Encyclopedia of Body Building and Fitness

By Gareth Thomas

About the Author: My name is Gareth Thomas. I have worked out for 23 years on average 3 or 4 times per week, often more - that's a total of at least 3500 workouts. I am 5ft 11in and usually weigh around 220 lbs. I can quickly add 10 lbs of muscle to that with a two week creatine cycle. The only time i miss my workouts is when i am sick or have been doing heavy physical work. 3 times per week equals 156 workouts per year. That doesnt sound like too much of a chunk from any bodies time. Add to that some jogging, long walks, rowing and I used to be in the Army Infantry Core too which involved a lot of marching and hiking with a heavy military pack. Basically keeping fit and strong keeps people motivated, youthful and positive about life. The fitter you can be the better. Its even more important as you get older. Once many people hit 40 they give up on physical training. Thats the exact opposite of what you should do. At 40 your body needs exercise more than ever to ward off the ailments of the later years such as abdominal obesity, bone disease and circulatory problems. I challenge you to intensify your training after 40, not cut it down. Then there are the mental benefits. A healthy body means a healthy brain, less emotional problems and a better attitude toward life. A lack of aerobic fitness can be attributed to irrational anxiety and stress. A lack of anaerobic strength and fitness can be attributed to lower motivation and self esteem.

I'm sure that by improving the biochemistry and circulation within the brain you can imporove its functioning and hence IQ. Then there are the advantages of improved flexibitity to accident and injury prevention, the positive advantage you have over potential threats from muggers and thugs, there so many things to be gained from taking care of your health and fitness. But i was not always physically fit. As a teen i was very sickly, thin and weak. I went through some very trying times as a youth. I was in fact abducted and nearly murdered as a 12 year old kid. I came from a some what abusive home. I ended up on drugs and booze with all the bad kids as my friends. At 16 I was nearly dead, weighed 6 stone, was an alcoholic and a drug addict. I turned my life around with bodybuilding. I've worked out ever since then. I havent drunk, smoked or used any drugs in all those years since. I'm not a Bodybuilding Super Star by any means but I can do 1000 stomach crunches and run 6 miles at the drop of a hat any time of day or night. That's not bad for a middle aged man. I took my inspiration from Lou Ferrigno, Franco Columbu, Rich Gaspari, Arnold you know all the superstars. Today at 39 I look at Albert Beckles and Clarence Bass and there is no way you will ever stop me pumping iron. Clarence Bass is 70 and as ripped as rambo. I would like to be super fit when I get old too. I have worked out for 23 years and i know alot about physical fitness. My goal in this book is simply to share that knowlege and experience with you. Not so you can do a bit of weight training for a few months, but so you can transform your life. I want you to start training today and never give up for the rest of your life. Just like me and millions of others.

Introduction What does the word fitness mean to you ? To each person, its something different. To many it's a word that brings on the cringe of pain, of doing something they find difficult and even something they will avoid at all possible costs. But, that's not necessary for most people - If you truly enjoy it is it any longer difficult ? Fitness becomes FUN !!! It becomes easy to go to the gym week after week and it becomes difficult not to go. In fact, for most of us that regularly workout fitness is one of the most enjoyable parts of life. The reason for this is simple most people that say they "hate" exercise don't make it past the break in phase. Yes the break in phase does suck. It actually hurts. It actually makes you feel darn tired. So these people give up. Some go beyond this initial 2-3 weeks and last anything up to six months - but they overdo it. They burn out, overtrain and give up too.

So there in lies the key - Keep going through the break in phase. Endure the sore muscles for a few weeks - one day you will spring out of bed and that sore feeling will be gone. I seldom if ever get sore muscles after working out any more - even when I increase the weight. Once you are beyond this initial phase be aware not to overtrain. Keep it down to three sessions a week in the first six months. Have plenty of rest and sleep and just make it a regular part of your routine. It really is that simple. You won't likely lose a magical 100 pounds this first six months (some will). You may be able to drop that amount of weight, though, in a year's time. Gaining weight is quite often more rapid if you aim to gain muscle mass. I gained 70 pounds in three months as a teenager but I was seriously under weight. In many ways, fitness is fun and I'll show you how to make it just that, healthily. Instead of a gimmick diet, another useless fad and any type of crazy health food that costs more than all of the meals from your family, this is a simple, no nonsense approach to overall fitness that simply makes sense. Imagine this:

Imagine jumping out of bed in the morning full of energy and thinking to yourself " I feel like a stick of dynamite"
Imagine being able to burst into a sprint and pound your legs to the max next time you almost miss a bus.

it became something that you didn't think twice about. weeks. When the machine is neglected either in part or in the whole. then. You learned to put your clothes on. Others may need a certain level of fitness for their employment. .Imagine walking alone at night and really feeling safe because you are physically strong. it can be that simple to be healthy. all of my friends. Imagine having a greatly increased sex drive. "What am I staying in shape for?" To each person. you cut several years off the life of the car. then. Fitness is an essential part of life. but when you look at this as your body. But.That's what gives me the POWER to SUCCEED. When you were learning how to do them. but remember that fitness is something that you can get into the habit of doing which makes it easy. Your body is designed to work as a machine. Do you worry about brushing your teeth today? No. Fitness is a term that is used to help define the ability to stay in the best physical shape. it is a matter of staying healthy as long as possible. Fitness is not something that you have to struggle with. once you learned how to do it. Well I can go on about the benefits of fitness and will do so later in this book. You could take all of my money. If it isn't taken care of. When you were three you were probably taught to brush your teeth. Really. and even years off of your life when you don't take care of your machine (your body. Let's make fitness fun. Sorry if I sound overly patronising. everything but so long as I am still fit and strong and healthy . You may ask. You'll learn many things that you'll be able to implement immediately to start experiencing success. it will last many years longer. this will be something different. When each part of the machine is cared for. Others may be recovering from an illness or injury. That's what we want you to think of when you think of fitness. That's costly to you. for example you don't change the oil in it. For most. then the machine won't run well and eventually won't run at all.) Fitness is about SURVIVAL. the entire machine works the best that it can. for example. is well maintained for many years. you likely hated it. because it's a habit. trust me on this from a guy that used to smoke two packs of cigarrettes per day. you are shaving away days. If a car.

You'll find excuses about not doing it. you'll see that fitness can be easily mastered by you. IT WONT BE EASY AT FIRST. It's just something that you do. it's an important first step. What do you see? If you are unhappy about any part of your body or training. but it may hurt your ego a bit to do it. the first weeks of learning to be fit and staying healthy will be the hardest. .Overcome the initial procrastination. The same applies to experienced athletes that must alter or increase the training in a specific area . this is painless. Our first goal is to determine where you stand right now. You just can't give up what you love. For me it's a bit of belly fat. You will be sore and tired. You'll dread it.such as a weight lifter adding cardio to beat belly fat. In fact. Nevertheless. That's not true. chances are good that area of your body is bothering you because it's an unhealthy area. Where Are You Now and What are Your Fitness Goals ? Take a look at yourself right now. if you have the will power to save your life by sacrificing for just a few weeks. Granted. You'll claim that getting fit is just too hard. Don't worry.

but it needs to be in a certain range to be healthy. Its important to do this to more firmy establish and prioritise your fitness goals.Here are some questions for you beginners to ask to determine where you stand right now. • Do you have aches and pains in parts of your body that are not from an injury ? • Do you have clothing that doesn't fit parts of your body well ? • Do you struggle to do physical activities? Do you avoid them because you know you can't do them ? • Are you unhappy with the way that your body looks? Do you avoid looking in the mirror ? • Have you been told by your doctor. Ask your doctor where your blood pressure is. . • Body Mass Index: Your BMI is a measure of the percentage of fat on your body. There are several tools that you need to use to determine your health level currently. the more prone to health risks you are. The higher this number is.this is part of the goal setting process. Experinced athletes should also do a realistic self review . You need to use them to understand exactly where you stand right now. • Your Blood Pressure: The pressure in which your heart pumps blood throughout your body. your family or others that you need to consider your fitness ? Experienced athletes may ask themselves: * Have I been neglecting certain aspects of my fitness ? * Am I overtraining and not getting enough sleep and recuperation time ? * Is there some aspect lacking in my training program or my routine that could have a significant impact on my health and progress ? If you have experience then I'm sure the questions are in your mind allready. You need this number to be there. You need to begin by understanding that change needs to happen. You can find calculators for many of these available to you free of charge on the web. For adults. this is generally 120 to 139/80 to 89.

if you are overweight.• Ideal Weight: In comparison to your height and body structure. Those that have a larger midsection are most prone to health risks. your ideal weight is the weight that you should be. Those that have a large midsection are the most prone to heart problems. These three things are critical elements for you to take into consideration when considering where you stand right now. Beginners . But. . Your waist is important because it is the indication on your body of your potential health risk. The fat that is here will push into your body. Your kidneys. the fat here is likely to be what kills you. causing difficulty for each organ there. there's much more for you to consider.What To Start With To get started with fitness. This is an important piece of information because of how vital it is to your health. In effect. your lungs and even your heart are suppressed. start by getting through these basic first steps. ideally. One thing that we want you to do besides getting the above information is to grab a tape measure and get one of the most important measurements out there: your waist.

1. Pull up your shirt. Measure your waist. Write them down and post them in several locations in your home. Do this at home on a well programmed scale. Set your goals. . your heart rate as well as any other important factors he may be interested in you improving. to improve on. Determine what's important for you to maintain. 5. Stand up straight. Do it the same time and same way every time you weigh yourself. and to work on first. suck in your gut and measure at your belly button all the way around using a tape measure. This will be your indication of your weight loss and health improvement. 3. Determine that you are healthy enough physically to begin improving through diet and exercise. Meet with your doctor to talk about your overall health. Get your weight. Calculate your BMI. not at your doctor's office. Do it first thing in the morning after you've gone to the bathroom but before you have eaten. You need this to see just how unhealthy you are currently. 2. Ask him for measurements of your blood pressure. It's going to come down and that will be quite rewarding! 4.

what will you learn through this book? • Improving your body fitness • Improving your diet fitness • Improving your mind fitness • Improving your lifestyle fitness . Many people are still at risk for high blood pressure. you can work to improve your overall wellness and increase your lifespan as well as the quality of life that you are currently living. Although many people start looking into fitness because they want to lose weight. If you don't think that you need to lose weight. For others it will be less dramatic. strength etc. you can begin to improve your health. Cardio Vascular fitness level. I got into it because I was a drug addict. or giving up some addiction or bad habits. you need to take into consideration the fact that overall health is in fact important to improve. Therefore. I was very ill and thin. People with some experience under the belt will need to examine their flexibility. that's great! You are one step closer to being healthy. that's not to say that you don't have health problems beyond that level. We will get into all of this indepth later in the book but for now the emphaisis is on the basics. Throughout this book. For many that will mean losing weight. By understanding where you stand on these factors above. There's much to learn and improve on for most of us. high cholesterol as well as other concerns even though they aren't technically overweight. fitness is not just about weight loss. I'll point you in the direction of improving your overall health. inflamation syndrome. For me the impression made in the initial months was very strong because I made much progress in this time. But. that will mean improving other qualities of your life. For others. With fitness everyday is a new beginning so you can always review your progress and set new goals.Now that you have this done. What You Will Learn So.

. I went from a diseased 6 stone drinker and smoker to a 12 stone athlete in 2 or 3 months when i was sixteen. it doesn't do much good if you don't eat the right foods. though. Most of us need 7-9 hrs sleep everyday. While your body must be maintained as much as possible for health. General Health: First things first. When i was in the army they were very keen on sleep deprivation. Throughout each of these aspects. Losing weight. ways. With your mind fitness. we mean making sure you are emotionally and mentally fit. The best substitute for a bad habit is a good one so fitness training is a wonderful cure. but the willpower and ability to endure drug or alcohol withdrawl will have to come from your heart. That means insuring that your overall life is healthy in regards to the life that you lead. I say hogwash and current medical research says the same. They used to tell us alot of bull that 6 hrs is sufficient. help you to understand where you are and then help you to get to the goals that you have. With lifestyle fitness. we will start there. isn't enough if you aren't eating the right foods even if you are losing weight. but 7-9 hrs is optimal. I know your situation. especially of course if you are too fat. and even fun. If you are underweight like i used to be well a change of diet combined with good exercise and lifestyle can pack on healthy pounds in no time. Emotional stability is critical to overall health. Remember.some say they only need 4-6 hrs. we'll teach you how to improve your life through easy. Namely alcohol. GET ENOUGH SLEEP !!! Sleep . It has been shown that those that are under a lot of stress are often the most at risk for health problems due to the stress. Those with eating disorders can also benefit from physical conditioning.Each of these aspects is very important. for example. each aspect is just as important as the next. Since your body is likely to be your largest factor impacting your life. The longest i went without sleep in the army was 5 days and 4 nights . But giving up serious vices is not easy and you are well advised to get professional medical advice. we'll tackle what the healthy standard is. Sure you can function on less or more. the goal is to improve your stress level. smoking or drug use. Many of you will be fighting with some bad habits. Its simply not true. Because each plays a role in your overall health. I normally need 9 if I'm training and eating heavily.

even those things that you don't think about doing like your heart beating and your lungs breathing. Your heart pumps oxygen rich blood to each cell in your body. Change your diet . Your lungs supply your heart with the necessary oxygen. . Your body is a well designed machine. give up the vices like drink and smoking. Your brain keeps everything working.if its unhealthy. Body Fitness And Its Effect On Your Life Remember how we referred to your body as a machine? Well. Each part of your body functions well because of the support that other parts play. This means physically. actually. I recommend you go to a good doctor and just get a general check up. Not only will you feel great but you will have medical proof. Stress and recuperation are also critically important and are covered in another section of their own. In fact if you are looking at changing your body composition I dare you to do before and after shots. This is so you can see the improvements in coming weeks and months.So. the time has come to improve the way that machine is working. I cover diet in another section because its very important. get 7-9 hrs sleep every night. delivering fuel to it so that it can perform its duty.

Yet. Well back in the time of the cave man. That way. you need to take into consideration the vast number of measurements that we've already taken. your blood pressure and your body mass index are good indications of your overall health. Do you have any physical limitations? If you physically can't lift things for fear of hurting your back. That means taking the measurements that we've listed. the same day at the same time each week. your body can't maintain a healthy muscle mass. What some people don't realize is why their body has developed as it has. The best place to start is to work with your doctor to determine why you aren't physically fit in those areas. If you have problems with your legs. Talking to your doctor is a great place to start when it comes to determining your overall health. Your job is to give your body what it needs to continue to perform correctly. the body had to do what it needed to so that you could stay alive. chances are good that your heart has been affected by it. Your weight. If you don't work hard. You should understand how well your body is working. Keep a log of this information so that you can see your progression. it goes further than this.Go to the library and read as much as you can on health and physiology. If you are overweight. You cant do that without the information in your head and I cant teach you everything in just one book. What's Healthy? As we mentioned early. You may not physically be able to exercise . it's important for you to know where you stand health wise. Your muscles are necessary for functioning but they have been built to be used. this could be a potential problem that needs to be considered. you can improve your overall health and then improve upon your situation by knowing how to. to know what level of fitness your body is in. your neck. not to sit idle. Where Are You at? As we've mentioned. these fat reserves could be used. too. we need to address your body's ability to do what it needs to through being physically capable. Your body is used to providing your muscles with the fuel that they need to work hard. too. You should weekly weigh yourself. You shouldn't skip this step. While your diet is something for the a later section. you should address these specific concerns. your arms or anything else. It would store food in fat so that when there wasn't enough food available.

even if you aren't overweight. Fitness and Body Building Millions of dollars are spent every year in the quest for a perfect body. Exercise is something that some people hate and others love. Our overall plan to improving your body's fitness level is through exercise. Again. he was credited with the invention of the first exercise equipment marketed to the masses. If you aren't having any physical limitations. but it will get easier. It's a hard realization. As he became more popular. Sandow was also credited with beginning the first body building contest called "The Great Competition" held in London. Sandow built a stage performance around displays of strength and agility as well as showing off a "Grecian" physique which was considered the ultimate body. but remember your body is built to be used. the sport of body building has been around for quite some time. Understanding where you are is difficult for many at first. Now. Using your muscles and strengthening them are vital to improving health and fitness. it's not the permanent solution. It is estimated that most people don't get the exercise that they need and that leads to all types of health problems. not to sit in a chair at a desk all day. coupled with the other fitness elements later throughout this book. He became so successful.to a certain level. Its not easy thing to do at first. one step at a time. Eugen Sandow was credited with inventing the sport by inviting people to view his body in muscle display performances. Even an overall fit person can often improve their body's fitness through improving their body's makeup. Gyms are big business. that's a great sign. and body building supplements are at an all-time level of performance. How Can You Improve ? Improving your body means improving your body's ability to move and function. But. he created several businesses around his fame and was among the first people to market body building products bearing his name. pains or weight problems. In the late 19th century. chances are good that you aren't getting enough exercise and fitness into your life anyway. personal trainers are making a tidy living helping people stay fit. the man known as the "father of bodybuilding". We won't even include that level of exercise here because your doctor must tell you what's okay and what is too much. look at your body in other manners to determine what you can improve on. In actuality. This competition was the basis for many . its going to improve.

there can be a lot to learn. nothing will compare to actually getting to the gym and lifting those weights. Women have started to take an interest in honing their bodies. men around the world were inspired to become bigger in their physique. and the sport has evolved into a real competitive arena. In 1970. but you'll need some information first. body building was taken to a new level when the film "Pumping Iron" was released starring Austrian newcomer Arnold Schwarzenegger. This book will guide you through some of the basics to get you started. and body building equipment evolved into an effective means for working muscles in ways never thought of before. Olympia competition that remains the most popular body building contest to date. nutrition was focused on more than ever. If you've always wanted to learn about how to build your body to that "Grecian Ideal" envisioned by Eugen Sandow. stronger.others to follow including the Mr. It was also around this time that many body building organizations came into being including the Amateur Athletic Union and the International Federation of Body Building. and more aggressive in their behavior. When World War II broke out. . you heard of him right ? Through the years. Of course. Training techniques were improved. body building has just grown in popularity becoming almost an obsession for many people.

supplimentation and recuperation should all fit in with your optimal body routine. By balancing your training and recuperation you can optimize your biochemistry. consider this . Deeply tied in with all of this are your biocemistry and your nervous system.the efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells. Components of Fitness Physical fitness is the ability to function effectively in physical work. . There is no muscle or ligament joining your two legs together in such a way to prevent you doing it with both legs at the same time. The three things of most interest to us in biochemistry are nutrients. Anerobics can aid the cardio system and reduce fat. anatomically you should be able to do it with both and anatomically you can indeed do the full splits right now. The components of physical fitness are as follows: Cardio respiratory endurance . The nervous sytem is quite remarkable. Diet also has a significant influence over biochemistry. Your body works with a natural cyclic rythym. Especially with the training and recuperation. But its a nerve reflex that prevents you.Exercise Physiology Lets cover some basics about physical training. In the same sense your muscles are theoretically strong enough to rip themselves clean off the bone and rupture the ligaments. Nothing else. and other activities and still have enough energy left over to handle any emergencies which may arise. stretching and getting into tune with your nerves in other ways such as with mental techniques you will develop greater neural control over your body. After a while you will develop a natural sense for this.can you do the splits ? Probably not. then there is anerobic which is great for muscle and bone growth and strength. The nervous system prevents this from happening (thank heavens). diet. If you can do it with one. By training. Well guess what. But you can raise one leg out to the side at 90 degree's i bet (everybody can). hormones and waste products in the blood such as lactic acid. There is aerobic training which is best for cardio respiratory improvement and fat loss. Your workout routines. If done in the right way the two are complimentary. Aerobics can improve muscle function and growth. training.

reduces performance. "FITT" Regularity.Muscular strength . a person must exercise often. Regularity is also important in resting. detracts from appearance. knee) or any group of joints through an entire.and following a good diet. Infrequent exercise can do more harm than good. Flexibility . from the Olympic-caliber athlete to the weekend jogger. Body composition . Intensity. and Type. Improving the first three components of fitness listed above will have a positive impact on body composition and will result in less fat. and negatively affects one's health.the greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort. and eye-foot coordination are classified as components of "motor" fitness. The principles of exercise apply to everyone at all levels of physical training. These basic principles of exercise must be followed: Factors for a successful training program are Frequency. . progressive training. Appropriate training can improve these factors within the limits of each athletes potential. Factors such as speed. This fitness guide seeks to improve or maintain all the components of physical and motor fitness through sound.the ability to move the joints (for example. sleeping. Principles of Exercise Adherence to certain basic exercise principles is important for developing an effective program.the ability of muscle or muscle group to perform repeated movements with a sub-maximal force for extended periods of times. muscle power. normal range of motion. agility. elbow. Progression. To achieve a training effect. Time.the amount of body fat an athlete has in comparison to his total body mass. One should strive to exercise each of the first four fitness components at least three times a week. eye-hand coordination. Excessive body fat detracts from the other fitness components. The intensity (how hard) and/or duration (how long) of exercise must gradually increase to improve the level of fitness. Muscular endurance .

you must strive to conduct 5 days of physical training per week. goals and motivation. however. These factors are Frequency. FREQUENCY Vigorous physical fitness training should be conducted 3 to 5 times per week. muscle endurance. Time. Variety. To be effective. it does not improve a 2-mile-run time as much as a running program does. and Type. time. a program should include activities that address all the fitness components. and flexibility should be performed each week to improve fitness levels. at least three exercise sessions for cardio fitness. to obtain maximum gains in muscular strength. . A hard day of training for a given component of fitness should be followed by an easier training day or rest day for that component and/or muscle group(s) to help permit recovery. Ideally.Balance. with only one session each of cardiorespiratory. and flexibility training will not improve any of these three components. Personally I have a cardio workout at the warmup stage. The work load of each exercise session must exceed the normal demands placed on the body in order to bring about a training effect. For example. for example. Overload. muscle strength. athletes should have at least three strength-training sessions per week. Specificity. For optimal results. especially when training for strength and/or muscle endurance. athlets become better runners if their training emphasizes running. Three physical activity periods a week. Another way to allow recovery is to alternate the muscle groups exercised every other day. The acronym FITT makes it easier to remember them. Recovery. Although swimming is great exercise. You will find that you can experiment and find the optimal routine for your metabolism. Training must be geared toward specific goals. Thus.Intensity. strength. FITT Factors Certain factors must be part of any fitness training program for it to be successful. then I do my weight training and perform stretches between my weight exercises. Providing a variety of activities reduces boredom and increasesmotivation and progress.since overemphasizing any one of them may hurt the others.

all components of fitness can be developed using a three-day-per-week schedule. Significant changes in cr fitness are brought about by sustaining training heart rates in the range of 60 to 90 percent of the heart rate reserve (HRR). However. Wednesday. when coupled with good nutrition. the greater the intensity of the exercise. Depending on the time available for each session and the way training sessions are conducted. and Friday. Stretching exercises are done in every training session to enhance flexibility. During the second week. will help keep you super fit. and cardio fitness is trained on Tuesday and Thursday. Numerous other approaches can be taken when tailoring a fitness program to meet an individuals goals as long as the principles of exercise are not violated. a five-day-per-week program is much better than three per week. INTENSITY Intensity is related to how hard one exercises. if you have a hard run on Monday. it is the factor many units ignore. For example. equal emphasis can be given to developing muscular endurance and strength and to cardio fitness while training five days per week.With some planning. and Tuesday and Thursday are devoted to muscle endurance and strength. Such programs. In the first week. the @@image@@ CH1 1-5 Training days are flip-flopped: muscle endurance and strength are trained on Monday. Wednesday. on Tuesday and Thursday the intensity and/or distance/time should be reduced to allow recovery. The more energy expended per unit of time. and those that exceed 90 percent HRR can be dangerous. The following training program serves as an example. you may also choose to run on Tuesday and Thursday. Monday. By training continuously in this manner.and Friday are devoted to cardio fitness. Intensities of less than 60 percent HRR are generally inadequate to produce a training effect. a training program for the average athlete can be developed which provides fairly equal emphasis on all the components of physical fitness. Wednesday. and Friday. Changes in cr fitness are directly related to how hard an aerobic exercise is performed. . Some muscular and some cardio training can be done during each daily training session as long as a "hard day/recovery day" approach is used. However. It represents the degree of effort with which one trains and is probably the single most important factor for improving performance. Unfortunately.

If a athlete knows his general level of cardio vascular fitness. a person who is in poor shape should exercise at 70 percent of his MHR. a 20. and. For example. . the THR is figured using the estimated maximal heart rate. Using the THR method lets them find and prescribe the correct level of intensity during cr exercise. one can be sure that the intensity is enough to improve his cardio fitness level. graphic$$$$$$ Percent MHR Method With this method. With this information. if he is in excellent shape.year-old would have an estimated maximum heart rate (MHR) of 200 beats per minute (220 -20 = 200). The range from 60 to 90 percent HRR is the THR range in which people should exercise to improve their cr fitness levels. As a result. Keeping track of the heart rate lets one gauge the intensity of the cr exercise being done. he can determine which percentage of HRR is a good starting point for him. if he is in poor shape. at 70 percent HRR. Thus. if he is in excellent physical condition. at 90 percent MHR. For example. at 80 percent MHR. Percent HRR Method A more accurate way to calculate THR is the percent HRR method. A athlete determines his estimated maximum heart rate by subtracting his age from 220. if he is in reasonably good shape. some athletes in a group may be training at 50 percent HRR and others at 95 percent HRR. (Note: Solo running is better than group running because group running does not accommodate the individual athlete's THR. and.) The heart rate during work or exercise is an excellent indicator of how much effort a person is exerting. the group run will be too intense for some and not intense enough for others. an appropriate THR or intensity can be prescribed.Athletes should gauge the intensity of their workouts for cr fitness by determining and exercising at their training heart rate (THR). By determining one's maximum heart rate. graphic$$$$$$ When using the MHR method. One's ability to monitor the heart rate is the key to success in cr training. he could start at 85 percent of his HRR. resting heart rate. and relative conditioning level. if he is in relatively good shape. To compensate for this. one must compensate for its built-in weakness. at 60 percent HRR. A person using this method may exercise at an intensity which is not high enough to cause a training effect.

. Thus. the value is rounded off to the nearest whole number. In this case. as in the example.70 and 131 is 91.) Another convenient spot from which to monitor the pulse is on the radial artery on the wrist just above the base of the thumb.7 is added to the RHR of 69.7 BPM is rounded off to give a THR of 161 BPM. an adequate level of fitness. At this time. a THR of 160. athletes who have reached a high level of fitness may derive more benefit from working at a higher percentage of HRR.second period. muscles. he should know his THR (the heart rate at which he needs to exercise to get a training effect).) Yet another way is to place the hand over the heart and count the number ofheart beats. (See Figure 2-lB. a reasonably fit 20-year-old athlete with a resting heart rate of 69 BPM has a training heart rate goal of 161 BPM. The result is then added to the resting heart rate (RHR) to get the THR. This will let him determine if his training intensity is high enough to improve his cr fitness level. 160. the product obtained by multiplying 0. or to see if one is within the THR during and right after exercise. Exercising at any lower percentage of HRR does not give the heart. (See Figure 2-1A. then multiply this by six to get his heart rate for one minute. If his pulse rate is below the THR. use the THR of 161 BPM figured above. the body will usually have reached a "Steady State" after five minutes of exercise. he must exercise harder to increase his pulse to the THR. When 91. and the heart rate will have leveled off. the percentage (70 percent in this example) is converted to the decimal form (0. and lungs an adequate training stimulus. In summary. To determine the RHR. the athlete should get a count of 27 beats (161/6= 26.Most cardio workouts should be conducted with the heart rate between 70 to 75 percent HRR to attain. or maintain. For example.7.) During aerobic exercise. As shown. (See Figure 2-1 C. place the tip of the third finger lightly over one of the carotid arteries in the neck. During the 10. particularly if they cannot find more than 20 minutes for cr exercise. the athlete should monitor his heart rate.7 results. These arteries are located to the left and right of the Adam's apple.70) before it is multiplied by the HRR. He should count his pulse for 10 seconds. and immediately after exercising.83 or 27) if he is exercising at the right intensity. Before anyone begins aerobic training. When the calculations produce a fraction of a heart beat.

Those with a high level of fitness may benefit most by training at 80 to 90 percent HRR. In this type of training. Another way to gauge exercise intensity is "perceived exertion. For example. the athlete must train for at least 20 to 30 minutes at his THR. If not. To find out if you have any limitations.If his pulse is abovethe THR. Here are some tips for you to get in aerobic training. Figure 2-2 is a chart that makes it easy to determine what an athlete's THR should be during a 10-second count. A athlete who maintains his THR throughout a 20. TIME Time. It is inversely related to intensity. If he takes only one pulse check. the shorter the time needed to produce or maintain a training effect. a 40-year-old athlete with a low fitness level should. Using this figure. The more intense the activity.to 30-minute exercise period is doing well and can expect improvement in his cr fitness level. he should normally exercise at a lower intensity to reduce the pulse rate to the prescribed THR. your body will work to improve its function by improving how much work your heart can do. the less intense the activity. He should check his exercise and post exercise pulse rate at least once each workout. during aerobic 70 percent HRR. he should do it five minutes into the workout. . To improve cr fitness." This method relies on how difficult the exercise seems to be. gives an error of six BPM. since one missed beat during the 10-second count. refers to how long one exercises. the longer the required duration. TYPE First we will discuss aerobic training. multiplied by six. then start with a basic program. or duration. Aerobic training helps to increase your heart's ability to pump and therefore to get oxygen throughout your body faster. talk to your doctor. an athlete can easily find his own THR just by knowing his age and general fitness level. • Start with basic aerobics and work up as your tolerance increases. Walking is a great place to start. He should count as accurately as possible.

. .Walking (vigorous). -Basketball (full court). Examples of primary and secondary exercises for improving cardio fitness are as follows: PRIMARY . SECONDARY (Done with partners or opponents of equal or greater ability. . Swimming. . as soon as your body allows for it. Your goal is to start with 10 minutes of continuous aerobics three times a week. running. You should try to increase this to 30 minutes three times per week. -Tennis (singles).Road marching.Rope skipping. . .Jogging. .Swimming.• Increase your resistance by taking trails that offer hills or speeding up your walk as you improve.Bicycling (road/street).Bicycling (stationary). .Rowing.Skiing (cross-country).Stair climbing. The guidelines of your doctor are a must to follow! Only aerobic exercises that require breathing in large volumes of air improve cardio fitness. and other physical activities are perfect for aerobics. playing your favorite sport. bike riding.Running. -Handball (singles). though. .Exercising to music.) -Racquetball (singles). Worthwhile aerobic activities must involve the use of large muscle groups and must be rhythmic. . . elliptical machines. They must also be of sufficient duration and intensity (60 to 90 percent HRR). . • Move on to more aerobic style exercises.

If you have access to a treadmill this can be implemented as a warmup prior to your weight routine. The faster the run. INTERVAL TRAINING Interval training also works the cardiorespiratory system. and legs. The secondary activities may briefly elevate the heart rate but may not keep it elevated to the THR throughout the entire workout. A well-conditioned athlete can run five to six times a week. I prefer the rowing machine as It can avoid injuries associated with running. It is an advanced form of exercise training which helps a person significantly improve his fitness level in a .) The toes point straight ahead. (cross-body arm movements waste energy. athletes need information on ways to prevent running injuries. The arms swing naturally from front to rear in straight lines. he should do two things: 1) gradually buildup to running that frequently. to do this safely. but can also be a major cause of injuries. Every activity has its drawbacks and you must weigh the advantages and disadvantages. ankles. Some athletes may need instruction to improve their running ability. Running Running enables the body to improve the transport of blood and oxygen to the working muscles and brings about positive changes in the muscles' ability to produce energy. knees. Failure to allow recovery between hard bouts of running cannot only lead to overtraining. The most common injuries result from running and occur to the feet. and the feet strike on the heel and push off at the big toe.The primary exercises are more effective than the secondary exercises in producing positive changes in cardio fitness. help prevent injuries. and. the faster the arm action. 2) vary the intensity and/or duration of the running sessions to allow recovery between them. Running fits well into any physical training program because a training effect can be attained with only three 20-minute workouts per week. However. Besides learning running techniques. The following style of running is desired… The head is erect with the body in a straight line or slightly bent forward at the waist. The elbows are bent so the forearms are relaxed and held loosely at waist level. Proper warm-up and cool-down. along with stretching exercises and wearing appropriate clothing and well fitting running shoes.

the pace for an interval training workout is calculated as follows: Step 1. 52 seconds long (1:56 + 1:56 = 3:52). each 440-yard lap should be run in 1 munute. 59 seconds during interval training based on the athlete's 16:00.mile run time. This type of intermittent training can also be used with activities such as cycling. the athlete can run six to eight repetitions of 440 yards at a pace of 1 minute. These recovery periods. 56 seconds to 1 minute. In this way. Subtract one to four seconds from the 440-yard time in Step 2 to find the time each 440-yard lap should be run during an interval training session. the energy systems used are allowed to recover. . will be 3 minutes. Step 2. The work-interval time (the speed at which a athlete should run each 440-yard lap) depends on his actual race pace for one mile. hiking. 2. Using a 2-mile-run time of 1600 minutes as an example. and the exerciser can do more fast paced running in a given workout than if he ran continuously without resting.) Thus.1 to 4 seconds = 1:59 to 1:56. Determine (or estimate) the actual 1-mile-race pace. (2:00 minutes .relatively short time and increase his running speed. In interval training. If a athlete's actual 1-mile-race time is not known. Using the time from Step 1. rowing. Using the work-interval time for each 440-yard lap from Step 3. swimming. 56 seconds (1:56) for each 440-yard run. bicycling. He does this repeatedly with periods of recovery placed between periods of fast running. The athlete's 2-mile-run time is 16:00 minutes. it can be estimated from his last APFT by taking one half of his 2-milerun time. Recovery periods. twice the length of the work-interval periods. (8:00 minutes/4 = 2:00 minutes per 440 yards. therefore.) Step 3. and his estimated pace for 1 mile is one half of this or 8:00 minutes. The following example illustrates how the proper work-interval times and recovery times can be calculated for interval training so that it can be used to improve an athlete's 2-mile-run performance. determine the time it took to run 440 yards by dividing the 1-mile-race pace by four. a athlete exercises by running at a pace that is slightly faster than his race pace for short periods of time.

rest ratio is 1:2. the athlete varies the intensity (speed) of the running during the . Run six to eight 440-yard repetitions with each interval run at a 1:56pace. he should be ready for interval training. his recovery is quicker. As with any workout.This can be done on a 440-yard track(about 400 meters) as follows: 1. During the recovery interval. FARTLEK TRAINING In Fartlek training. For each second of work. athletes should start intervaI workouts with a warmup and end them with a cool-down. Because of the intense nature of interval training. At first. 3:52). 2. Each 440-yard jog should take twice as much time as the work interval (that is. As a result. refer to Table 2-1. Monitoring the heart-rate response during interval training is not as important as making sure that the work intervals are run at the proper speed. another type of cardio vascular training sometimes called speed play. interval training should be introduced into his training program gradually and progressively. As with any other new training method. with at least one recovery day in between. he should do it once a week. 56 secons by an easy jog of 440 yards for recovery. As the athlete becomes more conditioned. during the work interval the heart rate will generally climb to 85 or 90 percent of HRR. monitoring THR and using it as a training guide is not necessary. Thus. After a athlete has reached a good cardio vascular fitness level using the THR method. Because the heart rate is not the major concern during interval training. Follow each 440-yard run done in 1 minute. He may also do recovery workouts of easy jogging on off days. It shows common 1 -mile times and the corresponding 440-yard times. the workto. he may do it twice a week at the most. Table 2-1 To help determine the correct time intervals for a wide range of fitness levels. If he responds well. he should either shorten the recovery interval (jogging time) or run the work interval a few seconds faster. the heart rate usually falls to around 120 to 140 beats per minute. there are two seconds of recovery.

This process of alternating fast and recovery running (both of varying distances) gives the same results as interval training. through woods. For these reasons. . The speed and distance can be increased gradually as the athletes' conditioning improves. Alternate Forms of Aerobic Exercise Some athletes cannot run. or on any other irregular terrain. It consists of running a certain distance on a course laid out across fields. Instead of running at a constant speed. neither the running nor recovery interval is timed. The object is to cover the distance in the shortest time. he starts with very slow jogging. When ready. Their drawback is that they require special equipment and facilities that are not always available. It should then be gradually increased to four miles. Swimming. Cross-country runs have several advantages: they provide variety in physical fitness training. the distance should be one mile or less. COUNTRY RUNNING cross-country running conditions the leg muscles and develops cardio vascular endurance. the athlete varies the intensity (speed) of the running throughout the workout. In Fartlek training. they may use other activities as supplements or alternatives. In such cases.workout. This lets the better-conditioned groups run farther and helps ensure that they receive an adequate training stimulus. These runs may also be combined with other activities such as compass work (orienteering) for fun and variety. athletes should start slowly and progress gradually. At first. and the running is not done on a track. depending on the terrain and fitness level. many runners prefer Fartlek training to interval training. Those who add non-running activities to their training may not improve running ability as a consequence. bicycling. At this time he recovers by jogging at an easy pace. he runs hard for a few minutes until he feels the need to slow down. Each group starts its run at the same time. over hills. The unit is divided into ability groups using 2-mile-run times. However. and they can accommodate large numbers of athletes. It can be used as both a physical conditioning activity and a competitive event. and cross-country skiing are all excellent endurance exercises and are good substitutes for running. As with all exercise. Interest can be stimulated by competitive runs after athletes attain a reasonable level of fitness.

SWIMMING Swimming is a good alternative to running. athletes will help to ensure that they are working at the proper intensity. he should stop to check his pulse. Compared with all the other modes of aerobic exercise presented in this manual (e. Some advantages of swimming include the following: Involvement of all the major musclegroups. rope jumping. Partial support of body weight by the water. cross-country skiing. a athlete whose THR while running is 150 bpm should have a THR of about 140 bpm while swimming. Body position that enhances the blood's return to the heart. and do pool-side kicking for an excellent aerobic workout. in swimming. in order to effectively train the cardio vascular system during swimming. After five minutes. walking. For injured athletes. Swimming may be used to improve one's cr fitness level and to maintain and improve cr fitness during recovery from an injury. running. It is used to supplement running and develop upper body endurance and limited strength. CYCLING . Thus. swimming and aerobic water-training are excellent for improving cr fitness without placing undue stress on injured weightbearing parts of the body. etc.g. tread water. adjust the intensity. Non-swimmers can run in waist-to chest-deep water. Together these activities combine walking and running with moderate resistance work for the upper body. which minimizes lower body stress in overweight athletes. cycling. one's THR should be lower than while doing the other forms of aerobic exercise. They can also do calisthenics in the water. the heart does not beat as fast as when doing the other types of exercise at the same work rate. The swimmer should start slowly with a restful stroke. compare it with his THR and.) in swimming alone. This is because. For example.. a athlete should set his THR about 10 bpm lower than while running. if needed. By modifying their THRs in this manner while swimming.

WALKING Walking is another way to develop cardiorespiratory fitness. requires no equipment. A simple way to increase walking speed is to carry the arms the same way as in running. it will not produce any significant cardio vascular conditioning. He can increase the intensity by adding hills or stairs. It is enjoyable. Swinging the arms faster to increase the pace is a modified form of race walking (power walking) which allows for more upperbody work. However. Athletes can alter the cycling intensity by changing gears.intense enough to let the tance can also be increased to enhance athlete reach and cr fitness. but the distance covered is maintain THR at least not as important as the amount of time 30 minutes spent training at THR. and causes few injuries. For interval training. With this technique the athlete has a shorter arm swing and takes steps at a faster rate. Dis. even the most unfit athletes should reach a level of conditioning that lets them move into a running program. athletes can bicycle outdoors or on a stationary cycling machine indoors. . Sedentary athletes with a low degree of fitness should begin slowly with 12 minutes of walking at a comfortable pace. the athlete can vary the speed and resistance and use periods of active For swimming. As the walker's fitness increases. unless walking is done for a long time at the correct intensity. The intensity of a workout can be increased by increasing the resistance against the wheel or increasing the pedaling cadence (number of RPM). Road cycling should be intense enough to allow the athlete to reach and maintain THR at least 30 minutes. After about three months. The heart rate should be monitored to determine the intensity. he should walk 45 to 60 minutes at a faster pace. and increasing velocity. adding hill Cycling should be work.Cycling is an excellent exercise for developing cardio fitness. a athlete recovery at low speed and/or low should set his THR at resistance. The athlete should walk at least four times a week and add two minutes each week to every workout until the duration reaches 45 to 60 minutes per workout.

Weighted handles or ropes may be used by better-conditioned athletes to improve upper body strength. may be stressful to the lower extremities and therefore should be limited to no more than three times a week. with skis. Athletes should skip rope on a cushioned surface such as a mat or carpet and should wear cushioned shoes. HANDBALL AND RACQUET SPORTS Handball and the racquet sports (tennis. and racquetball) involve bursts of intense activity for short periods. and poles often obtainable from the outdoor recreation services. They do not provide the same degree of aerobic training as exercises of longer duration done at lower intensities. It requires little equipment. Rope skippers should begin with five minutes of jumping rope and then monitor their heart rate. when doubled and stood on. They should attain and maintain their THR to ensure a training effect. one form or another of crosscountry skiing can be done almost anywhere .on country roads. squash. and the time spent jumping should be increased as the fitness level improves. boots. Some runners use it as a substitute for running during bad weather. Equipment is reasonably priced. A beginner should select a jump rope that. Although some regions lack snow. the pace. Cross-country skiing is easy to learn. and the frequency and duration of rest periods. ROPE SKIPPING Rope skipping is also a good exercise for developing cr fitness. may be done almost anywhere. and is not affected by weather.CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING cross-country or Nordic skiing is another excellent alternative to the usual cr activities. golf courses. and the intensity may be varied as in running. these . The work load is determined by the difficulty of terrain. Some of movement of the arms the highest levels of aerobic fitness and legs. However. and in parks and forests. endurance. It requires vigorous movement of the arms and legs cross-country skiing which develops muscular and cr requires vigorous endurance and coordination. is easily learned. reaches to the armpits. Rope jumping. however. open fields. developing ever measured have been found in muscular and cr cross-country skiers. The action is similar to that used in brisk walking.

Warm-up and cooldown stretches should be included in the aerobic workout. Progressively working against resistance will produce gains in both of these components. the workout addresses every component of fitness. it helps improve performance in racket sports. challenging activity that combines exercise and rhythmic movements. There is no prerequisite skill. intensity. they are closely related. In addition to cardiorespiratory fitness. If strengthening exercises are included. but the reverse is not necessarily true. and duration. It is a motivating. If played vigorously each day. . Although muscular endurance and strength are separate fitness components. One can move to various tempos while jogging or doing jumping jacks.sports are good supplements and can provide excellent aerobic benefits depending on the skill of the players. Workouts can be done in a small space by diverse groups of varying fitness levels. and it can be totally individualized to every fitness level by varying the frequency. they may be an adequate substitute for lowlevel aerobic training. Holding relatively light dumbbells during the workout is one way to increase the intensity for the upper body and improve muscular endurance. hops. bodybuilding athletes need a high level of muscular endurance and strength. or many other calisthenics. jumps. Muscular strength is the greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort. MUSCULAR FITNESS Muscular fitness has two components: muscular strength and muscular endurance. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to do repeated contractions against a less-than maximum resistance for a given time. Heart rates should be taken during the conditioning phase to be sure the workout is sufficiently intense. EXERCISE TO MUSIC Aerobic exercise done to music is another excellent alternative to running. Because running increases endurance.

isotonic. But. and isokinetic muscular endurance and strength are best produced by regularly doing each specific kind of contraction. .Strength Training Along with aerobic training. You don't have to have bulging muscles. Strength training is essential because it allows you to improve the way that your body works. while not precisely controlling the speed of movement. Muscles that are strong are less likely to become injured. you don't have to be a body builder here. There are other resistance-training machines which. Muscle burns through fat faster. you will be able to move flabby muscles and fat into lean muscles. To achieve a constant speed of movement. They are described here. strength training is a very essential aspect of making sure that happens. sit-ups. Common examples are push-ups. at 180 degrees per second. as when pushing against a wall. Muscular Contractions Isometric. Isotonic contraction causes a joint to move through a range of motion against a constant resistance. movements or even in accidents. for example. Now. They are able to be used easier. too. This requires the use of isokinetic machines.If you need to lose some weight. the load or resistance must change at different joint angles to counter the varying forces produced by the muscle(s) at different angles. and the lifting of weights. Isokinetic contraction causes the angle at the joint to change at a constant rate. Force is produced with no change in the angle of the joint. with less likelihood of being strained or hurt through your daily exercises. affect it by varying the resistance throughout the range of motion. Isometric contraction produces contraction but no movement. you also need to consider adding strength training to your workout. you do want to develop lean muscles that are strong and therefore healthy. With strength training. allowing you to lose weight faster.

and each will result in strength gains if done properly. For example. isotonic. During the lowering phase of the curl the biceps are lengthening. This greater overload. may produce greater strength gains.the concentric or "positive" phase and the eccentric or "negative" phase. The above descriptions are more important to those who assess strength than to average people trying to develop strength and endurance. In the concentric phase (shortening) the muscle contracts. When a muscle is overloaded. or isokinetic contractions. The nature of the eccentric contraction. so there is more muscle soreness following eccentric work. a properly designed weight training program with free weights or resistance machines will result in improvements in all three of these categories.Some of these devices are classified as pseudo-isokinetic and some as variableresistance machines. it adapts by becoming stronger. in return. while in the eccentric phase (elongation) the muscle returns to its normal length. however. Each type of contraction has advantages and disadvantages. the biceps are shortening. Isotonic and isokinetic contractions have two specific phases . the overload must be applied thoughout the full range of motion. whether by isometric. makes the muscle and connective tissue more susceptible to damage. Actually. A muscle can control more weight in the eccentric phase of contraction than it can lift concentrically. As a result. This is an eccentric (negative) contraction. the muscle may be able to handle more of an overload eccentrically. To obtain optimal gains. This is a concentric (positive) contraction. on the upward phase of the biceps curl. To understand the principle of overload. it is important to know the following strength-training terms: Full range of motion. Exercise a joint and its associated muscles through its complete .

