.

BubbleDeck Design Guide

Balldiameter Minimumaxisspacing Maximumnumberofballs Recommendedminimumslabthickness Loadreductionperball Maximumloadreductionpersq.metre Rigidityfactor Shearfactor

[cm] [cm] 2 [1/m ] [cm] [kN] [kN/m] [] []

18.00 20.00 25.00 23.00 0.08 1.91 0.88 0.60

22.50 25.00 16.00 28.00 0.15 2.39 0.87 0.60

27.00 30.00 11.11 34.00 0.26 2.86 0.87 0.60

31.50 35.00 8.16 40.00 0.41 3.34 0.88 0.60

36.00 40.00 6.25 45.00 0.61 3.82 0.87 0.60

40.50 45.00 45.00 50.00 4.94 4.00 52.00 58.00 0.87 1.19 4.29 4.77 0.88 0.88 0.60 0.60

Bendingstrengthdesignforarectangularcrosssectioncanbeperformedwithconventional toolsifthefollowinglimitsareobserved:
DIN10451: ds=m d D D 1.96/(d 3 f k)0.2 s s B B c where: ds =relativebendingmomentintheballzone[] s m d =max.bendingmoment[MNm/m] s D D =balldiameter[m] B d B =staticheightoftheBubbleDeck [m] 2 f k =characteristicstrengthac ordingtoDIN10451[MN/m ] c c m =m D D 1.17/(d 3 )0.2 B s B R where: m =relativebendingmomentintheballzone[] s m =max.bendingmomentunderoccupancyload[MNm/m] D D =balldiameter[m] B d B =staticheightoftheBubbleDeck [m] 2 =calculatedstrengthaccordingtoDIN1045[MN/m ] R


According to the general building supervisory authority test certication PSAC 02/IV065, MFPALeipzige.V.: The minimum concrete covering min c to the lower reinforcement depending on the re resistance duration and the steel stresses under the computed occupancy load can be determinedaccordingtothefollowingtable.
Steelstress s (MN/m) 190 286 Steelutilisation s(MN/m)/286(MN/m)*100% 66% 100% 30 1.7cm 1.7cm Fireresistance(minutes) 60 90 120 1.7cm 1.7cm 1.7cm 2.9cm 3.5cm 4.2cm 180 5.5cm

The concrete covering to the ball can be 0.5 cm less than the aforementioned values. The hollow plastic balls consist of highdensity polyethylene (HDPE) and must comply with construction material class B2 according to DIN 41021 at minimum. The upper concrete coveringminctotheballmustbeatleast2.50cm.

According to the general building supervisory authority test certication PSAC 02/IV065, MFPALeipzige.V.:
Evaluatedsoundreduction indexR W 55dB 57dB Equivalentevaluatedstandardfootstep soundlevelL ,w,eq,R n 77dB 73dB Slabthickness 23cm 34cm Ballsize 18cm 27cm

BubbleDeck Design Guide

B Examinationof ubbleDeckadvantages DecisioninfavourofBubbleDeck


Approvalplanningbystructureplanner/BubbleDeck Formworkplanasthebasisforexecutionplanning PreparationofalayingplanbyBubbleDeck Approvalofthelayingplanbytheclient PreparationofthemoduleplansbyBubbleDeck


Production/deliverybynishedcomponentplants MonitoringofproductionanddeliverybyBubbleDeck Installation/completionbythecontractedcompany accordingtoinstallationinstructions


In-situ concrete variant
Formworkpreparation Layingthelowerreinforcement Installationofthebasicmodules Layingtheupperreinforcement Pouringthebottomconcretelayer Pouringthetopconcretelayer

Semi-precast module variant

Auxiliarysupportpreparation Edgeformworkpreparation Layingthesemiprecastmodules Layingtheedgereinforcement Layingtheupperreinforcement Pouringthetopconcretelayer

BubbleDeck Design Guide

System: Span: Load: Construction materials: Slabthickness: Locallysupportedslabwiththree eldsineachdirection 9mx9m 2 imposedoorload5kN/m 2 additionalload1.5kN/m C45/55concrete,BSt500S reinforcingsteel 35cm

Selectedballsize: Determinationofintrinsicload: Deformationestimate:

27cm=>technicalspecicationsasper 3 3 2 2 0.35m25kN/m .86kN/m =5.89kN/m 2 Takingarigidityfactorof .87intoaccount: 0

DeformationinStateIwith30%oftheimposedfloorload:f,1 I =7.4mm DeformationinStateIfromintrinsicload:f,2 I =4.8mm - DeformationinStateIItakingsharesoftimedependentdeformationintoaccount: fI,1 I =7.4mm4=29.6mm fI,2 II,1 I,2 I =f f =25mm 12.7/500=25mm

Transverseforceverication: Limitvalueforsolidslab(MD): V d,ct (MD)=0.134MN/m R LimitvalueforBubbleDeck (CB): V d,ct 0 R (CB)= .60 0.134MN/m=0.080MN/m Zoneswithatransverseforce 0.080MN/m mustbesolid

Bendingstrengthdesign:AccordingtoanFEcalculation(e.g.FEMTripla,Dr.Tornow),themaximum designvalueforthebendingmomentis152kNm/m

Relativebendingmomentaccordingto 4 : 3 ds=0.152 0.27 1.96/(0.3 45)=0.066 0.2 s Designcanbeperformedwithconventionalmethods.