. an 8-12 RM is that weight which allows a person to do from 8 to 12 correct repetitions. Set This is a series of repetitions done without rest. This is crucial to strength development. it adapts by becoming stronger. Repetition When an exercise has progressed through one complete range of motion and back to the beginning. The intensity for muscular endurance and strength training is often expressed as a percentage of the 1-RM. When a muscle is overloaded by isometric. A 10-RM is the maximum weight one can lift correctly 10 times. Muscle Failure This is the inability of a person to do another correct repetition in a set.range starting from the prestretched position (stretched past the relaxed position) and ending in a fully contratcted position. Similarly. isotonic. one repetition has been completed. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) This is a repetition performed against the greatest possible resistance (the maximum weight a person can lift one time). or isokinetic contractions.

to achieve enough overload. The exerciser finds and uses that weight which lets him do the correct number of repetitions. an effective range is a 3-7 RM. specificity.Principles of Muscular Training To have a good exercise program. For example. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE / STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT To develop muscle strength. programs are designed to require sets with 70 to 80 percent of one's 1 -RM. if a athlete's 1 -RM is 200 pounds. to develop both muscle endurance and strength. The weight should also not be too heavy. recovery. progression. (For example. However. the weight selected should be heavier and the RM will also be different. In other words. Muscles adapt to increased workloads by becoming larger and stronger and by developing greater endurance. The weight should be heavy enough so that an eighth repetition would be impossible because of muscle fatigue. balance. after doing from 8 to 12 repetitions.70 = 140 pounds] to get 70 percent of the 1 -RM. the muscle must be overloaded. OVERLOAD The overload principle is the basis for all exercise training programs. the seven principles of exercise must be applied to all muscular endurance and strength training. The minimum resistance needed to obtain strength gains is 50 percent of the 1 -RM. regularity. This weight is the 8-12 RM for that exercise. the athlete should find that weight for each exercise which lets him do 3 to 7 repetitions correctly. If one cannot do at least three repetitions of an exercise. he momentarily cannot correctly do another repetition. the workload to which it is subjected during exercise must be increased beyond what it normally experiences. . Although the greatest improvements seem to come from resistances of about 6-RM.) A better and easier method is the repetition maximum (RM) method. For a muscle to increase in strength. and variety. multiply 200 pounds by 70 percent [200 X 0. the resistance is too great and should be reduced. The weight should be heavy enough so that. These principles are overload. For example. This weight is the 3-7 RM for that exercise. an athlete should choose a weight for each exercise which lets him do 8 to 12 repetitions to muscle failure.

the athlete should choose a resistance that lets him do more than 12 repetitions of a given exercise.Increasing the resistance. . . gains in muscular endurance will be greater than when using a 15-RM weight. An overload may be achieved by any of the following methods: . the athlete must always strive to overload his muscles.Increasing the speed of movement in the concentric phase. When a athlete can correctly do the upper limit of repetitions for . To develop muscular endurance. With continued training.Reducing the rest time between sets. This is his 12+ repetition maximum (12+ RM).Increasing the number of repetitions per set. PROGRESSION When an overload is applied to a muscle. but the gain in strength will not be as great. To optimize a athlete's performance.) . the greater the number of repetitions per set. when an athlete trains with a 25-RM weight. the greater will be the improvement in muscle endurance and the smaller the gains in strength. If the workload is not progressively increased to keep pace with newly won strength. most athletes will benefit most from a resistance training program with an 8-12 RM.Athletes who are just beginning a resistance-training program should not start with heavy weights. Usually significant increases in strength can be made in three to four weeks of proper training depending on the individual.Using any combination of the above.Increasing the number of sets. However. For example. The key to overloading a muscle is to make that muscle exercise harder than it normally does. there will be no further gains. Whichever RM range is selected. They should first build an adequate foundation by training with an 8-12 RM or a 12+ RM. (Good form is more important than the speed of movement. . . his RM should be determined from an analysis of the critical tasks of his sport. it adapts by becoming stronger and/or by improving its endurance.

at the same time. To improve his muscular endurance and strength. In a multi-set routine. RECOVERY . The principle of regularity also applies to the exercises for individual muscle groups. the athlete must do resistance movements that are as similar as possible to those of doing the task. in a given task. A athlete can work out three times a week. the athlete starts with a weight that causes muscle failure at between 8 and 12 repetitions (8. Sporadic exercise may do more harm than good. In this way. For example. but when different muscle groups are exercised at each workout. then increases the resistance by no more than 10 percent. SPECIFICITY A resistance-training program should provide resistance to the specific muscle groups that need to be strengthened. this upper limit should be 12 repetitions. For most athletes. but three workouts per week are best for optimal gains.12 RM). These groups can be identified by doing a simple assessment. If the athlete's performance of a task is not adequate or if he wishes to improve. it is usually time to increase the resistance. he ensures maximum carryover value to his chosen sports. He should continue with that weight until he can do 12 repetitions correctly. he starts with a weight that causes muscle failure before he completes the eighth repetition in one or more of the sets. Those muscles that are contracting or becoming tense during the movement are the muscle groups involved. athletes can maintain a moderate level of strength by doing proper strength workouts only once a week. REGULARITY Exercise must be done regularly to produce a training effect. if his goal is to do three sets of eight repetitions of an exercise. if his plan is to do 12 repetitions in the bench press.the set without reaching muscle failure. He continues to work with that weight until he can complete all eight repetitions in each set. strength training for the identified muscle(s) will be beneficial. Exercise must be done regularly to produce a training effect. the principle of regularity is violated and gains in strength are minimal. The athlete slowly does work-related movements he wants to improve and. he feels the muscles on each side of the joints where motion occurs. He then should increase the weight by about 5 percent but no more than 10 percent.

and it's okay to work out all three muscle groups in each workout. and Saturday. The recovery time between different exercises and sets depends. Normally. For example. It's important to note that when training the primary muscle groups. There are also secondary muscle groups. MUSCLE GROUPS There are three main muscle groups. For beginners. in part. the recovery time between sets should be 30 to 180 seconds. the upper back and the thighs. For example. If you were to train the secondary muscle groups first you would not have enough energy left to fully train the primary muscle groups. you may train your legs. at this level. Thursday. Sample workout routines are provided for someone at this level of training. the legs can be trained with weights on Monday. The chest. you begin training different sections of your body in each workout. but they should allow at least one days recovery and between workout days. When exercising in this fasion. the primary muscle groups should always be trained first in the workout. I recommend that you remain at this level for at least three months. on the intensity of the workout. Consecutive days of hard resistance training for the same muscle group can be detrimental. and Friday and the upper body muscles on Tuesday. Following this you would have a day off. you will be training your shoulders and arms to some extent as well as the chest. and it is possible to have more than one day off or to put the rest days in between which ever days suit. . when doing bench press. Wednesday.There should be at least a 48-hour recovery period between workouts for the same muscle group. then you simply repeat the sequence once again. on one day you may train the upper back and on the next day you may train the chest and arms and on the following day. Beyond this basic level of training. So for example. There should be at least a 48-hour recovery period between workouts for the same muscle groups.the neck and the midsection. Strength training can be done every day only if the exercised muscle groups are rotated. Recovery is also important within a workout. you're also training secondary muscle groups at the same time. Someone at beginners level should work out all three main muscle groups. the arms. This is because when you train the primary muscle groups you also train the secondary ones. The muscles must be allowed sufficient recovery time to adapt. the legs. so that the same muscle or muscle group is not exercised on consecutive days. You can move on to a four day routine.

This technique helps ensure good strength balance between opposing muscle groups which may. It is important to do exercises that work all the major muscle groups in both the upper and lower body. do not hesitate to take a rest and spend some time recuperating. the lat pull-down stresses both the larger latissimus dorsi muscle of the back and the smaller biceps muscles of the arm. follow an overhead press with a lat pull-down exercise. The best sequence to follow for a total-body strength workout is to first exercise the muscles of the hips and legs. When you are ready for a day off. The latissimus dorsi muscles will not be overloaded and. When planning a training session. There's little point in exercising at all if you only intend to do it for three months. movement. For example. they may not benefit very much from the workout. Most muscles are organized into opposing pairs. as a result. Examples of these workouts are given later. For this reason. Personally. it is best to follow a pushing exercise with a pulling exercise which results in movement at the same joint(s). For example. the athlete cannot do as many repetitions with as much weight as he normally could in the lat pulldown. It's always important to judge by the feeling in your muscles and your general energy level. As a result. Activating one muscle results in a pulling motion.Beyond the four-day routine are five and six day routines. BALANCE When developing a strength training program. If curls are done first. followed by the muscles of the upper back and chest. . the smaller muscle group will be exhausted and too weak to handle the resistance needed for the lat pull-down. Sequence the program to exercise the larger muscle groups first. for example then the following day. or pushing. Split routines can also be used to integrate cardio training with weight training. repeatedly and don't take enough rest between workout days you'll burn out quite quickly. All too often I see beginning level weight trainers over train in the first six months and quite often even in the first one or two months. you can train your upper body. I have seen this happen many many time's. If you do use too much weight. When training like this you can train each primary muscle group and the secondary muscle groups specializing in each workout. reduce the risk of injury. If you go for a run on one day. then the smaller muscIes. it's very important to take it easy in the beginning and concentrate just as much on diet and recuperation as it is on doing the actual exercises. in turn. while activating the opposing muscle results in the opposite. But training at this level is not recommended for basic or intermediate level athletes.

Workout Techniques Workouts for improving muscular endurance or strength must follow the principles just described. who can observe his performance as he exercises. and they may also produce better results. There are also other factors to consider. SAFETY FACTORS Major causes of injury when strength training are improper lifting techniques combined with lifting weights that are too heavy. and neck. or spotter. low back. Also. A poorly designed strength. and phases of conditioning. he can switch to partner-resisted exercises or another form of resistance training. The weight lifter should always do weight training with a partner. Correct breathing is another safety factor in strength training. both should know how to use the equipment and the proper spotting technique for each exercise. As a general rule. For example. The athlete should periodically substitute different exercises for a given muscle group(s). exercise selection. when in the field). and altering the volume and intensity are good ways to add variety. The athlete should never hold his breath. A natural tendency in strength training is to see how much weight one can lift. As long as all muscle groups are exercised at the proper intensity. To ensure safety and the best results. Lifting too much weight forces a compromise in form and may lead to injury. he can do squats with a barbell instead of leg presses on a weight machine. for variety or due to necessity (for example. one should exhale during the positive (concentric) phase of contraction as the weight or weight stack moves away from . changing the exercises. However. namely. improvement will occur. Each athlete must understand how to do each lift correctly before he starts his strength training program. All weights should be selected so that proper form can be maintained for the appropriate number of repetitions. abdominal. Using different equipment.training program can be very boring. safety. Breathing should be constant during exercise. as this can cause dizziness and even loss of consciousness. VARIETY A major challenge for all fitness training programs is maintaining enthusiasm and interest.then the arms. frequent wholesale changes should be avoided as people may become frustrated if they do not have enough time to adapt or to see improvements in strength.

however.the floor. the pull-down exercise produces motion at both the shoulder and elbow joints. most of the exercises in the program should be "multi-joint" exercises. These exercises will be detailed in a following section. Perhaps a simpler way to select an exercise is to determine the number of joints in the body where movement occurs during a repetition. EXERCISE SELECTION When beginning a resistance-training program. doing lat pulldowns on the "lat machine" works the latissimus dorsi of the back and the biceps muscles of the upper arm. increasing strength is only secondary to someone that is serious about body building. and not for . TYPES OF WEIGHT TRAINING Bodybuilding training is a particular specialized form of weight training that has the goal of increasing muscle size and muscle mass. This is because the exercises have been selected purely for for their strength properties. only involves the elbow joint. the athlete should choose about 8 to 16 exercises that work all of the body's major muscle groups. For example. Also. This will help him train a greater number of muscles in a given time. For most people. and so forth. Bodybuilders normally use eight to 12 reps per set with a maximum of six sets to a body part. The athlete should choose exercises that work several muscle groups and try to avoid those that isolate single muscle groups. Power lifting is probably safer than an Olympic lifting. but are good for developing strength. although an effective exercise. Usually eight wellchosen exercises will serve as a good starting point. shoulders. only works the arm flexor muscles. They should include those for the muscles of the leg. The exercise should provide movement at more than one joint. For example. The concentration curl. Olympic lifting uses a set of exercises that perhaps are not the best for your joints. especially beginners. low back. an exercise like concentration curls for the biceps muscles of the upper arm. and inhale during the negative (eccentric) phase as the weight returns toward the floor. the concentration curl requires twice as much time as lat pulldowns because only one arm is worked at a time. On the other hand.

He should do one set of 8 to 12 repetitions for each of the heavy resistance exercises. the weight should be increased. Also less rest is taken between sets during the workout. joints. During this phase. if he can do more than 12. P. A training is one particular form of circuit training. he should use progressively heavier weights. H. During the second week. PHASES OF CONDITIONING There are three phases of conditioning: preparatory. This is very important. Several different circuit training routines will be given in this book. conditioning. By the end of the second week (4 to 6 workouts). Power lifting exercises will also be explained in detail in their own section. If he can do only seven repetitions of an exercise. because the beginner must concentrate at first on learning the proper form for each exercise. the weight must be reduced. When he can do more than 12 repetitions of any exercise. Using light weights also helps minimize muscle soreness and decreases the likelihood of injury to the muscles. he should increase the weight until he can again do only 8 to 12 repetitions. Conditioning Phase The third week is normally the start of the conditioning phase for the beginning weight trainer. and ligaments. Preparatory Phase The athlete should use very light weights during the first week (the preparatory phase) which includes the first two to three workouts. Circuit training is another form of weight training that can be good for the cardiovascular system and muscular endurance.any traditional reason. and maintenance. and with higher repetitions usually between 12 and 20 reps. he should know how much weight on each exercise will allow him to do 8 to 12 repetitions to muscle failure. . Circuit training is done with lighter weights. the athlete should increase the amount of weight used and/or the intensity of the workout as his muscular strength and/or endurance increases.

The use of timed sets. Instead. he may increase the number to three sets of an exercise to get even further gains in strength and/ or muscle mass. third. helps to ensure that each athlete does as many repetitions of an exercise as possible within a period of time. is required to reach and maintain peak fitness levels. Maintenance Phase Once the athlete reaches a high level of fitness.This usually involves an increase in weight of about five percent. If he stops making progress with one set of 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise. however. unlike exercises performed in cadence or for a specific number of repetitions. and the number of sets done should be selected to make sure that an overload of the involved muscle groups occurs. and so on. athletes at all levels of fitness can individually do the number of repetitions they are capable of and thereby be sure they obtain an adequate training stimulus. It does not hold back the more capable performer by restricting the number of repetitions he may do. After an appropriate period of rest. recovery period. he may benefit from adding another set of 8 to 12 repetitions on those exercises in which progress has slowed. The maintenance phase should be continued throughout his career and. . a second. the athlete should do strength training three times a week and should allow at least 48 hours of rest from resistance training between workouts for any given muscle group. Three sets per exercise is the maximum most athletes will ever need to do. Maintaining the optimal level of fitness should become part of each athlete's life-style and training routine. More frequent training. Although training three times a week for muscle endurance and strength gives the best results. one can maintain them by training the major muscle groups properly one or two times a week. he does not need to do more than one set per exercise. The emphasis in this phase is no longer on progression but on retention. set of that exercise is done in an equal or lesser time period. ideally. This process continues indefinitely. throughout his life. As long as he continues to progress and get stronger. The exercise period. As with aerobic training. As time goes on and he progresses. TIMED SETS Timed sets refers to a method of physical training in which as many repetitions as possible of a given exercise are performed in a specified period of time. the maintenance phase is used to maintain that level.

To add variety and increase the overall effectiveness of the activity. as a general rule. This ensures continued gains and minimizes boredom. Below.Timed sets can be applied to improving athlete's sit-up and push-up performance. feet-elevated.5 minutes. or give priority to. As the athletes' levels of fitness improve. The manner in which timed sets for push-ups and sit-ups are conducted should occasionally be varied. Thus. In this way. abdominal twists. When . by increasing the number of timed sets performed. and so forth) and sit-ups (regular. several of these will be given. Thus. a muscle endurance or strength training workout should not be designed to work exclusively. the goal should be to develop sufficient strength and/or muscle endurance in all the muscle groups he will be called upon to use as he performs his sport. those muscle groups worked by the sit-up or pushup event. To meet this goal. First. This is because the muscles worked by those two exercises will already be pre-exhausted. the best procedure to follow when doing a resistance exercise is as follows. it reduces the amount of time and work that must be devoted to push-ups and sit-ups. the difficulty of the activity can be increased. Then. a training regimen which exercises all be developed and followed. and vice versa. abdominal curls. when a athlete performs a workout geared to develop muscle endurance and strength. For this reason. Following this sequence ensures that all major muscles are worked. here is a very time-efficient way of conducting push-up/sit-up improvement. close-hand. Alternate timed sets of push-ups and timed sets of sit-ups with little or no time between sets allowed for recovery. the muscle groups used by the push-up can recover while the muscles used in the sit-up are exercised. and so forth) can be done. do timed sets to improve push-up and sit-up performance. perform a workout to strengthen all of the body's major muscles. different types of push-ups (regular. by decreasing any rest period between timed sets. At the same time. wide-hand. The following is an example of this type of the body's major muscle groups must approach: Figure 3-2 The above activity can be finished in about 3. and to be assured that all emergencies can be met. Many different but equally valid approaches can be taken when using timed sets to improve push-up and sit-up performance. This having been said. or by any combination of these. This is done by lengthening the time period of any or all timed sets.

or vice versa. However. During a timed set of push-ups. The beginning weight-training program will work most of the important. for the beginner. it may become apparent that some athletes can benefit by taking slightly more time for timed sets of sit-ups than for push-ups. With this approach. The mid-level weighttraining program is a more comprehensive program that works the major muscle groups even more thoroughly. balanced workout. because of the nature of the situp. The following example can be done after the regular strength workout and is a reasonable starting routine for most athletes. this program may overwork some muscle groups. Thus. graphic 3-6@@@@@@ . pay attention to how the athletes are responding. and their primary action. To ensure a good. For example. several timed sets of push-ups can be done followed by several sets of situps. If this happens. he should immediately drop to his knees and continue doing modified push-ups on his knees.one must do at least one set of exercises for each of the major muscle also perform all sets of one exercise groups. The exercises should be done in the order presented. In the same way. For example. rest intervals must be placed between timed sets. This applies when doing each timed set. the times listed in the chart above may prove to be too long or too short for some athletes. This program also includes exercises to strengthen the neck muscles. and biceps curl. an athlete may reach temporary muscle failure at any time before the set is over. as in any endeavor. It is a good program for beginners and for those whose time is limited. Finally. where they are located. for the more advanced lifter. major muscle groups. When using timed sets for push-up and sit-up improvement. and make adjustments accordingly. Major Muscle Groups In designing a workout it is important to know the major muscle groups. It has some duplication with respect to the lat pulldown. it will make the muscles work in different ways and from different angles thereby providing a better over-all development of muscle strength.performing this type of workout. athletes must set goals for themselves. athletes can before doing the other.

or arch the body. Exhale during the concentric (positive] phase of contraction. then the smaller ones. • Work with a low amount of weight first. Remember to include ten minutes before and after your workouts for warm up and cool downs! Key Points to Emphasize: Train with a partner if possible. lurch. These motions also detract from the effectiveness of the exercise because they take much of the stress off the targeted muscle groups and place it on other muscles. Exercise the large muscle groups first. Rest from 30 to 180 seconds between different exercises and sets of a given exercise. This can cause serious injury. Do not twist. Always use strict form. or with the correct equipment training alone is OK too. You'll enjoy it and you'll see improvement in the tone of your body quickly. you'll want to increase this number over time to at least 30 minutes per day three times per week. Always breathe when lifting. • Consider working with a physical trainer. This helps to increase motivation. Perform all exercises through their full range of motion. • Change up the exercises that you do so that the process is easy and fun. Begin from a fully extended. and more effectively. and inhale during the eccentric (negative) phase. and safety. relaxed position (prestretched). .Here are some tips for exercising through strength training. Again. the intensity of the workout. Accelerate the weight through the concentric phase of contraction. you should add in ten minutes per day three times per week at least. and return the weight to the starting position in a controlled manner during the eccentric phase. lunge. With strength training. Otherwise you can have a training partner to help with spotting. This small investment of time and money will allow you to improve your overall muscle mass faster. and end the concentric phase in a fully contracted position.

. Exercise Programs When developing strength programs for people. safety is a critical factor. Whether the training uses expensive machines. Any regular resistance exercise that makes the muscle work harder than it is used to causes it to adapt and become stronger. but the rest of the body must also be trained. dips. the development of strength does not require expensive equipment. The weight of the bags can be varied depending on the amount of fill. athletes should warm up. Although many towns have excellent strength-training facilities. Progress slowly. pushups. Partner-resisted exercises (PREs) are another good way to develop muscular strength without equipment. cool down. Sandbag exercises are very effective in strength-training circuits. For example. or partners. Concentrating on weak areas is all right. to let the body recover and help prevent over training and injury. The availability of facilities may vary.Allow at least 48 hours of recovery between workouts. Ensure that every training program is balanced. Using a athlete's own body weight as the resistive force is another excellent alternative method of strength training. to progressively overload his muscles. TRAINING WITHOUT SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Muscles do not care what is supplying the resistance. Pull-ups. follow triceps extensions with biceps curls. As with all training. situps. Sandbags may seem unusual but have some advantages. it is unreasonable to expect that all folks can use them on a regular basis. three times a week. Never increase the resistance used by more than 10 percent at a time. They can improve an untrained athlete's level of strength. However. Alternate pulling and pushing exercises. and follow the principles of exercise previously outlined. and single-leg squats are examples of exercises which use a person's body weight. there are limits to the type of training that can be done. All that is required is for the athlete. not just specific areas. the result is largely the same. sandbags. but not more than 96 hours. Train the whole body.

As a general rule. It is achieved through muscle conditioning. Proper exercise form and regularity in performance are key ingredients when using PREs for improving strength. This gives the resister a better grip and/or leverage and also provides a feel similar to that of free weights and exercise machines. It uses the force of gravity to oppose the force generated by muscles through contraction. Muscle anatomy: @@@@@@@@@@ WEIGHT TRAINING Body building is the process of developing muscle fibers through various techniques. More than one exercise per muscle group may be used. and rest. They should be done in the order given to ensure that the exercising athlete is working his muscle groups from the largest to the smallest. and foods are consumed with the intention to build the body's metabolism and increase mass. Following are descriptions and illustrations of several PREs. the second half of each repetition as the exerciser returns to the starting position). Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment designed to target specific muscle .PARTNER-RESISTED EXERCISE In partner-resisted exercises (PREs) a person exercises against a partner's opposing resistance. This section will focus on weight training for body builders. More resistance usually can and should be applied during the eccentric (negative) phase of contraction (in other words. the more effective they should become in providing the proper resistance for each exercise. They must communicate with each other to ensure that neither too much nor too little resistance is applied. the negative part of each exercise should take at least as long to complete as the positive part. The longer the partners work together. The speed of movement for PREs should always be slowand controlled. Workouts are designed to focus on certain muscle categories. weight training. The resister must apply enough resistance to bring the exerciser to muscle failure in 8 to 12 repetitions. A 36-to 48-inch stick or bar one inch in diameter may be used for some of the exercises. Weight training develops both strength as well as the size of skeletal muscles. increased caloric intake.

If you want to undertake it yourself. and weight moved to cause desired increases in strength. exercise types. The specific combination of reps. First. Different weights will give different types of resistance. If you are a beginner at weight training. endurance. dumbbells. Sets with fewer reps can be performed with heavier weights but have a reduced impact on endurance. Building up slowly allows muscles to develop appropriate strengths relative to each other. they are both similar to each other.groups and movements. tempo. Most gyms offer the services of a personal trainer that comes with the membership fee. Resistance training involves the use of elastic or hydraulic resistance to contraction rather than gravity. Weight training is one type of strength training using weights as the primary force to build muscle mass. Equipment used in weight training include barbells. size. or shape. you risk muscle injury which could hinder your progress. Weight training also focuses on form performing the movements with the appropriate muscle groups and not transferring the weight to different body parts in order to move great weight. sets. we'll define some common exercises for clarification. Some people refer to weight training as strength training. The basic principles of weight training are pretty much the same as those of strength training. Another form of weight training is resistance training. Strength training focuses on increasing muscular strength and size. If you don't use good form in weight training. you should not just "jump right in". While they are not exactly the same. and weight depends upon the desires of the body builder. the overall tone of that muscle will grow over time. Personally I have never used a personal trainer or even a training partner. we can make a few suggestions on routines that can help you build muscle and get on the way to a great body. and stacks in the form of weight machines or the body's own weight as in push-ups and chinups. I find I can concentrate better working out by myself. Some of your muscles might be naturally stronger than others. When your muscles are resisting a weight. It involves a manipulation of the numbers of reps. sets. You need to build up your strength and over-working your muscles can cause more harm than good. These trainers can suggest specific workouts for you to begin with. exercises. pulleys. EXERCISES .

You may not be familiar with some of the terminology used in body building. Along the same line, you should know what certain exercises are and how to safely perform them. There are all sorts of exercises you can perform - so many, in fact, space prevents us from listing all of them. However, learning the basics can be a great help. Types of exercise:

aerobic anerobic calisthenic isometric First up we will look through the actual exercises and how to perform them. Then in the next section we will see how to perform them together in an organized routine. anerobic exercise with weights: Upper Body chest

barbell bench - incline, decline, narrow, wide, normal, machine, free dumbbell bench - incline, decline, narrow, wide, normal, flye Dumbbell Bench Press Sit on the edge of a flat bench with the dumbbells resting on your knees. In one smooth motion, roll onto your back and bring the dumbbells up to a position slightly outside and above your shoulders. Your palms should be facing forwards. Bend your elbows at a ninety-degree angle with your upper arms parallel to the ground. Press the weights up over your chest in a triangular motion until they meet above the center line of your body. As you lift, concentrate on keeping the weights balanced and under control. Follow the same path downward.

Incline Dumbbell Press Sit on the edge of an incline bench set at about a 45-degree angle. Pick up a dumbbell in each hand and place them on your thighs. Then, one at a time, raise them up to your shoulder level while you press your back and shoulders firmly against the bench. Press the weights back up to a point over your upper chest, with your palms facing forward. Lower the weights slowly. Inhale as you lower the weights and exhale as you lift. pec machine ribcage expansion - pullovers, breathing squats arms bicep - curl, preacher, reverse pulldowns, barbell, dumbell, zottmans

Preacher Curls This exercise is best done with a special preacher curl bench, but you can do this without it with a little modification. Sit at the end of the weight bench, and place something such as a firm pillow or a few pillows under your armpits on your lap.

Hold the curl bar in your hands with palms facing upward. Don't hunch over the pillow, sit as straight as you can. Using a shoulder width grip, grasp the bar in both hands. Curl the bar upward in an arc. Be careful not to swing or rock to get the bar moving. You need to be using your muscles to lift the weight, not momentum. The goal of this exercise is to work the biceps. Bring the bar up to your chin keeping in mind that the resistance is greatest during the beginning of the lift. Lower the bar slowly working the muscle on the way down as well. You can also do this with dumbbells or work one arm at a time. Seated Dumbbell Curl Sit at the end of a bench with your feet firmly on the floor. Keep your back straight and your head up. Start with the dumbbells at arm's length with your palms facing in. Curl the weight up and twist your wrist once they pass your thighs. Squeeze your biceps at the top and then slowly lower the weight. Do not swing the dumbbells down; lower them as you are working those muscles! You can do this standing, but the seated position prevents bad form.

Dumbbell Hammer Curls With a dumbbell in each hand, stand with your arms hanging at your sides, and palms are facing each other. Keep your elbows locked into your sides. Your upper body and elbows should remain in the same place during the whole lift. Keep your palms facing each other, curl the weight in your right hand up in a semicircle toward your right shoulder. Squeeze the biceps hard at the top of the lift and then slowly lower. Do not turn your wrists during this lift! You can also do one arm at a time and/or alternate.

tricep - pressdown, dips, kickbacks, overhead tricep curl

Lying Tricep Push Sit on a flat bench holding a curl bar with an overhand grip. Lie back so that the top of your head is even with the end of the weight bench. As you are lying back, extend your arms over your head so that the bar is directly over your eyes. Keep your elbows tight and your upper arms stationary throughout the exercise. The biggest key to this exercise is keeping your upper arms in a fixed position. Slowly lower the bar until it almost touches your forehead. Press the bar back up in a slow, sweeping arc-like motion. At the finish, lock your elbows completely.

Barbell Tricep Extension

Now that you know what exercises to do. Lock your legs and hips and keep your elbows in slightly under the bar. Stand with your legs about shoulder width apart and lift the barbell to your chest. This can also be done with straight bar. Press bar overhead to arm's length. military raise. Lie on an incline bench and position your head at the top. 2 dumbbells. Lower the bar in a semicircular motion behind your head until your forearms touch your biceps. seated or standing or with 2 dumbbells and your palms facing in. Keep your upper arms close to your head. If you are going to join a gym. The exercises listed above can be done either in a gym or in your home. Return to the starting position. Lower the bell to your upper chest or your chin depending on which is more comfortable for you. side dumbell raise. Employees at the gym can help you with proper use of the machines. dumbell press. front barbell raise. you will use a barbell. shoulders military press. This exercise can also be performed with dumbbells or seated on a weight bench. front dumbell raise Standing Military Press For this exercise. . they will have many specialty machines that will work specific parts of your body.Hold a barbell with hands a little closer together than shoulder width. Press the bar to arm's length over your head. let's look at a couple of sample workouts.

Upright Barbell Row Stand upright and grasp a barbell with your hands about shoulder width apart. Pull the bar straight up towards your chin. . keeping it close to your body. Let the bar hang straight down in front of you. Keep your body and wrists straight.

depending on what you want to work most.Concentrate on either pulling with your traps or the front of your shoulders. Lower slowly to the starting position. Don't cheat by leaning forward or backward. Don't swing! Front Dumbbell Raise .

Side Dumbbell Raise Stand upright with your feet shoulder width apart and your arms at your side. With a smooth. Hold a dumbbell in each hand with your palms turned toward your body. Make sure you are lifting the dumbbells up rather than swinging them up. Your feet should be about shoulder width apart. palms facing backward. lower the weight while simultaneously lifting the weight in your right hand. Maintain a slight bend in your elbows throughout the exercise so that your arms are straight. controlled motion. Keep your palms turned downward as you lift the dumbbells so that your shoulders rather than your biceps do the work. Do not cheat by swinging or leaning backwards! This lift can also be done with two dumbbells at the same time or a barbell. but not quite locked. Don't lean forward while doing this either or you risk injury to your back. .Stand with a dumbbell in each hand. Lift the weight in your left hand in front of you in a wide arc until it is slightly higher than shoulder height. Then slowly lower them back down to your side again. Keep your arms straight and lift the weights out and up to the sides until they are slightly higher than shoulder level. so that both arms are in motion at the same time.

Traps Dumbbell Shrugs Stand straight up with your feet at shoulder width. look straight ahead instead of at the floor so you can keep your back straight. After you've rowed the dumbbell up as far as you can slowly lower it back to the starting position. Reach down and pick up a dumbbell with your right hand. The dumbbell should end up roughly parallel with your torso. Concentrate on pulling your elbow back as far as it can go. Droop your shoulders down as far as possible. Hold two dumbbells with your arms hanging at your sides. Tighten your abs to keep your body from turning to the side as you lift the dumbbell. . Your left arm should be locked at the elbow so it will support the weight of your upper body. Raise your shoulders up as far as you can go then slowly return to the starting position. Switch arms after one set. Lean forward so that you're supporting the weight of your upper body with your left arm on the bench. Before starting. Your back should be flat and almost parallel with the floor.back One-Arm Dumbbell Row Start with your right foot flat on the floor and your left knee resting on a flat bench.

Keep your body straight and slowly lift up your heels until you are standing on the tips of your toes.You can also rotate your shoulders by going up in a circular motion from front to back and then back down again. Keep your back as straight as possible and your chin up. This can also be done holding a barbell. You can put your heels on a 1 inch block to further work the quads. Don't lean over or curve your back forward! You can use a belt to help reduce the chance of lower back injury. Bend at your waist with your legs locked. Hold the contraction briefly then slowly return to the starting position with your feet flat on the floor. press the weight up back to the starting position. . bend your knees and slowly lower your hips straight down until your thighs are parallel to the floor. This can also be done with your knees slightly bent. Once you reach the bottom position. Stand up against a wall with your body facing the wall and your palms down on the wall and your feet flat on the floor. Standing Calf Raises This can be done with a specific machine found in a gym. neck Lower Body calves thighs Barbell Squat Rest a barbell on the upper portion of your back. Keep your head up and your back completely straight. You can also use a wider stance to work the inner quads even more. Position your feet about shoulder width apart and your toes should be pointing just a little outward with your knees in the same direction. or adapted for use without the machine. until your upper body is parallel to the floor. Firmly grip the bar with your hands almost twice your shoulder width apart. not your neck. Stiff Leg Barbell Place a barbell on your shoulders. Return slowly to the upper position.

Keep your head and neck in line with your torso so that you are looking forward. raise yourself by pushing your hips slightly forward and up toward the ceiling. sit your hips back (like you are going to sit in a chair). Reach one foot back and place your toe on the box. Position your right leg forward in a long stride. Make sure your knee does not travel past your toes in the down position! This can also be done with dumbbells in each hand instead of using a barbell. and your chest should be directly over the middle of your thigh. bend your knee (of your front leg). then switch legs and repeat. Return to the starting position. your shoulders should be directly over front foot. Complete a full set. Keeping your front foot flat on the floor. Lift your chest up and look straight ahead. Lunges Place a barbell on your upper back. lower yourself until the knee of your front leg is bent 90 degrees. lowering your hips so your rear knee just clears the floor. then slowly straighten your legs and raise your body back up to a standing position. or alternate legs for each rep. Place a barbell behind your head at the base of your neck. At this point. and straightening your leg. the more difficult the exercise. Now. your knee should be directly over your toe. Keep your back tight and your chest out throughout the entire exercise. At this point. Mid Section . your thigh and lower leg form a right angle. Slowly bend your knees. Grasp the barbell with both hands with a wider than shoulder width grip. leading with your head and chest.the higher the box. your hips should be sitting back. Lower your body in a controlled fashion until your thigh (of your front leg) is parallel to the ground.One Leg Barbell Squat Use a 12 to 18 inch box or bench for this exercise . If you have difficulty lowering yourself down this far. Your shoulders should be directly over your front foot. Your foot should be far enough in front of you so that when you bend your right knee. Pause briefly in this position. Stand approximately 2 to 3 feet from the box and turn so that the box is directly behind you. Keep your opposite foot flat on the floor and point your toes forward. Stand up straight. and lean forward slightly at the waist.

Continue to push down as hard as you can with your lower back. If you are resting your feet on a bench. Place your hands lightly on either side of your head keeping your elbows in. Begin to roll your shoulders off the floor.Crunches Lie flat on your back with your feet flat on the ground. controlled movement . Your shoulders should come up off the floor only about four inches. place them three to four inches apart and point your toes inward so they touch.don't cheat yourself by using momentum! Workout Routines Bulk Up . and your lower back should remain on the floor. Don't lock your fingers behind your head! Push the small of your back down in the floor to isolate your abdominal muscles. Focus on slow. or resting on a bench with your knees bent at a 90 degree angle.

it's important to start out slow and not push yourself beyond your limits. This plan is just a suggestion. Again. begin with two sets of 10-12 reps each. but your mind will get prepared as well. This can also be simple stretching exercises and deep breathing. You can progressively increase the amount of weight you lift as you get stronger. This is what bodybuilding is all about – a continuous cycle of one-step-back. two-steps-forward. repeated over and over on a weekly basis. A warm-up session prior to working out can not only help get your body ready for exercise. As a beginner. you can work out more frequently than more advanced body builders. The reason is simple: as you get more experienced. If the word "damage" makes you flinch. It's a good thing for a bodybuilder to incur limited muscle damage. Day 1 . Use weights that are not too heavy for you but that will give you enough resistance to build your muscles. This will reduce the possibility of delayed muscle soreness and will help quell the adrenaline that has been building in your system as a result of the workout. . you learn to push your muscles harder and inflict more damage that takes longer to recover from. With any workout. You should also have an appropriate cool down period after you are done working out. Beginners. on the other hand. because it nudges the body to recover and overcompensate (grow) slightly to prepare for future workouts.Upper Body For the following exercises. you need to start out with some warm up exercises.Aerobic Strength BASIC WORKOUT PLANS Beginning a body building workout plan requires a level of commitment. The following workout plan is designed to focus on one part of your body each day of your workout with mid week and the weekend as your rest days. You can adapt it as needed to suit your workout goals. don't worry. get sore but bounce back quicker since the muscular damage isn't as severe. This can be simple stretching as you get your body ready to work.

add the following to your plan: • Pec deck butterflys • V-bar pushdowns • Lat pulls with pulley machine Day 2 .Rest Day 4 .Upper Body Increase your sets to 3 doing 10 . begin doing each exercise with two sets of 10-12 reps each except for the crunches which you can do as many of them as you want.• Dumbbell press • Standing barbell military press • Lying tricep press • Side lateral raise • Preacher curls • Seated dumbbell curl • Dumbbell rows • Dumbbell shrugs If you have access to weight machines.Lower Body and Abs Again. • Barbell squat • One leg barbell squat • Lunges • Standing calf press • Stiff leg barbell • Crunches Machines can be especially helpful when working your lower body. Here are some you should consider on this day: • Leg presses on a plate loaded machine • Leg extension machine • Seated hamstring curls • Standing hamstring curls • Ab machine Day 3 .12 reps each • Chin ups (get assistance if necessary) .

Rest If a four day workout plan is too much for you. consider starting out with a two or three day plan. but if you need to start out slowly.Lower Body and Abs Go back to doing just two sets of 10-12 reps each except for the crunches which you can do unlimited amounts of. Day 1 . . • Standing calf press • Lunges • Barbell squat • Stiff leg barbell • Standing calf raises • Crunches Machine exercises include: • Leg presses on a plate loaded machine • Seated hamstring curls • Kneeling hamstring curls Weekend . Here is a sample three day workout.Back.• Seated dumbbell hammer curls • Dumbbell presses on an inclined bench • Standing barbell military press • Standing bicep curls • Barbell tricep extension • Upright barbell row • Front dumbbell raise The machines you can use on this day include: • Seated cable rows • Upright cable rows • Cable crossover flies • Tricep rope pushdowns Day 5 . and Abs Do three sets of 12-15 reps each. it can still be effective. Chest. Keep in mind that you won't get results as quickly with a fewer day workout.

• Barbell squat • Seated calf raise • Front dumbbell raise • Side lateral raise • Upright barbell row • Lunges • Barbell squats Day 3 . you are putting your body into an anabolic state that will provide the necessary energy and power to effectively work your muscles. Triceps.Legs and Shoulders Do three sets of 12-15 reps each. your body can take advantage of that extra blood flow and work the muscles more efficiently. there is increased blood flow to the muscles. and Abs Do three sets of 12-15 reps each • Barbell curl • Incline dumbbell curl • Lying triceps press • Barbell tricep extension • Front dumbbell raise • Dumbbell hammer curls • Crunches About an hour before your workout. When you consume protein and carbohydrates prior to a workout. By doing this.Biceps. This is to make sure that you have enough energy to make it through your entire workout. During training. . you should eat some protein and carbohydrates.• Bent over barbell row • Stiff legged barbell dead lift • Barbell bench press • Incline dumbbell press • Dumbbell flies • Crunches Day 2 . Many people opt for a protein shake and a bowl of rice. but you can choose whatever foods you want to get what you need.

These include cardio endurance. Circuit training is a term associated with specific training routines.It's a good idea to keep track of your workouts and how many sets and reps you are doing. DO NOT rest more than a minute or so or else your muscles will get cold and all your previous work will be for naught. Be sure and rest between sets to allow your body to adjust and recover. The cardio is good for your body and you'll be focusing on that most important muscle of all your heart! Good nutrition is an integral part of an effective workout program for any body builder. It's also a good idea to do your first set with very little weight. flexibility. Circuits can also be designed to concentrate on sports skills. This is to get the blood flowing through the muscles. Circuits can promote fitness in a broad range of physical and motor fitness areas. Usually that's around a minute or two. It describes calisthenic exercises for developing strength. This could be a little time on a treadmill or walking. coordination. add a little weight and do the exercise again. The task or exercise selected for each station and the arrangement of the stations is determined by the objective of the circuit. you want to build your body. Circuits A circuit is a group of stations or areas where specific tasks or exercises are performed. athletes' . strength. muscular endurance. If you find that it's just a bit too easy. Circuit Training This section gives commanders and trainers guidance in designing and using exercise circuits. endurance. Write it down in a small notebook and when you are able to increase the number of sets and/or reps. Circuits are designed to provide exercise to groups of athletes at intensities which suit each person's fitness level. be sure to take note of how long it took you to get to that point. On the second set. and flexibility. Remember. The goal is to add weight until it's difficult to complete 8-12 reps. not lift weights. Also keep track of the amount of weight you are able to lift and when you are able to increase that weight. try more weight. and speed. It's a good idea to sprinkle your workouts with some cardio exercises to help get your blood pumping.

Each has distinct advantages. Progress is measured by the time needed to complete a circuit. or any combination of these. athletes work at their own pace. Fixed Circuit In a fixed circuit. A little imagination can make circuit training an excellent addition to a persons total physical fitness program. VARIABLES IN CIRCUIT TRAINING Several variables in circuit training must be considered. there is no set time for staying at each station. Free Circuit In a free circuit. TYPES OF CIRCUITS The two basic types of circuits are the free circuit and the fixed circuit. These include the time. At the same time. Aside from this. number of stations. and athletes rotate through the stations on command. circuits can be organized to exercise all the fitness components in a short period of time.Keep the time for completion the same. doing a fixed number of repetitions at each station. number of times the circuit is completed. number of time. Almost any area can be used. These are discussed below. Because athletes may do incomplete or fewer repetitions than called for to reduce this time. the quality and number of the repetitions done should be monitored. and no signal is given to move from one station to the next. and any number of athletes can exercise for various lengths of time. . . There are three basic ways to increase the intensity or difficulty of a fixed circuit: .common tasks. In addition. and sequence of stations.Increase the number of times athletes go through the circuit. number of stations. the free circuit requires little supervision. The time is monitored with a stopwatch. number of athletes. but increase the number of repetitions.Increase the time per station along with the number of repetitions. . it can provide both fun and a challenge to any athletes' physical and mental abilities. a specific length of time is set for each station.

allow from five to seven minutes both before and after running a circuit for warming up and cooling down. On the other hand. Number of Stations The objective of the circuit and time and equipment available strongly influence the number of stations. the time at each station should always be the same to avoid confusion and help maintain control. the athletesm should be divided into 10 groups of four each. slowdowns.Time One of the first things to consider is how long it should take to complete the circuit. The whole workout takes less than 45 minutes including warm-up and cool-down. respectively. a circuit may have ten stations. After the warm-up. For example. in this instance a rope jumping station must have at least four jump ropes. Each station must then be equipped to handle four athletes. As athletes become better conditioned. Having enough equipment reduces bottlenecks. and taking 15 seconds to move between stations. athletes may have to repeat the same circuit several times. . athletes can start a circuit at any station and still achieve the objective by completing the full circuit. circuits to develop both strength and cr fitness may have as many as 20 stations. For example. When a fixed circuit is run. Sequence of Stations Stations should be arranged in a sequence that allows athletes some recovery time after exercising at strenuous stations. exercise periods may be increased to 30 seconds or longer for all three rotations. exercising for 30 seconds at each station. Consider also the time it takes to move from one station to the next. athletes may run through the circuit three times. Number of athletes If there are 10 stations and 40 athletes to be trained. Another option is to have four rotations of the circuit. Difficult exercises can be alternated with less difficult ones. The exercise time at each station may be reduced to 20 seconds the second and third time through. Further. and poor results. developing lower-body strength) needs as few as six to eight stations. It is vital in a free circuit that no athlete stand around waiting for equipment. Number of Times a Circuit is Completed To achieve the desired training effect. A circuit geared for a limited objective (for example.

Determine Objectives The designer must consider specific parts of the body and as the components of fitness on which athletes need to concentrate. improving cardiorespiratory endurance may be the top priority. calisthenics. For example. Imagination and fun are important elements in developing circuits that hold the interest of athletes.DESIGNING A CIRCUIT The designer of a circuit must consider many factors. while muscular endurance work may be secondary. The six steps below cover the most important pects of circuit development. After deciding how many stations to include. One approach is to alternate "pushing" exercises with "pulling" exercises which involve movement at the same joint(s). Select the Activities The circuit designer should list all the exercises or activities that can help meet the objectives. On the other hand. He can choose from the exercises. For example. the same muscle group should not be exercised at consecutive stations. in a strength training circuit. and guerrilla drills described in this section. increasing muscular strength may be the primary objective. grass drills. exercisers may follow . Arrange the Stations A circuit usually has 8 to 12 stations. the designer must decide how to arrange them. However. but it may have as many as 20. conditioning drills. he should not limit the circuit to only these activities. in a circuit for strength training. Then he should look at each item on the list and ask the following questions: Will equipment be needed? Is it available? Will supervision be needed? Is it available? Are there safety factors to consider? Answering these questions helps the designer decide which exercises to use. The designer must consider the specific parts of the body and the components of fitness on which athletes need to concentrate. For example.

they may run laps or run between spread-out stations if space is available. athletes can alternate hard exercises with easier ones. This could be followed by the pushing motion of the overhead press which could be followed by the pulling motion of the lat pull-down. However. spreading the stations too far apart may cause problems with control and supervision. The necessary equipment is placed at each station. Outdoors. each muscle has a chance to recover before it is used in another exercise. instructions for the stations are written on the signs. In the gymnasium. he may do this in several ways.the pushing motion of a bench press with the pulling motion of the seated row. If the designer wants to include running or jogging a certain distance between stations. Lay Out the Stations The final step is to lay out the stations which should be numbered and clearly marked by signs or cards. and all other useful information. If some exercises are harder than others. By not exercising the same muscle group twice in a row. Select the Training Sites Circuits may be conducted outdoors or indoors. Another approach might be to alternate between upper and lower body exercises. the number of stations. The choice of exercises for circuit training depends on the objectives of the circuit. athletes may run five laps or for 20 to 40 seconds between stations. Prepare a Sketch The designer should draw a simple sketch that shows the location of each station in the training area. The sketch should include the activity and length of time at each station. #########show exercises . Sample Conditioning Circuits Athletes should work at each station 45 seconds and have 15 seconds to rotate to the next station. In some cases. The choice of exercises depends on the objectives of the circuit.

without support. Poorly-coordinated athletes. will derive the greatest benefit from many of these exercises. lunger. Nonetheless. With a slow cadence. Also. and strength. few calisthenic exercises are really unsafe or dangerous. with the lower back properly supported. use 50 counts per minute unless otherwise directed. . Cardio Vascular and muscular encurance. They can help develop coordination. Few exercises are inherently unsafe. On the other hand. SAFETY FACTORS While injury is always possible in any vigorous physical activity. flexibility. Finally. When doing exercises at a moderate cadence. use 80 counts per minute. the possibility of straining the lower back increases. These calisthenics are noted. for the average athlete who is of sound body. may find certain exercises less safe than others. knee bender. following the directions written below will produce satisfactory results with a minimum risk of injury.Calisthenics Calisthenics can be used to help develop coordination. However. and side-straddle hop can best be used in the warm-up and cooldown periods. cardio and muscular endurance. and strength. flutter kicks are an excellent way to condition the hip flexor muscles. a conditioned athlete may use multiple sets of flutter' kicks with good results. However. Exercises such as the push-up. Calisthenics can be used to exercise most of the major muscle groups of the body. sit-up. parallel bar dip. Although calisthenics have some value when included in a cardio circuit or when exercising to music. such as trainees. for the average athlete. athletes with low fitness levels. flexibility. shouId not do the advanced exercises highly fit athletes can do. Use good judgment before performing these exercises. some people. and directions are provided below with respect to the actions and cadence. The keys to avoiding injury while gaining training benefits are using correct form and intensity. on the other hand. For example. can effectively be used in the conditioning period to develop muscular endurance or muscular strength. calisthenics such as the bend and reach. squat bender. It is not sensible to have newbies do multiple sets of flutter kicks because they probably are not conditioned for them. however. and chin-up/pull-up. some of the calisthenics listed below may be done in cadence. because of predisposing conditions or injuries.

The key to doing calisthenic exercises safely is to use common sense. ballistic (that is. Progression and Recovery Other important principles for avoiding injury are progression and recovery. Programs that try to do too much too soon invite problems. Some athletes complain of shoulder problems resulting from rope climbing. Such a program has variety. However. should be used. horizontal ladder. the next week should have muscle endurance and strength development on M-W-F and training for cardio endurance on TTh. Also. at the same time. and follows the seven principles of exercise while. wheelbarrow. not conditioning drills done to cadence. Key Points for Safety Doing safe exercises correctly improves a athlete's fitness with a minimum risk of injury. if athletes are working the same muscle groups and/or fitness components. and crab-walk exercises. These exercises are beneficial when the athlete is fit and he does them in a regular. If this type of action is performed. it minimizes injuries caused by overuse. If the Tuesday-Thursday (T-Th) objective is muscular endurance and strength. develops all the fitness components. a certain level of muscular strength is needed to do them safely. quick-moving) exercises that combine rotation and bending of the spine increase the risk of back injury and should be avoided. athletes should progressively train to build up to these exercises. To ensure balance and regularity in the program. progressive manner. athletes can benefit from doing partner. The best technique is to train alternate muscle groups and/or fitness components on different days.resisted exercises followed by a slow run. Therefore. The following are key points for ensuring safety during stretching and calisthenic exercises: . Using such exercises for unconditioned athletes increases the risk of injury and accident. slow stretching exercises. if the Monday-Wednesday. This is especially true if someone has had a previous injury to the back. athletes can do running at THR with some light calisthenics and stretching. The day after a "hard" training day. For example.Friday (M-W-F) training objective is cardio vascular fitness. they should work them at a reduced intensity to minimize stress and permit recovery.

head out for a walk with your spouse for a few minutes. use only slow. . CALISTHENIC EXERCISES The following are some common calisthenic exercises. This is a great way to get in some quality time away from the television. You get the exercise you need without missing your television program and time will fly by. use a stationary bike. Start by working in exercise through aerobics and strength training into your day. you need to give it the physical movement that it needs. take them with you. which will make the process easier and even more enjoyable. controlled movements with little or no extra weight. • If you can't leave the television. During your favorite show.Do not allow the angle formed by the upper and lower legs to become less than 90 degrees when the legs are bearing weight. ballistic (bouncy or jerky) stretching movements. To make it even better. if done. . • Do it with a pattern. ride the bike. . You are 80 percent more likely to be successful if you don't try to do it alone! Recruit someone to work with you! • After dinner.Stretch slowly and without pain and unnatural stress to a joint. You can even start doing these things at home. Use static (slow and sustained) stretching for warming up. Your Overall Body Fitness Plan To improve the physical fitness of your body. Visit your local recreational center or community center. consider these easy and fun ways to get in the exercise that you need. If you can't leave the kids. This means feeding it the right regimen of movements. too. cooling down.A combination of spinal rotation and bending should generally be avoided.. However.

tests can be used to assess flexibility in the hamstring and low-back areas.• Do sports and other physical activities that you enjoy. Developing and maintaining it are important parts of a fitness program. People with poor flexibility who try to stretch as far as others may injure themselves. A qualified Fitness Trainer can help him design a stretching program to improve his personal flexibility. Stretching during the warm-up and cool-down helps athletes maintain overall flexibility. comparing one person's flexibility with another's should not be done. It will make all of the difference in how effective it is for you. Because people differ somewhat anatomically. An athletewho cannot touch his toes without bouncing or bobbing needs work to improve his flexibility in the muscle groups stretched by this test. Swimming. climbing. Good flexibility can help an athlete accomplish such physical tasks as lifting. running. Flexibility is a component of physical fitness. For many it's a great stress relief and it can be a lot of fun. However. playing a game with the kids and even joining a sports team is a great way to get in exercise without it feeling like exercise. in part. Flexibility is the range of movement of a joint or series of joints and their associated muscles. These areas are commonly susceptible to injury due. A simple toe-touch test can be used. and physical work with greater efficiency and less risk of injury. disease-free joints. but it should cause some discomfort because the muscles are being stretched beyond their normal length. Make it your goal to actually put together a workout that you enjoy. loading. Stretching should not be painful. ########show calisthenics Flexibility Flexibility refers to the range of movement of a joint. No one test can measure total-body flexibility. . martial arts. athletes shouId stand with their legs straight and feet together and bend forward slowly at the waist. to loss of flexibility. you'll probably find every excuse not to do them. It involves the ability to move a part of the body through the full range of motion allowed by normal. Yet. you will come to enjoy exercising. Your overall body fitness means exercise and movement. When you begin to add these into your day.

How Stretching Improves Flexibility Why do we lose flexibility with age and reduced activity? It's called the myotatic reflex (stretch reflex). it is a signal that he is stretching a muscle or tendon too much and may be causing damage. This is the tension you feel during stretching exercises. especially during a sudden or extreme change. It is a safe and effective method for improving flexibility. Every muscle is subject to the myotatic reflex. not days. passive. He should hold each stretch for ten seconds or longer. You may weaken the muscle. and it prevents strains and tears. requiring a long slow recovery process. the myotatic reflex causes it to tighten and attempt to shorten. The reflex opposes changes in muscle length. Without it. the easier it is for the muscle to adapt to that length. by limiting range of motion and preventing the body from hurting itself. but no pain. Stretching reconditions the myotatic reflex by teaching your muscles a new limit of safe extension. This lets the lengthened muscles adjust to the stretch without causing injury. This lengthens the muscles without causing a reflex contraction in the stretched muscles. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). and ballistic. When a muscle lengthens beyond a certain point. There are four commonly recognized categories of stretching techniques: static. When pain results from stretching. Static stretching should not be painful. our muscles would be allowed to overextend and tear. The longer a stretch is held. Set your stretching goals over a period of weeks or months. To counter the reflex. If you overstretch you can injure the muscle and end up decreasing your flexibility. STATIC STRETCHING Static stretching involves the gradual lengthening of muscles and tendons as a body part moves around a joint. for best results. These are described here and shown later in this section. Stretching Techniques Using good stretching techniques can improve flexibility. it can be an obstacle to athletic development. Although an important safety feature. The athlete assumes each stretching position slowly until he feels tension or tightness. . stretching must be slow and deliberate. The athlete should feel slight discomfort.

Other key points include: • Consult your doctor before starting any exercise program. BALLISTIC STRETCHING Ballistic. or rubber tubing. for five to ten minutes before stretching to warm up the body. Safety Guidelines Stretching is only beneficial if done properly. Gently stretch to a point of tension and hold. This produces a safe stretch through a range of motion he could not achieve without help. it often forces a muscle to stretch too far and may result in an injury. or dynamic. The athlete performs a series of intense contractions and relaxations using a partner or equipment to help him stretch. . pole. stretching involves movements such as bouncing or bobbing to attain a greater range of motion and stretch. • Don't bounce or jerk when you stretch. and as part of a warm up for any athletic activity. Although this method may improve flexibility. This is especially important if you've suffered a previous injury that may be affected by flexibility training. Individuals and units should not use ballistic stretching. such as a towel. PNF STRETCHING PNF stretching uses the neuromuscular patterns of each muscle group to help improve flexibility. • Complete a large muscle warm-up such as brisk walking. He should talk with his partner to ensure that each muscle is stretched safely through the entire range of motion.PASSIVE STRETCHING Passive stretching involves the athlete's use of a partner or equipment. and with proper form to avoid injury. to help him stretch. jumping jacks etc. • Devote several minutes to stretching three to five days a week. including one increasing your flexibility. Bouncing causes the muscles to tighten and increases the risk of injury. bike riding. The PNF technique allows for greater muscle relaxation following each contraction and increases the athlete's ability to stretch through a greater range of motion. Stretch gradually.

Athletes should do these for five to seven minutes before vigorous exercise . Remember. Type: Use static stretches. not pain. The following FITT factors apply when developing a flexibility program. • Don't overstretch. A mild sensation of pulling should be felt in the target area. then stretch further and hold that new position for 20-30 seconds. If you do. breathe normally and deeply with a feeling of relaxing the body. • Hold the furthest point of any stretch for a few seconds. Do them during the warm-up to help prepare the muscles for vigorous activity and to help reduce injury. Frequency: Do flexibility exercises daily. stop immediately and consult your health care provider. blood pressure. circulation. start slow & don't over do it. assumed slowly and gradually. FITT Factors You should include stretching exercises in all of your workouts. Time: Hold stretches for 10 to 15 seconds for warming up and cooling down and for 30 seconds or longer to improve flexibility . • If you're a beginner.Slow joggin-in-place or walking for one to two minutes. A recommended sequence of warmup activities follows. .• Don't hold your breath. as well as passive stretching and/or PNF stretching. and increases the temperature of the active muscles. • Hold each stretch with a feeling of lengthening the targeted muscles. allow some time to see results. This causes a gradual increase in the heart rate. Stop if you feel any pain. . Be patient. Do them during the cooldown to help maintain flexibility. • You should never feel pain in your joints during stretching exercises. it took years to get tight. Intensity: Stretch a muscle beyond its normal length to the point of tension or slight discomfort.

Slow. as described in another section. one should walk for one to two minutes. The following information explains the importance of cooling down and how to do it correctly.Calisthenic exerciese. and do not bounce or bob. lift a lighter weight to warm-up before lifting a heavier one. . to increase the intensity level before the activity or conditioning period. arm circles. It also increases the joint's range of motion and positively affects the speed of muscular contraction. Hold each stretch position for 10 to 15 seconds. as this can be very dangerous. knee/ankle rotations) to gradually increase the joint's range of motion. for example. and stretching exercises should be a major part of both. Stopping exercise suddenly can cause blood to pool in the muscles.. thus helping reduce the risk of injury. . Warm-Up and Cool-Down The warm-up and cool-down are very important parts of a physical training session. Gradually bring the body back to its resting state by slowly decreasing the intensity of the activity. The warm-up increases the flow of blood to the muscles and tendons.Do not stop suddenly after vigorous exercise. This may cause fainting or abnormal rhythms in the heart which could lead to serious complications. THE COOL-DOWN The athlete should not limit flexibility training to just the warm-up.Slowly mimic the activities to be performed. static stretching of the muscles to be used during the upcoming activity. . For example.Slow joint rotation exercises (for example. This will "loosen up" muscles and tendons so they can achieve greater ranges of motion with less risk of injury. . . This helps prepare the neuromuscular pathways. After running. THE WARM-UP Before beginning any vigorous activity one should prepare the body for exercise. Work each major joint for 5 to 10 seconds. thereby reducing blood flow to the heart and brain.

Athletes who are overweight should follow a fat loss program.Hold stretches 30 seconds or more during the cool-down to improve flexiblity. @@@@@@show flexibility exercises BODY COMPOSITION A common method for determining body fat composition is with calipers. and muscles associated with a joint and to stimulate lubrication of the joint with synovial fluid. Calipers are better but only indicate subcutaneous fat not deep tissue fat or fat surrounding internal oegans. this method is very time-consuming and expensive and usually done only at hospitals and universities. Stretching is one form of exercise that takes very little time relative to the benefits gained. .Repeat the stretches done in the warm-up to help ease muscle tension and any immediate feeling of muscle soreness. The following exercises should be performed slowly. Such programs include sensible diet and exercise regimens. A more accurate way to determine body composition is by hydrostatic or underwater weighing. You may also work on it at home.. Be careful not to overstretch. This may provide better movement and less friction in the joint. if possible. Use partner-assisted or PNF techniques. Cool-down periods You should sometimes use an entire workout session on a "recovery" or "easy"training day to work on flexibility improvement. There are also height to weight and circumference ratio's but these are the least accurate. . ligments. However. The muscles are warm from activity and can possibly be overstretched to the point of injury. Rotation Exercises Rotation exercises are used to gently stretch the tendons.

If you exceed the weight listed for your height. Losing one to two pounds a week is a realistic goal. too. We aren't talking about a diet that you will go on to lose weight and then come off of later. you may not necessary be over fat. gender. it's time to starting making some changes to your lifestyle. People always want to know if a particular food is good or bad for them. limiting or boring. And. not a temporary thing but a permanent thing. If you don't fall into the well-muscled category. You can do it even when you are in too much of a rush and don't have time. Eating for performance and health doesn't mean that you have to give up your favorite foods Diet Fitness. with all of the comfort that you want and need. You Are What You Eat. What you need to accomplish through a diet is to train your body to eat healthily. you can do it with lots of favors that you AND your children will enjoy. Don't think about a diet that's taxing. Too many bad choices over time can accumulate into a poor diet. here.NUTRITION AND BODY COMPOSITION Measure your weight and/or body fat. Poor choices like a lunch of soda. open. full of taste and adventure. . No single food choice is necessarily a bad choice. Take a look at the weight allowed for your height as shown in Table 1. This exercise program meets the requirement to be physically active everyday. Although that sounds even worse. chips. You need a diet that is actually a way of eating. troublesome. Yet. only a small percentage of their total body mass may be fat. and height. which is best accomplished by a combination of eating less and exercising more. However. Think of your diet as being free. Some well-muscled individuals have body weights that far exceed the values for weight listed on the charts for their age. you will still need to make some small changes to your diet to so that you can develop an appropriate body composition. But. and a greasy hamburger once in a while will be balanced out by a better choice like a turkey sandwich with low-fat dressing on whole wheat bread and fruit on a regular basis. dieting is something that is simple to do healthily even if you can't live without certain foods. we aren't talking about a diet to lose weight. Really! "Diet" is a word that is only second to that of exercise when it comes to hatred by many people.

• Fruits are sweet so they can solve the sweet tooth. improve your physical fitness from the inside to the out. All sorts of problems arise from not eating a healthy diet of food. • Without nutrition. If you don't give it quality food. . • Your body does not heal as quickly from injury. whole grains give you so much more health. In the way of your body. You don't get the gas mileage that you are used to and you may even need to perform more maintenance on your car than you usually need to do. They provide antioxidants to a high level that helps to heal your body. fats. and they are very low in calories meaning you can eat more. it won't perform the right way. • You are more prone to limitations physically as well as mentally. the food that you consume is the fuel that your machine needs. In our machine look at the way that food works. They don't cause you to gain weight like others. healthy food is just as important. your body will not be able to perform as well as if you gave it the highest quality foods. what is healthy and why is it healthy? • Vegetables are one of the highest nutrient rich foods out there. Choosing simple differences from bread to pasta to potatoes allows you to get the tastes that you love but without the added calories. They also provide you with antioxidants and all types of nutrients that give your body the fuel it needs. and sugars that can cause you health issues. your heart rate increases to unhealthy levels. But. Have you ever gone to put gas into your car and gotten to a really bad gas station where the fuel wasn't high quality or even up to standard? It slows your car down.What's Healthy? The foods that you need play a significant role on your health. Foods are the fuel that your body requires to do a good job at the tasks that you ask it. • Whole grains are also an important product of a healthy diet. Unlike "white" foods. your body can become ill faster and with greater intensity. If you consume the wrong foods all of the time. • Your blood pressure rises.

if you need to lose weight. The body goes into dehydration mode.• Water intake is also important. lunch and dinner? How many calories are you consuming per day? To help you to see the clear picture of what's happening to your health in the foods that you eat. you're eating less and that you aren't getting as many calories from other liquids. causing you to keep in all that you can. too. All foods and drinks should be noted! . Where Are You Now? When it comes to improving your diet fitness. • Meats are important parts of the diet. Consuming enough water means that you'll system is hydrated. Go with the reductions that your doctor recommends here so that you have enough fuel for the day but are not allowing your body to store the extra fuel as fat throughout your body. Those that do not get enough fluids end up having a body that retains water rather than having less. you need to minimize the amount of calories that you are taking in by monitoring how many you are consuming. He or she may recommend a diet that is different for your specific health issues. too. Improving your diet to just lean meats will allow you to cut down on the intake of cholesterol which will ultimately clog your heart minimizing blood flow to the rest of your body. What do you eat for breakfast. In addition. The good news is that you don't often need a lot of work to make them happen. Spend one or two days recording the foods that you eat in an average day on a piece of paper. Your doctor may have additional or different recommendations for your health. If you are dieting and need to lose weight. Here are some steps to follow to find out how healthy your diet actually is and how healthy it isn't! 1. If you don't do anything else. You need protein but you shouldn't want to get it from fatty meats. Dieting To Lose Weight Finally. you need to take into consideration the location that you are right now. take note of how a normal day or week goes for you. improving these five areas is all you need to do. The average person should consume about 1800 to 2000 calories per day. you need to reduce this amount to at 1500 to 1600 calories per day. you may want to find out if there are any possible problems with the foods that you eat to your overall health specifically for your health problems.

If you just love the taste. that's a different story. How many servings of vegetables and fruits are you getting? How many servings of protein has been lean protein? Did you get in any whole grains? How much soda did you drink (which puts pounds on your waist each time?) 5.2. there are several key things for you to address. For most people this is as simple as tracking what they eat over the period of a few days to a week. you need to address this emotional problem. will sweetened sweet potatoes that are mashed still give you the same texture and creaminess that you are craving? . For example. anxious. 4. Don't worry. Look at your list of foods and see how many of them are high in transaturated fats. you may have an emotional attachment to the foods. are you connected with that big slice of apple pie because it was your favorite growing up. 3. though. Identifying why you have to have a specific food is important so that you can actually see the benefits of eating those foods. Seeing just how much in calories as well as in unhealthiness can really cause them to see what reality really is rather than to assume they are doing okay. stressed or otherwise emotionally impared? When you look at these facts you may clearly see where the problems lie. Figure out how many calories you are consuming in an average day. For example. If you love your mashed potatoes loaded with gravy. How often did you eat without actually being hungry but being instead bored. you can find ways to get much of the same taste without a lot of the calories. sour cream and butter just because you love the taste. find out why it is that you can't give them up. Next. determine if there is a better way for you to get the foods that you like. I Can't Give It Up! If you are one of the many that feel that they can't give up the foods that they love no matter what. Being honest with yourself is important. If you need apple pie to feel safe. sugars and calories in general. they aren't all bad! First.

The awful. use it in a different way. if you give it a try you may find that you like these foods better than you do the high fat. Here are several key areas to make changes and exactly how you should make them. Don't fret about the foods you love. Yet. instead of eating it every few days make it the reward that you get for a week of good eating. For example. your diet fitness can threaten your life through disease and even early death. If you can not commit to making changes here. But. and therefore you can improve your health overall. right? NO! You don't have to be limited by what you can eat because most food that is available that is in its natural state is just fine for you! In fact. If you are a diabetic.By making small changes to the recipe you can get all of the flavor and texture that you want without causing yourself to become a victim of high fats and sugars that really do a number on your entire system. Indeed you may want that slice of apple pie. high cholesterol foods that you currently are eating. you simply should not eat foods that are overall sweet because they can cause your blood sugar level to rise so fast that you can cause serious damage to your brain and your heart through the consumption of just some foods. You should know what types of foods you can not eat. now you need to consider how you will make changes that you can actually live with. . If you don't know you should talk to your doctor about this. remember moderation is the key factor in real diet fitness health. That's exactly what you need to strive for here. limiting diet that's going to make your taste buds go permanently bland is up next. here is comes. much of the damage that is done through eating the wrong foods can be reversed over time by eating a healthy diet. Limiting how often you get the treats means that you don't have to give them up but that you don't consume nearly as much of it. How Can You Improve? Okay. Food isn't worth the risk of your life. There are certain times in life that foods become prime suspects to leading to health risks. One limit to this is when the food itself is detrimental to your health condition. This section of our book is long for a reason. We've already talked about what foods you need to eat for a healthy diet. Foods are a main part of why people are unhealthy and therefore it is a mandatory part of improving your health to improve your diet.

replacing the vegetable oil in your diet with olive oil. . eat lean cuts of meat. Eat unrefined whole grains as they add fiber to your diet which reduced your cholesterol and keeps you feeling full. Or take a supplement of fish oil. They can help to repair damage to cells throughout your body and thereby make you look and feel younger. Paying attention to the amount of saturated fats in the food you eat is also key to improving your health and well being. The darker. richer and brighter the color is. Using antioxidants for your overall health is a key factor in improving your health! While you can get many of them through supplements. in moderation can improve your health. 1. In addition. You should try to consume at least 2 to 3 servings of fish per week. there are various foods that can help you to improve your hearts health. Yes. Consume more fish. you should instead consider getting them from whole foods as they are richer as well as tastier that way! Eat Whole Foods One of the best things that you can do for your health is to eat whole foods rather than foods that are pre-made. For example. For this. Garlic is a great antioxidant for your heart too. they help to remove toxins from your body which means a reduction in risks of cancer. 2. Your weapon is that of antioxidants! Antioxidants are powerful nutrients that are in fruits and vegetables. Antioxidants can help to transform your health. Improving Health Risks Another very powerful tool that you have when it comes to diet fitness is that of improving your health through the foods that you eat. Reducing the amount of sodium that you take in is also a key factor in improving health. you are in a hurry and who has time to chop up vegetables? Well. there are reasons why an investment in a bit more time here can literally save your life. Instead of using a lot of salt. try other flavor additions to your dishes. A good way to know if they are in the foods that you are eating is to look at the color of the food.Heart Health Improving your heart's health is essential. They can help to unclog your heart's arteries from cholesterol. the more antioxidants are in it. And.

2. Don't reach for beef. . cholesterol. milks. eat a bit slower. You won't notice the taste difference. Avoid the aisles and you'll improve your health overall. One good switch is with ground meats. Replace white rice and pasta with whole grain. Start looking for leaner cuts of meat. Visit the website of the American Heart Association to get heart healthy recipes. or products that are placed in foods to keep them fresh and looking good. we'll make it simpler for you. is to visit your grocery store and walk around the outside aisles only as much as possible.Many foods that are pre-made contain high amounts of preservatives. Learn to read labels so that they tell you what's in the foods you eat. Here are the tips that you need to get your diet fitness plan off the ground and allowing you to improve your health considerably! 1. salts. 4. Eat more fruits and vegetables. and sugars in the foods that you eat. Eat more fish. Overall Diet Fitness Plan Does this sound like a lot of work? Don't worry. then. Add one new recipe to your diet each week. meats that are high in saturated fat are clogging your heart. Reduce the amount of fat. Remove soda from your diet. eggs and other fresh products usually line the walls of the building. can lead to increased health risks for cancer and they put the pounds on. 5. Remember. Reduce portion sizes. 6. Meats. Visit your favorite recipe sites on the web and look for vegetable recipes that aren't rich with sauces. chicken and pork over beef. 3. unhealthy foods with foods that are better for you. butter or creams. To help you to not feel hungry. no frozen entrees. No boxed dinners. It adds weight to your body and it causes all types of health risks later in life. No food in one sitting should be a larger quantity than the size of your palm. but replace at least part of it with ground turkey or pork. Look at your grains. Some of these preservatives can clog up your heart. The trick you should follow. Replace white bread with whole grain bread. This single movement alone will improve your health considerably. Try to look for ways to improve your current recipes through replacing butters. Look at labels. The produce section is your friend filled with riches.

If you're not eating enough carbohydrates. Glycogen is the principal form of energy that is stored in muscles. Dropping just a small amount of weight means that you need to eat less and do more physically. When your muscles are filled with glycogen. the foods you eat can make a huge difference in the effectiveness of your program. Glucose also provides energy for your brain and making blood in your body. Food is a requirement to living and a healthy diet is an essential part of living a long life. While you may love food. learning to make healthier recipes shouldn't be something you put on the back burner because you are too busy. Many people don't pay enough attention to the types of food they eat. . Glucose can be made from protein. guaranteed! EATING RIGHT When you decide you want to undertake a body building program. But food is very important in a body building program. your body will start breaking down muscle tissue for glucose. Glucose is a simple carb that is stored in your muscles and liver as glycogen. Don't make sacrifices here for speed. convenience or habit. you'll need a lot of different nutrients. you will get into the habit and will eventually love the differences you have made. Food supplies us with calories. To have enough energy to perform your workout. Calories are tiny bits of energy that your body uses to perform work. Carbs Carbohydrates are the body's main source of glucose. There is no fad diet that is more comprehensively safer and effective than just that: eat less and get more exercise every day. then you need to consider a calorie reduction. while making changes at first is a challenge. Counting calories isn't as important as knowing what calories will be the best ones to consume for the maximum effect on your workout. but that requires the breakdown of body protein from muscle. Remember. don't like those foods (you probably don't know what they taste like anyway!) or you think its too much work. One of the most important would be carbohydrates. they both look and feel full. Eating healthy isn't an option if you wish to increase your lifespan and increase your health.If you need to lose weight.

or muscle building. Beans and oatmeal are two excellent sources of fiber. Slow burning carbs promote consistent blood sugar levels which help to offset fatigue while promoting the release of insulin which is the body's principal anabolic hormone. Women multiply their body weight by two to get their carb gram intake. state. the amount of carbs that should be taken in by multiplying their body weight by three. however. as carbs must replenish depleted glycogen levels before they gain the ability to stimulate fat storage. potatoes.Carbohydrates should be the bulk of your daily caloric intake when you are starting a body building program. . After training. sugar and refined foods such as white bread and white rice . a 200 pound man should consume 600 grams of carbs per day and a 125 pound woman would eat 250 carb grams daily. The resulting insulin spike is a double edged sword. Focus on unprocessed complex carbs like sweet potatoes. Eat about 25% of your daily carbs at this meal. it is also the best time to load up on carbs.typical simple carbs . That number will be the amount of grams that should be consumed daily. and besides your postworkout meal. If you eat too many carbs in one sitting. Along with carbs. Eat some simple carbs after your workout and eat more of them. If you have not been working out. Divide your carb meals into six servings throughout the day. Blood sugar and muscle glycogen levels are low from your overnight fast. This divide and conquer approach stimulates a steady release of insulin to create an anabolic. and brown rice. you must consume enough fiber in your diet. Honey. For men. and aiding in muscle glycogen formation and growth. it can prevent muscle catabolism while promoting anabolism. For example. the net effect is that fat-storing enzymes kick into high hear and you lose than lean and hard look.are digested quickly and easily. These natural complex carbs are made of long "chains" of sugar and are digested very slowly. Breakfast is definitely the most important meal of the day. A high carb intake at your post training meal will have less chance of being stored as fat. Eating fiber makes muscle tissue more responsive to anabolism by improving sugar and amino acid uptake. oatmeal. the intake of simple carbs can stimulate fat storage. Your body must replenish these levels before stimulating the fat storing machinery in the body. whole grain breads.

. For example. and protein is retained in tissue as new muscle is added. If you lose more nitrogen than you consume. your carb intake should decrease. Your body is degrading muscle and other body proteins. On the other hand. you will want to rotate your carb intake. Glucose molecules make up carbohydrates just like amino acids make up proteins. Nitrogen balance is thedifference between the amount of nitrogen taken in and the amount excreted or lost. then 50% more (900g) for the next two days. your body will store them as fat and increase weight gain instead of muscle mass. or have a fever. You usually see this in people who are starving. Watch out. injured. but this schedule works because it lowers muscle glycogen in the first stage (promoting fat loss). The total carb intake is the same.As your day wears on. If you eat carbs late in the day. If you are needing to lose some fat along with building your muscles. if your protein output exceeds intake you would have a negative nitrogen balance. This is not good because the opposite is now happening. Obviously. Protein Another important nutrient every body builder needs is plenty of protein. nitrogen balance is an important concept to keep in mind when talking about proteins. Carb rotation gives you the best of both worlds: decreased fat with no loss of muscle. or muscle building. and replacing tissues. if you consume more than you lose. For body builders. try varying the volume of intake. so your body won't need as much. you will be in an anabolic. and then increases insulin levels (ensuring no loss of muscle) on the final two days. repairing. Bodybuilders who rotate their carb intake tend to lose more fat than bodybuilders who maintain a steady flow of carbs while dieting. your body will break down muscle tissue to get it. burned. instead of eating 600g of carbs every day (the typical daily total for a 200 pound bodybuilder). Eat 50% fewer carbs (300g) for two days. Your energy requirements will also decrease at this time. this is something that you want. Protein is involved in growing. state. then the standard 600g for the next two days. That is made possible because proteins are the basis for body structures. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. This puts your body in what is called a catabolic state. Protein intake exceeds output.

milk 2 T. Saturated fat is bad. To compensate. your body won't grow when it is in a catabolic state. you need to focus on the complete sources rather than those that are incomplete. . The term catabolic refers to the state of the body in which body compounds are broken down for energy purposes. The key to fat intake is to stay away from bad fats and only eat the good fat. you'll need to eat more protein to counteract this effect. A 200 pound body builder. Be aware of the amount of protein you are eating and make them work for you instead of against you. peanut butter 2 slices of cheese 2 slices of whole wheat bread 1 c. When calculating the amount of protein you are eating. steak. beans (legumes) 6 8 9 14 5 5 15 Some people don't feel that loading up on protein is a good idea for anyone. your body cannot break it down very well. you'll need the amino acids in protein to work in your body. therefore. concentrate on the complete sources of protein like meat. and eggs. catabolic means muscle loss. That way. protein can do what it is supposed to do . but if you want to get ripped with your body building program. Many diets have you cutting back on fat and carbohydrate intake. cooked 5 oz. cooked broccoli 1 c.An anabolic state is when your body has a positive nitrogen balance. In body building contexts. These are the fats that contribute to heart disease and high cholesterol. roasted chicken 5 t Protein (in grams) 35 43 43 1 egg 1 c. Because of the chemical composition of saturated fat. you'll still need some fats in your diet. This forces the body to burn more protein for fuel which can put your muscle tissue at risk. Fat combines with glucose for energy in order to spare the breakdown of protein. fish. even when you are building the perfect body. While there are proteins in other foods. Fats are the main source of energy in the body.build muscle. Here's a quick guide to the protein content of some foods: Protein-containing foods 5 oz. your protein intake should increase to 1 1/2 times your bodyweight. Ultimately. would need to eat 200 grams of protein every day to put the body in an anabolic state. Fats Yes. The general rule is to consume daily the same amount of grams in protein as your body weight. If you are dieting while body building.

So basically. Saturated fats elevate blood cholesterol by increasing both the good HDL and the bad LDL. Because they reduce inflammation in the body. Fats are actually an important part of any diet. they are good for the body builder because they help promote muscle recovery which can be important in the body building process. fat. well. Trans fats cause an over activity in the immune system and are linked to stroke. . so they should be limited. seafood. you should stay away from fats like animal lard and use oils such as olive oil or canola oil. and even Type 2 diabetes. Trans fats should also be avoided. Unsaturated fats are in liquid form as in oils. heart disease. as well as egg yolks. Pay close attention to the fat content of any processed foods you are eating and keep it to a minimum or else your body will store that fat as. The easiest way to tell the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats is to look at them. They play an important role in protecting the body's vital organs. They can reduce inflammation. saturated fats are hard and solid. Fats keep the body insulated. This type of fat is often used in commercially processed food because they are preserved longer. You should truly strive to eliminate all trans fats from your diet. At room temperature. and diabetes. joint pain. These fats have a great effect on the cardio system as they work to lower the bad LDL cholesterol in the body. They are also more readily stored as body fat. These fats are most often found in fish and can have some significant health advantages. Unsaturated fats are easier for your body to break down. Elevated levels of LDL can clog arteries and cause heart disease. help prevent cancer growth.Saturated fats are commonly found in animal products such as meat. whole milk dairy products like milk and cheese. Omega 3 Fatty Acids can actually help combat conditions such as depression. fatigue. maintain healthy hair and skin as well as providing a sense of fullness after meals. Probably the best type of fat to have in your diet would be Omega 3 Fatty Acids. Some of them can act as antioxidants that can actually help in losing stored fatty tissue in the body. These fats are found naturally in foods like nuts and avocados. and improve brain function.

Many people like a drink or two or even three to help them unwind and relax. In fact. Alcohol consumption also hurts muscle growth. Because your cells aren't holding as much water. Having higher levels of testosterone can help with your workouts by making you more aggressive. it slows down your metabolism hindering your body's ability to process foods. you will want to pay close attention to the foods you are feeding your body. it dehydrates your muscle cells. Not only will having a hangover lower your workout intensity. it becomes much harder to build muscle. instead of topping with chocolate or candies. but drinking actually lowers protein synthesis by twenty percent. About a 1/2 cup is a good amount. alcohol can have a detrimental effect on your progress. As many know. phosphorus. so consider the following suggestions for keeping your fat intake at a healthy level: • Snack on peanuts instead of chips or candy. But when you are a body builder. just one shot of vodka contains 100 calories! Not only will drinking increase your caloric intake. iron and potassium. hydrated and even over hydrated muscles allows for a much higher anabolic environment. For one. you will not be as intense in your lifting and weight training. • Use olive oil in salad dressings and when cooking • When baking. you must be careful not to overdo on the fats. relaxation and growth including calcium. There are several reasons why it does this. That includes alcohol as well. magnesium. so when those levels are down. but alcohol lowers the amount of testosterone in your body and actually increases estrogen. The second reason why alcohol can severely hurt muscle growth is because it blocks the absorption of many important nutrients that are key to muscle contraction. . It has no nutritional value but it does contain high caloric content. Not only that. consider using nuts and seeds instead • Try making sandwiches with avocado and tuna instead of higher fat lunchmeats • Eat fish at least three times a week to increase your Omega 3 intake • Limit or even eliminate fast food as well as sources of trans fats like commercially processed cookies and cakes When you start on a body building program. Alcohol contains nothing but empty calories.Obtaining sufficient fat in its healthy form is one of the keys to good health and well being and a great body! However.

as it helps remove excess nitrogen. Use artificial sweeteners instead. In other words. you need plenty of water. then you need even more water to help your kidneys do their work. the kidneys can't function properly. Consider the following general tips for your nutritional needs: • Drink skim milk or soy milk • Cut sugar from your diet. and you should. This water is stored in extra cellular spaces. • No regular soda! Diet is better for you anyway and doesn't contain sugar . creating an anabolic environment needed for muscle growth. you won't be doing yourself any good. For this to work properly. Water is good for you anyway. The caffeine can increase fluid loss. it burns less fat. but for body builders. The liver metabolizes stored fat for energy. it can be especially important. the body. water can actually reduce feelings of hunger. drinking water can actually help you shed excess water weight. Water is especially important when following a "high protein" diet. If the liver is doing some of the kidneys' work. When this happens. Water is part of every single metabolic process that the body undertakes. thinking there's a shortage. A good diet is essential to an effective body building program. then you need a basic mega-vitamin. Soda. but if your diet stinks. In addition. if you're training hard. you'll need much more. some of the load is transferred to the liver. You can workout with the intensity of a professional. Many vitamins are water soluble. and tea don't count either. begins hoarding it. coffee. Plus. Without enough water.Probably one of the best things you can do to help your body building workout progress the way you want it to is to drink plenty of water. your skin starts looking soft and puffy. water can help them work. Supplements like creatine work in part because it pulls water in muscle cells. Contrary to popular belief. If you're eating big to gain weight. Body builders need at least a half gallon to a gallon per day depending on the intensity of your workouts. Water flushes out toxins and other metabolic waste products from the body. Most experts recommend everyone drink six to eight glasses of water daily to stay healthy. so you're not getting the hydration you need. and ketones. If you're going to be using supplements in your body building program. urea (a toxic substance). and water unlocks the power of those vitamins. When water is in short supply. For body builders.

• Pizza and hamburgers are a big no-no. Not only are they high in bad fat content, they are highly caloric and can cause you to overeat • Eat lots of fish to increase your levels of Omega 3 fatty acids • Chicken breasts are good for you as well • Allow yourself one cheat day a week where you can indulge in something you've been craving. Just don't overdo it on your cheat days or you can undo all you've accomplished. • Limit the amount of fruit you eat. While fruit is healthy, it can have a detrimental effect on your workout. • Protein and complex carbohydrates are very important • Instead of eating three large meals a day, eat six smaller ones • Don't skip meals • Vegetables are always a good choice at mealtime • When eating out, choose foods wisely. • Avoid most fast food restaurants or opt for healthy choices - remember no burgers! The body is very adaptable to change. At first, you may have problems getting used to your new diet. But once you get used to eating right, you'll find yourself not even craving the foods you used to eat. In case you're a little confused over what and how to eat, consider the following sample meal plans. SAMPLE MEALS Choosing the right way to eat to build muscle can be a little overwhelming. But once you start eating the way you need to, it will become second nature to you. Following is a list of good foods for you to eat in each of the categories you need to concentrate on: Proteins White meat chicken or turkey Canned tuna Canned salmon Fresh Fish Shellfish Eggs Tofu Soy Red meat like steak or roast Complex Carbohydrates Oatmeal Potatoes Yams, Sweet potatoes, Acorn squash Rice Legumes Corn Vegetables All water based types. Lettuce, Cabbage, Spinach Asparagus Bok Choy, Leeks Tomatoes Celery Onions Green Beans Broccoli, Cauliflower, Radish Zucchini Squash Mushrooms Carrots Peas Fruit

1 Apple 1 Orange 1/2 Grapefruit 3 Small Apricots 1 Banana 1/4 Melon 1-Cup Berries, Grapes 1 mango, small papaya Dairy 1 yogurt 1-Cup low fat cottage cheese 1-Cup non-fat milk (I use vanilla soy milk instead!) 1/2 Cup non or low fat cheese Wheat Products 2 slices whole wheat bread 1 bagel 2-Cups pasta Whole wheat tortillas Snack Foods Rice cakes, Non-wheat cereals, Plain popcorn, Raw Vegetables, Nuts, Dried Fruit. A good diet is well-rounded and contains some of each of the food groups. You should also include a supplement in your diet which we will get to in a later section. As we've said, you should be eating 5 or 6 smaller meals every day instead of three large ones. Space your meals about 2 to 2 1/2 hours apart. Try out a few of these meal plans to start out with. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Meal 1 Vegetable omelet (3 egg whites, 1 whole egg, 1 cup veggies) You can also add some chicken or lean beef if you want. Meal 2 One cup yogurt or a protein shake Meal 3 6 oz Chicken Small raw vegetable salad 1 bagel Meal 4 1 piece fruit 3-4 oz Chicken Meal 5 6 oz fish 1 - Cup grilled veggies 1 - Cup brown rice ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Meal 1 3 packs instant oatmeal 1 banana 1 cup of yogurt 1 cup of cottage cheese Meal 2 Protein shake 1 large baked potato Meal 3 8 ounces chicken breast 2 cups pasta 1 apple 1 cup yogurt Meal 4 1 can of tuna 1 - 2 cups broccoli Meal 5 Protein shake 1 cup brown rice Meal 6

8 ounces broiled fish 1 cup veggies 2 cups rice ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Meal 1 Breakfast burrito (3 egg whites, 1 whole egg scrambled, 1 cup onion/green pepper mix, salsa) 1 cup cottage cheese 1 cup berries Meal 2 Protein shake 1 cup raw veggies Meal 3 Salmon burger on whole wheat bun (canned salmon, 1 egg white, onions cooked in a non-stick fry pan) 1 large potato cut into strips, brushed with olive oil, and baked in oven until crispy 1 garden salad drizzled with olive oil and red wine vinegar Meal 4 Protein shake 1 cup yogurt Meal 5 8 ounces chicken breast, cut into chunks, fried in olive oil and seasoned with oregano, garlic salt, and basil 1 cup cooked tomatoes 2 cups pasta 1 cup broccoli/cauliflower mix Meal 6 Protein shake 1 cup melon 1 cup yogurt ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Of course, these are only suggested meal plans. You can mix it up as you want to. It's a good idea to plan ahead and pre-cook your meals. Keep vegetables cut up in the refrigerator so you don't have to work too hard at meal time. There's really no need to measure carefully for the portions suggested. This isn't an exact science! Eyeball your portions and consider the following chart: Portion Size 1 oz. meat Matchbox 3 oz. meat Deck of cards 8 oz. meat Thin paperback book 3 oz. fish Checkbook 1 oz. cheese Four dice 1 med. potato Computer mouse 2 tbsp. peanut butter Ping pong ball 1 cup pasta Tennis ball 1 bagel Hockey puck Recipes are always good to have on hand, so here's a few to try on for size. COOKING FOR MASS You don't have to be a gourmet chef to cook nutritional meals that can complement your body building program. Cooking can be a great way to gain control of your eating and pick what you put into your foods like salt and fat. Meals can be as simple or as complicated as you like. Here are a few recipes to get you started. Cereal Casserole Your favorite cereal Skim milk Honey 1 cup yogurt

Fill half the bowl with cereal. Add milk until it reaches the top of the cereal. Add yogurt. Top with more cereal. Add more milk. Drizzle with honey. Protein Pancakes 1 cup of Oatmeal 11 egg whites 1 whole egg 1 packet of sugar free Jello any flavor Stir all ingredients together in a mixing bowl. Drizzle onto hot non-stick fry pan. Tuna or Salmon Patties 1 can tuna or salmon 1 onion 1 tablespoon of salt 1 teaspoon of pepper 1 teaspoon of parsley 1 whole egg 3 medium potatoes, boiled and mashed Mix potatoes, tuna, onions, salt, pepper and parsley. Shape into patties. Fry in olive oil until brown and heated on both sides. Spicy Chicken Ole 8 ounces chicken breast cut into chunks 1 can diced tomatoes or 2 medium fresh tomatoes diced 1 can spicy chili hot beans 1 medium onion chopped Sauté chicken breast and onions in some olive oil in a frying pan. Stir in tomatoes and chili beans. Cook uncovered for ten minutes. Sprinkle with low-fat shredded Cheddar cheese. Lightning Fast Fajitas 1 lb. flank steak cut in strips or small pieces 1 large green pepper, cut in strips 1 red pepper, cut in strips 1 medium yellow onion, cut in strips 3 cloves pressed garlic 1 tsp chili powder Lemon juice Fresh ground pepper to taste Sauté garlic in a bit of lemon juice for 1 minute in large wok or skillet. Add beef and chili powder and cook until beef is cooked near to the temperature you desire. Add peppers and onions and cook until vegetables are mostly soft, raising the heat for a short time if you like the vegetables slightly charred. Spoon into whole wheat tortillas. Top with salsa or fat-free sour cream if desired. Chicken Cacciatore 2 lbs boneless skinless chicken breast 1 28 oz can crushed tomato 1 chopped onion 1 chopped green pepper 3 pressed garlic cloves 1/4 tsp. thyme 3/4 tsp. salt 1/2 tsp. oregano 1 tbsp. parsley Dash of pepper Cooking spray Spray pan with cooking spray and heat. Brown chicken and set aside. Add chopped onion, green pepper and garlic. Cook until the onion is tender; about 5 minutes. Add crushed tomatoes, parsley, oregano, thyme, salt and pepper. Cook over low for

egg. drained capers Paprika to taste Rinse fish and pat dry. low fat ricotta cheese Salt & pepper to taste 4 boneless. In a separate bowl. Cover and cook over medium heat for 10-20 minutes. frozen spinach. Pour the spaghetti sauce in. Continue to broil for 5 minutes or until zucchini is lightly browned and fish is cooked. Drizzle with lemon juice. salt and pepper in. Broiled Fish Dijon 6 fish filets 1 1/2 lbs small zucchini. or put toothpicks through them. Serve over your favorite type of noodle. 6 servings Stuffed Chicken Breasts 1 chopped onion 1 pkg. ground turkey or beef 1 chopped onion 1 cup chopped portabella mushrooms 1 tsp allspice 1 tsp red pepper flakes Salt & pepper to taste 1 jar spaghetti sauce Brown the meat with the red pepper flakes. Cover with tomatoes and liquid. Serve plain or over brown rice. Pan Broiled Fish 1 lb. Serve. thawed and dried 1 egg lightly beaten 8 oz. Can diced tomatoes w/ basil. Turn fish over. . stir together mustard and garlic. Add browned chicken. stirring occasionally. Top on whole wheat pasta or brown rice if desired. Broil on top rack for 5 minutes. cut lengthwise into halves 1/2 cup lemon juice 2 tbsp. skinless chicken breasts. and cheese mixture in a bowl. Ground Turkey Breast Sauce 1 lb. cover and cook on low for 45 minutes. Optional: Garnish with lemon slices. minced or pressed 2 tbsp. Serve. spinach. Bake at 350 degrees for 30-35 minutes. Sprinkle with paprika and capers. garlic & oregano Arrange fish filets in a single layer in skillet. low-calorie Dijon mustard 1 clove garlic. or until the fish easily flakes with a fork. Tie the chicken breasts together with butchers twine.15 minutes. Add the chopped onion and mushrooms. slice in half and flattened Combine the onion. spread with mustard/garlic mixture. Put the all spice. Fish filets One 14 oz. Arrange fish and zucchini in a single layer in a large pan. Uncover and cook an additional 15 minutes. Put a dollop of the mixture into each chicken breast.

or just use more egg whites. or over some brown rice. Top with lettuce or spinach leaves and second slice of bread. Microwave for approximately 1 minute when ready to serve. Cook to desired texture. yellow mustard Ground black pepper 2 slices 100% whole wheat bread Shredded lettuce or spinach leaves 1/2 can tuna (optional for more protein. Fiery Chicken Deluxe . Add cheese if you like and let it melt after turning the burner off. mustard. Add tuna with an amount of Worcestershire Sauce that you like. low fat mayonnaise 1 tbsp. Add mayo. Mix well and spread over bread. combine rice. You can eat this on some whole-wheat bread. barbeque sauce In large bowl or Tupperware. Chicken. and chicken. Egg Salad Sandwich 3-4 boiled egg whites (may keep 1-2 yolks) 2 tbsp. low fat mayo Ground black pepper 1/2 cup canned peas (rinsed & drained) In medium bowl. combine all ingredients and stir until well-mixed. Worcestershire Tuna 1 can tuna Worcestershire Sauce No-Fat or Low-Fat Cheese (optional) Spray a fry pan with no calorie non-stick cooking spray. plain.Lemon Pepper Tuna 1 can tuna Lemon Pepper Seasoning Spray a fry pan with no calorie non-stick cooking spray.1 cup cooked brown rice 1/4 can red beans 2 tbsp. Cook tuna to desired doneness. This is also good cold. Add tuna and sprinkle with seasoning. Chop egg whites and add to medium bowl. and tuna. beans. Add barbeque sauce and stir together until well-coated. Eat plain or on a bed of pasta. Tuna Casserole 3-4 cups cooked pasta 1-2 cans tuna (drained) 1/2 cup low fat cottage cheese (drained) 1/4 cup shredded low fat cheddar cheese 2 tbsp. Rice & Beans Cooked Shredded Chicken Breast 1/2 . black pepper.

Let it marinate for 25 minutes. stab the red potatoes and cook in the microwave for 4 1/2 minutes or until soft in the middle Take the potatoes out. Add garlic and sauté 1 minute. Place one slice of turkey bacon on each slice of chicken breast. Place one asparagus stick on the top and start rolling it. Three Minute Scallops 1/4 cup dry white wine 2 cloves garlic. and put the green beans in for 2 . add the salt and pepper. minced 1 tsp. rinsed and patted dry. then slap the chicken on and cook for 7 1/2 minutes While the chicken is cooking. Add parsley and lemon juice.8 oz chicken breast Tabasco sauce (or other favorite hot sauce) 2 tsp cayenne pepper 2 tsp crushed. Cover and cook 1 minute. Fresh bay scallops.3 minutes Smash the potatoes and sprinkle on a pinch of salt and the crushed jalapeno peppers Sprinkle the other pinch of salt on the green beans Grilled Chicken Asparagus Rolls 1 chicken breast 2 asparagus sticks 2 slices of low fat turkey bacon 1 tsp Dijon mustard 1 tbsp honey Salt and pepper to taste Once the chicken breast is washed trim the fat from it. use a couple of wooden picks to secure the turkey bacon ensure the picks are placed in such a way the chicken meat maintains its shape around the roll. cayenne pepper. Give the asparagus a quick wash.10 hours (the longer. Makes 2-3 servings Garlic Roasted Vegetables . or bake them for 25 minutes at 375 degrees. Heat wine in a medium skillet over medium heat. Once the roll is ready. Cut chicken into two to four thin slices. Snap off tough ends of asparagus and remove scales with vegetable peeler. then let it sit in the refrigerator for 3 . Put chicken slices in the container. the juicier it will be) This works best with a Foreman-style grill. Pre-heat. depending on how thick you would like your roll to be. Add scallops and cook 1 minute or until scallops turn from translucent to opaque. Dried parsley Juice of 1/2 lemon 1 lb. You can grill rolls than for seven minutes on the electric grill at 375 degrees. dried jalapeno peppers 2 pinch of salt 1 tbsp Cajun rub/spices 1 1/2 cups of frozen green beans 5 oz red potatoes Combine the hot sauce. mustard and honey. salt with chicken in a container and really roll the chicken breast around in the mix.

and carrot. celery. dried fruit bits 1/8 cup celery. sunflower seeds 2 tbsp. and yogurt. and pepper. Cut two 12 in. halibut. peeled and halved 2 medium onions. peeled and quartered 6 parsnips. each fresh dill and parsley Dash of freshly ground pepper Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Bake for 15 minutes. or 3 tbsp. fresh 4 tbsp. Drink. chopped 4 small zucchini. zucchini. Place a piece of fish on each square of foil. Combine with sunflower seeds. Top each piece of fish with tomato. olive oil In the Oven: Preheat oven to 400 F. dried thyme. diced 1/3 cup nonfat yogurt Fresh Leaf Lettuce Dice chicken. julienne 1 cup dry white wine 1 tsp. dried rosemary. Chicken Salad Roll-ups 1 lb. peeled and cut into 6-8 wedges 1 large garlic bulb. Fold foil edges together. Great with meat. Salt and pepper to taste. fruit bits. Spread a little chicken mixture on lettuce leaf and roll up tightly. chicken and fish. fresh. square pieces of foil.6 carrots. Serve immediately. Sprinkle each with wine. chopped 1 green onion. Roast for about 1 hour 20 minutes or until tender. Salt and pepper to taste. skinless chicken. cooked 2 tbsp. On the Grill: Turn barbeque to medium. sealing with a pleat. boneless. and place in mixing bowl. or 3 tbsp. Combine all the vegetables into a tinfoil bag. Roast for about 30 minutes or until tender. broken into cloves and peeled 1 tbsp. julienne 1 carrot. Makes two servings Muscle Building Shake 1 cup ice cubes 3/4 cup egg whites 3/4 cup vanilla soy milk 1 cup frozen strawberries 1/2 banana 1/2 cup cranberry juice Put all ingredients in a blender and blend on high for 30 seconds. Repeat until mixture is used up. drizzle with olive oil and stir to coat. green onion. Workout Energy Salad . Makes two servings Fish in Foil 1/2 lb. peeled and quartered 6 shallots. Combine all the vegetables in roasting pan. herbs. drizzle with oil and stir to coat. or wrap roll-ups in plastic wrap for later use. chopped 1 tbsp. cut in two pieces 1 tomato.

sliced Fresh parsley In large salad bowl. but you do have to be conscious about what you are putting into your body so that you can maximize your workouts. tomato. and pour over salad. cut in strips 1 cup broccoli. Proper nutrition and regular exercise are necessary to help lose weight and improve a state of fitness. The spin-off is less likelihood of developing heart disease. Shake vigorously. combine lettuce. carrots. sliced 1/2 cup mushrooms. basil In a medium-sized salad bowl. Arrange salad on a bed of lettuce leaves. torn into bite-sized pieces 1/3 cup spinach. cucumber. parsley. Garnish with tomato slices and parsley Protein Smoothie 1 cup fat free milk 1 cup fat free vanilla yogurt 1/3 cup frozen blueberries 1/4 cup frozen cherries 1/2 cup Egg Beaters 1 Banana Toss all of the ingredients into a blender and blend until smooth. Weight control . celery. You don't necessarily have to be dieting.1 cup lettuce. and onion. Nutrition is very important when you are trying to build up muscle mass.it's time to make the fitness connection In many cases fitness begins with weight reduction. sliced 3/4 cup sprouts 1/3 cup shredded carrots 1/3 cup sliced mushrooms 1/3 avocado. mushrooms. mix olive oil with lemon juice and herbs. sliced 1 green onion. high blood pressure. cubed 1 tbsp raw sunflower seeds 1 tbsp olive oil 2 tsp lemon juice Dash each of thyme. and shake until thoroughly mixed for the salad dressing. combine steak. green beans. and diabetes. and pepper. cooked and cut 1 stalk celery. In a screw-top jar. mushrooms. sprouts. Muscle Density Broccoli Salad 1/2 pound cooked steak. broccoli. mustard. In a screw-top jar. torn into bite-sized pieces 1/3 cucumber. lemon juice. peeled and sliced 1/3 tomato. Aerobic fitness is related to an individual's body fat. The higher the fat. . cooked and chopped 1 cup green beans. yogurt. and sunflower seeds. spinach. avocado. combine the vinegar. sliced 1/2 tbsp red wine vinegar 1/2 tbsp lemon juice 1/4 cup nonfat yogurt 1/2 tsp mustard 1/4 tsp ground pepper 1/2 head of lettuce 1/2 tomato. the less likely the individual is to be aerobically fit and the harder it is to maintain higher levels of physical stamina and endurance.

Making nutrition work Improving your nutrition will increase your mileage in many ways. dehydration. Stay away from food fads they are usually boring. Compare the benefits of a sound nutrition with the consequences of crash diets. (2) Get motivated. headaches. Invest in yourself. Your nutrition program will include the right number of calories to cause a steady loss of body fat with no loss of energy. exercise routine.. and too strict and will lead only to temporary weight loss. (1) Make a decision to lose weight and shape up. b. You can even lose weight while improving performance. (4) A feeling of pride. Enjoy the payoffs:. (4) Carry out the strategy. lifestyle changes. (2) An improved self-image.a. anxiety and fatigue Sound Nutrition: Improves health Crash Diets: Can cause depression. potential serious illness and a slowdown in your body's metabolism (the rate your body burns calories) Sound Nutrition: Gives a sense of accomplishment Crash Diets: End in eventual weight loss and failure . and so on).. (1) A healthy appearance. Sound Nutrition: Provides all required nutrients Crash Diets: Most often lack some nutrients Sound Nutrition: Gradual loss of body fat (1 to 2 pounds per week) Crash Diets: Rapid loss of body water and muscle mass not body fat Sound Nutrition: Reinforces a good mental outlook Crash Diets: Symptoms of grumpiness. (3) Develop a strategy (diet. (3) A sense of accomplishment. unhealthy.

Sound Nutrition: Develops permanent good eating habits Crash Diets: Encourage unhealthy eating habits of temporary duration

Basic strategy checklist a plan for making the right connection a. Good attitude. Having a good mental attitude is necessary to succeed in any program. To lose weight, a good mental attitude helps self-discipline an important ingredient. b. Sensible nutrition. A diet of adequate essential nutrients is necessary to prevent mental and physical fatigue. Crash diets don't work in a permanent weight control program. c. Regular exercise. Exercise promotes physical fitness. It improves flexibility, strength, endurance and weight loss by speeding up the body's metabolism. It has also been proven to help supress the appetite. d. Diet and exercise master plan. Create your own daily food intake and exercise plan. Keep a record. Make adjustments. You are in control. e. Rest. Adequate rest improves attitude, posture, and appearance. Lack of rest and sleep can weaken resistance and will power. f. A set goal. See a long range objective, then get going by setting easier-to-reach short-term goals. After the first few goals are met, the objective will be in plain view. Balance check If you need to lose weight, it's time to check your energy balance to see what's tilting the scale. When your energy input (calories) is greater than your energy output (activity), you store the extra calories as body fat. To stay in balance: a. Increase exercise (frequency and intensity). b. Decrease calorie intake.

c. Combine exercise with calorie reduction for best results. Obesity risks Excess body fat is harmful to your health. It increases your risk for developing high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, respiratory infections, gall bladder disease, low-back pain, and some forms of cancer. It has further drawbacks in physical appearance and interferes with physical performance. Tailoring a nutrition program a. The best nutrition program is one that allows you to lose body fat while you eat regular wholesome foods in controlled portion sizes. Does your diet include essential nutrients?

Food group day ?

Recommended servings

Your diet per

Milk (8 ozs) 2 Meat (3 ozs) 2 Bread or Cereal (1 slice or 1/2 cup) 4 Vegetables 1/2 cup) 2 Fruits (1 medium or 1/2 cup) 2 Does your diet provide the right amount of calories?

b. Activity factors for weight maintenance include: (1) Weight maintenance. (2) Activity factors: (a) Sedentary. Twelve to 14 calories per pound are required if you are not involved in exercise normally.

(b) Active. Fifteen calories per pound are required when your job involves physical work and/or you are engaged in a regular exercise program.

(c) Highly active. Sixteen to 18 calories are required per pound when very physically demanding work and/or high level of physical training is done routinely. (Most people do not fit in this category). (3) Weight loss. (a) To lose 1 pound of fat per week, subtract 500 calories per day from your calorie maintenance level. (b) To lose 2 pounds of fat per week, subtract 1,000 calories per day. What about calories ? Calories don't deserve a bad name unless your intake is greater than your requirement. Calories are provided by certain nutrients in the foods and beverages consumed.

Nutrient-calories guide Nutrient: Carbohydrate (provides an efficient fuel source for the body.) Calories: 4 per gram Nutrient: Protein (provides material to repair and build tissues.) Calories: 4 per gram Nutrient: Fat (provides essential fatty acids and concentrated energy source for the body.) Calories: 9 per gram

1 Alcohol, while not a nutrient, does provide calories (7 per gram). Vitamins, minerals, water. Nutrient: Vitamins (needed to utilize the food you eat) Calories: 0 Nutrient: Minerals (needed for bones, teeth, and chemical functions) Calories: 0

Nutrient: Water (necessary for life) Calories: 0

Good nutrition - a personal choice The amount of calories you consume depends on the type of food you choose, its preparation, and the amount you eat (PORTION SIZE). Some foods are very concentrated in calories (the portion size is small for the amount of calories it contains). Examples are fats, candy, fried foods, most deserts, and alcohol. These foods are also of low nutrient density they provide few nutrients for the amount of calories provided. High-calorie, low-nutrient foods Food Calories

1 piece of pecan pie 750 1 large apple 80 One-half fried chicken breast 400 One-half baked chicken breast 180 1 potato, French fried 275 1 baked potato 100 One-half cup syrup pack peaches 100 One-half cup unsweetened peaches 50

Portion control a. You'll need to learn to correctly estimate portion sizes in order to ensure adequate nutrition and to control intake. A guide to estimate portion sizes follows: (1) 2 ounces=1 slice meat 3 x 4 inches and 1/4-inch thick (cooked). (2) 3 ounces=1 meat pattie or portion (1/5 of a pound); 3-inch diameter, 1/2-inch thick (cooked). (3) 3 ounces=one-half small chicken breast. (4) 1 ounce=1 small chicken drumstick. (5) 2 ounces=1 chicken thigh (6) 1 ounce=1/4 cup chopped meat (tuna, spagetti meatsauce, chili, ground meat)

Avoidance is one means of control.a memo to the cook for cutting calories during food preparation a. sauces. broil. however. and dry beans group. But if you plan your diet. The meat.Equal measurements 1 cup = 8 ounces 1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons 1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons 1 ounce = 40 grams 1 liter = 34 ounces . unsweetened lowfat yogurt or blenderized lowfat cottage cheese in recipes that call for sour cream or mayonnaise. you can include a favorite high calorie food item as a special occasional treat. bake.7 liter = 24 ounces . and diet according to your plan. fish. Braise in covered pan on stove top or pan broil in a nonstick pan. You have to make and follow your own rules according to your ability to control what you eat. b. piece of candy. (3) Remove skin from chicken or turkey. poultry. (2) Substitute plain. and add spices to enhance flavors. (1) TRIM fat from meat. . Good cookin' for good lookin . For them trying to eat just a cookie. poultry or fish without adding fat. Many people. or sparerib is too tempting.2 liter = 7 ounces There is no single food that is so high in calories that a small amount cannot be eaten occasionally. (2) Roast. soups.5 liter = 17 ounces . The milk and cheese group. Cook meats on rack so that fat can drain off. (1) Use skim or lowfat milk in recipes when making puddings. The urge to eat the whole thing becomes too great. or simmer meat. have a particular food obsession that must be recognized. and baked products.

boil. However. The bread and cereal group. If the meat has been fried (southern style chicken. b. Check nutrition information label for total calories in each portion. (1) Steam. butter. (One-fourth cup creamy dressing is approximately 340 calories!) (4) Read nutrition information labels on food packages. Cut way back on regular salad dressings. (3) Check ingredient labels for fat and sugar content. sauces. With a spoon or knife. Crispcooked vegetables usually don't require as much seasoning as overcooked vegetables. or baked rather than fried potatoes. (1) Use less fat and sugar than called for in recipes. (2) Avoid recipes for baked products that require large amounts of fat and sugar. most restaurants have them. (4) Use diet margarine or plain yogurt on baked potatoes instead of margarine. Request diet salad dressing. Dining tips a. Avoid gravies. or lemon juice for your salad. d. and deep-fried food. Season with herbs and spices. (3) Try lemon juice or vinegar on salads. (2) Go easy on sauces. or sour cream. avoid those prepared in cream . remove the coating and eat only the meat. Substitute lower calorie ingredients. and margarine. steamed. butter. The vegetable and fruit group. c. broil. skim or peel fat off and discard. vinegar. d. c. schnitzel).(4) Chill meat broth until fat turns light and solid on top. Remove all the visible fat from the meat. Starchy foods are not fattening when consumed in moderate quantities. (5) Have boiled. or bake vegetables. Some fruits may be broiled or heated with spices added for flavor.

f. or spaghetti are good potato substitutes. 12 oz. pastry. Keep a food diary and monitor your own intake. 11/2 oz. rice. Follow these tips to lose weight and body fat. cookies. macaroni. (1/2 cup) Hard liquor. jam. pies. (8) Plan snacks. Lowfat milk is also a nutritious choice. Try a slice of lemon or lime in a glass of ice water. European beer. or delicious low-calorie raw vegetables. c. 1/2 liter Cocktails. Plan your food intake and abide by your plan. if you must. g. black coffee.25 litre (8 oz. (1) Eat S-L-O-W-L-Y (2) Consume less fat. sugar. Carry individually packaged sugar substitutes to sweeten beverages.sauces or deep-fried. ice cream. For example.) Food Calories 160 250 165 110 200 300 Educate your appetite a. These are sources of concentrated calories that quickly cause your total intake to skyrocket in just a few bites.6 oz. gelatin. 4. honey. unsweetened sodas. e. b. Always check your intake for balanced nutrition and total calories.25 liter (8 oz. and mineral water add no calories to your diet. and other sweets. (5) Take smaller bites (6) Chew food thoroughly (7) Eat at least three regular meals per day. regular soda. If you MUST have a snack. jelly. . (3) Take smaller portions (4) Consume less sugar.) Sweet wine. have fresh fruits. noodles. jigger Dry wine. . Also. USE SPARINGLY. baked potatoes with a small amount of sour cream or margarine is a good choice. cakes. Low-calorie beverages. Alcohol calories American beer. a few crackers or pretzels. . candy. Avoid rich desserts.

especially in snack foods. Each teaspoon supplies an additional 20 calories. 1 ounce package 180 Chocolate candy. or sugared beverage. Lower in sugar. 160 French fries. 2 scoops 200 Potato or corn chips. Lower in fat. 2 tbs 170 Cashews.a personal choice Instead of Calories Substitute with 232 Calories 100 1 cup sweetened applesauce Unsweetened applesauce . 12 ozs. creamed. soda. 1 cup 223 Beer (European).d. Weight control . 1/2 liter 250 Creamy salad dressing.) 840 Coke. 20 pieces (2? x 1/2?) 275 Fruit pie (1/6th of 9-inch pie) 410 Pecan pie (1/6th of 9-inch pie) 750 Cheesecake (1/6th of 9-inch pie) 800 Ice cream. 25 nuts 188 Easy ways to save calories One sure way to save calories without reducing PORTION SIZE is to choose foods that are: a. Become aware of how many calories you're consuming. (Each teaspoon supplies an additional 45 calories). b. 1 cup 100 Big Mac 557 Quarter-pounder with cheese 521 AAFES jumbo cheeseburger 654 Cottage cheese. 1/4 cup 340 Salted nuts: Peanuts. Sample calorie chart Food Calories Chocolate milkshake ( 8 oz. 25 nuts 252 Mixed. 1 ounce 150 Grapefruit or orange juice.

Eating should be a source of enjoyment and satisfaction and not substitute for feelings of boredom.118 strawberries ries One-half cup oil-pack tuna 158 Water-pack tuna 126 One-half cup syrup-pack 90 Drained/rinsed canned fruit 50 canned fruit 2 tablespoons mayonnaise 120 2 tablespoons mustard 24 4 tablespoons regular salad 300 4 tablespoons diet salad 80 dressing dressing 1 piece fruit pie 410 1 piece fresh fruit 80 Some final advice a. or Gosh. so why lose weight? b. think of it as something you have chosen to do. Don't be angry that you have to lose weight. big bones. Neufchatel cheese 70 1 cup vanilla ice cream 257 One-half cup vanilla ice cream 129 1 cup whole milk 170 Skim milk 80 3 oz.3 oz. You may be a good athlete now. beef bologna 237 Lean ham 103 1 oz. Get motivated. it will be easy to give up these typical excuses. anger. Occupy your time with other activities not related to food. Make up your mind to control food instead of letting food control you. Forget those old excuses: But I've got a large frame you know. This is important if you plan on being successful at losing weight. Dieting is up to you if you are willing to try. natural Swiss or cheddar 110 Part-skim milk mozzarella 90 cheese 1 cup cream-style cottage 223 Low-fat (1%) cottage cheese 125 cheese 1 oz. or Everyone in my family is big it's hereditary. If you're serious about losing weight. or I can still workout OK. dry salami 384 Canned chicken 153 1 cup sour cream 454 Low-fat yogurt 123 One-half cup frozen sweetened 139 Frozen unsweetened strawber. . c. cream cheese 106 1 oz. or discouragement. Try not to be food centered. I haven't weighed 180 pounds since I was 15 years old. loneliness. but you want to strive to be the best.

To make sure you get all the nutrients and other substances you need for health. Cereals. so choose a variety of whole and enriched grains. and oats) should form the foundation of a nutritious diet. h. carbohydrates (starch and dietary fiber). Breads. g. and other substances that are important for good health. . in preparation. minerals. Construct new habit patterns. Make meals as pleasant as possible even if you are cutting down on what you eat. Rice. rice. build a healthy base by using the Food Guide Pyramid (Figure 14-1) as a starting point. overeating hurts no one but yourself. remember. pause halfway through meals and don't stuff yourself. Your body is adjusting to your new eating habits and changes are taking place. Eating plenty of whole grains. or at the table. Don't be discouraged by weight plateaus (periods when no weight loss occurs despite your dieting and exercise efforts). slow down. Remember all the work it took to get you to your desired weight. i. For best results. and Pasta Group: Foods made from grains (wheat. Choose the recommended number of daily servings from each of the five major food groups. You are always responsible for what you are eating. Different foods contain different nutrients and other healthful substances. If you need extra help with your diet contact the nutrition clinic at your nearest treatment facility. Whole grains differ from refined grains in the amount of fiber and nutrients they provide. enjoy flavors. You should consume at least 6-11 servings daily from the base of the pyramid. Don't cheat. No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amounts you need. For an exercise plan the physical therapy clinic at your nearest medical treatment facility is an excellent resource. They provide vitamins. Make your meals last longer. Don't let this be wasted effort. such as whole wheat bread or oatmeal may help protect you against many chronic diseases. unless fat is added in processing. and different whole grain foods differ in nutrient content. Stick with it! f.d. e. Grain products are low in fat. combine dietary plans with regular exercise Build a healthy base by eating a variety of foods.

or cooked fruit. and yellow vegetables. The best choices from this food group are bran cereals. make sure that it is not mostly sugar and contains a good amount of vitamins and minerals. cantaloupe. carrots. Drinking a glass of fruit juice for breakfast is a convenient way to get half of the minimum daily servings. in addition to providing vitamins and minerals. Choose dark green. strawberries. or pasta is about the same size as your fist. and celery are mostly fiber and water with very little calories. whole wheat). Other good choices are citrus fruits. you should strive for 3-5 servings per day from this group. and stoned wheat and whole grain crackers. A 3/4 cup of vegetable juice also constitutes a serving from this group. green peppers. collards. and dried fruit. orange. To ensure that you get essential vitamins and minerals. don't overcook. If you choose fruit juice. Two to four servings of fruits are recommended each day. A serving size of raw or cooked vegetables is only 1/2 cup. which is much smaller than the regular salad served with a restaurant dinner. Juice that you can see through . also provides fiber. kiwi.Consuming the recommended daily intake is not difficult if you understand serving sizes. the more likely it is to have large amounts of vitamins and minerals. A 1/2 cup of vegetables is about the size of a tennis ball. canned. steamer. The darker the vegetable. A 1/2 cup of fruit is about the same size as a tennis ball. such as cucumbers. Breakfast is a good opportunity to eat some fruit. oat bran. iceberg lettuce. Cook in a microwave. A 3/4 cup of fruit juice equals one serving. low fat bagels (pumpernickel. rye. bananas. Brussels sprouts. A serving size for the fruit group is one piece of medium sized fruit or melon wedge. whole grain breads and rice. or winter squash are the best choices. vitamins. whole grain muffins (bran. A variety of different vegetables should be consumed to ensure that you receive a variety of nutrients. tomatoes. or wok only until tender crisp. Vegetables are nature's vitamins. cereal. One cup of leafy raw vegetables is also a serving size. Vegetable Group: The vegetable group is one area where many people regularly fail to consume enough. cauliflower. Broccoli. Fruit Group: The fruit group. corn and oat bran). or a 1/2 cup of chopped. and most people eat more. spinach. To maximize the vitamin and mineral content of your vegetables. The lighter colored vegetables. or minerals. A 1/2 cup of cooked rice.

However. and yogurt. peanut butter. poultry. Milk. this group can contain large amounts of fat as well. sour cream. which can't be made by the body. A serving size of cooked fish. a 1/2 cup of natural cheese (Cheddar or Swiss). so you may not get your daily requirement for the essential nutrients. while fat provides essential fatty acids like linoleic acid (part of every cell membrane). however. Eggs. Like the milk group. Foods from this group should be chosen in moderation because they often replace nutrient dense foods. and yogurt. vitamins. a 1/2 cup of cooked dry beans. 1 ounce of cheese is about the size of four dice. or 1/3 cup of nuts. The serving sizes typically consumed greatly exceed the nutritional requirement. and beans. it does not mean that you should never eat these items. low-fat cheese. and Cheese Group: These dairy products are a great source of protein. including cheese. For example. Oils. 1 egg. or cranberry juice) usually contains more processed sugar than one that you cannot see through (orange juice. Poultry. 2 tablespoons of peanut butter. a typical chicken breast (8 oz) equals 2 servings (and about 50 grams of protein) while the 16-ounce steak at your favorite restaurant equals 4 servings (and about 120 grams of protein) from this group. Many no-fat or low-fat dairy products are available. fiber. Fish. or prune juice). peach nectar. Top choices are 1% or skim milk. Meat. The milk group. The recommended number of servings per day for this group is 2-3. or protein. A better food preparation choice is baking. can also contain a large amount of fat. grape. or grilling. and is easily attainable. and Nuts Group: The Meat and Beans Group is very important for obtaining protein. Sweets add taste and flavor. a 2 1/2 ounce soyburger. Two to three servings from this group are required each day. chicken. and minerals. no vitamins. water. minerals. Fats. vitamins. Most fats and sugars are nutrient poor. Quick and easy choices include canned tuna. Most people are at one extreme or the other by consuming too much or not enough from this group. frying food in fat (cooking oil) once in a while is all right.(apple. and minerals (fortified by law) especially calcium and riboflavin. For this reason. roasting. Dry Beans. they are referred to as empty calories. however. lentil soup. . Yogurt. milk. This means that they provide nothing to the body except calories. and Sweets Group: At the top of the food pyramid are the items that should be eaten in moderation. One cup of milk or yogurt. Foods from this group are still an important part of a performance diet. or 2 ounces of processed cheese (American) is considered a serving size. or red meat is 2 to 3 ounces (the size of a regular deck of playing cards).

but choose sensibly. cream. However. walnuts. butter. Food processing tends to remove vitamins. and cheese from the milk group. and fiber and add undesirable or questionable additives. notice that many of the meals and snacks you eat contain items from several food groups. increase the risk for coronary heart disease by raising the blood cholesterol. low fat doesn't always mean low calorie. for example. or a cup of low-fat milk or yogurt for a snack. Sometimes extra sugars are added to low-fat muffins or desserts. fiber. Some kinds of fat. minerals. Fats supply energy and essential fatty acids. turkey from the meat and beans group. and carotenoids.Top choices from this group include olive oil. Try fruits. There are no suggested servings for the top of the pyramid because you always have plenty of opportunity to add these to their diet without even trying. Also. Choose natural or less processed foods whenever possible. Your pattern of eating is also important. unsaturated fats (found mainly in vegetable oils) do not increase blood cholesterol. You need some fat in the food you eat. Fat intake in the United States as a proportion of total calories is lower than it was many years ago. and they may be just as high in calories. and . or lean meat. If you choose fish. and K. and proteins in food supply energy. When eating out. High-fat foods contain more calories than the same amount of other foods. The Nutrition Facts Label will state the number of grams of fat and sugar as well as protein. which is a better choice than apple juice. Choose them wisely. D. whole milk. whole grain foods. ask that it be grilled rather than fried. vegetables. Saturated Fats: Foods high in saturated fats tend to raise blood cholesterol. and sodium. fats. a sandwich may provide bread from the grains group. which is measured in calories. An apple is a better choice than applesauce. especially saturated fats. These foods include high-fat dairy products (like cheese. but most people still eat too much saturated fat. molasses. and they help absorb the fat-soluble vitamins A. Snacks and meals eaten away from home provide a large part of daily calories for many people. so they can make it difficult for you to avoid excess calories. Whole grain (wheat) bread is usually a better choice nutritionally than white bread. berry jams. which is a better choice than apple pie. In contrast. which is a better choice than potato chips. or a favorite dessert. E. A baked potato is a better choice than mashed potatoes. Eating lots of fat of any type can provide excess calories. CHOOSE SENSIBLY The carbohydrates. poultry. For example. choose small portions of foods.

Vegetable oils such as soybean oil. Some fish. palm oil. . and mackerel. These foods include those high in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. or lentils often. Poultry. Trim fat from meat and take skin off poultry. contain omega-3 fatty acids that are being studied to determine if they offer protection against heart disease. and fatty fish like salmon. and dairy fats. fatty fresh and processed meats. or nuts daily.regular ice cream). salami.Limit your intake of high-fat processed meats such as bacon. Unsaturated Fats: Unsaturated fats (oils) do not raise blood cholesterol. These foods include liver and other organ meats. sausages. peas. Dietary Cholesterol: Foods that are high in cholesterol also tend to raise blood cholesterol. Use moderate amounts of food high in unsaturated fats. tuna. egg yolks. canola. Choose dry beans. Meat. most nuts. Following the tips listed below will help you keep your intake of saturated fat at less than 10 percent of your total calories: Fats and Oils . lean poultry. and other cold cuts. Unsaturated oils include both monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. Trans Fatty Acids: Foods high in trans fatty acids tend to raise blood cholesterol. and cottonseed oil and many kinds of nuts are good sources of polyunsaturated fats. . beans. lard. Unsaturated fats occur in vegetable oils. and coconut oil. and peanut oils are some of the oils high in monounsaturated fats. sunflower. such as many hard margarines and shortenings. Olive. shellfish. shortening). .Choose vegetable oils rather than solid fats (meat and dairy fats. corn oil. decrease the amount of fat you use in cooking and at the table. avocados. Try the lower fat varieties (check the Nutrition Facts Label).If you need fewer calories. Shellfish. the skin and fat of poultry. Keep your intake of these foods low. such as salmon. Foods with a high amount of these ingredients include some commercially fried foods and some bakery goods. olives. and Nuts .Choose 2 to 3 servings of fish. Eggs. other lean meats. bologna. taking care to avoid excess calories. Beans. Fish.

Check the Nutrition Facts Label to see how much saturated fat and cholesterol are in a serving of prepared food. Dairy Products . fruits. Choose foods lower in saturated fat and cholesterol. cereals. In the United States. Foods at Restaurants or Other Eating Establishments . and cheese. Limit ground meat and fatty processed meats.Limit your intake of liver and other organ meats. This decreases the saturated fat and calories but keeps all other nutrients the same. During digestion all carbohydrates except fiber break down into sugars. . Try switching from whole to fat-free or low-fat milk. . breads. Examples of these foods include milk. The body cannot tell the difference between naturally occurring and added sugars because they are identical chemically.Limit your intake of foods with creamy sauces. the number one source of added sugars is nondiet soft drinks (soda or pop). Dietary carbohydrates also include the complex carbohydrates starch and dietary fiber.Choose fruits as desserts most often.Choose fish or lean meats as suggested above. Foods containing added sugars provide calories. some vegetables. fat-free or low-fat yogurt. and low-fat cheese most often. Sugars are carbohydrates and a source of energy (calories).Use egg yolks and whole eggs in moderation. and add little or no butter to your food. not the naturally occurring sugars in foods like fruit or milk. . . marbled steaks. but may have few vitamins and minerals.. Sugars and starches occur naturally in many foods that also supply other nutrients. and grains. Use egg whites and egg substitutes freely when cooking since they contain no cholesterol and little or no fat. CHOOSE BEVERAGES/FOODS THAT MODERATE YOUR INTAKE OF SUGARS.Choose fat-free or low-fat milk. Prepared Foods . Added sugars Added sugars are sugars and syrups added to foods in processing or preparation.

Your preference for salt may decrease if you gradually add smaller amounts of salt or salty seasonings to your food over a period of time. There is no way to tell who might develop high blood pressure from eating too much salt. consuming less salt or sodium is not harmful and can be recommended for the healthy. also are high in vitamins and minerals. Salt is found mainly in processed and prepared foods. At present. Only small amounts of salt occur naturally in foods. and sweetened canned fruits. like soft drinks. . Consuming excess calories from these foods may contribute to weight gain or lower consumption of more nutritious foods. Eating less salt may decrease the loss of calcium from bone. High salt intake also increases the amount of calcium excreted in the urine. Never stop learning about your diet and what you put into your body. cakes and cookies. You may be able to reduce your chances of developing high blood pressure by consuming less salt. Not all foods with added salt taste salty. Loss of too much calcium from bone increases the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. and fruit drinks and fruitades are also major sources of added sugars. normal person. However. presweetened cereals. like chocolate milk. You will face no nutritional deficiencies. Some people add salt or a salty seasoning to their food at the table.Sweets and candies. The reasons for switching to a vegetarian lifestyle are many. you need to go into it with as much information as you can. Salt (sodium chloride) is the main source of sodium in foods. Some foods with added sugars. There is no nutrient necessary for optimal human functioning which cannot be obtained from plant food or additional supplimentation. is of concern. VEGETARIANISM Becoming a vegetarian is a lifestyle choice that you have to make for yourself. and some cooking styles call for adding a very salty seasoning such as soy sauce. but when you do decide to switch to a meatless diet. the firmest link between salt intake and health relates to blood pressure. Some recipes include table salt or a salty broth or sauce. Choose and prepare foods with less salt. Intake of a lot of foods high in added sugars. Most of the salt you eat comes from foods that have salt added during food processing or during preparation in a restaurant or at home. These foods may provide extra calories along with the nutrients and are fine if you need the extra calories.

in secondary consumption of antibiotics. Being higher on the food chain. The dangers herein. seeds. etc. including sterols. Consists mainly of raw fruit. herbicides. You might be surprised to know that there are many different types of vegetarians. These drugs are consumed when animal foods are consumed. shellfish or crustacean. with or without free-range eggs. The diet progresses through ten levels. Plants do not contain cholesterol. fish. particularly saturated fats.000 different drugs. Vegetarians live on a diet of grains.Animal foods are higher in fat than most plant foods. including pesticides. milk and milk products. Whatever your reason for wanting or not wanting to become a vegetarian. . though each level gradually eliminates animal products. fish. • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: Eats both dairy products and eggs. I have included this section for your personal choice. growth hormones and other veterinary drugs that are given to livestock animals. • Lacto-vegetarian: Eats dairy products but not eggs. • Macrobiotic: A diet followed for spiritual and philosophical reasons. A vegetarian does not eat any meat. Vegetarians not eating anything containing dairy products or eggs are called vegans. antibiotics. • Vegan: Does not eat dairy products. • Fruitarian. The highest levels eliminate fruit and vegetables. poultry. A type of vegan diet where very few processed or cooked foods are eaten. nuts. or any other animal product. are well documented. eventually reaching the level of a brown rice diet. eggs. Being healthier on a vegetarian diet means spending less on health care. game. vegetables and fruit. Aims to maintain a balance between foods seen as ying (positive) or yang (negative). becoming increasingly restrictive. Not all levels are vegetarian. Fruitarians believe only plant foods that can be harvested without killing the plant should be eaten. or slaughter by-products such as animal fats. This is the most common type of vegetarian diet. animal foods contain far higher concentrations of agricultural chemicals than plant foods. Vegetarian foods tend to cost less than meat based items. The list can go on and on. There are over 20. WHAT IS A VEGETARIAN ? A vegetarian is someone who does not eat meat. poultry or any slaughterhouse by-product such as gelatin. grains and nuts.

The meat was cleaned and cured without chemicals or preservatives. The women would grow huge gardens that would provide the rest of the nutrition. but also how it was processed for human consumption. Somewhere along the way. people survived on what they could grow or kill. They were freaked out by the thought of consuming something that at one time could look them in the eye. There really is no single vegetarian eating pattern as you can see from the definitions above. The reasons people choose to eat vegetarian are as varied as the types of vegetarian diets. big business began changing the way food was not only distributed. Back then. cows. though in other cases it may simply mean a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. many years ago. . Persons consuming fish but no meat are sometimes called pescetarians. Demi-vegetarian is a term sometimes used to describe persons who eat no or little meat but may eat fish. Many. Vegetables and fruits were canned and saved for the winter at the hands of the settlers themselves. The terms common or broad vegetarian may be used to refer to lacto-ovo-vegetarians. the food was pure and unprocessed. The term strict vegetarian may refer to a vegan diet.Other terms can be used in describing various vegetarian diets. In fact. That includes chicken. though their exact meaning can differ. WHY GO VEGETARIAN? I've heard some people say that they chose to eat vegetarian because they couldn't bear to eat anything that once had a face. Men would kill deer. but not fish. and pigs to provide food for their families. because choosing to eat as a vegetarian is such a personal decision. Most people agree that the basic definition of a vegetarian is a person who doesn't eat meat. Others don't like the thought of eating something that was killed in a violent way such as in a slaughterhouse. there are some foods you may want to include in your diet that don't fit into the pigeonhole category of vegetarian or vegan. New advances in chemicals allowed food to be stored for longer periods of time when they were canned for mass production.

They have decided that eating pure and natural foods instead of processed foods are the way to go. surveys were taken. These two instances . Plus.is often associated with higher risks of heart ailments. Cows and pigs are taken to a slaughterhouse where they use a variety of methods to bring about the death of the animal. some meat processors even inject beef with a red dye to make it look more appealing to the consumer. elevated blood pressure. Some of us still don't have much concern over our processed foods.the way animals are killed and the preservatives put into the meat . Horror stories include bashing the beast in the head or giving them a shot to the brain abound. Many experts have said that eating red meat will clog your arteries faster than any other food you might consume.are reason enough for some people to give up meat. Once they are killed.for anyone! Many animals are also infected with diseases due to poor living conditions.Initially. the meat is often injected with preservatives that allow it to be transported and make sure it will keep during the journey. It is a lot cheaper to buy vegetarian foods instead of meat. people just accepted the fact that processed foods were a way of life. Then concern began to arise as to how safe these foods really were. . Studies were conducted. even before the animals are sent to a slaughterhouse. This can't be healthy . and other diseases. In fact. Mad cow disease is a very real illness that causes dire circumstances even death. and results were published that indicated some of these processing procedures weren't as safe as originally thought. their diet consists of chemically processed feed and eating plants and grass that are treated with various pesticides. It's true that the way we process meats can begin in a not so pleasant way. They are also often injected with artificial hormones to increase meat production. Another good reason is that meat is expensive. but others have taken a different turn. They didn't pay much attention to the fact that chemicals were being used to store these foods and went blissfully about their daily lives. Meat .especially red meat . Let's look at some common reasons people give for eating meatless meals.

provide a wider range of nutrients. GETTING ENOUGH NUTRITION Human beings need certain nutrients to live and thrive. and imposes fewer burdens and impurities on the body. make less frequent visits to a doctor. Certain components of food help our bodies not only operate more efficiently. It's just a more productive and less invasive way to eat that gives way more benefits than not. and vitamins are all contained in our foods. Whatever the reason. Vegetarians are less susceptible to major diseases that afflict present-day society. calcium. there can be little doubt that eating a vegetarian diet is a healthier way to eat. and enjoy very productive lives. A vegetarian diet is healthy because it is typically low in saturated and total fat. and their physical appearance is better. Their immune system is stronger. they live longer. Time magazine reports that it takes up the following resources just to make one hamburger: • 2 pounds of grain feed • 55 square feet of grazing land • 210 gallons of water Of course.Vegetarians also worry about the amount of natural resources that are required in raising meat for food. They include: . most people choose a vegetarian diet for health reasons. but keep us from getting sick. A huge myth among non-vegetarian eaters is that vegetarians are not able to get enough nutrients without meat products. This is simply not true. There are six food groups in the vegetarian diet. Protein. Medical studies have proven that a vegetarian diet is easier to digest. fewer dental problems. As a result. their bodies are more refined. and thus smaller medical bills. Vegetarians have fewer physical complaints. high in dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates and high in protective minerals and vitamins present in fresh fruit and vegetables. How do vegetarians get these nutrients if they are cutting out foods that provide them? A well balanced vegetarian diet can provide all the nutrients your body needs and there is much scientific evidence to indicate vegetarians may be healthier than meat-eaters. are healthier.

it is worth remembering that everything you eat gives you a whole range of essential nutrients. barley.tofu. men need about 55g (more if very active). Still. • Dairy products or Soya products . flour. How do vegetarians get ample protein in their diets? From the following sources: • Nuts: hazels. fat. barley. etc. sesame seeds. potassium and phosphorous). lactating or very active). • Fruit & vegetables. chick peas. millet. proteins. soya milk. maize. and E. pasta etc). Carbohydrate. tempeh. Potatoes are a useful cereal alternative. tempeh. Protein is very important in the diet. beans. Evidence suggests that excess protein contributes to degenerative diseases. maize (sweet corn). almonds.kidney beans. All these nutrients can be easily obtained by vegetarians from other sources. • Vegetable oils and fats . • Nuts & Seeds . • Pulses .margarine or butter. lentils. Nutrients are usually divided into five classes: carbohydrates. hazelnuts.• Cereals/grains . brazils. Meat supplies protein. rice. oats. walnuts. • Seeds: sesame. • Pulses: peas. Most foods contain a mixture of nutrients (there are a few exceptions. pine kernels etc. vitamins and minerals. zinc.wheat (bread & pasta). fat and protein are usually called macro-nutrients and the vitamins and minerals are usually called micro-nutrients. veggie burgers. from about 250g of carbohydrate a day to less than two micrograms of vitamin B12. and the mineral iodine. D. fats (including oil). oats. sunflower seeds. in addition to the above. Fish. rye. Women need about 45g of protein a day (more if pregnant. although they are needed in varying quantities. textured vegetable protein. • Grains/cereals: wheat (in bread. linseeds. etc. rye. • Soya products: tofu. etc. sunflower. pumpkin. like pure salt or sugar) but it is convenient to classify them by the main nutrient they provide. supplies vitamins A. baked beans. peanuts. lentils.almonds. soya protein etc. . some B vitamins and minerals (mostly iron. We also need fiber and water. walnuts. rice. All are equally important to our well-being. cashews.

as long as our diet is generally varied and well-balanced.g. Contrary to previous . millet. There are three main types: simple sugars. cheese. You have may have heard that it is necessary to balance the complementary amino acids in a vegetarian diet. but eight cannot be made.• Dairy products: milk. muesli. buckwheat. porridge. Refined sources of sugar are best avoided as they provide energy without any associated fiber. they have to be provided in the diet and so they are called essential amino acids. but when we mix plant foods together. Most of our carbohydrates are provided by plant food. pasta. The exact amount of carbohydrate that you need depends upon your appetite and also your level of activity. yoghurt (butter and cream are very poor sources of protein). A healthy diet should contain plenty of these starchy foods as a high intake of complex carbohydrate is now known to benefit health. or rice and peas. quiche. The World Health Organization recommends that 50-70% of energy should come from complex carbohydrates. This is not as alarming as it sounds. The unrefined carbohydrates. A few examples are beans on toast. The sugars or simple carbohydrates can be found in fruit. • Free range eggs. Single plant foods do not contain all the essential amino acids we need in the right proportions. Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy. We mix protein foods all the time. milk and ordinary table sugar. macaroni cheese. like whole meal bread and brown rice are best of all because they contain essential dietary fiber and B vitamins. barley. Complex carbohydrates are found in cereals/grains (bread. e. rye) and some root vegetables. vitamins or minerals and they are also the main cause of dental decay. We can make many of them in our bodies by converting other amino acids. whether we are meat-eaters or vegetarians. Amino acids are the units from which proteins are made. we don't have to worry about complementing amino acids all the time. There are 20 different ones in all. Even those foods not considered high in protein are adding some amino acids to this pool. complex carbohydrates or starches and dietary fiber. It is now known that the body has a pool of amino acids so that if one meal is deficient. Adding dairy products or eggs also adds the missing amino acids. oats. it can be made up from the body's own stores. any deficiency in one is cancelled out by any excess in the other. such as potatoes and parsnips. Because of this. It is a normal part of the human way of eating. rice.

called fatty acids.belief a slimming diet should not be low in carbohydrates. like sunflower or safflower oil are unstable at high temperatures. fats are made of smaller units. orange or yellow vegetables like carrots and tomatoes. It is added to most margarines. nuts & seeds. linoleic and linolenic acids. as it is now termed. such as olive oil or peanut oil. Fiber can be found in unrefined or wholegrain cereals. Dietary fiber or non-starch polysaccharide (NSP). B6 (pyridoxine). This is no problem as they are widely found in plant foods. B3 (niacin). Two of these fatty acids. but a little is necessary to keep our tissues in good repair. A high intake of saturated fat can lead to a raised blood cholesterol level and this has been linked to heart disease. are termed essential as they must be provided in the diet. In fact starchy foods are very filling relative to the number of calories that they contain. A good intake of dietary fiber can prevent many digestive problems and protect against diseases like colon cancer and diverticular disease. . Animal fats (including butter and cheese) tend to be more saturated than vegetable fats. • B Vitamins: This group of vitamins includes B1 (thiamin). The main vegetarian sources are listed below: • Vitamin A (or beta carotene): Red. We also need fiber in our diets to keep our bodies regular and eliminate waste effectively. for the manufacture of hormones and to act as a carrier for some vitamins. or in sufficient quantities. refers to the indigestible part of a carbohydrate food. pantothenic acid and biotin. The one thing they have in common is that only small quantities are needed in the diet. B12 (cyanocobalmin). fruit (fresh and dried) and vegetables. Like proteins. leafy green vegetables and fruits like apricots and peaches. Vegetable fats tend to be more unsaturated and this is one of the benefits of a vegetarian diet. pulses and green vegetables. Too much fat is bad for us. are best used for frying as the poly-unsaturated fats. folate. B2 (riboflavin). Fats can be either saturated or unsaturated (mono-unsaturated or poly-unsaturated). All the B vitamins except B12 occur in yeasts and whole cereals (especially wheat germ). Vitamin is the name for several unrelated nutrients that the body cannot synthesize either at all. with the exception of palm oil and coconut oil. Mono-unsaturated fats.

It is also added to most margarine and is present in milk. It is sensible for vegans and vegetarians who consume few animal foods to incorporate some B12 fortified foods in their diet. all leafy green vegetables and potatoes. bread. dried fruits (especially apricots and figs). veggie burgers and some breakfast cereals. • Vitamin C: Fresh fruit. Vitamin D helps calcium to be absorbed. soya milks. • Vitamin E: Vegetable oil. Vegetable sources of iron are not as easily absorbed as animal sources. molasses. dried fruits.Vitamin B12 is the only one that may cause some difficulty as it is not present in plant foods. . Minerals perform a variety of jobs in the body. cereals and bacterial synthesis in the intestine. wholegrain cereals. tap water in hard water areas. Vitamin B12 is added to yeast extracts. nuts and seeds (especially sesame seeds). lentils and pulses. Only very tiny amounts of B12 are needed and vegetarians usually get this from dairy produce and free range eggs. cheese. Details of the some of the most important minerals are listed below: • Calcium: Important for healthy bones and teeth. • Vitamin K: Fresh vegetables. • Iron: Needed for red blood cells. These sources are usually adequate for healthy adults. cheese and butter. eggs. but a good intake of vitamin C will enhance absorption. leafy green vegetables. whole meal bread. • Vitamin D: This is vitamin is not found in plant foods but humans can make their own when skin is exposed to sunlight. The very young. the very old and anyone confined indoors would be wise to take a vitamin D supplement especially if they consume very few dairy products. Found in leafy green vegetables. eggs. salad vegetables. Found in dairy produce.

lentils and wholegrain cereals. about 99% is in the bones and teeth where it plays a structural role. cheese. Calcium can bind to a wide range of proteins altering their biological activity. Osteoporosis can be due to calcium deficiency. sesame and pumpkin seeds. This usually occurs after 35- . Dairy products also have plenty of iodine. Vitamin D is needed for absorption of dietary calcium and so calcium deficiency may be linked with rickets in children. The skeleton of a young adult male contains about 1. There is continuous movement of calcium between the skeleton and blood and other parts of the body. muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission. This causes bones to be brittle and liable to fracture. This is important in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction. increasing re-absorption of calcium by bones. Metabolites of Vitamin D are important in this. Calcium is also needed for blood clotting. but the quantity depends on how rich the soil is in iodine. This is finely controlled by hormones. activating clotting factors. calcium deficiency may lead to osteomalacia (softening of bones). The remaining 1% is present in body tissues and fluids where it is essential for cell metabolism. The main function of calcium is structural. Of the body's total calcium. Calcium also plays a role in cell biology. Found in green vegetables. This involves loss of calcium from the bones and reduced bone density.• Zinc: Plays a major role in many enzyme reactions and the immune system. Let's look a little more in-depth at some of these foods that everyone needs for a healthy lifestyle.2 kg of calcium. CALCIUM Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. In adults. This may be related to repeated pregnancy with lengthy breast feeding. Bone loss occurs with age in all individuals. • Iodine: Present in vegetables. Sea vegetables are a good source of iodine for vegans.

Vitamin D is essential for absorption of calcium from the gut. sesame seeds). and oxalic acid. This is because calcium is transported into the body by a special carrier protein which requires vitamin D for its synthesis. This usually results from excessive doses of vitamin D and can be fatal in infants. Calcium is lost in the feces. Saturated fats can also lessen calcium absorption. found in certain fruits and vegetables can also bind calcium. Uronic acid. whole cereals and raw vegetables is one of these. a component of dietary fiber. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk from osteoporosis. Hard water may also provide calcium. Phytic acid. This involves sensations of tingling and numbness and muscle twitches. Excess calcium in the blood can cause nausea. tofu. brazil nuts. However. This is called tetany. Bone loss is greatest in women following the menopause. and dried fruit are all good sources of calcium for vegetarians. Reduced intake leads to increased efficiency of absorption. The risk of osteoporosis may be altered by factors other than diet. Most flour is fortified with calcium carbonate so cereals can also be a good source. In severe cases muscle spasms may occur. vomiting and calcium deposition in the heart and kidneys.40 years and involves the shrinking of the skeleton. Meat is a very poor source of calcium. Dairy products. Some research has indicated vegetarian women are at less risk of osteoporosis than omnivorous women. This is thought to be due to animal protein increasing calcium loss from bones. Lack of exercise. Calcium is also lost during lactation in breast milk. Calcium loss is roughly equal to dietary calcium in adults. found in bran. This is due to reduced levels of the hormone. urine and sweat. It is more likely to be due to a hormonal imbalance in the regulation of calcium rather than a dietary deficiency. Adaptation to both high and low calcium intakes occur. Calcium is present in a wide range of foods. diets habitually high in these acids are not thought to have a major effect on calcium absorption. other research has found no difference between vegetarians and omnivores. However. being underweight. leafy green vegetables. A number of substances can inhibit the absorption of calcium. nuts and seeds (almonds. oestrogen. smoking and alcohol can all increase the risk. . A low level of calcium in the blood and tissues can cause hypocalcaemia. Calcium loss is reduced if dietary calcium is low. In infants and children calcium is retained for new bone growth. Calcium balance can be affected by a range of other factors.

There are about 16 different fatty acids commonly present in foods. Fats tend to be solid at room temperature whilst oils are liquid. Fats and oils are essentially the same. being made up of three fatty acid molecules to one glycerol molecule. The nature of fat depends on its constituent fatty acids. This depends on the type of chemical bonds present in the fatty acid. The term lipids include both fats and oils. Fats can be classed as either saturated. It is essential for metabolism but is not needed in the diet as our bodies can produce all that is needed. Raised blood cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. Breast feeding women need extra calcium. Nearly all the fats in our bodies and in foods are triglycerides. Calcium absorption decreases with age so it is important the elderly have adequate dietary calcium. it is important that the vegetarian woman who is breast feeding or lactating get plenty of calcium. These can be either saturated. having particularly high calcium needs. monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Saturated fat raises the level of cholesterol in the blood. The building blocks of fats are called fatty acids. Vegetable fats are generally unsaturated. monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Therefore.Here are some good sources of calcium: Tofu Cheddar cheese Cow's milk Boiled spinach Dried figs Soy cheese Boiled chick peas Baked beans During pregnancy. FATS AND CHOLESTEROL Fats provide a concentrated source of energy in the diet. . Fats consist of fatty acids and glycerol. A lactating woman can lose up to 300 mg a calcium/day in breast milk. Foods rich in saturated fats are usually of animal origin. calcium absorption from the gut increases and no additional calcium is generally needed. Pregnant adolescents are an exception to this. Cholesterol is present in animal foods but not plant foods.

D. They are widely present in plant oils such as sunflower. If there is just one double bond then it is monounsaturated. As well as being a concentrated source of energy. Plant oils may be hardened by the addition of hydrogen atoms. Fats are also essential for the structure of cell membranes and are precursors of many hormones. E and K. lard. Fats have a number of important functions in the body. fish oils are sometimes used therapeutically. The body can make its own cholesterol and so a dietary source is not required. These are linoleic acid and alinolenic acid. converting double bonds to single bonds. Cholesterol belongs to the sterol group of fats. Linseeds and linseed oil are particularly rich sources of a-linolenic acid. However. Hydrogenated vegetable oils are often present in margarine and other processed foods. For this reason. If there is more than one then it is polyunsaturated. rapeseed and soyabean oils. These must be present in the diet as the body is unable to make them itself. suet and meat fat are saturated fats. Most fats contain a proportion of each of these three basic types of fatty acid but are generally described according to which type predominates. though fish oils may also be high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are usually of plant origin.If a fatty acid has all the hydrogen atoms it can hold it is termed saturated. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. EPA is present in fish oils and is claimed to be beneficial in reducing the symptoms of arthritis and the risk of heart disease. Saturated fats tend to be animal fats and are solid at room temperature. It is present in all animal tissues but is absent from plants. if some of the hydrogen atoms are absent and the usual single bond between carbon atoms has been replaced by a double bond. then it is unsaturated. fats act as carriers for fat-soluble vitamins A. Two fatty acids are termed essential fatty acids. Butter. Because of this conversion. . This process is known as hydrogenation. a-Linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) which is important in proper nerve function. Linoleic acid is converted into the body to arachidonic acid from which prostoglandins and other vital compounds are made. Cholesterol is essential as a component of cell membranes and a precursor of bile acids and certain hormones. Plant oils containing large amounts of a-linolenic acid can be used as an alternative by vegetarians. arachidonic acid is not an essential fatty acid as was once believed.

Unsaturated fatty acids exist naturally in the cis form. Fresh fruit and vegetables are rich in these anti-oxidants. eggs and dairy products all contain saturated fats. Coconut oil and palm oil are vegetable sources of saturated fats. saturated fat raising blood cholesterol. Unsaturated fats are not thought to raise blood cholesterol and may indeed lower levels. Hydrogenation of margarine causes this to occur. It is the LDL cholesterol which has been linked to heart disease. Because of this it is suggested that vegetable oils should be stored out of direct sunlight. Cholesterol is present in all animal foods but not plant foods. Mono-unsaturated olive oil is less vulnerable to free radical generation and so is a better choice for frying. These are called the cis and trans forms. especially when exposed to heat or sunlight. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats in the diet is often called the P:S ratio. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules which have been linked to both heart disease and cancer. Polyunsaturated fats can also generate free radicals. Olive oil is a monounsaturated fat. Egg yolks and highfat dairy products are high in cholesterol. A number of factors. Saturated fats are nearly always from animal foods. Anti-oxidants such as vitamins A. The most commonly refer red to are low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). C and E offer protection against free radicals. Cholesterol may form plaques on artery walls if levels in the blood are too high. Lard and suet are saturated fats. stress and environmental pollutants can increase the generation of free radicals in the body. The amount of dietary cholesterol is not clearly linked to levels of cholesterol in the blood. Polyunsaturated fats are usually from plant sources.Cholesterol is transported in to various proteins. including alcohol. Unsaturated fatty acids can exist in two different geometric forms. There are four main types of lipoprotein involved in cholesterol transport. Because of this high blood cholesterol is linked with heart disease. Meat. It has been suggested that trans-fatty acids can increase the risk of heart disease. . Blood cholesterol is more closely related to the amount of saturated fat in the diet. During food manufacturing processes these cis fatty acids may be changed to trans fatty acids. HDL cholesterol may help protect against the risk of heart disease. This can lead to atherosclerosis. These complex molecules are called lipoproteins.

Iron is essential for the formation of hemoglobin. people with low iron levels having lowered resistance to infection. A small amount is present as myoglobin. It has been stated that 2/3 of children and women of child-bearing age in developing countries suffer from iron deficiency. Iron deficiency is the most widespread mineral nutritional deficiency worldwide. Special emphasis is placed on reducing the amount of saturated fat in the diet. breathlessness. Vegetarian diets tend to be lower in fat than omnivore diets. avoid high fat dairy products and processed foods containing dairy fats and hydrogenated vegetable fats.5 and 4. between 10-20% of child-bearing age women are said to be anemic. The remainder is stored in the liver. which acts as an oxygen store in muscle tissue. The iron in hemoglobin combines with oxygen and transports it through the blood to the body's tissues and organs. lack of stamina. 1/3 suffering from severe deficiency and anemia. Iron deficiency can cause anemia resulting from low levels of hemoglobin in the blood.Currently it is believed that around 42% of energy in the typical diet is from fat. Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional problem worldwide. 2/3 of which is present in hemoglobin. Symptoms of anemia include tiredness. and iron deficiency in infants can result in impaired learning ability and behavioral problems. transporting oxygen in the blood to all parts of the body. The COMA (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy) report advocated that no more than 35% of daily energy requirement should come from fat whilst the NACNE (National Advisory Committee on Nutritional Education) paper recommends a reduction to no more than 30%. Advice to vegetarians is to keep fat intake to a minimum. vegetarians consuming dairy products and processed foods high in fat may still be consuming too much. loss of appetite and pallor. spleen and bone-marrow. It also plays a vital role in many metabolic reactions. All these symptoms are associated with decreased oxygen supply to tissues and organs. The body contains between 3. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia. Dietary advice is to reduce this.5g of iron. Iron stores in the body become depleted and hemoglobin synthesis is inhibited. Iron also plays an important role in the immune system. headaches. the red pigment in blood. . and to use olive oil for cooking purposes. insomnia. IRON Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin. In developed countries. Research has also shown iron deficiency to be associated with impaired brain function. However.

Most plant foods contain protein and in fact it would be very difficult to design a vegetarian diet that is short on protein. Proteins are made up of smaller units called amino acids. Anderson (1981) found the iron status of long-term vegetarian women to be adequate. However. as can tannin in tea. pulses such as lentils and kidney beans. The absorption of iron is influenced by other constituents of a meal. despite a high intake of fiber and phytate. Draper & Wheeler (1989) have stated there is no indication of increased prevalence of iron deficiency amongst vegetarians. a varied vegetarian diet means a mixture of proteins are consumed. Iron absorption can also be influenced by the amount of iron in the diet. The amount of iron absorbed from various foods ranges from around 1 to 10% from plant foods and 10 to 20% from animal foods.Dietary iron exists in two different forms. These are the essential amino acids. whilst in plant foods iron is present as non-haem iron. Fiber may also inhibit absorption. Citric acid. plant proteins may not contain all the essential amino acids in the necessary proportions. and some dried fruits. Phytates. Lowered levels of iron in the diet result in improved absorption. There are about 20 different amino acids. Foods rich in vitamin C include citrus fruits. the amino acids in one protein compensating for the deficiencies of another. Haem iron only exists in animal tissues. Good sources of iron for vegetarians include wholegrain cereals and flours. and fresh leafy green vegetables. leafy green vegetables. Excess dietary protein may lead to health problems. Non-haem iron is less easily absorbed by the body than is haem iron. eight of which must be present in the diet. In a mixed omnivore diet around 25% of dietary iron is non-haem iron. Despite iron from plant foods being less readily absorbed research has shown that vegetarians are no more likely to suffer from iron deficiency than non-vegetarians. Unlike animal proteins. PROTEIN Being vegetarian does not mean your diet will be lacking in protein. blackstrap molasses. green peppers. sugars. . oxalates and phosphates present in plant foods can inhibit absorption. It is now thought that one of the benefits of a vegetarian diet is that it contains adequate but not excessive protein. Vitamin C greatly increases the absorption of non-haem iron. amino acids and alcohol can also promote iron absorption.

Different foods contain different proteins. Amino acids are simple compounds containing carbon. histidine is also considered to be an essential amino acid. Dietary proteins with all the essential amino acids in the proportions required by the body are said to be a high quality protein. . valine. Muscle contraction. oats. and the transmission of nerve impulses are all dependent on proteins. nitrogen and occasionally sulphur. Most foods contain at least some protein. The amino acid that is in shortest supply is called the limiting amino acid. They play a crucial role in virtually all biological processes in the body. threonine.Proteins are highly complex molecules comprised of linked amino acids. the essential amino acids cannot be made and so they must be supplied in the diet. Proteins in skin and bone provide structural support. For children. There are about 20 different amino acids commonly found in plant and animal proteins. isoleucine. If the protein is low in one or more of the essential amino acids the protein is of a lower quality. Generally the body uses carbohydrate and fat for energy but when there is excess dietary protein or inadequate dietary fat and carbohydrate. The proportions of essential amino acids in foods may differ from the proportions needed by the body to make proteins. soya milk and textured soya protein such as soya mince). soya products (tofu. and rice). methionine. Certain amino acids can be made by the human body. Each protein has its own unique number and sequence of amino acids which determines it's particular structure and function. Excess protein may also be converted to fat and stored. protein is used. phenylalanine. Protein can also provide a source of energy. The eight essential amino acids required by humans are: leucine. Proteins are broken down into their constituent amino acids during digestion which are then absorbed and used to make new proteins in the body. pulses. tryptophan. each with their own unique amino acid composition. Good sources of protein for vegetarians include nuts and seeds. and lysine. cereals (wheat. free-range eggs and some dairy products (milk. All enzymes are proteins and are vital for the body's metabolism. Many hormones are proteins. However. Proteins are essential for growth and repair. The proportion of each of the essential amino acids in foods containing protein determines the quality of that protein. Amino acids link together to form chains called peptides. hydrogen. cheese and yoghurt). oxygen. A typical protein may contain 500 or more amino acids. immune protection.

This is why plant proteins are sometimes referred to as low quality proteins. such as meat. leads to a high quality protein which is just as good. Here are some more good sources of protein: Chick peas Baked beans Tofu Cow's milk Lentils Soy milk Muesli Boiled egg Peanuts Bread Hard cheese . This does not mean that vegetarians or vegans go short on essential amino acids. pulses. Combining plant proteins. which is regarded as the ideal. nuts and vegetables will be consuming a mixture of proteins that complement one another naturally without requiring any planning. and in some cases better. than protein from animal foods. cheese or peanut butter sandwich. This means when two different foods are combined. it is not surprising that animal proteins. such as a grain with a pulse. As such. milk and cheese tend to be of a higher protein quality than plant proteins. Soya is a high quality protein on its own which can be regarded as equal to meat protein. it has been thought that protein complementing needed to occur within a single meal. seeds. The limiting amino acid tends to be different in different proteins. it is now known that this is not necessary as the body keeps a short-term store of the essential amino acids. Many plant proteins are low in one of the essential amino acids. and rice with peas or beans are all common examples of protein complementing. A well-balanced vegetarian or vegan will easily supply all the protein and essential amino acids needed by the body. However. the amino acids in one protein can compensate for the one lacking in the other. This is known as protein complementing. Vegetarians and vegans eating a well-balanced diet based on grains. muesli with milk (soya or cow's). Beans on toast. grains tend to be short of lysine whilst pulses are short of methionine. Previously.Protein quality is usually defined according to the amino acid pattern of egg protein. For instance.

This results in anemia. and growth and development in children. B12 is necessary for the rapid synthesis of DNA during cell division. the maintenance of the nervous system. It contains cobalt. Vitamin B12's primary functions are in the formation of red blood cells and the maintenance of a healthy nervous system. can also occur. eggs and dairy products. Children on a balanced diet usually get enough protein as long as they are getting enough energy (or calories). This is especially important in tissues where cells are dividing rapidly. seaweeds. There has been considerable research into proposed plant sources of vitamin B12. The extra protein needs of a body builder can usually be supplied by an increased energy intake from more food. Contrary to popular belief athletes and those who engage in a lot of exercise do not necessarily need extra protein as the extra energy required for strenuous activity is best supplied by carbohydrates.Increased protein needs during pregnancy and breast feeding are usually met simply by the extra calories from more food. they are typically lower in total intake of protein than non-vegetarian diets. involving the degeneration of nerve fibers and irreversible neurological damage. the present consensus is that any B12 present in plant foods is likely to be unavailable to humans and so these foods should not be relied upon as safe sources. Deficiency can cause anemia. DNA production is disrupted and abnormal cells called megaloblasts occur. This lower protein intake may well be beneficial as high protein intake has been associated with osteoporosis and aggravating poor or failing kidney functioning. However. . VITAMIN B-12 Vitamin B12 is a member of the vitamin B complex. and algae such as spirulina have all been suggested as containing significant B12. While vegetarian diets usually meet or exceed protein requirements. Many vegan foods are supplemented with B12. Symptoms include excessive tiredness. particularly the bone marrow tissues responsible for red blood cell formation. Vitamin B12 is necessary for the synthesis of red blood cells. and so is also known as cobalamin. Fermented soya products. If B12 deficiency occurs. Because infants and children are growing they require more protein than adults (proportional to their body weight). Vitamin B12 neuropathy. It is exclusively synthesized by bacteria and is found primarily in meat.

analysis of fermented soya products. including tempeh. Prolonged B12 deficiency can lead to nerve degeneration and irreversible neurological damage. have both appeared to contain significant amounts of B12 after analysis. However. The amount of B12 excreted in the bile can vary from 1 to 10ug (micrograms) a day. known as intrinsic factor. and poor resistance to infection. These cannot be utilized to satisfy dietary needs. folic acid also being necessary for DNA synthesis. if B12 deficiency is due to a failure in absorption it can take only 3 years for deficiency disease to occur. Total body store is 2-5mg in adults. Spirulina. may be obtaining more B12 from re-absorption than from dietary sources. known as B12 analogues. Around 80% of this is stored in the liver. pallor. seaweeds and algae have all been proposed as possible sources of B12. Vitamin B12 can be stored in small amounts by the body. Re-absorption is the reason it can take over 20 years for deficiency disease to develop in people changing to diets absent in B12. People on diets low in B12. Other symptoms can include a smooth. However. B12 is also important in maintaining the nervous system. Assay methods used to detect B12 are unable to differentiate between B12 . Certain people are unable to produce intrinsic factor and the subsequent pernicious anemia is treated with injections of B12.breathlessness. Nerves are surrounded by an insulating fatty sheath comprised of a complex protein called myelin. This is known as enterohepatic circulation. B12 plays a vital role in the metabolism of fatty acids essential for the maintenance of myelin. a seaweed. including vegans and some vegetarians. When deficiency occurs. dairy products and eggs. shoyu and tamari. miso. found no significant B12. There has been considerable research into possible plant food sources of B12. sore tongue and menstrual disorders. listlessness. In comparison. an algae available as a dietary supplement in tablet form. Vitamin B12 is excreted in the bile and is effectively reabsorbed. The B12-intrinsic factor complex is then absorbed in the ileum (part of the small intestine) in the presence of calcium. Fermented soya products. The only reliable unfortified sources of vitamin B12 are meat. Anemia may also be due to folic acid deficiency. Absorption of B12 requires the secretion from the cells lining the stomach of a glycoprotein. and nori. it is more commonly linked to a failure to effectively absorb B12 from the intestine rather than a dietary deficiency. it is thought that this is due to the presence of compounds structurally similar to B12.

Lactating women need extra B12 to ensure an adequate supply in breast milk. vegetable and sunflower margarines. These include yeast extracts.2 µg. Fecal contamination of vegetables and other plant foods can make a significant contribution to dietary needs. B12 not being absorbed through the colon lining. as the B12 analogues can compete with B12 and inhibit metabolism.and its analogues. veggie burger mixes. However. particularly in areas where hygiene standards may be low. A range of B12 fortified foods are available. B12 has very low toxicity and high intakes are not thought to be dangerous. Vecon vegetable stock. This may be responsible for the lack of anemia due to B12 deficiency in vegan communities in developing countries. The current nutritional consensus is that no plant foods can be relied on as a safe source of vitamin B12. A study has shown that a group of Iranian vegans obtained adequate B12 from unwashed vegetables which had been fertilized with human manure. Good sources of vitamin B12 for vegetarians are dairy products or free-range eggs. Zinc is vital for the healthy working of many of the body's . it has been thought that the B12 produced by these colonic bacteria could be absorbed and utilized by humans. Fermentation in the manufacture of yoghurt destroys much of the B12 present. Human feces can contain significant B12. textured vegetable protein.5 µg. 1/2 pint of milk (full fat or semi skimmed) contains 1. though little is known about this. Boiling milk can also destroy much of the B12. Analysis of possible B12 sources may give false positive results due to the presence of these analogues. It helps with the healing of wounds and is a vital component of many enzyme reactions.7 µg. ZINC The mineral zinc is present in every part of the body and has a wide range of functions. soya milks. and breakfast cereals. Researchers have suggested that supposed B12 supplements such as spirulina may in fact increase the risk of B12 deficiency disease. In the past. A boiled egg contains 0. the bacteria produce B12 too far down the intestine for absorption to occur. A slice of vegetarian cheddar cheese (40g) contains 0. Vegans are recommended to ensure their diet includes foods fortified with vitamin B12. Bacteria present in the large intestine are able to synthesize B12. Pregnant women are not thought to require any extra B12.

anorexia nervosa. If you choose to take a zinc supplement you should not need more than the daily recommended amount unless medical advice says otherwise Zinc is present in a wide variety of foods. seeds and wholegrain cereals. Zinc has a range of functions. 30% in bone and about 5% in our skin. There are no specific storage sites known for zinc and so a regular supply in the diet is required. The recommended amounts of zinc for adult men are 1/3 higher than those for women.systems. nuts. Pumpkin seeds provide one of the most concentrated vegetarian food sources of zinc. in insulin activity. alcoholics and those suffering from trauma or post-surgery. Phytic acid forms a highly insoluble complex with zinc which the body cannot absorb. Only 20% of the zinc present in the diet is actually absorbed by the body. beans and lentils. 60% is found in muscle. in the metabolism of the ovaries and testes. It is thought that zinc supplementation can help skin conditions such as acne and eczema. The first signs of zinc deficiency are impairment of taste. Other symptoms of zinc deficiency can include hair loss. Particularly high concentrations are in the prostate gland and semen. Dietary fiber and phytic acid. inhibit zinc absorption. As a component of many enzymes. Zinc is found in all parts of our body. Good sources for vegetarians include dairy products. . delayed wound healing. It is always better to seek the advice of an expert before dosing yourself with supplements. a poor immune response and skin problems. The more sexually active a man the more zinc he will require. particularly in association with protein foods. and decreased growth rate and mental development in infants. found in bran. Our body contains about 2-3g of zinc. lipids and energy. fatigue. diarrhea. It is particularly important for healthy skin and is essential for a healthy immune system and resistance to infection. A vegetarian diet often contains less zinc than a meat based diet and so it is important for vegetarians to eat plenty of foods that are rich in this vital mineral. yeast. pulses and nuts. carbohydrates. zinc is involved in the metabolism of proteins. and in liver function. It plays a crucial role in growth and cell division where it is required for protein and DNA synthesis. prostate problems. Men need more zinc than women because male semen contains 100 times more zinc than is found in the blood. wholegrain cereals.

vomiting and fever. Symptoms of zinc toxicity occur after ingestion of 2g of or more and include nausea. Breast feeding mothers need extra zinc in their diet. . Baking can destroy over half the phytic acid in whole meal bread.Cooking processes can reduce the adverse effects of both phytic acid and dietary fiber on zinc absorption. Excess zinc is toxic. A vegetarian diet makes you a healthier person. Zinc is lost via the feces. Zinc deficiency occurs where a large part of the diet consists of unleavened bread. A deficiency of zinc in the diet means zinc absorption is improved. Breast feeding women must include a generous serving of at least one good source of zinc in their diet each day. particularly iron and copper. but also some common sense. semen and also menstruation. hair. High levels of the toxic mineral cadmium can also prevent zinc absorption because these two minerals compete for absorption. but it is thought that demands are met by increased absorption from the gut. phosphates. sweat. This is because the interactions between essential minerals are complex and too much of one may cause an imbalance of another. Too much zinc will interfere with the metabolism of other minerals in the body. Breast milk contains over 2mg of zinc in the first four months and women need an extra 6mg a day to cover these demands. such as Iran and other Middle East countries. GETTING STARTED The first thing that you should do when beginning to eat as a vegetarian is to take it slow. skin. You will have a larger chance of not succeeding if you do it this way initially. It can be a shock to your body if you go cold turkey and give up everything meat in the first stages of this transition. but getting started with this new lifestyle takes not only dedication. Conversely high levels of zinc in the diet can prevent the absorption of cadmium. EDTA. urine.g. The iron supplements routinely prescribed for pregnant women when there is no sign of anemia may compromise zinc status. Pregnant women do need extra zinc. Various chemicals added to many processed foods can also reduce zinc absorption e.

then poultry. tofu. we'll give you some great veggie recipes. remember to let them know in advance that you are vegetarian. Don't be put off by a bit of teasing or ill-informed scare stories. Educate yourself by reading labels or making all your food yourself. then two or three days and eventually every day. there are literally hundreds of vegetarian cookbooks around. this can be difficult. Others eat vegetarian food one day a week. And. A little later in this book. including meat alternatives like mince and sausages made from soya or Quorn(tm). Join The Vegetarian Society to make sure that you always have access to our expert advisors. Be careful about hidden non-veggie ingredients in foods. We've given you most of what you need to know in the above chapters. Be prepared to take a little teasing or snide remarks. Take a fresh look around the shelves of your local supermarket and health food shop and get to know as many different vegetarian foods as possible. but you can learn to stay healthy by understanding what it is your body needs. Make sure you tell any vegetarian friends that you are going veggie and ask for their support and advice. The important thing is to work out what will suit you and stick with it. but always be a learner when it comes to your body and what you put into it. Don't go it alone. As you get more confident about vegetarian food. Vegetarians are sometimes the brunt of jokes and prejudices . Buy a vegetarian cookbook (or borrow one from your local library). but investing in a cook book is a great way to start. pulses. Try something new. If you've grown up eating meat. Then you can make the necessary modifications to be sure you're taking care of yourself and your nutritional needs. to avoid any embarrassment when friends are cooking for you. Whether you need simple step by step instructions or gourmet dishes to impress your friends.Some people start out by eliminating red meat first. take the next step by making sure you always buy free-range eggs and vegetarian cheese. Learn as much as you can about nutrition and what your body needs to thrive and prosper. information-packed quarterly magazine and discounts in all sorts of veggie-friendly places. . then fish. cous cous and all sorts of vegetables. You'll have to change your habits.usually from people who know very little about their own health and dietary needs.

g. marmite) White wine vinegar (or balsamic for a treat) Peanut butter Canned beans and pulses Canned tomatoes Canned soup Dried pasta Rice Quick-cook noodles Cous-cous Dried soya chunks Ready made pasta / curry sauces Dried herbs and spices Seeds (try sesame.will be suitable for vegetarians . Don't throw that food away. dairy products. flour. frozen chips etc . Once you get into the swing of things you'll probably find that your shopping bill actually goes down as the raw ingredients for many vegetarian dishes are surprisingly cheap and many also have the advantage of being much quicker to cook than meat. Most people keep a few stock items in their kitchen cupboard or freezer. but you don't need to buy everything! In fact. your new vegetarian lifestyle shouldn't increase your weekly shopping bill because the price of veggie ready meals and frozen foods is usually around the same or slightly cheaper than their meaty counterparts. Donate it to a church or local food pantry.You will want to go through your cupboards and get rid of those products that don't fit with your new vegetarian lifestyle. Many of the basics . many meat-flavored varieties are actually vegetarian) Yeast extract (e. Then you'll need to stock up on vegetarian friendly foods. pumpkin. Here's a good list to get started with: Lots of fresh fruit and vegetables Vegetable oil Olive oil Vegetable stock cubes Vegetarian gravy granules (check the label. That includes anything made with animal products or preservatives. vegetable oil.bread. free-range eggs. sunflower and many others) The list looks long.

pulses or just vegetables. DINING OUT For many new or wannabe vegetarians. pasta sauces and soups are all suitable for vegetarians already. many of the soups are bean based with no meat. chili. ask your server what is available. veggie sausages. It shows their talent. Even the larger steakhouse chains offer baked potatoes and side salads that can make your meal while your friends enjoy their steak and fries. Most chefs in quality restaurants <http://www. If not.Eating vegetarian is a real culinary adventure. such as spaghetti bolognaise. Once you've broken out of the conventional meat-and-two-vegetable routine. well stocked salad bars.associatedcontent. that fear keeps them from accepting dinner invitations from family and friends. jacket potatoes. If not.html> are more than happy to whip something up. can something special be prepared. Many of your favorite dishes. If you find yourself in that predicament. If you know you are going to be eating in restaurant X on Saturday. Bean burgers. you will almost always be able to find a vegetarian friendly meal on the menu. ratatouille. call ahead and ask if they offer vegetarian entrees and if not. scrambled eggs. pizzas. Or worse. you will get a yes. How do you handle it when you want to go out to eat as a vegetarian? It's easier than you think. Most often than not. . you can break all the rules. If you are going to a quality restaurant or one that is locally owned. Look at the soup bars also. or stick with more familiar tastes if you prefer. Most all of the better chain food restaurants have salad bars.com/theme/609/restaurants. Dine-in food chains such as Applebee's or Chili's will also most likely have meatless meals available for you to order. Many have extensive. feeds their ego and gets you an outstanding meal. all have something vegetarian on the menu. the fear of never eating out except at a vegan or vegetarian restaurant keeps them from inviting friends out for dinner. rest assured you can eat almost anywhere and still find a satisfying vegetarian meal. baked beans. stir-fry and curries can be made with soya mince. many cheeses and all sorts of ready meals.

you can have gazpacho (a cold vegetable . At the big chain restaurants like Olive Garden or the Spaghetti Factory. called ghee . Indian restaurants are terrific for vegetarians. as it pasta primavera. such as pasta fagioli. dolma (stuffed grape leaves). rice and noodles. Many Italian soups.Italian restaurants are another great option for vegetarians. you were wrong. Just take a moment to quiz your server about how the dishes are prepared . and they'll make sure your meal comes the way you want it.try dal. you can add a baked potato. Some of your best choices when eating out are to choose ethnic restaurants such as Chinese. Plain cheese pizza. spanikopita (spinach pie) and salad made with a grain called tabouli. although not all cities have them. and not beef or chicken). and samosas. and restaurants offer a selection of vegetable curries and dishes made with chickpeas. Chinese restaurants are great for vegetarians. you'll find salad bar/bread stick combination meals that are perfect for vegetarians and easy on the wallet. as well. If your co-workers or family announce a trip to the Olive Garden or another Italian restaurant. don't fret . you have a delightful adventure ahead of you . be aware that many Indian dishes are prepared using clarified butter.some dishes that sound vegetarian on the menu may contain meat or eggs. If you're new to Indian cuisine. or Mexican food. offering delicious vegetable entrees. a traditional. delightful little pastries stuffed with meat. If you thought you'd never dine again under the Golden Arches. Depending on the chain. though. Pasta with meatless marinara sauce is a staple menu item. vegetables and spices (just make sure you don't order the ones with meat!) If you're avoiding dairy.Even fast food restaurants are getting into the healthy trend. yogurt and fruit or a number of other meatless items off the menu. spicy lentil dish. which is loaded with vegetables. are just as tasty as the meat-loaded kind. baba ganoujh (a delicious eggplant spread). or even a cheese-less pizza topped with vegetables. Other ethnic options are excellent choices for vegetarians. The Indian diet has a rich tradition of vegetarianism. ovo lactos have lots of options. If you like Mexican fare. get their protein from rice and beans (just make sure that they use vegetable broth. too. too. And if the gang heads out for pizza. Tell your waiter that you don't eat meat. Hit a Greek restaurant and load up on hummus. Order your salad with no meat and you're set to go. Japanese. Most fast food chains now offer garden salads in a wide variety of different flavors. especially the ovo lactos.just ask that your meal be prepared with vegetable oil instead. which are an excellent source of protein (and delicious).

and. dazzling your guests with such tasty choices that they'd be foolish to miss the meat. tostadas and tacos. chiles rellenos (green peppers stuffed with cheese. If all there is on the table that you can eat is bread and salad. the breaded and fried) and bean-and-cheese versions of all the usual favorites . Or you may end up in a situation where your hosts simply have no idea of what your needs are. they may not know how to feed you. enchiladas. remember that's it's just for one meal . Assure the well meaning. Dinner parties . you need to make the best of things. and you have the research to back it up. simply order a salad or baked potato. This is one time. What about eating in other people's homes or having people to your home for dinner? We've all experienced it. you really do have to stand firm. loved one that you are indeed paying attention to your health. In those cases. Just be creative and look for foods that you will enjoy while not spoiling your new lifestyle. about behaving well under challenging circumstances. do so . you can make sure that you have a tempting variety of delicious foods. Don't be afraid to ask questions when you are dining out. that your diet is the perfect diet for you. smile and say that they're so delicious that you're happy to enjoy them. If you're not comfortable with taking a chance on the veggie burger.burritos. That you feel. Etiquette is. But what if you're the guest? Often. Here they are worrying about your health and you are worrying about hurting their feelings. Even if it's disappointing. even if your hosts know that you're vegetarian. enjoy the company and have a good time anyway! . the family member or friend that just will not accept that you've gone meatless. if you're questioned.soup). They may think that by serving grilled salmon instead of meat loaf they're offering a vegetarian-friendly entree. Check with your server to see what type of oil is used and what exact ingredients are in certain dishes. but often misguided. It's tough.both attending them and hosting them . books and magazines so they can learn more.can be problematic for people on special diets. fundamentally.chat with your tablemates. The choices are more diverse than what you think. Offer to show them websites. If you're the host.

Whatever happens. Chances are good that people won't even notice that they are eating dishes that don't contain meat. or your hostess sits a plate of animal food in front of you. It helps them to feel comfortable if they don't want to eat something . To be blunt. allowing guests to fill their plates only with what they want. eat. then eat a light meal before you leave the house. or peanuts. or dairy.no one will be looking at their plate and wondering why there's still food there . and it's considered rude to draw all of the conversation to yourself in such a manner anyway. so you have more time to enjoy your guests. Part of being a terrific host is anticipating your guests' needs. If you're comfortable handling meat products and are doing it for the courtesy of your guests. and leave some empty space so it looks like you ate something. You should only serve meat if you genuinely feel comfortable doing so. or if there's anything they absolutely hate. and you think there might be challenges finding something to eat. One sure way to make everyone happy is to serve a variety of different dishes buffet style. by all means do that. When having people to your home for dinner.some are allergic to bell peppers. If you're headed to a big social event like a wedding or a family dinner. tell them you're vegetarian and steer the conversation to something else. or didn't.If there's absolutely nothing on the menu that you can eat. If the conversation is compelling. Hide the meat under some lettuce. If someone asks. It's a choice only you can make! . Eggplant parmigiana or a simple spaghetti Bolognese are delicious meatless meals. ask them if they have special dietary needs. but you won't be suffering from hunger pangs throughout the evening. don't make an issue of your diet. If you accommodate their needs that same way you'd like yours accommodated in a similar situation.squish things around and mess up your plate. You'll be surprised at what people have to say . Think about how you'd like to be treated when you go to dinner at a friend's home . do what children do . but only do so if you won't be compromising your choices. no one is really interested in what you can't eat.how about offering the same courtesy to them? When you invite guests to dinner. You can choose to prepare a separate meal in your home for your meat eating guests. stick to your choices and prepare a vegetarian dinner. most people won't notice how much you did.and it'll save you the effort of serving. you can make them feel extra welcome in your home. Even under the worst circumstances there will be something for you to snack on.

Cow's milk should never be fed to babies under one year old. and when she takes a quart or more of a formula per day and still acts hungry. This isn't necessarily true. is made as close as possible to that of mother's milk. as yet unidentified.So you've decided to become a vegetarian. (And if you're a vegan and you breast feed. THE VEGETARIAN FAMILY Probably the most controversial part of a vegetarian lifestyle is whether or not to include your children in your new lifestyle. substances in breast milk that make it superior to infant formula. In addition to the sugars and other nutrients. made just for us and full of all the nutrients we need.breast milk is a natural food for humans while cow's milk is not). your child is still a vegan. too . as it can cause intestinal bleeding and lead to anemia. Whether or not you breast feed is entirely your decision but. studies have shown a link between infants drinking cow's milk and their increased risk to become diabetic later in life. the alternative to breast milk. At the four-to-six month mark. Should you decide not to breast feed. We all start out life as lacto vegetarians. But don't give regular soy milk to a baby less than a year old. choose a soybased formula . as it's not designed to meet their nutritional needs. your breast milk is superior to that of meat-eating mothers . Infant formula. Out first food is our mothers' milk.soy is less likely to cause allergies than cow's-milk-based formulas.you're not passing on any of the antibiotics. The timing varies from baby to baby . it's time to introduce your baby to solid foods. it's time to transition to solid foods. pesticides or other contaminants that you would if you were eating meat. Those against a veggie diet for children say that you won't be able to give your child the nutrients they need to grow up healthy. Also. what about the rest of your family? There's two parts of that question that really need to be addressed here: should your children eat vegetarian and what to do if your partner doesn't want to follow your lead. and it's all we require or should eat for the first four to six months of life.when your child reaches 13 pounds or double his birth weight wants to breast-feed eight times or more during a 24-hour period. . if you're a vegetarian. for most babies. scientists believe that there are other. breast milk is the optimal food. The good news is.

Start with cooked grains . Slowly add tofu into their meals and snacks. or round. You can buy commercial baby foods or puree your own fruits and vegetables in a blender. as well as soy cheese and soy yogurt two servings per day. or any other nutritious liquid. and lightly blanched and cooled broccoli. As long as it's safe for the baby to chew. When your child starts teething (somewhere between 12 and 24 months) they can move on to foods that need to be chewed. lettuce and other leafy green vegetables. mashed fruits and move on to cooked vegetables like mashed sweet potatoes. but there are a wide variety of nutritious foods that children universally enjoy: Spaghetti with meatless sauce Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches Baked French fries with ketchup Veggie burgers. If you buy prepared foods.once your child is old enough to transition off formula.You'll want to introduce solid foods slowly. an vegetables that adults eat are fine for a child. buy ones that are free from added sugars. Raw vegetables can be introduced then. regular soy milk or rice milk. you can start offering your child some vegetarian versions of classic kids' favorites. except for not feeding them meat. as almost every baby can digest it easily and unlikely to cause an allergic reaction. juice. so if your baby has sensitivity to a food you can easily identify it.rice cereal is best. Once your baby eats cooked cereal. so that their systems can get used to the change in diet." take care that the foods aren't too hard. you can give him water. Good choices are carrot sticks. At seven to ten months. bland flavor. sharp. When giving babies "finger foods. starting with veggies that are easy to chew and unlikely to present a choking hazard. hot dogs and sandwich slices . Most babies are very fond of lentils. preservatives and any other additives that your baby doesn't need. regular soy milk. which can be cooked until fairly soft and have a pleasant. Nut butters should not be fed until after 12 months. Start with raw. It's smart to introduce new foods one at a time. large. start introducing high-protein legumes to the baby's diet.they'll be a bit fussy sometimes. Vegetarian and vegan children are just like any other kids . Just make sure that you don't let other people convince you that you should be allowing your baby to drink cow's milk . As you ease into the toddler/preschooler years (ages 1 to 4). Adapt the guidelines in the baby books to the vegetarian diet. about a half-ounce per serving. Follow the same feeding schedules and advice that you would for any other baby. begin to slowly introduce other foods.

One of you is messy. they sometimes don't get all the calories they require. Make sure to include a lot of calorie-dense foods in your child's diet so that they get all the energy their growing bodies require . Don't worry about a vegetarian diet affecting your child's growth . to sandwiches. as time passes. with fruit or maple syrup Vegetable soup Baked potatoes with non-dairy sour cream Rice and beans Spinach lasagna Calcium-fortified soy milk and orange juice Cold cereal with vanilla soy or rice milk Chicken-Free nuggets (soy protein nuggets that taste just like breaded chicken) Fruit. they caught up by age 10. You choose someone to spend the rest of your life with and. Peanut and almond butters are excellent sources of calories for kids.a 1989 study of children living in a vegan community in Tennessee found that while they were slightly shorter than average at age 1 to 3. she adores opera. One partner may be a social butterfly but . cookies and other baked goods Vegetarian diets feature a lot of bulky.add avocado. Very young children also need to eat more than three meals each day. but the other is neat. which is calorie-dense and full of good fats. All marriages are about compromise. when they were actually taller than average. cut up into bite sized pieces Raisins and banana chips Trail mix Applesauce Fruit smoothies Popcorn Vegan cakes. He loves reality television.especially if you have a husband or wife who loves a nice juicy steak on a regular basis. and since small children have equally small stomachs. and weighed slightly less than children raised on an omnivorous diet. you often find yourselves negotiating to find a middle ground that you can live with.Whole wheat bread and rolls Grilled soy cheese sandwiches Veggie pizzas with soy cheese Pancakes or waffles. too. fruits and vegetables to add lots of necessary nutrients to their diet. filling plant foods. What if your partner doesn't support your vegetarian choice? This can be a very sticky situation . So be generous with the snacks featuring grains.

Buy a few cookbooks and try new recipes to keep things interesting. You and your spouse may agree on a lot of things.no two individuals are exactly alike. It's understandable. If your partner is interested. appealing meals so that your partner can see that the diet isn't boring. but still disagree on how to eat. • Don't talk endlessly about your diet. But that's unrealistic . There are probably far more of those than there are issues on which you don't see eye-to-eye. getting to work and raising children can sometimes make even the smallest difference seem enormous. Here are a few things for you to consider: • Cherish the issues in your marriage that you agree on. • Play an active role in shopping and preparing meals. If your partner eats meat. • Acknowledge that your spouse's diet isn't meant to hurt you.but don't lecture." particularly if they're simply eating the same diet as most of the other people they see every day. veggie burgers and non-dairy cheese at home. so that you can enjoy a fine meal together. Try to keep in mind that your choice to become vegetarian was a personal one. Allow your cheerful attitude and good health serve as an example of how great vegetarianism can be. • Try to find restaurants where you can eat together. too. to believe that your ideal partner will share all of your values. You can't control what your spouse eats . whether it is based on ethical principles. especially in public. so do the number of "mixed marriages" between meat-eaters and non-meat eaters. on convenience or on habit. closing the door to them making that step themselves in the future.the other's happy to stay home every night with a good book. Try to respect their decision. The key to making it work is acceptance of each other's choices. the subject will come up naturally . . you may be turning them off entirely. and a vegetarian/omnivore marriage has to negotiate many more obstacles than most. No one likes to be told that they're "bad. If you judge your spouse harshly for not joining you in your vegetarian journey. As the popularity of vegetarianism increases. Choose venues that offer both meat dishes and vegetarian options. • Never attack your spouse's point of view. • Be a positive role model. it isn't a choice designed to make your life unhappy or more complicated. Belittling your partner will only cause them to be resentful and more resistant to vegetarianism. and it has to be for them.but you can control how you behave towards them. and the day-to-day struggle of paying bills. when you're single and dating. Cook a variety of tasty. doing laundry. • Try to get your partner to compromise on certain foods. Married couples figure out how to adapt to such differences. See if you can get them to eat soy hot dogs.

Although vegetarians aren't looked down upon today as much as in the past.and not turning them off by lecturing them! Only you know the dynamic in your home. accept that your spouse may eat meat sometimes when they're not with you. . Even if they're supportive of your decision. and then enjoy your meals together! You are likely to encounter people who are less than supportive of your diet choices. your parents.and if they're not supportive. sticking to your guns when everyone else is enjoying meat loaf or cheeseburgers can be difficult. If they want to change. that's great . there will still be people who think that your new lifestyle is a weird one. your children or roommates. If you can't stand to have meat around you at all.• If you've agreed not to eat meat at home. so only you can figure out the answers to these questions. however . and nagging doesn't help. Negotiate a menu plan that's acceptable to both of you. you'll have to deal with them not understanding all the ins and outs of your new lifestyle . One thing is certain. Eating together is one of the great pleasures of any relationship.you need to sit down and talk to the people you live with about your dietary needs and figure out the most agreeable way to make it work for everyone.you can share this book with them and you can all work on menu-planning together! But the best way you can influence others in your household to adopt healthier habits is to be a good example . The first thing you need to accept is that it's not your job to make them change to suit your way of eating. it's more than likely that you're the only person in your household going meatless. Whether you live with a partner. You may have to ask the others in your home to cook meat outside on a grill. Again. you may find them ridiculing your food choices or even actively trying to sabotage you. you can't control what they eat. this is a huge issue. DEFENDING YOUR CHOICE Being new to vegetarianism. asking that it's wrapped in such a way that you don't have to look at it. any more than it's theirs to turn you back into a meat-eater. and dedicate a special section of the refrigerator to meat storage.

Recognize that if you eat vegetarian food you are not compromising any principle or belief. but it doesn't have to be. even though many Israeli soldiers do not normally keep the kosher laws. Appreciate any improved health and increased vitality your mate has due to a vegetarian diet. Don't say "how much easier life could be if you could just throw a steak in the oven (or on the grill)". 4. Try to see the positive side of your partner's diet. Try to find some good vegetarian recipes that you find convenient and enjoyable.perhaps you can arrange to cook completely vegetarian meals for everyone three nights a week. while your spouse would be doing so if she/he ate meat. and that you can share together. (Vegetarian food is also available for Israeli vegetarian soldiers. and prepare your own entrée on the other nights. you may simply want to negotiate who cooks what. Becoming a vegetarian is an exciting change in your life. that all meals served by the Israeli military are kosher. Consider. VEGETARIAN RECIPES Eating meatless doesn't mean all rice cakes and soy burgers. Try out a few of these yummy recipes. Here are some great recipes for you to try. and the compromises you and your family are willing to make. You can have delicious meals that are healthy and meatless conforming to your vegetarian choice. A little compromise and understanding can go a long way.If your feelings aren't that strong. . 2. Recognize that she/he may be having a hard time defending his/her diet outside the home and that some support at home can be very helpful. The vegetarian lifestyle will be most difficult for the non-vegetarian. here are some helpful tips to allow you to deal with your partner's choice: 1. If your partner has decided to go vegetarian and you don't embrace that choice. for example. 3. When family and friends begin to question your new meatless diet. you just need to speak from the heart and let them know that this is something you wanted to do for particular reason. and when . Learning how to cook without meat can be a daunting task. so that nobody's beliefs will be violated. You don't need to be an expert. take the opportunity to simply and matter-of-factly tell them your reason for wanting to be a vegetarian.) 5. It all comes down to what your needs are.

Fill tortillas with potato mixture. Bake for 20 minutes. husks removed • 1 large onion. puree with half of the cilantro until smooth. chopped • 1 (19 ounce) can kidney beans with liquid • 1 (11 ounce) can whole kernel corn. Place seam side down in an oiled 9x13 inch baking dish. Once cooled. or until tender. salt. Bake in the preheated oven for 20 to 25 minutes. drained • 1 (12 ounce) package queso fresco • Oil for frying Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (205 degrees C). and spread remaining cheese over sauce. and 1/2 cilantro. peeled and diced • 1 teaspoon cumin • 1 teaspoon chili powder • 1 teaspoon salt • 1 tablespoon ketchup • 1 pound fresh tomatillos. In a bowl. Fry tortillas individually in a small amount of hot oil until soft. Mix potatoes together with pinto beans. minced • 1 cup chopped green bell pepper • 1 cup chopped red bell pepper • 3/4 cup chopped celery • 1 tablespoon chili powder • 1 1/2 cups chopped fresh mushrooms • 1 (28 ounce) can whole peeled tomatoes with liquid. coarsely chopped. divided • 2 (12 ounce) packages corn tortilla • 1 (15. un-drained • 1 tablespoon ground cumin • 1 1/2 teaspoons dried oregano .5 ounce) can pinto beans.Potato and Bean Enchiladas • 1 pound potatoes. boil tomatillos and chopped onion in water to cover for 10 minutes. or until hot and bubbly. Set aside to cool. chopped • 1 bunch fresh cilantro. 1/2 cheese. and roll up. and ketchup. Meanwhile. Spoon tomatillo sauce over enchiladas. chili powder. toss diced potatoes together with cumin. Insanely Easy Vegetarian Chili • 1 tablespoon vegetable oil • 1 cup chopped onions • 3/4 cup chopped carrots • 3 cloves garlic. and place in an oiled baking dish.

lightly beaten • 6 tablespoons salsa. Bring to a boil. Black Bean Rice Burgers • 1 (15 ounce) can black beans. split . divided • 1/4 cup reduced-fat sour cream • 4 lettuce leaves • 4 slices reduced-fat Cheddar cheese • 4 hamburger buns. combine the potato mixture. In a large bowl. Cook for about 8 minutes. and garlic until tender. egg. The starch from the potatoes will settle into the bottom of the bowl . mix the potatoes and onions. peeled and coarsely shredded 1 medium onion. Potato Pancakes 4 medium baking potatoes. rinsed and drained • 1 cup cooked brown rice • 1 small onion. and squeeze out the excess liquid into another bowl. oregano. about 6 minutes. and simmer for 20 minutes. Stir in mushrooms. celery. Sauté onions. beaten Salt and pepper to taste Vegetable oil for frying In a large bowl. carrots. chopped 1 egg. turning once. Wrap the mixture in cheese cloth or paper towels. and corn.pour off the water and save the remaining potato starch. and basil. coarsely shredded 4 green onions. and reserved potato starch. stirring occasionally. Serve hot. press together about 2 tablespoons of the potato mixture with your hands. Cook until vegetables are tender. heat skillet over medium-high heat. salt and pepper. Season with cumin. and cook 4 minutes. Stir in tomatoes. and reduce heat to medium. red pepper.• 1 1/2 teaspoons dried basil Heat oil in a large saucepan over medium heat. finely chopped • 1 egg. Stir in green pepper. For each pancake. Coat a nonstick 12-inch skillet or griddle with a thin layer of oil. green onions. until brown on both sides. place on skillet and flatten with a heat-proof spatula. kidney beans. Cover. and chili powder.

Tomato Cheese Melt • 1 onion bagel or English muffin. egg and 2 tablespoons salsa. sprinkle half of the cheddar cheese and cayenne pepper. Quick Pizza Sandwiches • 1 (8 ounce) package refrigerated crescent rolls • 4 slices mozzarella cheese • 4 teaspoons tomato paste • 1/2 teaspoon dried oregano Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Place 2 rectangles on a 9x13 inch baking sheet. from the heat for 4-5 minutes or until cheese is bubbly. combine sour cream and remaining salsa. Pinch together perforations to seal. In a small bowl. Top with a tomato slice. or until golden brown. Flatten to 1/2-in. Place 2 slices mozzarella on each rectangle. Top each with 2 teaspoons tomato paste. Bake in the preheated oven 10 to 12 minutes. Add the rice. thickness. Press the edges firmly with a fork to seal. Unwind the roll dough. Caramel Popcorn • 1 cup butter • 2 cups brown sugar • 1/2 cup corn syrup • 1 teaspoon salt • 1/2 teaspoon baking soda . split • 1/4 cup shredded Cheddar cheese • 1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper • 2 tomato slices • 1 tablespoon shredded Parmesan cheese On each bagel or muffin half.In a large bowl. mash beans with a fork. Place a lettuce leaf. Broil 6 in. onion. Moisten edges of rectangles with water. Sprinkle each with 1/4 teaspoon oregano. burger. Drop by 1/2 cupfuls into a large nonstick skillet coated with nonstick cooking spray. and separate into 4 rectangles. Cook over medium heat for 4-5 minutes on each side or until firm and browned. Cover each with remaining dough. Sprinkle half of the Parmesan cheese over each tomato. mix well. sour cream mixture and slice of cheese on bun.

and bay leaf. tomatoes with liquid. Cover. corn syrup and salt. stir. and continue baking 10 minutes. sliced • 1/4 pound zucchini. melted • 1 teaspoon minced garlic • 1 teaspoon dried basil • 1 bay leaf • 1/2 cup heavy cream • 1/2 cup shredded Monterey Jack cheese • 1/2 cup grated Romano cheese Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C). and saute onion until tender and lightly browned. Vegetable Chowder • 1 tablespoon vegetable oil • 1 large onion.• 1 teaspoon vanilla extract • 5 quarts popped popcorn Preheat oven to 250 degrees F (95 degrees C). chopped • 3/4 cup dry white wine • 3 tablespoons butter. and continue baking 30 minutes. garlic. butter. and bake in the preheated oven 30 minutes. stirring every 15 minutes. until cheeses are melted and bubbly. Pour in a thin stream over popcorn. for 1 hour. Stir in brown sugar. basil. Uncover. zucchini. Stir heavy cream. and Romano cheese into the vegetable mixture. stirring to coat. Monterey Jack cheese. mix onion. melt butter. Boil without stirring 4 minutes. Heat oil in a medium saucepan over medium heat. Remove from oven and let cool completely before breaking into pieces. wine. Bring to a boil. stirring constantly. In a medium baking dish. Place popcorn in a very large bowl. Remove from heat and stir in soda and vanilla. Place in two large shallow baking dishes and bake in preheated oven. In a medium saucepan over medium heat. with liquid • 1 (8 ounce) can whole peeled tomatoes with liquid. garbanzo beans with liquid. chopped • 1 (8 ounce) can garbanzo beans. Mushroom and Artichoke Soup • 4 (14 ounce) cans canned quartered artichoke hearts • 1 cup olive oil .

slice thinly and set aside. softened in water • 3 pounds fresh mushrooms. salt. season with salt and serve. nutmeg. Banana Crumb Muffins • 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour • 1 teaspoon baking soda • 1 teaspoon baking powder • 1/2 teaspoon salt • 3 bananas. lightly beaten • 1/3 cup butter. vegetable base. Using a extra-large stock pot sauté onions. in order for vinegar to evaporate. thyme and sliced artichokes and cook for 25 minutes. Cook for 15 minutes. fresh mushrooms and carrots. Stir in water. melted • 1/3 cup packed brown sugar • 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour . pepper. Stir in vinegar and cook for approximately 3 minutes. Stir in capers and parsley. mashed • 3/4 cup white sugar • 1 egg. cayenne. Add dried mushrooms along with the water they soaked in. sliced • 3/4 cup capers • 3/4 cup chopped fresh parsley Place artichokes in a food processor. Let cook for 15 minutes. sliced • 3 pounds carrots. minced • 3/4 cup all-purpose flour • 1/2 cup rice vinegar • 1 gallon water • 6 tablespoons vegetable base • 1 1/2 teaspoons salt • 1/2 teaspoon ground black pepper • 1/2 teaspoon ground cayenne pepper • 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg • 2 tablespoons dried thyme • 6 dried portabella mushrooms. garlic and shallots in olive oil and set on low. It works well when using a 3 millimeter slicing disk. Sprinkle flour over onions and cook for 1 minute. chopped • 3 cloves garlic.• 3 pounds thinly sliced shallots • 3 small red onions.

egg and melted butter. melted • 4 1/2 cups bread flour • 1 teaspoon salt • 1/2 cup white sugar • 2 1/2 teaspoons bread machine yeast • • 1 cup brown sugar. mix together brown sugar. Select dough cycle. softened • 1 1/2 cups confectioners' sugar • 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract • 1/8 teaspoon salt Place ingredients in the pan of the bread machine in the order recommended by the manufacturer. softened • 1/4 cup butter. beat together bananas. press Start. combine brown sugar and cinnamon. Spoon batter into prepared muffin cups. After the dough has doubled in size turn it out onto a lightly floured surface. packed • 2 1/2 tablespoons ground cinnamon • 1/3 cup butter. baking soda. Spread dough with 1/3 cup butter and sprinkle evenly with sugar/cinnamon mixture. In another bowl. softened • • 1 (3 ounce) package cream cheese. mix together 1 1/2 cups flour. or line with muffin papers. room temperature • 1/3 cup margarine. Roll up dough and cut into 12 rolls. Place rolls in a lightly greased 9x13 inch baking pan. Lightly grease 10 muffin cups. Cut in 1 tablespoon butter until mixture resembles coarse cornmeal. In a small bowl. Roll dough into a 16x21 inch rectangle. sugar. Cover and let rise until nearly . baking powder and salt. cover and let rest for 10 minutes. until a toothpick inserted into center of a muffin comes out clean. Bake in preheated oven for 18 to 20 minutes. Sprinkle topping over muffins.• 1/8 teaspoon ground cinnamon • 1 tablespoon butter Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). In a large bowl. 2 tablespoons flour and cinnamon. Clone of a Cinnabon • 1 cup warm milk (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) • 2 eggs. In a small bowl. Stir the banana mixture into the flour mixture just until moistened.

Stir Fry: Sauté onion and green pepper in oil. Add water and mix thoroughly.com/products/censura. crumbled tofu (don't use silken. use extra firm). Heat on Med until thick and bubbly. vanilla extract and salt. Set aside. about 15 minutes. add the yeast and sauce and mix it all in to coat until that becomes golden brown too. Spread frosting on warm rolls before serving. While rolls are baking. then add your drained. or fresh dough if you have time 2-3 cups veggie broth <http://vegweb. When they are good and soft.doubled. move them to the sides of the pan and form an empty circle in the middle for your tofu. beat together cream cheese. mix in the peppers and onion and keep frying. 1/4 cup butter. preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C). You can add some turmeric for color if you like. An Amazing Breakfast Scramble Cheese sauce: 1/2 cup flour 1/2 cup nutritional yeast 1 teaspoon garlic powder 2 cups water 1 teaspoon yellow mustard 4 tablespoons or less of vegan margarine Stir fry: • 1/2 onion • 1/2 green pepper • 1 tub drained and crumbled extra firm tofu (not silken style) • Cooking oil • Turmeric (optional) • Salt and pepper to taste Make Cheese Sauce: Mix first 3 ingredients together in sauce pan. about 30 minutes. confectioners' sugar. Bake rolls in preheated oven until golden brown. Sauté this for another couple of minutes. Meanwhile. When it looks like you could eat it. Add salt and pepper to taste YUMMY VEGGIE POT PIE 1 frozen pie shell.php?cmd=details&itemid=802> 1-2 potatoes 3 medium carrots . When it starts to get golden. Add more oil to the middle of the pan. Remove from heat and add mustard and margarine.

then add spinach on top. pinto. Add cooked veggies and coat them w/sauce. Cook in microwave or oven till about 3/4 cooked. tarragon. Thaw pie shell and take 1/2 out of the tin. add spices. combine flour. Set aside 1/2 cup of cheese sauce in separate container. Add onion. Pour a 1/2 cup of enchilada sauce in the bottom of a 9x13 pan. Bake at 400 for about 45 min. and close it up as best as you can w/ the torn top shell. till crust is brown and delicious cheese and juice oozes out.A variety of veggies such as green beans. Heat on medium heat until bubbling and thick. Cheesy Bean and Cheese Enchiladas 1/2c flour 1/2c nutritional yeast 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon garlic powder 2 cup water 1 teaspoon mustard 4 tablespoon margarine 10 tortillas 2 small cans enchilada sauce 3 cans beans (white kidney. olives. Spoon in filling. cumin. cook chopped veggies (NOT spinach. Mix it up. Add water and mix thoroughly. nutritional yeast. Spoon in veggies and sauce. or just about anything. black). zucchini. drained 2 medium onions. Add slowly either cornstarch or flour till slightly thickened. chopped 1 can olives. You can add dairy free milk and use veggie bouillon cubes. Meanwhile. To make sauce. just keep it till later). 1/2 cup salsa (optional) In medium-large saucepan. and lower heat. salt and garlic powder. or whatever you like. Place a tortilla in pan and cover in enchilada sauce. 1 package frozen spinach Vegan grated or sliced cheddar to cover pan in two layers Lots of good spices: garlic. heat broth in large kettle. chopped 1/4 cup chopped cilantro. Roll and push to one . Meanwhile. cilantro and salsa to sauce. beans. layer 1/2 cheese on bottom of lower crust. Add rest of cheese on top of that. mushrooms. Remove from heat and add mustard and margarine.

30-45 minutes. use your own judgment. carrots 1/4 cup chopped fresh parsley 2 cloves minced garlic 1/4 cup canned low-sodium veggie broth 1 lb. top with spaghetti sauce.end of pan. sliced . at 375 degrees. Place 3 lasagna noodles in bottom of 11x7 baking dish. Cheesy Lasagna 2-3 jars of favorite spaghetti sauce 1-16 oz bag of spinach leaves 2-3 jars of tomato sauce 1/2 lb. nutritional yeast at this step. keep warm. Add carrots and veggie broth. Usually lasagna takes about 45 minutes to cook thoroughly. repeat process until all noodles are used up. Easy Marinara Sauce • 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil • 3 cloves garlic. stir well.. Cook over medium heat stirring constantly until fake cheesy stuff starts to melt. Add herbed tofu. Add parsley and garlic. spread carrot mixture over top. sauté for 1 minute. simmer uncovered for 5 min. Uncover and bake an additional 20-30 min. Add olive oil to a large skillet.. Stir in nutmeg (possibly you could add some about 1/4 C. Remove from heat. herbed tofu 8 oz. vegan cream cheese 2 Tbsp. Cover and bake 15 min. just to make it a little bit more cheesy!). Pour the rest of the enchilada sauce on top and then spread reserved cheese sauce on as last step. until it is thoroughly heated. Continue until all tortillas filled. cooked 1/4 cup nutritional yeast (optional) Slice carrots and steam. lemon juice 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg 12 lasagna noodles.. place 3 noodles on top of that and spread tomato sauce and spinach on top of those.. place over medium-high heat until hot. Bake at 350 until brown. vegan cream cheese. set aside. and lemon juice.

Stir together thoroughly. Remove from heat and stir in basil. or black beans. combine the onion with the rice and all the remaining ingredients. salt and sugar. 1 1/2-quart baking casserole. about 20 minutes. or one to two 4-ounce cans chopped mild green chilies • 1/4 cup minced fresh cilantro • 1/2 teaspoon ground cumin • Salt and freshly ground black pepper Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. and add tomatoes. remove pan from heat. pink. seeded and minced. Reduce heat to low and simmer. be careful not to burn. Pour the mixture into a lightly oiled. covered. TORTILLA CASSEROLE One 16-ounce can pinto. BAKED RICE WITH CHEESE AND GREEN CHILIES • 1 tablespoon olive oil • 1 medium onion. Add the onion and sauté over low heat until lightly browned. In a mixing bowl. Heat the oil in a small skillet. drained and rinsed One 16--ounce can crushed tomatoes One 4-ounce can chopped mild green chilies . water. Allow pan to cool. wine. Bake for 35 minutes. Just as the garlic begins to turn brown. torn Heat oil in a large non-stick skillet over low heat and sauté garlic for about 2 minutes. chopped • 4 cups cooked brown rice (from about 1 1/2 cups raw) • 8 ounces grated organic cheddar cheese or cheddar-style soy cheese • 1 cup part-skim ricotta cheese. or until the top is golden brown and bubbly.• 1 (16 ounce) can crushed tomatoes • 1/2 cup red wine • 1/2 cup water • 1 teaspoon salt • 1 teaspoon white sugar • 6 leaves fresh basil leaves. preferably organic • 1 to 2 fresh jalapeño peppers. Cook over medium-high heat and bring to a boil.

Lightly oil a wide. and then return them to the pot. Repeat the layers. spelt. Combine the remaining milk with the flour in a small bowl and stir until the flour is smoothly dissolved. finely diced • 2 to 3 scallions. Bring water to a boil in a large pot. etc. half of the bean mixture. When the noodles are done. Simmer gently until the sauce has thickened. thawed 2 scallions. Pass around salsa to top each serving MOM'S "TUNA"-NOODLE CASSEROLE • 12 ounces vegan ribbon noodles (quinoa. Let stand for a minute or two. Add the celery dice and sauté over medium heat for 3 to 4 minutes. heat the margarine or oil in a medium-sized saucepan. Slowly pour into the saucepan. then remove from the heat. Bake the casserole for 12 to 15 minutes. drain them. half of the cheese.2 cups frozen corn kernels. overlapping one another. minced 1/2 teaspoon ground cumin 1/2 teaspoon dried oregano 8 corn tortillas 1 1/2 cups grated nondairy Monterey Jack. Add the mushrooms and continue to sauté until the mushrooms are wilted. then cut into squares to serve. 2-quart casserole dish and layer as follows: 4 tortillas. Mix thoroughly. Pour 1 1/2 cups of the soy or rice milk into the saucepan and bring to a simmer. sliced • Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste • Wheat germ for topping Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. or jalapeno cheese Salsa for topping Preheat the oven to 400 degrees. or until the cheese is bubbly. In the meantime. Combine the first 7 ingredients in a mixing bowl. Pour in the sauce. according to package directions.) • 1 tablespoon light olive oil • 3 medium celery stalks. Add the noodles and cook until just tender. and then add the baked tofu and . diced • 1 cup sliced mushrooms • 2 cups soy or rice milk • 1/4 cup unbleached white flour • 8-ounce package baked tofu. stirring constantly. cheddar.

Allow to cool for 5 minutes.scallions and season to taste with salt and pepper. Top generously with wheat germ. Bake for 30 to 35 minutes. warm the refried beans in a saucepan with a little water to loosen.or soft taco-size. or plain low-fat yogurt • Diced tomatoes • Shredded lettuce • Suggested accompaniments: Quick-cooking brown rice. and then cut into squares to serve. burrito. PASTA AND ANTIPASTO Pasta Ingredients • 1-pound package pasta (thin spaghetti and angel hair are quickest cooking) • 28-ounce jar good-quality natural pasta (marinara) sauce • 28-ounce can diced tomatoes Antipasto: choose several from the following suggested items: • Jarred roasted red peppers. Place everything on the table. TORTILLA FIESTA • Flour tortillas. or until the top is golden brown and beginning to get crusty. Cook some quick brown rice according to package directions. soy yogurt. diced and sprinkled with vinaigrette . black olives. warmed according to package direction • One or two 16-ounce cans vegetarian refried beans (one can will make 6 to 8 burritos) • Pre-shredded reduced-fat cheddar cheese (or grated cheddar-style soy cheese) • Salsa of your choice • Organic sour cream. warmed or taco shells. drained • Cured olives. large shallow casserole dish. black or green • Fresh mozzarella balls or very fresh tofu. Transfer the mixture to an oiled. cooked with a vegetable bouillon cube. letting everyone make their own burritos or tacos with any or all of the ingredients listed above.

drain it and return it to the pot. Stir in the pasta sauce (and if you've used dry pasta. or rice cream cheese .• Baby carrots • Pre-cut broccoli or cauliflower florets • Pepperoncini • Cherry tomatoes • Sliced green bell peppers and/or cut celery stalks Suggested accompaniments: Fresh whole-grain bread and a good wine. Pass around the Parmesan cheese for topping the pasta. Stuff the mixture back into the potato shells. cut each in half lengthwise. soy. and serve. thinly sliced • 1/2 cup finely crumbled feta cheese Bake or microwave the potatoes until done but still firm. Add the remaining ingredients and stir well to combine. Serve the pasta on individual plates and let everyone take what they wish from the antipasto platters. Transfer the scooped-out potato to a mixing bowl and mash it coarsely. a bowl of grated fresh Parmesan cheese (preferably organic) or Parmesan-style soy cheese to pass around. MUSHROOM-STUFFED POTATOES. Heat as needed in the microwave or in a preheated 400-degree oven. Scoop out the inside of each potato half. SPINACH AND FETA-STUFFED POTATOES • 4 large baking potatoes • One 10-ounce package frozen chopped spinach. leaving a sturdy shell. thawed and drained • 1/4 cup organic low-fat milk • 1 scallion. When cool enough to handle. the diced tomatoes). about 1/4 inch thick all around. green part only. prepare a platter or two of antipasto and slice the bread. When the pasta is done. Warm up as needed. • 4 large baking potatoes • 1/4 cup organic dairy. While bringing a large pot of water to a boil and cooking the pasta.

Stuff the mixture back into the potato shells. cover. and cook until they are done to your liking. about 1/4 inch thick all around. leaving a sturdy shell. Season with salt and pepper and stir well to combine. about 1/4 inch thick all around. Scoop out the inside of each potato half. Heat as needed in the microwave or in a preheated 400-degree oven. and serve. When cool enough to handle. When cool enough to handle. and serve. Transfer the scooped-out potato to a mixing bowl and mash it coarsely. chopped • 8 ounces white or cremini mushrooms. Transfer the scooped-out potato to a mixing bowl and mash it coarsely. Combine the mushroom mixture. soy milk. Add the mushrooms. cut each in half lengthwise. BROILED MUSHROOMS TERIYAKI • 3 tablespoons teriyaki sauce • 1 teaspoon dark sesame oil • 1 tablespoon rice vinegar or white wine vinegar . Scoop out the inside of each potato half. cut each in half lengthwise. Heat as needed in the microwave or in a preheated 400-degree oven. stirring occasionally. Stir in the cream cheese. Add the onion and sauté over medium heat until golden. liquid and all. BROCCOLI AND CHEDDAR-STUFFED POTATOES • 4 large baking potatoes • 1/4 cup low-fat organic milk. Stuff the mixture back into the potato shells. steamed • 1 cup grated organic cheddar or cheddar-style nondairy cheese • Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste Bake or microwave the potatoes until done but still firm. sliced • Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste Bake or microwave the potatoes until done but still firm. Heat the oil in a medium skillet. with the mashed potato in the mixing bowl. Add the remaining ingredients and stir well to combine. or rice milk • 2 cups finely chopped broccoli florets.• 1 tablespoon light olive oil • 1 large onion. leaving a sturdy shell.

Allow to cool completely. Combine the mushrooms with the teriyaki mixture and stir together. Broil until the mushrooms begin turning dark and are touched by charred spots. Remove from the broiler and transfer to a serving container. Wipe the mushrooms clean. maple syrup. cover the top of the pie with thin banana slices arranged in concentric. cremini. Broil in the oven or a toaster oven for 4 minutes. Puree the tofu in a food processor or blender until completely smooth. or a combination) Preheat broiler (unless using a toaster oven). Arrange in a shallow foil-lined pan and pour any excess marinade over them. Leave the mushrooms whole (unless you're using large portabellos-slice them 1/4 inch thick). Combine the first 4 ingredients in a mixing bowl and stir together. CHOCOLATE CHIP PEANUT BUTTER CAKE • 1 cup whole wheat pastry flour • 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder • 1/3 cup natural granulated sugar • 1/2 teaspoon salt • 1/2 cup applesauce • 1/2 cup plain rice milk or soymilk . Stir in the maple syrup. oyster. or brown rice syrup • 16 ounces fresh organic mushrooms. preferably two. or to taste • One 9-inch graham cracker crust • 2 medium bananas. thinly sliced Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. or until the top of the pudding feels fairly firm to the touch.3-ounce aseptic packages silken tofu • 1 cup semi-sweet chocolate chips. stirring often. about 4 to 5 minutes. any variety (portabello. Pour the mixture into the crust and bake for 25 minutes to 30 minutes. CHOCOLATE TOFU BANANA "CREAM" PIE • Two 12.• 1 tablespoon honey. If using shiitakes. until the chocolate chips have melted. baby bella. and stir. slightly overlapping circles. preferably cane juice sweetened • 1/3 cup pure maple syrup or agave nectar. Cook over medium-low heat. Transfer to a small saucepan and add the chocolate chips. then cut into wedges to serve. Just before serving. shiitake. then refrigerate for at least an hour. remove and discard the stems.

but no batter. Drop the batter onto lightly oiled baking sheets in slightly rounded tablespoonfuls. Pour into a lightly oiled 9-inch round or square cake pan. and a knife inserted into the center comes out with chocolate. Allow to cool to room temperature or just warm. Let stand for a minute or two. and salt in a mixing bowl and stir together. optional Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Combine the applesauce. DOUBLE CHOCOLATE OATMEAL COOKIES • 1 1/2 cups whole wheat pastry flour • 1/2 cup quick-cooking oats • 1 teaspoon baking powder • 1/2 teaspoon baking soda • 1/2 cup natural granulated sugar • 1/3 cup unsweetened cocoa powder • 2 tablespoons ground flaxseeds. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes. optional • 1 cup applesauce (or a bit more as needed to make a smooth and slightly stiff batter) • 2 tablespoons safflower oil • 1 1/2 cups semi-sweet chocolate chips. . Stir in the chocolate chips and optional walnuts.• 1/2 cup natural style peanut butter. Pour into the flour mixture and stir together until fairly well blended. then cut into squares or wedges to serve. or until the bottoms are just lightly browned. optional Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. rice milk. then carefully remove with a spatula to plates to cool. Stir in the chocolate chips and optional peanuts. Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients and add the applesauce and oil. Stir together until the wet and dry ingredients are completely mixed. baking powder. Bake for 25 to 30 minutes or until golden on top. at room temperature • 1 cup semi-sweet chocolate chips (preferably a natural brand) • 1/3 cup chopped peanuts. and peanut butter in another bowl and whisk together until smooth. Combine the flour. Combine the first 6 (dry) ingredients in a mixing bowl plus the optional flaxseeds and stir together. sugar. then use a whisk until the mixture is smooth. preferably cane juice sweetened • 1/2 cup chopped walnuts.

Make a well in the center of the pastry. and add the water. or to taste Crust: In a medium sized bowl. mushrooms. Baked Ravioli . Yield 1 tart. mixing quickly and lightly with a pastry knife. Bake it in a preheated 350°F oven for 10 minutes. combine the flour and salt. Prick it all over with a fork. beat together the eggs and milk. on the diagonal. 12 servings. Filling: In a medium-sized bowl. and salt and pepper into the egg mixture. beaten • 1 cup milk • 1/2 cup (2 ounces) shredded Cheddar cheese • 1/4 teaspoon oregano • 1/4 teaspoon thyme • 10 stalks fresh asparagus. or until it's set. Slice six of the asparagus stalks. then stir in the cheese. oregano and thyme. Pat the dough into a 10 or 11-inch removable-bottom tart pan. a mixer or your fingers until the mixture is crumbly. Pour the filling into the crust. Remove it from the oven. Bake the tart in a preheated 350°F oven for about 30 minutes.Asparagus and Mushroom Tart Crust • 2 cups All-Purpose Flour • 3/4 teaspoon salt • 1/2 cup (1 stick) unsalted butter. cleaned wood stems removed • 1/2 cup sliced mushrooms • 1/2 teaspoon salt • 1/4 teaspoon coarsely ground black pepper. adding an additional tablespoon of water only if necessary. Mix until the dough just holds together. Stir the sliced asparagus. and cool to lukewarm before removing the bottom. Remove the tart from the oven. Place the remaining 5 stalks of asparagus in a fan pattern on top of the filling. egg yolk and vinegar. Cut in the butter and shortening. and let cool. the tougher your crust will be. the more water you use. into 3/4-inch pieces. chilled • 3 tablespoons vegetable shortening • 5 tablespoons ice water • 1 egg yolk • 1 tablespoon white vinegar Filling • 4 eggs.

Sprinkle the shredded Mozzarella cheese on top and bake in a 375 degree oven for 30 minutes. can Italian peeled tomatoes • 1 tsp. package of frozen ravioli • 8 oz. Cover and cook for 10 minutes. In a baking pan place in some of the tomato sauce to cover the bottom. hot and golden. Place the cooked ravioli in the pan and top with the rest of the sauce. sugar and salt in to the saucepan with the vegetables. Cook the ravioli as described on the package. celery onion and carrot. salt • 13 oz. peeled and thinly sliced • Olive oil to fry eggplant • Mozzarella cheese • Marinara Sauce Beat eggs. parsley. The cheese should be bubbly. Dip sliced eggplant into egg mix and then into the breadcrumbs to coat nicely. until tender. Serve with a crisp salad. In a large saucepan over a medium heat stir place in the olive oil. Bring to a boil. Chop eggplant. Place tomatoes in a blender and puree. Eggplant Parmigiana • 2 to 3 eggs • 1 tbsp parmesan • 2 tsp dried parsley • Black pepper • 1/2 tsp garlic powder • 2 cups bread crumbs • 2 med size eggplants. eggplant. sugar • 1/2 tsp. Fry each piece in oil until brown . celery carrot and onion. pepper and garlic together. Slightly undercook them. cheese. Lower the flame and simmer for 20 minutes.• 1 small eggplant • 1 celery stalk • 1 medium carrot • 1 small onion • 4 tablespoons olive oil • 28 oz. whole mozzarella cheese-2 cups shredded. Add the tomatoes.

Pasta in a Creamy White Sauce • 8 oz Pasta (your choice) • 1 1/2 cups Dry Red Wine • 2 tbsp Shallots. and herbs. until softened. Take remaining 1/4 cup cream and toss with pasta. or until eggplant is tender but not too soft. stirring occasionally to keep vegetables from sticking. Cover and cook for 10 minutes. crushed and minced • 1 large onion. Cover and cook over low heat about 15 minutes. Add eggplant. Add tomatoes. mix well. . Top with sauce and mozzarella and bake at 350 until cheese is melted and sauce bubbly.on both sides. coarsely chopped • 4 large tomatoes. coarsely chopped. Keep going till run out. diced • 1 cup Heavy Cream • Parmesan Cheese Combine wine. Drain on paper towel and then place them in a baking pan with sauce on the bottom. heat olive oil over medium heat. quartered and thinly sliced • 1 small eggplant. stir to combine. stir until coated with oil. cubed • 2 green bell peppers. shallots and tomatoes to pan and cook until reduced to 1/2 cup. Spoon sauce over pasta and top with parmesan Ratatouille • 2 tablespoons olive oil • 2 cloves garlic. Add peppers. minced • 1 Plum tomatoes. Add garlic and onions and cook. zucchini. about 2 min. or 2 cans (14.5 ounces each) diced tomatoes • 3 to 4 small zucchini. Add 3/4 cup of the cream and boil until slightly thickened. stirring often. about 6 to 7 minutes. After you layer them coat them with sauce and sprinkle with mozzarella (lots). about 8-10 min. cut into 1/4-inch slices • 1 teaspoon dried leaf basil • 1/2 teaspoon dried leaf oregano • 1/4 teaspoon dried leaf thyme • 2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley In a 4-quart saucepan.

Bake for 25 minutes at 350 degrees Spinach Pie 1 10 0z. . Boil pasta until al dente. and Spinach Salad • 4 Roma tomatoes • 4 cloves of chopped garlic • 12 oz of rigatoni • 3 tbsp of freshly squeezed lemon juice • 1/4 cup of extra virgin oil • 5 oz of mozzarella cheese cut in little cubes • 5 oz of spinach leaves Preheat the oven to 375 degrees. pepper 2 tsp. Feta Cheese.) Place tomatoes on baking tray. etc. butter Preheat oven to 350 degrees. pkg. frozen chopped spinach 1/2 lb. Add more seasonings for taste (optional) Toss all lightly Sour Cream 'N' Cheddar Potato Casserole • 6 medium potatoes • 2 cups of shredded cheddar cheese • 2 cups of sour cream • 1/4 cup of butter • 1/3 cup of chopped onions Boil the potatoes until they are almost tender then grate them into a mixing bowl. cottage cheese 4 eggs 6 tbsp. crumbles 1 pt. Let it cool down. Combine oil & lemon juice (for salad dressing. pepper.Rigatoni With Tomatoes. flour 1/2 tsp salt 1/2 tsp. Season the tomatoes for taste (salt. Crumble the Feta cheese and put it in one mixing bowl with the thawed spinach and cottage cheese. Cut each tomato in fours. Mozzarella. Bake tomatoes for 45 minutes until wrinkled & shrunken. Mix all the other ingredients together with the grated potatoes and place into a greased casserole dish. Let it cool.

pepper. stick a knife or toothpick into the center of the pie. about 10-15 minutes. To tell if it is done. Grease a 9" square baking pan with the butter and pour the mixture into the pan. heat oven to 400. Vegetable Stuffed Ravioli 8 pieces uncooked manicotti FILLING • 1 Cup Julienne. Then cut it into pieces and serve hot Vegetable Kabobs • 1 medium eggplant • 2 medium zucchini • 2 ea. cut zucchini • 1 cup Cut up Broccoli • 1/2 LB sliced mushrooms • 1/2 cup Grated Parmesan Cheese • 1/2 cup Red or Green bell pepper • 1/2 tsp dried basil leaves TOPPING • 1 1/2 cup spaghetti sauce • 3 oz shredded mozzarella cheese Cook manicotti to desired doneness. Drain. rinse with cold water and let drain. Cover tightly with foil Bake at 400 for 20-25 min or until bubbly. In medium bowl combine all filling ingredients and mix well. Serve with Italian bread or garlic bread sticks .In another bowl mix together salt. flour and eggs. Then combine the two mixtures into one bowl and stir well. Place 1/2cup spaghetti sauce in ungreased 12X8" baking dish. Pour remaining sauce over manicotti. Make sure you spread it evenly.) • 2 tsp garlic. Let sit for one half hour. Thread onto metal or soaked bamboo skewers. Uncover. marjoram. Meanwhile. the pie is ready. Bake the pie for one hour. etc. Fill each manicotti with mixture. crushed Cut vegetables into half-inch chunks or wedges and toss with seasonings. red and green peppers • 1 medium red onion • 2 tsp salt • 1 tsp pepper • 2 Tbsp herbs (tarragon. Grill or broil until colour shows on vegetables. Place filled manicotti over sauce. If it comes out clean. Let the pie cool for a few minutes. Bake an additional 5-8 min or until cheese is melted. sprinkle evenly with cheese.

lightly coated with non-stick cooking spray. Serve over rice. water chestnuts. vegetable stock. chopped • 8 oz. red bell pepper cut in short. peeled & grated • 1 medium carrot. cook onion and garlic in oil for 3 minutes. bell pepper. mix well. until vegetables are crisp-tender. sliced diagonally • 2 c baby bok choy. and mushrooms. Pour about 1/2 cup batter on hot griddle. grated or minced • 3/4 C egg substitute • Pepper to taste In a bowl. Continue cooking. mustard. Works great on GEORGE FORMAN grill (tilt it up a little if too runny) Hunan Chow Mein • 1 med onion. grated • 1/4 C onion. shiitake mushroom caps thinly sliced • 1 med. chopped • 3 cloves minced garlic • 1 tbsp peanut oil • 2 tbsp soy sauce • 1 tsp dried mustard • 2 stalks celery. thin strips . sliced • 1 c vegetable stock • 1 c sliced mushrooms • 4 c cooked rice In a wok or large skillet over high heat. bok choy. Spicy Vegetable Lo Mein • 8 oz soba noodles (or other flat Asian noodle) • 2 tsp hot chili oil • 2 tsp grated ginger root • 2 cloves minced garlic • 3 1/2 oz. chopped • 1 red bell pepper. Add soy sauce. or until they begin to soften.Veggie Burgers • 1 small zucchini grated • 1 medium uncooked potato. stirring frequently. combine ingredients. about 5 minutes. water chestnuts. celery. Fry 2-3 minutes on each side or until golden brown.

red pepper. When it begins to smoke. Stir until the eggs are firm but moist. Stir-fry 1 minute. Drain again and reserve. add 2 tablespoons of peanut oil and the lightly beaten eggs. Transfer the eggs from the skillet to a small bowl and break them into small curds. . Place a small skillet over medium heat. Serve hot. about 5 minutes. and peas. Bring 1 quart of water to a boil in a small saucepan. Drain and rinse in cold water. simmer until vegetables are crisp-tender. stirring frequently. in 1/2" cubes 1/2 cup frozen peas 4 cups cold cooked rice Combine the ingredients for the sauce in a small bowl. Stir in the rice and stir-fry 1 minute. in 1/2" cubes 1 red bell pepper. Add sesame oil. stirring occasionally. and vinegar. heat oil in large deep skillet or wok over medium heat. bell pepper and bok choy. add to skillet with vegetables. Set aside. Add ginger and garlic. Vegetable Fried Rice 1/4 cup light soy sauce 3 tablespoons rice wine or dry sherry 1/2 teaspoon salt 6 tablespoons peanut oil 2 eggs. Drain noodles. Add tamari or soy sauce. Mix to blend well and set aside. if desired. When it begins to smoke. add the remaining 1/4 cup of peanut oil and the garlic. Place a wok over medium-high heat. Stir briefly. 3 to 5 minutes. Add the carrots. Add the carrot and boil 1 minute. stirring occasionally. Sprinkle with peanutes or cashews. Meanwhile. celery. cook 3 minutes. cook 30 seconds. sugar snap peas or snow pea pods • 2 tbsp tamari or soy sauce • 2 tbsp seasoned or regular rice vinegar • 1 tbsp dark-roasted sesame oil • 1/4 c chopped peanuts or cashews (optional) Cook noodles according to package directions. tossing well. Pour in the sauce and cook until the rice is heated through. cook 1 minute.• 2 c chopped bok choy • 1/2 c vegetable broth • 6 oz. lightly beaten 1 carrot. Add broth and sugar snap peas. Add mushrooms.

Tex-Mex Rice and Bean Bake 2 cups cooked brown or white rice 1/4 cup fat-free cholesterol free egg product 1 1/2 cups picante sauce 1 cup shredded reduced fat cheddar cheese (4 ounces) 1 can (15-16 oz) pinto beans. oregano. cook the potatoes in boiling water until tender. drained & chopped Start by washing and cutting the potatoes into bit-sized pieces. Do not overcook! While the potatoes are being cooked. Bake uncovered 30-35 minutes or until cheese is melted and bubbly. let the salad stand for at least thirty minutes before serving. After all of the ingredients have been thoroughly (yet gently!) mixed. Mix beans and remaining 1 cup picante sauce. Mix rice. press in bottom of baking dish. frozen spinach 4 med tomatoes 1 c shredded mozzarella cheese . seeded • 1/2 c chopped green onions • 1/2 c black olives. drained 1/4 tsp chili powder Heat oven to 350 degrees. mix the oil. Next. red potatoes • 2/3 c olive oil • 1/3 c red wine vinegar • 1/2 tsp oregano • 1/2 tsp rosemary • 1/2 lb. vinegar. They are done when you can easily stick them with a fork. 6 servings Spinach Stuffed Tomatoes 10 oz. and rosemary. crumbled feta cheese • 1 sweet red bell pepper. with nonstick cooking spray. Sprinkle with remaining 1/2 cup cheese and the chili powder. leaving the skins on. Let stand 5 minutes before serving. drain them and move the potatoes to a mixing bowl. egg product. Then pour on the oil/vinegar/spices mix and gently toss in the remaining ingredients. 8x8x2 inches.Potato Salad • 2 lbs med. After the potatoes are tender. This dish will keep well in the fridge for up to a week. spoon over rice mixture. 1/2 cup of the picante sauce and 1/2 cup of the cheese. Spray square baking dish. pkg.

Invert tomatoes shells on paper towels to drain. Chili Cheese Soufflé • 12-15 eggs • 1 cup Bisquick • 2 cups milk • 8 ounces crumbled Feta cheese • 3/4 pound grated Swiss cheese . green onion and red pepper. salt & pepper to spinach mixture and blend well. Slice and hollow out centers of tomatoes. Toss the cabbage mixture with the vinaigrette. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Let stand 5 minutes. This salad goes well with grilled meats and fish. garnish with chopped green onion and toasted sesame seeds.1/4 c finely minced onions 1/4 c grated parmesan cheese 1/2 tsp salt 1/8 tsp pepper 2 tbsp minced parsley Cook unopened spinach on high for 4 minutes. Let stand for 20 minutes. honey. Put in large bowl. In another large bowl mix cabbage. Chop pulp finely and add to spinach. carrot. Asian Slaw • 1 head of Napa Cabbage. parmesan. chopped • 1/4 cup diced red pepper • 2/3 cup rice wine vinegar • 3 tablespoons sugar • 1 teaspoon honey • 1 teaspoon soy sauce • 2 tablespoons chopped cilantro • 1 tablespoon toasted sesame seeds Mix rice wine vinegar. cilantro and sesame seeds in a large bowl. sugar. Spoon evenly into tomato shells. Asian pears. Discard seeds. shredded • 2 Asian pears. drain well and squeeze dry. Sprinkle with remaining mozzarella and parsley. Add 1/2 cup mozzarella cheese. soy sauce. Serve salad in a large bowl. Arrange in 8-inch round glass or ceramic baking dish & cook at 350 degrees for 6 minutes or until heated through. onion. peeled and diced • 1/2 cup shredded carrot • 1/4 cup green onion.

Tomato Vodka Cream Sauce • 1/4 pound (1 stick) butter • 1/2 teaspoon red pepper flakes • 1/2 cup vodka • 1 can Italian crushed tomatoes • 3/4 cup Parmesan cheese • 1/2 cup Romano cheese • 1 cup heavy cream • Pasta. heavy cream. Bake at 350 degrees 5060 minutes. Potato Parmesan Soup • 8 peeled and chopped potatoes • 3 green onions chopped (save green for garnish • 1 minced garlic clove • 1 1/2 tablespoons course ground pepper • 1 tablespoon salt • 1 quart heavy cream • 1 cup grated parmesan cheese Boil and puree potatoes. Simmer tomatoes with the two cheeses for three minutes. Add parmesan cheese at the end of cook time. salt. Simmer for 2 minutes. garlic. Cook on low heat for 30 minutes. Pour into greased 9x13" pan. Prepare pasta (shell or tube pasta suggested). (The alcohol burns off but makes tomatoes "come alive". Set off burner and allow cheese to melt into soup. Add red pepper flakes. then add 1 cup of heavy cream and simmer for one minute. Add chopped white part of green onion. . and pepper. prepared according to package directions Melt butter over high heat until bubbly. Rapidly add vodka.• 2 cups cottage cheese • 1 teaspoon grated nutmeg • 1 1/2 cups grated Jack cheese • 1 can diced green chilies Mix all ingredients together.

par-boiled potatoes • 1/2 cup chopped onions • 1 tsp. Bake at 350 for 1 hour. . sprinkle paprika in a larger circle around parsley flake circle. quartered and sliced • 2 cans of 15 oz. chopped • 1 tsp. Garnish pie: make a small circle of 1/4 cup onions in center of pie. salt-free lemon/herb seasoning • 1/2 tsp. Combine eggs. Sprinkle with seasoned salt and garlic powder. Combine potatoes and 1/4 cup onions. Vermont Cheddar Pie • 2-3 cups diced. cream cheese • Chopped fresh chives or edible flowers for garnish. milk. garlic powder • 3/4 cup chopped steamed spinach • 1/4 cup freshly-grated Romano cheese • 1/2 cup white cheddar • 2 eggs • 1/2 cup low fat milk • Parsley flakes • Paprika • 1/3 cup feta cheese Grease a glass pie plate. 8 oz.Mix completely with the sauce and serve immediately. white pepper • Dill weed to taste • 2 pkgs. press into pie plate as crust. sprinkle parsley flakes in a larger circle around the onions. Carefully put a layer of spinach and crumbled feta cheese into the crust. pour carefully over cheeses. vegetable broth • 2 onions. Zucchini Soup • 4 medium zucchini. top with parmesan then cheddar cheeses.

Delicious Banana Pancakes • 2 cups Bisquick mix • 2 eggs • 1 cup milk • 2 extremely ripe bananas (the one\'s that are brown and too soft to eat). Bring to a rolling boil. chopped into large cubes 2 Tbsp of dried parsley 1 Tbsp of season salt Two 5-inch pieces of fresh celery 1 toe of fresh garlic peeled and cut in half 10-12 bay leaves 1 Tbsp margarine 1/4 cup chopped green onions 4 cups of cooked white rice Wash kidney beans well. mashed • 1 tsp baking soda • 3 tsp sugar • 2 tbsp fresh lemon juice . Blend the cream cheese in blender until smooth. except seasoning meat. Serve hot over warm. New Orleans Style Red Beans & Rice 1 lb bag of red kidney beans 1 large onion. a portion at a time. Then blend in zucchini mixture. chicken broth. Cook for approximately one more hour. Chill over night or until very cold. white rice. After beans have been cooking for approximately 2 hours. onions. Now add chopped green onions and additional season salt if desired. pepper and dill weed to taste. then cover and reduce to a low heat and simmer. Add season salt and continue to simmer this combined mixture for another hour. chopped green onions and rice. approximately 20 to 30 minutes. add zucchini. Add to a large pot and cover beans with water until water is two inches above bean line. add remaining liquid. Add all other ingredients. Garnish with chopped chives or fresh flowers. Cook mixture until soft.In a saucepan. until smooth. or until beans are very soft and a red gravy is produced.

it tries to conserve its fat reserves by slowing down its metabolic rate and.• 2 tbsp powdered sugar Mix all ingredients together very well. Prepare a medium-hot skillet. and it may also help keep the body's metabolic rate high during dieting. The athlete who diets and does not exercise loses not only fat but muscle tissue as well. In other words. lightly oiled. Not only does exercise burn calories.200 calories. . Athletes should avoid diets that fail to meet these criteria. with the calories distributed over all the daily meals including snacks. one should eat less and exercise more. since weight lost through these practices is mostly water and lean muscle tissue. A combination of exercise and diet is the best way to lose unwanted body fat. not fat.500. Lightly dust finished pancakes with powdered sugar and serve with your favorite syrup. This can negatively affect his physical fitness. it helps the body maintain its useful muscle mass. as a result. This ensures an adequate consumption of necessary vitamins and minerals. We're willing to be that you won't even miss the meat! Diet and Exercise A combination of exercise and diet is the best way to lose excessive body fat. There is no quick and easy way to improve body composition. A male athlete who is not under medical supervision when dieting requires a caloric intake of at least 1. Be creative and use your imagination. This is just a start for you. final mixture will be a little lumpy. Losing one to two pounds a week is a realistic goal which is best accomplished by reducing caloric intake and increasing energy expenditure. Trying to lose weight with fad diets and devices or by skipping meals does not work for long-term fat loss. it loses fat at a slower rate. many more recipes out there for vegetarians. Dieting alone can cause the body to believe it is being starved. Athletes must consume a minimum number of calories from all the major food groups. There are many. In response. Losing fat safely takes time and patience. women require at least 1.

Aerobic exercise. such as sprinting or lifting heavy weights. stair climbing. cross-country skiing. Good dietary habits greatly enhance the ability of athletes to perform at their maximum potential. and mental alertness. fat. walking. exercise to music. Diet In addition to exercise. proper nutrition plays a major role in attaining and maintaining total fitness. As a result. Local dietitians and nutritionists can help athletes who want to lose weight by suggesting safe and sensible diet programs. A good diet alone. Instead. Good nutrition is not complicated for those who understand these dietary guidelines. if any. is the best type of activity for burning fat. swimming. he needs to run or walk 35 miles if pure fat were being burned. running or walking one mile burns about 100 calories. however. In reality. and jumping rope. which uses lots of oxygen. crosscountry skiing. bicycling. will not make up for poor health and exercise habits. This section gives basic nutritional guidance for enhancing physical performance. For an average-sized person. To be properly nourished. most people would need to run or walk over 50 miles to burn one pound of fat. especially in large amounts. walking. a mixture of both fats and carbohydrates is used. Aerobic exercise is best for burning fat. athletes should regularly eat a wide variety of foods fro-m the major food groups. Anaerobic activities. Because there are 3. good health. examples include jogging. Athletes must know and follow the basic nutrition principles if they hope to maintain weight control as well as achieve maximum physical fitness. and rowing. bicycling. Guidelines for Healthy Eating Eating a variety of foods and maintaining an energy balance are basic guidelines for a healthy diet. burn little.500 calories in one pound of fat. swimming. In addition. A combination of proper diet and aerobic exercise is the proven way to lose excessive body fat. Aerobic exercises include jogging.selecting a variety of foods from within . Exercise alone is not the best way to lose body fat.Fat can only be burned during exercise if oxygen is used. the unit's MFT can design tailored exercise programs which will help athletes increase their caloric expenditure and maintain their lean body mass. fat is seldom the only source of energy used during aerobic exercise. rowing.

Another dietary guideline is to consume enough calories to meet one's energy needs. a person running at 6 miles per hour (MPH) will burn 0. or negative) can be determined. Thus. multiply your body weight by 13 if you are sedentary.079 cal. the state of energy balance (positive. One can use standard household measuring utensils and a small kitchen scale to measure portions of foods and beverages.each group./lb. Good dietary habits help reduce the likelihood of developing CAD. results from the clogging of blood vessels in the heart.034 calories per pound per minute. = 5. and a typical. For athletes to get enough fuel from the food they eat and to obtain the variety of foods needed for nutrient balance. To estimate the number of calories you use in normal daily activity. CAD. = 11.079 cal. Keeping a daily record of all foods eaten and physical activity done is also helpful. x 0. Blood cholesterol levels can be lowered by reducing both body fat and the amount of fat in the diet. when the number of calories used equals the number of calories consumed./lb. especially saturated fats and cholesterol. a slow. as shown in Figure 6-3.85 calories/minute (150 lbs. and 15 if moderately active. as shown in Figure 6-4. Weight is maintained as long as the body is in energy balance. The result is a rough estimate of the number of calories you need to maintain your present body weight. 14 if somewhat active. a person will burn 0. A high intake of fats. A well balanced diet provides all the nutrients needed to keep one healthy.1 calories per minute (150 lbs.1 calories/ minute) or about 305 calories/hour. a 150-pound person would burn 5. intensities. Avoiding an excessive intake of fats is an important fundamental of nutrition. By comparing caloric intake with caloric expenditure. that is. The blood cholesterol level in most Americans is too high. balanced./min. x 0. The most accurate way to control caloric intake is to control the size of food portions and thus the total amount of food ingested. Figure @@@@@@6-3 shows the number of calories burned during exercise periods of different types. has been associated with high levels of blood cholesterol. while participating in archery. and durations. Lowering elevated blood cholesterol levels reduces the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) and of having a heart attack./min.85) or about 710 calories in one hour. Even snacking between meals can contribute to good nutrition if the right foods are eaten. . 150-pound male will burn 11. they should eat three meals a day. Similarly.034 calories/minute/lb. For example. You will need still more calories if you are more than moderately active. progressive disease.

high-intensity activities. potatoes) are the best sources of energy for active athletes. At least 50 percent of the calories in the diet should come from carbohydrates. age. Initially. and training sport. pasta. Finally. Foods rich in complex carbohydrates (for example. it is important to eat foods every day that are rich in complex carbohydrates. we should reduce our intake of saturated fat to less than 10 percent of the total calories consumed. the chief fuel burned is carbohydrates. high-intensity activities. Repetitive. vigorous activity can use up most of the carbohydrate stores in the exercised muscles.It is recommended that all persons should reduce their fat intake to 30 percent or less of their total caloric intake. 'but as the duration increases. Concerns for Optimal Physical Performance Carbohydrates. whole wheat bread. but to no more than 10 percent of our total calories. Cool. up to 60 minutes before exercising. In addition. because they can lead to low blood sugar levels during exercise. Sweat consists primarily of water with small quantities of minerals like sodium. The evaporation of sweat helps cool the body during exercise. such as candy. Examples include weight training and the APFT sit-up and push-up events. can result. are the primary fuel source for muscles during short-term. We should increase our intake of polyunsaturated fat. Individual caloric requirements vary. The current national average is 38 percent. water lost through sweating must be replaced or poor performance. we should reduce our daily cholesterol intake to 300 milligrams or less. Water is an essential nutrient that is critical to optimal physical performance. The intensity of the exercise also influences whether fats or carbohydrates are used to provide energy. Eating foods rich in carbohydrates helps maintain adequate muscle glycogen reserves while sparing amino acids (critical building-blocks needed for building proteins). Athletes . rice. depending on body size. It is also important to avoid simple sugars. As a result. It plays an important role in maintaining normal body temperature. Athletes often fail to drink enough water. Very intense activities use more carbohydrates. and possibly injury. The body uses fat to help provide energy for extended activities such as a one-hour run. Carbohydrates are the primary fuel source for muscles during shortterm. plain water is the best drink to use to replace the fluid lost as sweat. sex. the contribution from fat gradually increases. especially when training in the heat. Because foods eaten one to three days before an activity provide part of the fuel for that activity. in the form of glycogen (a complex sugar).

drinks that exceed levels of 10 percent carbohydrate. can lead to abdominal cramps. Weight lifters. if any. who have a high proportion of lean body mass.0 to 1. Many people believe that body builders need large quantities of protein to promote better muscle growth.5 grams per kilogram of body weight per day). During periods of intense aerobic training. 1. which are usually simple carbohydrates (sugars) and electrolytes dissolved in water. Athletes on extended road marches can also benefit from drinking these types of glucose-containing beverages. .8 grams per kilogram of body weight. LOWERING CHOLESTEROL In order to understand why it is important to lower cholesterol. Cholesterol is a fatlike waxy substance and is produced by the liver. one can benefit from periodically drinking sports drinks with a concentration of 5 to 10 percent carbohydrate. are helpful under certain circumstances. Most people meet this level when about 15 percent of their daily caloric intake comes from protein. This can improve endurance. it is necessary to first understand what cholesterol is. these beverages can provide a source of carbohydrate for working muscles. to the total energy requirement of heavy resistance exercises. during. and after exercise to prevent dehydration and help enhance performance. and diarrhea.5+ hours) at intensities over 50 percent of heart rate reserve. The primary functions of protein are to build and repair body tissue and to form enzymes. one's need for protein might be somewhat higher (for example. can easily meet their protein requirement with a well-balanced diet which has 15 to 20 percent of its calories provided by protein. as do regular soda pops and most fruit juices. Sports drinks. The recommended dietary allowance of protein for adults is 0. too much cholesterol in the body has damaging effects. Although cholesterol has purposes and is important to overall health and body function. There is evidence that solutions containing up to 10 percent carbohydrate will enter the blood fast enough to deliver additional glucose to the active muscles. On the other hand. nausea.should drink water before. these drinks should be used with caution during intense endurance training and other similar activities. Therefore. During intense training. During prolonged periods of exercise (1. Protein is believed to contribute little.

" As with some fats. This is known as "good" cholesterol. This is done simply from reducing cholesterol by 1%. The two main types of lipoproteins are: High Density Lipoproteins (HDL. Understanding the Types of Cholesterol While most people talk about "cholesterol levels" there is in fact more than one type of cholesterol. produces hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. As we progress with "30 days to lower cholesterol" you will learn healthy. it plays a life-giving role in many functions of the body. alternative ways to manage your cholesterol without having to rely on medications. When cholesterol is at a good level it works to build and repair cells. vegetables. the 50% of all adult Americans with high cholesterol can regain their health and lower their risk of disease by 2%. which is another form of fat. molecules called lipoproteins carry cholesterol to and from cells. In fact. You want to ensure that your levels of this cholesterol remain .) HDL transports cholesterol from cells back to the liver. This puts you at serious risk for disease such as heart and stroke. and produces bile acids which are proven to aid in the digestion of fat.Cholesterol forms every cell within the body. The purpose of this ebook is to inform. In fact. With too much cholesterol in the body. cholesterol cannot be dissolved in the blood. educate and provide healthful options. and grains you can maintain optimal health as they do not contain cholesterol. Cholesterol can be managed for life with success! It is recommended that you visit your physician on a regular basis to keep a keen eye on your levels. When you eat saturated foods such as dairy. Lipoproteins equip the cholesterol to move around the body. When the cholesterol level is appropriate. High cholesterol can be avoided! With a nutritious diet. though. Molecules are made from an outer layer of protein and an inner core of both cholesterol and triglycerides. the major cause behind heart attacks and strokes is clogged arteries resulting from high levels of cholesterol. Instead. HDL is either reused or converts to bile acids and disposed. On the other hand when you eat foods such as fruits. meat and eggs your cholesterol elevates. there are several different body functions and several different substances that make up our understanding of "cholesterol. the levels build up and cause damage by clogging your arteries.

may lead to heart problems. Understanding the Causes of High Cholesterol Besides diet. Studies show conclusively that high cholesterol leads to much higher risk of heart attack and/or stroke. a more sedentary lifestyle also contributes to unhealthy levels of cholesterol. HDL consists of more protein than triglycerides or cholesterol." This documentary details the attempts of one man to live on fast foods and little exercise alone. and aids to remove LDL from your artery walls. HDL aids to ensure protection from the risk of heart attack and/or stroke. Other factors involved in this risk are age. which can raise our bad cholesterol levels. other causes of high cholesterol are lifestyle. when we speak of having "cholesterol levels" we mean more than one number. For some. since having too low levels of HDL ." Lifestyle issues and high cholesterol: When we opt for convenience in eating over nutrition. If you want to see a graphic representation of this. you will need to know your levels of both LDL and HDL and will need to work hard to keep both levels in healthy ranges. gender. gender and the heritage of the individual.) LDL carries approximately 60_70% of cholesterol around the body and are known as "bad" cholesterol. smoking. The results on his cholesterol and body health in just 30 days are truly frightening. To maintain optimum health. some people require a very aggressive approach which includes cholesterol lowing medication. consider renting the documentary movie "Supersize Me. we are setting ourselves up for problems. In addition. even maintaining cholesterol at the right levels and being fit and thin will still not prevent the development of high levels of bad cholesterol. . We will address this issue as we progress in "30 days to lowering cholesterol. Eating fast foods and convenience foods results in eating too many fats and salts.high for optimum heart health. and diabetes mellitus.even when other cholesterol levels are normal . family history of heart disease. Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL. As you work to lower your "bad cholesterol" it is important to also take steps and to keep your HDL levels normal. Due to heart risk factors besides diet. Obviously.

Women generally have a lower level than men from age 50 to 55. Age and Gender: Cholesterol levels increase with age. Heritage: Genetics play a key role in a person's health and this includes the amount of cholesterol you might have. you can make sure that age does not threaten your heart health by sticking to a healthy lifestyle and diet and by getting your cholesterol levels monitored. work harder and start earlier in adopting a healthy lifestyle and eating plan. Reduce your overall use of oils even further by using cooking techniques that require little or no oil.especially bad cholesterol . While there is not much that you can do about your age. Your Arteries and Cholesterol The job of your arteries is to pump blood. Diet: An important consideration in eating is choosing lower fat. High levels of bad cholesterol may even prevent arteries . each day will lower cholesterol. Regular exercise will effectively lower cholesterol and will maintain your body strength to function best. Too much cholesterol in the blood .prevents arteries from working their best. It is never too late to start on this path. If you have a family history of heart disease and high cholesterol levels. Buy cooking oils that are unsaturated. Each body system has arteries which are responsible for providing the oxygen rich blood that keeps us alive. Find out if your family battles with high levels of cholesterol and then bring this to your doctor's attention right away. Once a woman starts menopause. Use low fat cooking sprays to replace heavy oils whenever possible. including walking. Simple activities that get you moving and that you enjoy enough to repeat are almost always adequate. the cholesterol level starts to increase. Exercise does not have to be a large time or money commitment. Just 20 minutes of aerobic exercise. The Dorsal Aorta or the main artery branches out into many smaller arteries.A visit to a nutritionist or dietician can help us all better understand eating for the right reasons and for optimal health.

Even having "borderline" cholesterol levels . In a healthy person. Each artery has three specific layers: The outer layer The middle (muscular) layer The inner layer. Why wouldn't you want to take the simple steps necessary to lower your cholesterol and enjoy a better and possibly longer life? Eating For Lower Cholesterol . this system works effectively and the blood can carry oxygen and other essentials throughout the body. The inner layer is smooth and allows the blood to flow easily. The main cause behind heart disease is this thickening of the fatty deposits in the arteries. it is critical then that we keep arteries free of bad cholesterol for optimal health.from functioning at all. No matter what your current health. High cholesterol levels fill arteries with thick substances that prevent your body from working well. and the main reason behind the blocking of arteries is high levels of bad cholesterol. As the heart beats. eating a better diet and getting exercise can help keep you healthy.can increase your chances of heart disease or stroke. Each are made up of epithelial cells. For this reason. Arteries are constructed of a tough exterior and a soft. smooth interior. you need to keep your cholesterol levels in a healthy range. It helps pump the body's blood. the arteries expand and are filled with blood. Your heart becomes starved of required blood.or bad cholesterol levels that are elevated but not considered "very bad" . and strokes. Consider: Heart disease is one of the leading killers in North America. Lowering your cholesterol levels through a heart-healthy diet and exercise regimen is one of the best ways to prevent heart disease. If this happens often enough you can suffer a heart attack or a stroke. The heart relaxes and produces enough force to push the blood through. since cholesterol can actually lead to blockages in your arteries. This means that if you want to prevent heart disease. Disease fills the arteries with fatty deposits and this becomes a dangerous obstacle to good health. heart attacks. The middle layer is elastic and very strong.

a healthy diet is the one thing that you must absolutely do in order to ensure heart health. If you need assistance seek out a nutritionist or dietician. In fact. if you have elevated levels of high cholesterol. Receive 25_35% or less of your day's total calories from fat.Eating is one of the things that can affect your cholesterol level a great deal. you can take steps to regain your health by following a low cholesterol and low fat diet. Again. . Your doctor may even recommend that you get a smaller percentage of your calories from saturated fat. Being true to such a healthful diet will ensure that you can reduce total cholesterol levels by as much as 15 percent. If you have too high cholesterol. but reducing your intake of all salts is the better choice. your doctor may recommend that you consume an even smaller (or a larger) amount of fat than this. You should be resolved to eat only enough calories to improve your healthy weight and reduce your blood cholesterol level. As an added benefit. Sea salt is a better option. Being overweight can contribute to cholesterol and to heart ailments. try to lower your saturated fat intake as far as possible. Limit your sodium intake to 2400 milligrams a day. or follow the limits for dietary cholesterol that your doctor sets for you. the foods you eat can be one of the things you can control to most effectively and quickly lower your cholesterol. this sort of diet will also make you feel generally healthier and more energetic as well. In fact. The effects over all will be immediate. Adapting to a Cholesterol Friendly Diet Once your doctor has confirmed that you have high cholesterol. You will benefit further with a regular exercise schedule and this will raise your "good" HDL levels for a total package of healthy living. Do this and within as short as 30 days you will experience a renewed sense of energy and vitality. Following a low cholesterol and low fat diet necessitates that you must do the following: Get less than 7% of your day's total calories from saturated fat. especially if you have very high cholesterol. Consume less than 200 milligrams of dietary cholesterol each day.

poultry. salad dressing and sauces. You can further keep your blood cholesterol levels low by doing the following: Choose chicken and turkey that has the skin removed. High cholesterol foods include: Organ meats (this includes liver. eggs and nuts each week. You can keep the skin on to seal in the juices so long as you remove the skin before eating. fish. which may be eaten in small quantities) Egg yolks Full fat dairy products • Fried and processed foods are often high in fat and salt. which can wreak havoc on your heart health. rye. hot dogs. These foods include: Oats. and barley Fruits (especially try oranges and pears) Vegetables (especially brussel sprouts and carrots) Dried peas and beans Avoid the Following Foods for Best Health: • High cholesterol foods can increase your level of blood cholesterol. sausages. and especially processed meats such as deli meats. especially deep fried foods • You will produce meals that have lower saturated fats when you try the following methods of food preparation: Bake Broil Microwave Poach Steam Grill Roast (only if you remove fats that are melted in the process) Lightly stir-fry or sauté using low-fat and low-salt broth Selecting your Foods Enjoy a wide variety of foods regularly. dry beans. . • Enjoy foods high in soluble fiber.Refuse foods made with harmful trans fats such as margarine. including select cuts of meat. Limit and eat only in moderation if at all: Highly processed foods. salami and fatty red meats All foods that are fried. bologna.

Increasing your intake of fresh (not canned. there are many types of delicious fresh produce out there that can create spectacular meals while lowering your cholesterol. Consider all the vegetables you may not have tried yet (please note that this list is not . The white "marble" is fat that can increase your cholesterol. As an added bonus. One of the easiest ways to introduce more fruits and vegetables into the diet is to eat different types of fruits and vegetables. Even the leanest cuts of meat. there is no such worry. While you do not want to overeat. To put it simply. and grains are healthier . not poached. those nations that eat more fruits. not sweetened or boiled) fruits and vegetables significantly should be your first goal as you try to lower your cholesterol over the next 30 days. and shellfish have saturated fat and cholesterol so limit your daily intake to 6 ounces or less. fish. Not only do these foods have no dietary cholesterol that can raise your bad cholesterol levels. and cuts that have less white "marbleized" texture.When selecting meat. If you have always felt deprived while following low-fat diets in the past. Making Healthy Eating Better One of the best things you can do for your cholesterol levels is to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables. you can avoid this in the future simply by eating more fresh fruits and vegetables. You can only eat small portions of animal products before you have to worry about cholesterol content. you do not have to worry as much about eating too many fruits and vegetables. Remember: You can increase soluble fiber if LDL is not lowered enough from reducing saturated fat and cholesterol. but some fruits and vegetables have been linked to lowering cholesterol in patients.and have lower cholesterol levels as a whole. Studies also often show that North Americans eat far less fresh fruits and vegetables than they should eat. chicken. Research studies have proven numerous times that one of the best things you can do for yourself if you are worried about your cholesterol level is to eat more fresh fruit and vegetables. choose leaner cuts. With vegetables and fruits.that North Americans face. a fact that has often been suggested as a key cause for the higher cholesterol levels and heart disease levels . When most of us think of "veggies" we think only of a few. In fact.not to mention the higher rates of obesity . Select fish such as cod that has less saturated fat than even chicken or other meats. you can eat far more fresh fruits and vegetables than meat products and remain heart healthy. vegetables. white meat.

borlotti beans.there are too many vegetables to list here . red beans. kidney beans.and please note that some of these vegetables may be classified as fruits): Alfalfa sprouts Anise Artichoke Arugula Asparagus Avocado Beans (there are many different kinds of beans. from black beans. and many others) Beets and beet greens Bok choy Breadfruit Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage (there are many kinds. there are many delicious brands of peas. green peas. navy beans. runner beans. ranging from red and green to Chinese cabbage and others) Calabrese Carrots Cauliflower Celery Chard Chicory Collard Corn Celeriac Daikon Eggplant Endive Fennel (whole fennel. mung beans. These may include snow peas. sugar snap peas. lima beans to azuki beans. many which you likely have not tried before. chickpeas. soy beans. and many others) Bean sprouts Lentils Peas (again.complete . not just the seeds. broad beans. green beans. can be used in cooking) Fiddleheads Frisee Garlic Chives Kai_lan .

Empire. . Try the following varieties: Akane. Arlet. orange. Mantet. and they can easily be bought fresh or dried to add flavor to just about every meal) Mustard greens Nettles Okra Peppers (from hot peppers like the habanero and others to sweet green. Empress. Kandil Sinap. from the common to the exotic. Gala. Mutsu. these vegetables present an almost infinite variety) Water chestnuts Watercress • Apples (there is an almost infinite variety of these.Kale Kohlrabi Leek Lemon grass Onions Lettuce (if you have always eaten iceberg lettuce. some quite rare. Blushing Golden. not just their size. There are many types of mushrooms. from butternut to acorn to pumpkins and gourds. and others. Liberty. Jonagold. you will be stunned by the range of lettuces out there. Mcintosh. Fuji. it is a fungus. Also be sure to try gem squash and spaghetti squash) Zucchini Cucumber Tomatoes (these range from hot house tomatoes to cherry and grape tomatoes their taste. these vegetables are very good for you and extremely tasty) Spinach Radicchio Rapini Parsnips Radishes Rutabaga Turnip and turnip greens Skirret Squashes (there are many of these. including Bibb and many others) Mushrooms (although mushrooms are usually served alongside vegetables. Honey Crisp. Chieftain. red potatoes. Centennial Crab. Braeburn. differs) Tubers Potatoes (from yams and sweet potatoes to new potatoes. yellow and red peppers. Cortland.

Opal. ranging from pale greens to very deep purples) Guava Kiwis Kumquats Lemons and Limes Lychee fruits Mangos Melons (Red water. Red Haven. Red bananas. currants. and others) Persimmons Pineapples Plums (including Mt. Red Astrachan. Red Secor. Baking Bananas. Wilson Juicy. lingonberries. and others) Berries (besides the usual strawberries and raspberries.Northern Spy. Dietz. Starking Delicious Plum. bilberries. Yataka. bearberries. and others) Cherries (from sour cherries. Stanley Prune_Plum. Monmorency cherries. Starr. Yellow Transparent. cloudberries. Honeydew. Beirschmidt. sea grapes. Royal Plum. Watermelon. Unize Plum. and others) Nectarines Oranges Papayas Passion Fruits Peaches (including Encore. among others) Pears (including Asian pears. there are dewberries. loganberries. Cassava. blueberries. and others) Clementines Dates Figs Grapefruits Grapes (there are many. elderberries. many kinds. Chinooks. Russet. Reliance. cranberries. Empress Prune_Plum. Bartlett. huckleberries. and Sensation Dwarf Peach. and the many others available at your grocery store and farmer's market) Apricots Bananas (try Fruit Bananas. Virginia Gold. barberries. nannyberries. boysenberries. and many others) Pomegranates Pummelo Rhubarb Star Fruit Sweety Qunices . Hedelfingers. Baby Bananas. Lapins. and sweet cherries such as Black Russians. Canary. Canteloupe. gooseberries. crowberries. wineberries. Apple Bananas. Patricia.

Cooking and Cholesterol If you want to lower your cholesterol. and prepackaged meals. use this list of fruits and vegetables. Print the list and circle all the fruits and vegetables you have not tried. are notorious for offering poor nutrition and plenty of fat. This is because many restaurants add lots of fat and salt to their foods in order to cheaply add texture and taste. most of us have tried only a small fraction of the fruits and vegetables that are out there. what we are really saying is that we do not have enough variety of fresh fruits and vegetables in our diet. salt.it is only a way to get you started in discovering new fruits and vegetables. find a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables you have not tried and try them. and sugar. This will add variety to your diet and make it much easier to eat plenty of the foods you need to lower your cholesterol and stay healthy. Over the next 30 days. Make it a mission to buy some fresh fruits and vegetables you have not tried. The fact is. of course. every week.Tangerines Tangelos Ugli Fruits Consider also all the fresh fruits you may not have tried yet: Are there fruits and vegetables on this list that you have not tried? There likely are. Look back over the list of fruits and vegetables . convenience. When you have many types of healthy and delicious foods to choose from. Make it a mission to find new and exciting fruits and vegetables that you can enjoy fresh to lower your cholesterol. Read about new varieties of fruits and vegetables and try them as well. If you want to lower your cholesterol over the next 30 days. Introducing a huge variety of fresh fruits and vegetables into your diet is one sure way to do this. Your taste buds and your cholesterol level will thank you for it.treat it like a checklist of the food adventures you could have with food. When we say that we "don't like" fruits and vegetables or when we say that we "grow tired" of them. . Convenience foods. In fact. Which foods sound exotic or interesting? Take a chance today and pick up some fresh fruits or vegetables that you have never tried before. you will naturally choose foods that are good for you and for your heart. Realize that these lists of fruits and vegetables is far from complete . The secret to low-fat eating is to make eating the right foods as attractive as possible. avoid all fast-food. you will want to cook your own meals more often.

Keep fresh ingredients on hand and don't tempt yourself by keeping convenience foods and junk food in your house. and Indian recipes. Use a mashed avocado or salt-free salsa as the "dressing" on your sandwich. Choose fresh ingredients . There are many recipe books at your local library . Don't overlook cookbooks that feature Chinese. There are a number of very fast and easy ways to ensure that you can whip up tasty and cholesterol-friendly meals . Use these to add flavor to your cooking rather than relying on salt. you can easily create a salad that is enticing. Japanese.the very freshest you can. Wrap some veggies in a tortilla. Cooking to lower your cholesterol is not very hard.no matter how harried your schedule: If you are very busy and tired at the end of a long day. Raw food. Simply chop up some favorite salad greens (mescalin mix. carrots. tomatoes. cut more veggies into a salad. switch ingredients to healthier alternatives. a salad and sandwich take less time to put together than it takes to phone the pizza parlor. Vegan. If you must use salt. cucumbers. use only a pinch of the best sea salt you are able to buy. There are a few basic foods that almost anyone can make that can keep your health in good shape: Salads: Even if you are not an excellent cook. These are often heart-friendly and contain enough variety to keep you happy with your low-fat diet forever. You can make your own dressing by mixing herbs (such as basil or thyme) and a squirt of lemon or you can choose prepared dressings that are very low in salt and fats.This isn't hard to do. Soups and stir-fries are other kitchen friends of busy people who aren't very handy in the kitchen. Use good olive oil instead of butter. but you will need less fat and salt in your cooking if your food ingredients are flavorful on their own. even if you are lost in the kitchen. If you have recipes you cannot part with. Buy some fresh herbs. herbs) and garnish with a few nuts. and drizzle the salad with olive oil and lemon juice. Not only is this healthier for you. zucchini. Find low-fat and cholesterol-friendly recipes in cookbooks and plan to make these recipes. You can also create a very low fat salad dressing by combining half an avocado with some herbs . low-fat products instead of the regular kind and experiment with cutting salt out of recipes entirely.and many of these feature heart-healthy and fast recipes that can make cholesterol-friendly eating a snap.

Experiment with different fruit combinations to find different tastes. bacon bits.which can increase the fat content of you sandwiches considerably choose to flavor your sandwich with fresh sweet onions or low-sodium mustard or salsa. Chilling or even freezing some of the fruit before serving can produce a nice chilled drink that is perfect for summer. opt for skinless poultry. a squirt of lemon juice over your salad will keep your fruit salad attractive and healthy. berries. Simply choose healthy breads or pitas or tortillas that are low in fats and salts and choose lots of vegetables for your sandwiches. from fresh pasta or dried pasta to vegetable pastas and rice pastas. If you are using apples or other fruits that tend to "brown" in your salad. This can be a very tasty combination and is still quite healthy for you. Avoid croutons. Instead of fats or mayonnaise on your sandwiches . Avoid highly processed deli and sandwich meats. If you are craving desserts. and other high-fat foods in your salads. If you do want to add meat to your salad.and lemon juice. Fruit Salads: Chopping up some of your favorite fruits. Add your favorite fresh herbs (basil is a good choice) and combine. This makes an excellent and very healthy snack. You can make similar meals with rice or even low-fat tofu. Many prepared pasta dishes use plenty of salt or cream-based sauces. Sandwiches: Sandwiches are quite easy to make. It can also be a great quick breakfast on days when you are in a rush. Instead. you can add a small amount of very low fat frozen yogurt to this recipe and use frozen fruits to get a tasty and heart-friendly alternative to ice cream and other desserts. Combine the vegetables with some low-sodium and low-fat chicken or vegetable broth and cook until vegetables are softer but still crisp. Add the pasta and toss until the vegetables are the desired consistency. Combine until blended. eggs. Simply cook the pasta in a pot. whole milk products such as chesses. Smoothie: Combine your favorite fresh fruits in a blender with fresh fruit juice and a small squirt of honey. All can be made into delicious and heart-friendly meals in minutes. . but some combination of this recipe can give you a tasty meal with less fat. A fruit salad is an especially excellent choice for breakfast or a later meal and is appropriate even for those who have very high cholesterol and so must follow a very low-fat and very lowcholesterol diet. Pastas: There are a number of pastas available. use lean and skinless chicken or other poultry. and lemons can make a beautiful and attractive salad that is very low fat. Shred your favorite vegetables or cut them into very small pieces.

plenty of calories and some fats. Also. Jello.many are very high in sodium. cover with lemon juice and possibly herbs and grill or bake until done. REVIEW A low cholesterol diet is achieved by eating foods low in saturated fat and concentrating on the following: Use herbs instead of salt in cooking. take care to read the labels on these snacks and choose the brands with the least sugar. low-fat yogurt. wafers. skim. At many fish shops. and sugars. you can get planks of cedar that are perfect for baking or grilling fish . However. Eat plenty of fish Enjoy only skinless poultry Select plenty of whole grain foods Eat lots of fruits Read food labels and choose foods low in fats (especially saturated. Desserts and Snacks: Limiting desserts and snacks in general can help you control your weight and your calories intake and so keep your heart healthy. so overindulging in these will certainly not allow you to keep your heart healthy. and poultry rather than red meats. fish. and hydrogenated fats).simply place the fish on the cedar. Consume fat free. sodium. Choose only lean meats. these products still do often contain sodium. puddings made with low-fat milk that make lower-fat alternatives. and cholesterol . marinating poultry and other meats in lemon juice and fresh dill or in pureed fruits and vegetables is a heart-friendly way to get plenty of flavor into your cooking without adding fat. If this does not work. fig and fruit bars. though. fat. polyunsaturated. fruit sherbert. calories. occasionally eating low-fat desserts and snacks such as angel food cake. you can make these foods even healthier by reducing the amount of fat you use in preparing them. animal or graham crackers. or 1% dairy products Watch out for bottled and canned drinks and especially for sports beverages . If you absolutely crave a dessert or snack. try to stave off the craving with fresh fruit. and salt that you can.Grilled dishes: Brushing vegetables and lean meats with lemon juice and herbs and grilling on the barbeque is a great way to enjoy fat-free good-for-you foods that are easy and fast to create. Enjoy white meats. Lean meat dishes: When you have chosen your lean cuts of meat. For example. calories.

If you are inventing excuses or having a hard time sticking to the diet plan your doctor or nutritionist has helped you develop for your cholesterol level. pickled or tinned foods. Think of the last ten food advertisements you have seen. Although we may know which foods we should be turning to and which lifestyle changes we need to make. consider two secrets that can help make lowering your cholesterol over the next 30 days far less painful: Secret #1: Advertising Can Help You Lower Your Cholesterol. Think about it: why do you eat the way you do? At least part of the reason has to do with learned behavior. though. Today. but advertising can help you lower your cholesterol because advertising is likely already a big part of your higher cholesterol. You learned to like some foods as a child. we don't always do what is right. especially if we have followed less than ideal eating and life patterns for some time.and likely this has been the doing of advertisers. simply because salads and vegetables are advertised a lot less. because they were not needed. spiced. It sounds crazy. If you cannot find fresh produce out of season. try frozen foods that have no sauces or other ingredients added. there is a huge market for convenience and "junk" . Eat lots of vegetables Two Big Secrets that Can Help You Lower Your Cholesterol Most of us know what we have to do to lower our cholesterol. prepared. However. When you think of a salad.healthy processed foods.even when those foods are processed and contribute directly to higher cholesterol. juicy burger with all the toppings. you likely picture the hamburger you see in advertisements . adopting a very low-fat diet and healthier lifestyle is often challenging. you may nit get the same strong images in your head. Face it. Traditionally. they were for less-than. less than healthy foods have needed advertising. Do you associate champagne and truffles with elegant dinner parties? Chips and beer with a fun night out? Lattes with work friends? Advertisers spend millions and even billions of dollars getting you to eat their foods .Choose fresh rather than processed. When you picture a hamburger. most of us have been taught which foods are healthy and low in fat and which are less than good for us. Odds are.a large. but you have also learned to associate certain foods with certain ideas and ideals .

even those that are fatty and terrible for your cholesterol . they come in brightly designed packages that grab the eye.are so hard to resist? The great thing is that you can add this same type of "advertising" to your own low-fat and heart-healthy meals. Advertisers do an incredible job at making foods attractive. Is it any wonder that it is hard to walk by the foods you know are less than healthy for you? You can turn the power of advertising in your advantage. Also avoid radio ads and restaurant advertisements in magazines and newspapers. much as restaurants do. Is it any wonder that restaurant meals . This is no mistake. . There is no reason why your heart health should suffer because some advertiser is good at their job. this is exactly what restaurants do to advertise their food when you are actually in the restaurant . After all. so that customers are more likely to walk away feeling happy and satisfied with their meal. Most people see the majority of food advertisements on television. Add some music or candles to your dinner.they add ambience to make the meals more attractive and appealing. Odds are. and lower your cholesterol over the next 30 days as well. avoid the television for a while and watch your cravings for fatty foods decrease. Any small and fast touches that can make your meal more appealing will make your new low-fat diet seem more like a luxury than anything else. Start with your own cholesterol-lowering action plan: 1) Reduce the amount of food advertising you see. though. 2) Make good-for-you foods appealing. but many times these foods are less than great for your cholesterol level. In too many grocery stores. Advertisers are trying to make their products appealing.foods. the amount of space that fresh produce and grains take up is far less than the amount of space devoted to less heart-healthy foods. sugary foods. In fact. Use brightly colored fruits and vegetables and arrange your heart-healthy food in an attractive way on the plate. Figure out where you see advertisements for foods and then avoid those ads. good restaurants will often spend large budgets on consultants that can tell them what they can do to make meals more appealing to customers. If this describes you. When you visit your local grocery store. and sodas to the amount of space given to the produce section. they are placed at eye level. junk foods. Often. Take a look at those high-fat and cholesterol-high foods. Put your low-fat dinners on nicer china and eat at the table instead of in front of the television. compare the amount of shelf space given to convenience foods.

and look up stories about the disgusting things people have found in the fast foods and convenience foods. you will find it much easier to stick to a low-fat diet . Advertisers work very hard to make sure that you remember jingles and descriptions of foods . This will make bad-for-your heart foods seem far less attractive.that's why you can often sing the slogans for popular advertisements years after the ads are no longer shown. greasy. Ask your friends and family for their dining-out horror stories. . 4) Use a little negative advertising. congealed. Whenever you find yourself craving foods that are high in fat or sodium. You likely have heard fresh fruit and vegetables described as "rabbit food" or as being "boring" or even "tired" or "wilted. make your low-fat and healthy meals at home more appealing in any way you can think of and you will be amazed at how much easier your new diet is to stick to. recall the times you have had terrible fast food or convenience food meals. Try to do the same thing as advertisers . 3) Describe foods in a way that makes them appealing to you. By making heart-healthy foods such as vegetables and lean meat more attractive and high-fat foods seem more disgusting.when buying food that is good for you." This is not likely to make you crave these foods especially since you are always hearing great adjectives .such as "delicious" and "juicy" described about fatty foods. Use words such as "crisp" and "delicious" to describe low-fat and good-for-you foods such as produce and lean meats.as mushy. use a little negative advertising. For example. You can use the same technique to make good-for-you low-fat foods seem appealing. Secret #2: Make High Cholesterol Harder than Lowered Cholesterol. and other foods you are trying to avoid during the next 30 days.without feeling cheated or deprived. As soon as you are aware that you are craving the foods. imagine them in the worst possible light . If you find that you crave convenience foods. watch out for negative words. Collecting and reading stories about the hairs and other unappetizing things that have been found in convenience food will make these foods seem far less attractive. and disgusting. try to find ways to make these foods less appealing.For the next 30 days. fast foods. cold. This is especially important since there are few ads for these foods and many of us come to associate negative images of health foods. Advertising works by staying with you.

If these things are not in your home. or menus from take-out places and restaurants. if you can. 4) Get lots of appealing heart-healthy foods into your kitchen. 3) Eat in. 2) Make your kitchen a heart-healthy place. There are several ways to set yourself up for cholesterol-lowering success: 1) Get rid of bad-for-you foods and temptations. That way you are far more likely to reach for low-fat. While you are cleaning out your kitchen. If you have a deep-fryer. you are more likely to cook at home rather than being tempted to eat out. If your kitchen is an enticing place to cook. as you work to lower your cholesterol. You do not have to invest a lot of money for this. no-stick cooking ware. Also get rid of any fliers. you can easily reduce how much fats and sodium goes into each meal. fried foods. give it away. advertisements. you should eat in and eat foods you have prepared yourself almost all the time. For the next 30 days. you are more likely to turn to them when you are feeling hungry. Hang up some nice curtains or at least get rid of the clutter. go through your home and get rid of the foods that you should be eliminating or cutting back on. wok. Covered mesh containers are available for fruits these containers allow fruits to ripen and stay visible. Replace your foods with lowerfat or healthier alternatives. If you make healthy foods more attractive and visible. If you keep cookies. Prepared foods and foods you buy from take-out restaurants and in dining areas do not give you as much control over ingredients and preparation. you are far less likely to be tempted by them. As soon as you learn from your doctor that you need to take care about what you eat because of elevated cholesterol.and for life! .and are less likely to cheat on your new eating plan. Invest in parchment paper. . Buy pretty hanging bowls for your citrus fruits and vegetables instead of hiding them in your crisper. you are more likely to reach for them when you are hungry. 2) Give them away to a friend or food bank. Just buying parchment paper (for lining cooking sheets) and getting rid of appliances that are only for high-fat cooking is often enough to make good low-fat cooking almost automatic. or other appliances and gadgets that make heart-healthy and low-fat cooking more likely.What this means is that you should make cholesterol-friendly food choices easier on yourself than bad-for-you choices. When you make your meals yourself. a rice steamer. and other temptations around. healthy foods over the next 30 days . try to find ways to make cooking in your kitchen more appealing. but prevent fruit flies.

and have the opportunity to spend time with others who are concerned about heart health. 8) Socialize without food. Many community centers and cooking schools now offer cost-effective cooking classes in cholesterol-friendly and heart-healthy foods. If you can't find someone to help you. make it a habit to meet friends at places that don't have food as a major entertainment. Many of us take in excess calories and fats when we eat out with others. .listen to music or watch a movie on a portable DVD player as you cook. so that there is no excuse to turn to convenience food. you may find that you enjoy cooking and prefer the taste of healthy low-fat foods more! 6) Plan your cholesterol-lowering meal once a week. The hard part is staying motivated to keep the diet plan up for weeks. This can be an excellent way to make healthy eating fun especially if you feel out of place in a kitchen. on hiking trails. but we often leave eating to chance. child. Over the next 30 days. 7) Get help in the kitchen. cooking with someone else tends to be more fun. fear is a great motivator. If you have very high cholesterol. For many of us. This will ensure that you have all the fresh ingredients and healthy meal ideas you need. and cooking time will fly by and you prepare nutritious and cholesterol-lowering meals for yourself.5) Consider taking a heart-healthy cooking class. put a really graphic picture of clogged arteries or some cholesterol health hazard you fear where you will see it. You will learn many recipes and cooking tips for heart-healthy eating. This is especially a problem since we so often equate social times with eating . once you learn to cook healthy and delicious meals. Find ways to get yourself motivated to eat well for life.we meet friends at restaurants. Meet friends at the gym. After a long day at work. You can also make a bet with a friend or family member that will see you lose money each time you cheat on your diet. Or. Plus. Most of us plan our days and our finances. it can be too daunting to come up with a menu and then cook a meal from scratch. 9) Get motivated. Getting started on a low-fat diet to lower your cholesterol is often not the hard part. Whether you get help from a roommate. This can make heart-healthy eating more difficult. or in your home rather than in restaurants or cafes that feature rich foods. consider pinning your cholesterol level and a list of the dangers of high cholesterol on your fridge. and pubs or we have movie nights that include take-out pizza. coffee shops. then find some way to make cooking time more fun . or spouse. Choose one day a week to plan your entire eating menu and then go shopping for the ingredients you will need for the upcoming week.

it is important to find out which events cause you to overeat or to crave fatty foods and then work hard to find alternatives. Luckily. Most of us have specific emotions and events that may make us turn to comfort food. sadness boredom. Keep cut up fruits and vegetables in your refrigerator to make stir-fries. and other low-fat foods are among the most convenient foods out there. simply make sure that most of your plate is taken up by fresh fruits and vegetables. high-sodium "fast foods. fiber. milk products) should be smaller still . The portion size of grain should be smaller and the portion size of animal proteins (meats. If Tuesday work meetings leave you reaching for cookies in your office desk. Sticking the same sorts of foods will get you in a rut and will make high-fat alternatives more appealing. then you may need to find a different route home. list ways you can avoid the situation or at least make better choices when you are faced with it. 13) Make cholesterol-friendly eating easier. 12) Figure out your eating dangers and find ways to overcome them. Sometimes. and beside each item. Sound too simple? Not at all. and you will reach for these foods rather than turning to high-fat. either get a small gadget that will count the grams and amounts for you (you can even get programs for your computer or palm pilot that will count this for you) or simplify by eating more of the good stuff and less of the bad. types of fat. fruits. find a way to get out of the meetings or take a walk after the meeting instead of reaching for food.10) Make heart-healthy food more convenient.no larger than a pack of cards. list the times you are more likely to want to eat. Keep low-fat yogurt and other low fat foods around for fast snacking. vegetables. and other healthy meals easier. Post your list in your planner or other visible place so that you will see it." 11) Make heart-healthy food more interesting. Find new low-fat foods that you can enjoy and make it part of your eating plan to look up new low-fat recipes and foods each week so that you are always enjoying foods that are new and healthy for your heart. If your walk home from work takes you past a favorite restaurant you find hard to resist. salads. this is very simple. sodium. If you can make low-fat alternatives easier to reach for than fast food. When you prepare a meal. Whether it is general stress. Make sure that you eat different fruits and vegetables . You are unlikely to be satisfied with eating the same salad or the same types of healthy meals each day. On a paper. If counting fat grams. you are more likely to reach for meals and foods that are good for you as well as schedule-friendly. or meetings with your boss. and cholesterol in each of your foods is causing you stress.

all of which are easily accessible to athletes. Use olive oil as your main source of fat and refuse other dressings or sauces . egg yolks.do your cooking with the olive oil. you must weight the purported benefits against the potential risks . heart-healthy foods is more appealing and automatic than reaching for high-fat foods. Eating a variety of foods on a regular basis is the most important step toward this goal. botanicals. This will not make your cravings for less-than-healthy meals go away. herbs. as well as concentrates. There is no one magic pill or powder that you can take that will make you stronger. minerals. If you are considering supplements. or give you more energy. and you should be able to lower your cholesterol significantly without counting every gram you place in your mouth. but for most people interested in lowering their cholesterol. Your primary goal should be to always strive to obtain the nutrients you need from the foods in your diet. and convenience or restaurant meals entirely. Eliminate foods such as organ meats. this simple formula will be a snap to follow and will actually lower your cholesterol. and extracts of these substances. or easily digested by all. Supplements include vitamins. Supplementation should be part of a larger plan for an optimal performance diet not a replacement for poor habits and choices. Supplement powders and bars can be a convenient and portable method for busy people to ensure they are consuming adequate supplies of the essential nutrients. SUPPLIMENTS Use of dietary supplements Food supplementation is a multimillion-dollar business. There are thousands of supplements on the market. full-fat dairy products. constituents. Over the next 30 days. skinnier. Most products that meet this definition are not strictly regulated and are therefore not subject to any tight standards on makeup or claims. That definition has to been broadened to include any product intended for ingestion as a supplement to the diet. Supplement product labels must include the words "dietary supplement". Supplements were traditionally defined as any product made of one or more of the essential nutrients such as vitamins or protein. lower your cholesterol by making sure that reaching for lowfat.each day so that you get a variety. inexpensive. metabolites. this may not be enough. Nor are supplements a substitute for regular exercise. amino acids. Variety is still important because bars and powders are not always low fat. but it will go a long way towards ensuring that you don't give into the cravings. If you are on a very strict low-cholesterol diet.

First. problems with gaining weight or other conditions. start by finding a health food store or a vitamin supplier. Information is key. While a diet that's full of nutrient rich food should not be replaced. Again. Another source for information is the web. Therefore. But. Multi vitamins are a good starting point because they provide a decent dose of supplements that just about everyone needs. the claims probably are too good to be true. For example. you are probably still missing out. There are two routes to take. Get another opinion! Supplements can help to improve your body's function because you are giving your body exactly what it needs to do the work right. Don't assume that any information that you find is reliable. Multi vitamins give you what your food doesn't and they are affordable solutions to your needs. These individuals can also help provide you with the information you need regarding improving your conditions. If a product makes claims that sound too good to be true. If you have heart problems. First off. if you have a need to lose weight.(and cost) before deciding to use any product. even if you think that you can do this through the foods that you eat. In addition to this. look for supplements that can offer weight loss benefits. it sometimes needs additional supplementation to take it to the best level it can be at. Quality is very important if you want to see benefits from supplementation. realize that doctors don't always use supplementation in their practices and they may not be educated in prescribing this type of help to you. How do you know how much to take? That's a trickier question. Finding a reputable website that offers help for supplementation will help you to increase your overall well being through tackling individualized problems. find out what type of supplements you can take for your individual needs and problems. make sure that you have a reliable source. It's like always giving your car premium gas and oil to do its job even better! . quality is essential to success here. find a good quality multi vitamin and take that as directed. Giving your body the nutrients that it needs to make it through the day is essential to your well being. But. Today's foods often do not contain enough of the nutrients that your body needs to be in your best physical shape. you can probably find a supplement or several that can address those problems for you. what do you take? First off.

Creatine is used for the resynthesis of ATP. the cell can no longer contract. mainly found in red meat. I can gain 5 kg of muscle in just two weeks using creatine. Creatine phosphate is "split" to yield the phosphate portion of the molecule. creatine supplementation increases fat free mass and improves anaerobic and possibly aerobic performance. while the remaining 60% is stored in form of creatine phosphate (CP). When a muscle is required to contract. This process takes place in the kidneys. but you will be able to find a high quality supply at your local health food store or if you look on eBay. Another important supplement is whey protein. This phosphate portion bonds to the ADP. There are several methods by which the body rebuilds ATP. turning it back to ATP. yielding ADP (adenosine-diphosphate). and methionine. . Creatine is a natural constituent of meat. the bonds in the ATP molecule are split. For this reason it's important to drink a lot of water when you're taking creatine to protect your kidneys. Creatine works by increasing the water volume within your muscle cells. Creatine is manufactured naturally in the body from the amino acids glycine.There are thousands of different supplements on on the market. including both elite athletes and untrained individuals. The typical male adult processes 2 grams of creatine per day. When ATP is depleted within the cell. Glutamine is a supplement that's worth taking for improving your recovery from exercise and improving your immune system during stressful exercise. Approximately 40% of the body's creatine stores are free creatine (Cr). Creatine is the most popular and commonly used sports supplement available today. Once CP stores within the cell are depleted. There are several though that are very useful. and replaces that amount through dietary intake and fabrication within the body. and pancreas. For the majority of the population. The fastest method. Some of which perhaps are not particularly useful. liver. is through CP. the body must use other methods to replenish ATP. The energy released by breaking this bond powers the contraction of the muscle. without oxygen. or adenosine triphosphate. There are many different varieties of whey protein. Creatine is also a very good supplement for gaining muscle mass. arginine. There are numerous studies backed by anecdotal evidence that support the efficacy of creatine supplementation. is the "power" that drives muscular energetics. I have been using multivitamin supplements and vitamin B supplements for 20 years. ATP.

Doctors are even beginning to endorse creatine which is generally unheard of with supplements. your weight is multiplied by . Creatine is safe for most everyone to take with the exception of people with renal issues. allowing further capacity to regenerate ATP.2 kg multiplied by . Creatine is also thought to increase the body's aerobic abilities. Essentially. it's recommended that you stick to 5 grams per day. Experts say in the "loading phase". the dosage is 20 grams a day for five to seven days. therefore the body will quickly move to other methods of replenishing ATP. In the "loading phase" which is where you begin adding creatine to your diet. It is generally a good idea to have your creatine after you workout so that the glycogen in your body is replenished and recovery can be enhanced.03. The periods are brief because the ability of a cell to store CP is limited. It can also delay fatigue during repeated workouts. Follow along closely. you should be consuming .3 grams of creatine per kilogram of body weight. There are two way to decide what dosage of creatine you should take. You can mix the creatine powder with some skim or soy milk and even add some fresh fruit for flavor. creatine can create muscle fullness as well as create an environment within your body that is conducive to muscle growth. However. One study showed that using creatine supplements help to reduce the oxygen cost of activity so less strain is placed on the cardiovascular system while performing aerobic activity. though. so you would require 2. Many people like to take their creatine in a shake as it most often comes in the form of powder. the formula would look like this: 1 lb divided by 2. Glutamine . In other words.3 = 27 grams of creatine per day After the loading phase. After that. you must use your creatine regularly instead of sporadically for it to be effective.7 grams in the maintenance phase. the creatine enhances the ability of the muscle to maintain power output during brief periods of high-intensity exercise.Supplementation with creatine increases Cr and CP within the muscle. You can also calculate creatine dosage according to body weight and mass. this could get confusing! Not really. This is a huge advantage for the body builder as this means you will be able to work harder and longer losing fat and building up muscle. So if you weight 200 pounds.

promote healing. If you have too little glutamine in your system. Sixty percent of glutamine is found in the skeletal muscles. However. It is the single most important nutrient in a body building regimen. brain. increasing protein through weight gainers or protein powders is necessary. Again. you'll need both creatine and glutamine alike. The typical American diet provides 3. and speed up growth hormone production. prevent sore muscles. The remainder is in the lung. our body can produce more than enough. Many people are choosing to supplement daily due to the long growing list of benefits. . Research shows levels of supplementation from 2 to 40 grams daily.5 to 7 grams of glutamine daily which is found in animal and plant proteins. during times of stress. If you want to build a ripped body. Protein has been shown to have the best effects on the body when combined with carbohydrates. Protein is what makes up and maintains most of the stuff in our bodies. Protein The importance of protein to a body builder is a no-brainer. Of course. liver. it can result in muscle loss. Under normal conditions.Another popular supplement among body builders is glutamine. repairs and builds muscle and can induce levels of growth hormone found in the body. and stomach tissues. This amino acid is essential to muscle building because it helps nitrogen in the body move around to where it needs to be. Glutamine is also thought to prevent sickness. This two to three gram dosage used post workout builds protein. Two to three grams has been found to help symptoms of queasiness. This includes stress that the body is under during periods of exercise. You have to have a positive nitrogen balance in order to gain muscle mass. it usually comes in powder form. glutamine reserves are depleted and must be replenished through supplementation. but if you really want to grow your body mass. you'll need to be careful not to overdo it and monitor the amount of protein you are consuming. Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that is produced naturally by the body. Over 60% of our amino acids come in the form of glutamine. so you'll want to take it with milk or in a shake. Much of your protein will come from your diet.

Whey protein is the only choice when on a diet however. Whey is the best investment because of its capacity as a postworkout recovery supplement. it's good to combine your protein with some form of carbohydrate for maximum results.The best type of protein supplement on the market is whey protein because it is the highest yield. It often comes in pill form. So whey is the best protein. and increases strength along with stamina. Many body builders take nitric oxide for a variety of reasons. which is the muscle pump we are familiar with. oxygen transport. When on low-carb diets whey can function as an alternate source of energy. Its unfortunate high cost however makes me advise you to use it sparingly. Nitric Oxide is present for a brief moment. ice cream. The extreme hunger of the cells and the fast-acting properties of whey will make sure you use the best window for recovery to the fullest. and will dissipate shortly after you complete your workout. especially on a diet. The release of nitric oxide creates surges of blood flow. the body will hunt the stored reserves of nutrients and when on a diet for example that will cause them to rob other muscle-tissue of glutamine. low-fat milk. This is a critical time after severe physical stress when the cells will act like a sponge and take in almost anything. It also signals muscle growth. delivery of nutrients to skeletal muscle and a reduction in blood pressure. Unfortunately this pump is only temporary. Nitric oxide promotes extended ability to life weights. As with creatine. If not. Combine the powder with some eggs. . Nitric Oxide. so you can take it in a shake just like with other powdered supplements. when a muscle contracts and blood vessels dilate. Nitric Oxide Another powerful supplement you can take as part of your body building program is nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also comes in powder form as well. sparing hard-earned muscle protein and glutamine stores within the body. the best time to take your protein supplement is post-workout. speeds recovery. You can also add in some fruit for flavor. This element also increases energy levels and some people even feel that it promotes a better sex life! During a workout. causes vasodilation (an expansion of the internal diameter of blood vessels). a key molecule manufactured by the body. which in turn leads to increased blood flow. It also supplies the most amino acids that bodybuilders use. and olive oil. and should be taken in the manufacturer's recommended dosage. As we said before.

cancer. They also enhance performance making a person stronger and extending their stamina. and low sperm count. They help the body fight the ill effects of these diseases and promote healing. but they are used by body builders all over the world. so it's good for your brain. Steroids and Growth Hormones We're not going to spend a lot of time on these because they are certainly not recommended. Steroids and growth hormones stimulate muscle growth often quite quickly which is why they are so popular among body builders. However. That causes an enlargement of the breasts along with an increase in fatty deposits.There are many other supplements. Ginko is great for circulation. and in many places. Using the supplements mentioned you'll see some results quickly. this increase in fluid retention makes the heart work harder which can increase blood pressure and even bring on a heart attack. Steroids increase testosterone production which can lead to overly aggressive behavior. This will replenish your muscle's glucose and glycogen level and help your body to absorb more of the creatine. However. especially if you use them together synergistically. They are used in treating a variety of health problems including AIDS. you can take. they are illegal. a decrease in libido. Steroids do have some advantages. The reason many body builders use steroids is because they increase water retention in the muscles which leads to an anabolic state. They can cause serious liver damage and even lead to liver failure. complexion. But those are the only ones I prefer to take apart from ginko biloba. Both of these substances are highly controversial. general energy and well-being. which is known as stacking . Another important thing to be aware of is your blood sugar level and you can take glucose following your workouts along with your creatine powder. Steroid use is generally not condoned in the sports world and constant testing is done of the athletes to see if they are getting an unfair advantage by using steroids or growth hormones. All steroids eventually change to estrogen which causes feminization in men. steroids have some serious health implications when taken for reasons other than therapeutic. and other serious diseases. .

It controls the way that you perform each action. your mind is a powerful tool and it helps you through each step of your day. They are naturally produced by the body. as well. ripped muscles without having to resort to using illegal substances like steroids or artificial growth hormones. At these times a good sauna. perhaps it's better to cut down on the workouts and allow for your body to recuperate. They can make you bigger quicker. You will still need to take time to rest though. it still takes time. You can get huge. but many body builders take them to basically tell their muscles to get bigger.Growth hormones stimulate the elements in the body that make muscles grow. So in this section I will just give some suggestions for methods you can use to recover from your exercise sessions. Following is a list of recuperation techniques and a description of them. RECUPERATION Proper recuperation from strenuous physical exercise is far more important than most new athletes realize. The most important thing is to avoid other strenuous physical activity so if you are involved in heavy laboring work. though. . but more and more women are getting interested in it as well. Quite often when you need to rest and recover you will be very aware of it because your body will be very fatgued. A Healthy Emotional Life As you can assume. Obviously your body cannot automatically recuperate in a few hours from extremely hard physical work. They can be dangerous. the way that you see life and it controls all of those little things like breathing and your heart pumping that you don't think about. Even using various methods to help your body recover. Body building has long been thought of as a man's sport. but the disadvantages far outweigh the advantages you are taking by introducing these substances into your body. a massage or soak in a hot pool will reduce the feelings of fatigue. MENTAL TRAINING Mind Fitness. If you are not fully recovered to the maximum then your muscles cannot adapt and grow so well.

you need to exercise your mind. Whether or not you can stop this disease or other debilitating diseases from happening to you is yet to be seen.Yet. such as a death or deception. First. the importance of having a healthy brain is very evident. A Healthy Brain With the onset of Alzheimer's happening to more and more people. should something emotionally troubling happen to you. Emotional health is an important battle that everyone must strive to improve. There are many different ways that this can happen. The mind's health is quite an important aspect and. the good news is that this can be one of the easier steps to take in total health and wellness if you allow it to be. Let's get started by learning what exactly is healthy and what may not be the best choice for your overall health and well being. While life affects each one of us. plays a significant role in the quality of life and the longevity that you have in your life. Although you may be wondering just how you can control your minds fitness. Emotional Health Another aspect that you probably don't want to talk about is that of emotional well being. you need to tame those other things that happen throughout your life that limit you or otherwise affect the quality of your mind and lifestyle. performing mental tasks and you need to be able to conquer problems effectively. you need to be fully capable of thinking clearly. There are many various ways that you can improve your emotional state by learning how . your body's health is directly related. you need to be able to effectively deal with it and then to move on. Keeping your mind active. When you are emotionally or mentally unfit. What's Healthy? For your mind to be in a healthy state. there is evidence that says that you can actually push off the onset by some time if you do the right things. believe it or not. In addition. there are many ways that your mind's fitness may not be the right level that it should be. several key things must play a role. In fact. challenged and attentive is essential to your well being and this fight. For this particular battle. for many people living in today's hectic lifestyle. For example. including the simple fact that you may have to battle illnesses more often and with greater intensity. it's anything but easy to make it through the day without dealing with some type of stress or pressure. the way that you handle the problems that happen to fall into your lap are critical in maintaining a healthy life.

It can help you to tackle even challenging tasks with more ease and with success. During these times. learning to effectively manage stress is important. While there isn't always a need to be religious or spiritual. Believe it or not. but that's not a common occurrence. Those that are spiritually fit. the need for spiritual well being is even more evident because it places a significant role in your self esteem and your outlook on your own life. of course. have you actually reached the highest level that you can? Usually people struggle with this aspect because of the vast number of misbelieves about mental and emotional well being. but it also causes all types of physical problems for those struggling with it. . you can consider them. Where Are You Now? When it comes to determining how mentally fit you are. But. feel good about themselves which allows them to be more likely to improve and maintain a healthy lifestyle. After all. Not only does it pull you down through causing large amounts of emotional trauma. While you can't take away everything in your life that causes stress. most people go through stages of depression. mental turmoil and even times when they are so stressed that they can not function properly.to react to critical situations. and you. but aren't all of these aspects of fitness personal decisions that you need to commit to? Spiritual health is something to think about. Spiritual well being is a critical factor in maintaining your health. Stress Management Yet another factor that plays a significant role in the well being of your mind is that of stress. too. too. the right social activity is one way to improve your emotional health. Indeed. you do all that you need to do and there's nothing limiting you. it can often play a role in the way that you see your life as well as in your emotional state of mind. For those that do believe in a Higher Power. It can lead to various health issues physically. Spiritual Well Being Spiritual well being is yet another consideration that you need to take. mentally unstable and unfit. you may think that you have nothing to worry about. Sometimes it may be important to remove the stressors from your life. This is a personal decision.

there's nothing for you to be embarrassed about but a lot to be gained when you can improving your mind's fitness. Yet this is a dangerous situation. Do you feel anxiety. While food never used to be so readily available. consider this scenario that happens over the span of time. too. If you have trouble sleep. Do you struggle with remembering things from one moment to the next? Do you find yourself struggling to remember why you walked into a room? 3. although you may not realize it. your mind can be struggling at the same time. or are eating whenever you feel like it. It's easy to go to the food to get the satisfaction that you need. Improving the fitness of your mind not only improves your daily life but increases your longevity.Yes. when you are stressed or when you are in the mood for a certain feeling that you can't get from the world around you. are you unhappy with your lifestyle or do you have regrets about your life? All of these things play a role in how mentally fit you are. Emotional eating is eating when things go bad. then you should be considering the vast number of mind fitness needs you may have. Do you have physical pain that is not the result of an injury? This could be stress related! 2. Do you struggle to make the goals that you set for yourself? 4. too! Emotional Eating We touched on this subject just a few minutes ago in our dieting chapter but it's important for you to address now. Be honest. ask yourself these questions. For the most part. now. For example. 1. While you may not want to do this. this is one of the prime reasons that they are overweight or unhealthy in their diets. it hurts to hear but just like your body goes through illness. For many millions of people. today its easy to have a pantry full of food and a refrigerator that's stocked to the brim. working through these issues can be the best way for you to overcome your problems and to find overall benefit in your life. you should schedule a meeting with a psychologist just to talk through some of the feelings that you have. . To determine where you stand in mind fitness. Do you hate the life that you are leading. Those that use food to fight their emotional instability are most likely to fall deeper into a path of self destruction. stress and angry often? What does it feel like and how intense does it get? 5.

you are not fitting well into your clothing. Just look at you. though.. You are a failure. You find yourself reaching for a candy bar to get the extra rush that you need to get through the tasks at hand. There's no time to exercise and to meet deadlines you increase the amount of bad foods you are eating. A health self esteem is one that's confident but not overly macho. You become upset at yourself. Incorporate as many of these things into your life as you can.. and you'll see differences in the way that you feel and the way that you see the world. You then find yourself dealing with pressure from the boss. you almost purposely make the situation worse by eating bad. which includes emotional eating. In fact. As your self esteem drops. Your Self Esteem We'll tackle one of the hardest things to improve right from the beginning: your self esteem. Each aspect is unique in itself and in the way that it will help to improve both your physical fitness and your quality of life. it's also one of the worst things you can do for both your physical and your mental health state. The first step in fighting the way that food makes you feel. You should be able to feel confident in the decisions that you make and in the way that your life is moving. Now. Realizing this makes a large difference in improving both your physical fitness and your mind's fitness.You begin by getting stressed at work. you didn't do the job right. you find yourself in even more problems. Emotional eating is one of the hardest cycles to break. You aren't any good.. How Can You Improve? How can you improve your mind's fitness? There are many great ways to make this happen. In just a bit we'll talk about some of the ways that you can have good mind fitness. Confidence is built on many things including the fact that you have to realize that you do have weaknesses and you do have limits to your abilities. the pounds are creeping onto your hips. You decide you need a big. You can't make the right decisions.these are all things that people end up saying to themselves when they are emotionally depleted. Remember when we said this fitness plan was going to be fun? Here there are many great ways to improve your emotional and mental fitness through fun methods. you hate your job so much that the only thing that makes it feel better is eating something bad for you. . Soon. Soon. yet if left intact. your self esteem drops. is to recognize that there is a connection between the way that you feel and the way that you eat. fatty lunch.

even when you don't pay attention to them otherwise. Those that dress well. If your boss says that the job wasn't good enough. ask what you could have improved on for next time. how can you build a social network of people that you can rely on? Make time for those that you already have. I did a good job!" You also need to recognize when it wasn't your best work and realize that it's okay not to be perfect 100 percent of the time. you need to be able to say. take care of the way that they look and those that do things for themselves are the most confident people out there. you set yourself up for success rather than a pint of ice cream! One way to improve the way that you look and feel about yourself is to take care of your outward appearance. work on improving them if you can and then do the best job that you can overall. learn how to accept compliments and to take criticism. Those that have people around them to support them do well in many more aspects of their lives. Then. Although challenging. Don't assume that they will always be there when you need them. In part of that comes the fact that if you want to have family and friends you . This allows your mind to repair damage and it allows you to improve your network of friends. at least one time per week. Learn to take criticism positively. whatever way is fun to you.Accept those. its fun to have people around too! But. Don't take friends for granted because they won't be there when you need them the most. Build A Social Network A social network is a very important to your well being. Getting away or even just finding time to play a board game is essential. In addition. That means taking on the challenges that come up between people. that relationship alone will be one that you have to work on. Let's face. both physically and mentally. Getting down on yourself because someone doesn't like the job you did isn't okay. Realizing that you aren't always right and making sacrifices for those that need you to can be an important and difficult risk you have to take. Just putting on a beautiful outfit can make you feel good about yourself. You should always strive for a lifestyle that's positive with those in your family and your friends. Commit to going out and having fun. If you are married. "Hey. working through them and then letting them go. Relationships take time and work.

Learning new things keeps the mind active and that means health. Stress affects your ability to function properly. too. If the situations that you are in provide you with high levels of stress. now you have it! You know what to do to make your lifestyle improved through these changes. physical risks and puts your entire well being at risk for emotional breakdown. . there are many things that you can do. You need an effective manor for relieving stress and if you can't do so by solving the problem or by letting go of the stress you need to remove yourself from such situations. use your brain power! You don't have to do any type of exercise with your brain physically of course. Managing Stress Its not easy job. Giving others support helps them to accomplish their life's needs and it gives you a sense of gratification.need to be a friend. To help remedy stress. or some other thing that really brings you happiness is necessary to have. It hinders you throughout your life by causing unhealthy living situations. A hobby. Giving yourself the ability to overcome challenges from puzzles to problems in life (yours or others) can help to keep your brain working. find an outlet. Here's a quick look at the changes that you can make today that will increase your mind's power later and throughout your life. Someone that is learning new things that interests them is likely to continue to having a mental state that's positive and motivated. By doing that activity even after a long and stressful day it can offer you improvement in your health and well being. allowing you to fend off Alzheimer's and other conditions like it. a physical activity. You should also use challenges to help power you through your day and your life. but you have to do it! Stress is one of the largest problems in health today. getting the answers and working at it helps to improve the brain's function. always keep yourself learning. Stress that is ongoing without any real stopping is a large health risk! Brain Power! To improve mental fitness. by relieving stress. Asking questions. it is important for you to find solutions to those problems. You'll feel good about life and your social network. For starters. You need to find something that you love to do. Your Overall Mental Fitness Plan So. but mentally you do! For starters.

New adventures coupled with doing them with those that you love make life better and help to improve your mental fitness. 5. For example. Working on this is hard.1. is a problem for your health and your ability to make it through the life you have. they are not everything. You probably already know the risks of what these things can do to your life. learn something new. It also helps to make it through difficult times when you have someone by your side. continuous learning and through challenges of all types. Unlike the other chapters. Keep your self esteem positive. Each of these lifestyle considerations is important and each offers a unique spin on the quality of life you will lead. Drinking And Drugs Each of those three things. Lifestyle Fitness. Improve them. It will cause cancer eventually in your lungs. but feeling good about yourself is a must for overall health. smoking will eat away at your lungs and will cause cancer. this one will be structured a bit different. . Smoking. Do things that are enjoyable to you. By doing these things it will significantly improve the fitness that your mind has physically and emotionally. mental and emotional benefits right away. There are no ifs about it. Improve your brain's fitness by challenging it through new adventures. The good news is that you can change the outcome of your day by just making the right decisions on the way to look at challenges during the day. and physical fitness increases. 4. but you may not realize the extent at which it takes to improve them. Although each of these other elements that we've already talked about is very important parts of your lifestyle. 2. Each decision you make throughout the course of the day plays a role in your fitness. smoking. drinking and drugs. Improve your stress levels and see physical. 3. If you can't think of anything. You Are What You Do. Make changes like these today and see results today. Too Your lifestyle is the way that you live your life. Improve your social network to reduce stress and to improve your quality of life.

Rest is one of the most overlooked parts of an exercise regimen. you put your life at risk and you destroy the organs in your body. You will find that your health increases. Your lifestyle fitness requires that you get quality sleep each night. It's the time that your body heals from the exertions of the day. though. Drinking alcohol isn't nearly as bad for you when you drink it in moderation and only when you are drinking low concentrations of alcohol such as in wine rather than in hard liquor or beer. To improve your lifestyle and to extend your life. your body can repair the damage that you have done to your lungs. Drinking and drugs are just as bad. You need this time for your mind to. It's the way that your mind works through problems. Some damage can be fixed through healing over time. we mean actually lying down and sleeping for 7 to 9 hours per night ? Do you wake up rested ? If not. even if it is one of the hardest things you will have to do. but the . then you aren't getting the right amount of sleep for health. They aren't able to improve the level at which they can function and they make bad mistakes. Why is sleep so important ? There are actually several reasons. refresh and give yourself the best chance at improving tomorrow. physical ailments hinder you more when you don't get enough sleep. This can only happen if you stop soon enough. It's a time to restart. others can't. Smoking and drugs are simply a no no. you need to remove these problems from it. find a method to stop smoking and do it. Sleep Do you sleep ? No. talk to your doctor about it. To improve your fitness. When you quit early enough. For one. If you are facing problems with insomnia or are struggling to get to sleep. Stress hurts more. your stress levels DO go down and you can feel better about the life you are living. your energy increases. Each time that you consume too much alcohol that makes you drunk or you take illegal drugs. smoking is something that you can stop. sleep is the body's time to relax and to recoup what it's done all day. There may be an underlying medical condition that could be causing it. You kill brain cells. Those that don't get enough sleep are not capable of performing at their best physical or mental level. you destroy your body slowly and methodically.But.

you will have difficulty falling asleep and it could take your body several hours to cool down enough so that you can drift off. being awake for 24 hours has the same physical effect as a blood alcohol content of 0. This will help you signal your body that it's time to think about resting. Make sure this snack is light. you start to feel sleepy. your lack of muscular coordination places you at a much higher risk for injury. • Try having a light snack before bedtime. • Get at least eight hours of quality sleep per night.reality is it is actually a quite important principle. Lack of sleep can have an intoxicating effect on your body. your body is doing exactly what you have been asking it to do during your workouts . Just as you'd never head to the gym after drinking a few beers at your local tavern. but if you go to bed on an empty stomach.096. it can distract from your ability to fall asleep. especially tea or coffee. As your body temperature lowers. • Keep your bedroom dark and cool. • Don't drink a lot of fluids before sleep. This will insure that you get the rest and recovery that your body needs to be able to function effectively during the day. Some people disagree with this theory. If you work up a sweat before trying to sleep. you should never work out after not sleeping the night before. Sleep is one of your most valuable tools for growth that you can have in your body building arsenal. For starters. which is above the legal driving limit in most states. Try having some white noise in the room like a fan running. According to the Journal of Applied Sports Science. What are the best practices when it comes to getting enough sleep? Here are some pointers: • Don't exercise before bedtime.build muscle. • Establish both a regular sleep cycle as well as a pre-sleep routine. Not only will the caffeine keep you awake. During the suspended state of animation you are in. Body temperature has a huge effect on our ability to fall asleep. Working out in this state has its obvious downside. Muscle adaptation and growth often occurs at night. though. . but you'll have to use the bathroom more often as well which will disturb your sleep. You're better off waiting until the next day when your body has been given proper rest.

healthy lifestyle. During a workout. growth hormones are also released. at least two hours beforehand. You worry about money and end up facing financial hardships that move into your work life. Just think of the role that money plays in your everyday life. As you know. • Try to go to sleep at the same time everyday and give yourself as much time as necessary to feel rested. but the majority of this happens while the body is at rest. • Reducing stress levels during the day is helpful as is working out the stresses that you can't get rid of. Just as sleep will give you more energy. but it really can be. Your body can recover and repair any damage you did during the day while you are at rest. there are many ways that you can overcome them. and even your physical health. Financial Concerns Getting your finances in order doesn't seem like it would be a lifestyle change for fitness benefits. your home life. Money is one of the largest causes of stress in people every single day. your body's synthesis of protein increases. • Don't do stimulating things before bed such as watching television or working on a project. Financial fitness isn't something that we'll stress for too long here. Growth hormones are very important in increasing muscle mass. If you are having problems with sleeping. A majority of growth hormones are also released when the body is in the sleep state. stress causes a wide range of health concerns for your body. it is also vital in helping your body recover and ultimately grow like you want it to. but it is something to make part of your overall guide to living a long. • Don't eat before bed. your marriage.While your body is sleeping. . This is what makes you grow.

Therefore, when you want to improve your well being and health you need to take into account the fitness of your overall financial life. In the perfect world you would have plenty of money to do what you want to do. But, that's not always possible. So, to help you, we've put together some things that can offer you success when managing your financial outlook even when you are struggling to make ends meet. • Live within your means. While it's nice to have what everyone else has, its not going to make your life better to have them. For example, if your neighbors just purchased a new car, you may feel like you need to have one too. But, will having a new car really improve your life? Then it may not be worth the financial risk and cost to own one. • Don't use credit. Credit today is used for everything from buying a house or car to buying lunch at McDonald's. While you may need to use credit for the larger, more expensive purchases, keep as many of your other purchases credit free. This may be hard, but if you stop using credit today and start using cash, you may find yourself with more cash to spend then credit! • Make a budget with your entire family. It goes without saying that you can't spend what you have if you don't know what you have. Each month make a goal of tackling one extra bill to pay it down as much as possible. Give yourself some money to use as you want for entertainment each month too, so that you don't feel deprived. You are more likely to stick with your budget this way. Include each family member in the making and keeping of the budget! • Don't eat out. This isn't good for your waistline anyway! You can save thousands of dollars each year by eating at home! You'll cut the pounds off, eat better quality foods and better recipes! Getting your finances in check may mean talking with various people including your lenders and financial planners. But, if you didn't have to pay all of those credit cards each month, how much money would you have in cash to spend? Get to that point and you'll have immeasurable success throughout all areas of your life, too. Meditation And Yoga There are many ways to improve the quality of your life, but one that you may not have thought of is that of meditation. Some don't believe it can offer them benefits but there is one thing that meditation and yoga can definitely provide to you: the ability to relax. Yoga is a great tool for both exercise and relaxation.

Both meditation and yoga have been shown to provide improvements for those that are in need of stress relief. And, when you learn how to do them effectively, it takes minutes a day to wash away your stresses. So, how does this fit into your lifestyle fitness plan? It's simple. You need to spend ten minutes each day, usually before breakfast, quietly meditating or doing yoga. Ten minutes per day is all that it takes to see significant improvement in your overall well being. When you take into account all the things that you are doing in the morning you may not think you have time. But, again, invest the time for a couple of weeks and you are sure to see the improvements quickly and they will not be such a demanding time taker. You can learn how to do either meditation or yoga (or both if you like) easily. Some people are familiar with it enough that they can learn how to do is through at home study. It's often a better solution, though to learn with others through a professional. Get together with a friend and take a class at your local recreation center or your community college. You'll find that once you learn the technique you can do the process on your own, easily. Rewards How does reward play a role in the life that you live? How do rewards actually help you to improve your lifestyle fitness? It may seem strange to include them here, but the basis is very simple: rewards help to keep you going and they make life worth living. It's that simple. In each of the various things that we've talked about in this book, there are countless different sacrifices that you'll have to make. Some small, some large, but each one needs to be met in order to give you an overall well being and healthy lifestyle. It's hard to give all of that up, that's for sure. But, one thing you need to keep in mind is that the struggle isn't for nothing. You will find rewards at the end of the struggle when you have improved your life and removed the toxins and troubles from it. Yet, from point A to point B is a long road. To help you through it, dedicate some time to rewarding yourself along the way. For example, if you are working on your physical fitness, give yourself the reward of a day at the spa, a night out on the town or even buy yourself something when you obtain your goal or one of the goals along the way. While you are dieting, you can reward yourself too, in the same way. Its important not to overdo it with rewards of food that are unhealthy, though. But, you can definitely give yourself a bit of your favorite dessert if you've eaten well all week! When you obtain your goals or the stepping stones to your goals, give yourself a bit of a reward. It makes life a bit sweeter and makes the hard work that you've been

doing much more successful and worthwhile. Those that reward themselves stick with the program longer and eventually do better in the long Conclusion

The process of improving your life is one that takes time and dedication. Improving your body, your diet, your mind and your lifestyle is a complex process. And, it will mean stumbling along the way. The best route for you to take is the one that's most important to you first. Perhaps you need to concentrate on one aspect first such as your diet and then later incorporate your body fitness, your mind fitness and your lifestyle fitness goals. You may be able to pick one of each of those category's goals and work on each one. You may be better off looking for rewards by taking it one step at a time. Your first goal is to make your own goals. What do you want to improve in your health and well being first? Write down your goals and keep them with you and place it throughout the house. Recruit a family member or friend to work with you, too. Improve your life one step, one healthy change at a time and you'll reach your goals. The reward is health, a happy life, one that's full of fitness of your body and your mind and one that's rewarding to you and to the rest of your family. It a process worth working for, and soon you will see that isn't anything worse than brushing your teeth and putting your clothes on each day! While body building isn't for everyone, willing to bet that once you start on a workout program, you'll realize that it's the best thing you've ever done for yourself. You'll look better, you'll feel better, and your confidence will soar. Many people start out body building in an attempt to lose weight. That's a great way to start. But then, they start learning about what their body is doing during a workout and what is capable of when pushed. After that door is opened, there's so much to learn and gain. I remember in my younger years when I would read comic books, in the back of the book, there was always an advertising section. While I was always more interested in the sea monkeys, there also was one that always caught my eye: the 90 pound weakling who went on to become a 160 pound muscle bound specimen. These results aren't unheard of and can actually be achieved by anyone who is willing to put in the time and effort to do so. You don't have to be satisfied with a body that is less than what you want it to be.

It does take some hard work and a lot of dedication, but once you start, you'll find yourself wanting to continue more than wanting to stop. When you are finally able to look at yourself in the mirror and like what you see, the end result will be well worth any sacrifice you have made along the way. Get started right away. You don't have to wait any longer. Your dream body is more than a possibility - it's a reality. So go out and get ripped. There's no time like right now! In addition to the websites listed in the "Resources" section, the following additional websites were referenced in researching this book: www.about.com www.wikipedia.org To your fitness!

YOUR RESOURCES In this, the greatest information age ever, there are many, many places you can go to for answers to almost any question you have regarding body building. Seek out this information and learn as much as you can. This will make you a better body builder and a safer one at that! To begin with, you need to subscribe to a couple of body building magazines. Some of the most popular include: • Flex This magazine is considered the "bible" of hardcore body building. They do interviews with experts in the field and offer up some amazing advice for both the experienced as well as novice body builder. Find them online at www.flexonline.com or subscribe to the paper edition for just $29.97 per year for 12 issues. • Muscle & Fitness This also is a highly respected magazine in the body building industry. Each issue refers a lot to the principles of fitness and body building. They give some good information on nutrition, weight training, and many other topics of interest to body builders. Find them online at www.muscleandfitness.com or subscribe for $29.97 per year for 12 issues. • Ms. Fitness Touted as one of the best body building magazines for women, each month, they give information about upcoming contests, new developments in the area of female body building, and much more! Their web address is www.msfitness.com. You can also subscribe for the low price of $12.00 per year for four issues.

contest schedules and results. Look around you and find what works for you. where to find supplements. Ask around when you are in the gym. • www.abcbodybuilding. as well as pictures of people who have made amazing transformations through a body building program.getbig.com This is another super website where you can find tips and tricks about how to maximize your workout. These are only a few resources you can check out as you begin your body building quest. and ways to prepare yourself for competition. and it will open you up to all sorts of insights into this great sport. You will get the most information by joining their website.Nothing can really compare to personal advice and guidance. this author depended on several of these websites for information. • www. There are many gyms and fitness clubs that have local organizations dedicated to body building where you can get tips and train with others who share your passion.com Here you have another amazing site with tons and tons of information for both the experienced body builder as well as the beginner. but it's free. In researching this book.com This site is nothing less than amazing.bodybuilder. Here are a few you should really check out: • www. sample workout plans. You will find a whole new world opening up around you! . The Internet is another invaluable resource for body building information. or network with others in social settings. You will find more information than you could have ever hoped for on this website including tips on nutrition.

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