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An American National Standard
IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Fiber Optics
Fiber Optics Committee of the IEEE Communications Society
Approved June 10,1982
IEEE Standards Board
Approved July 30,1985
American National Standards Institute
Copyright 1984 by
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc 345 East 47th Street, New York,NY 10017, USA
No part of this publication m a y be reproduced in a n y fm, in an electronic retrieval system OT othenuise, withuut prior written permission of the publisher.
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(This Foreword is not a part of IEEE Std 812-1984, IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Fiber Optics.)
This document is based on the NTIA-SP-794 Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, issued in September 1979 by the U.S. Department of Commerce; its updated version issued in the latter part of 1981; and the input from Project 812 Ad Hoc Working Group in April 1981. The contributors to the final document include A. G. Hanson, L. R. Bloom, R. L. Galawa, E. M. Gray, G. W. Day, M. Young, A. H. Cherin, T. L. Gower, C. K. Kao, F. P. Kapron, B. S. Kawasaki, R. L. Lebduska, R. E. Love, P. Reitz, M. Kincaid, J. G. Nault, F. Sladen, J. Masterson, J. Fridman, D. Stone, and G. P. Kurpis. The final draft (#2) of this document was accepted by the Fiber Optics Subcommittee of the Transmission Systems Committee of the IEEE Communications Society, and submitted to the IEEE Standards Board for approval. This project has been coordinated with the following outside organizations: SAE, ASTM, EIA and IEC. Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcomed. They should be sent to the Secretary IEEE Standards Board Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 345 East 47th St New York, New York 10017.
At the time this standard was approved in committee, the Fiber Optics Subcommittee (presently the Optical Communications Committee of the IEEE Communications Society) had the following membership:
J. G. Nault, Chairman
B. Basch K. Chang G. Day J. Fridman D.Hanna A. Hudson
N. Karlovac M. Kincaid G . P. Kurpis H. Maas B. McNichol S. Personick
W. Schumacher J. Sheppard J. Sipress 0. Szentesi 0. Wanaseua
When the IEEE Standards Board approved this standard on June 10, 1982, it had the following membership:
Irvin N. Howell, Jr., Chairman Sava I. Sherr, Secretarg
G . Y. R. Allen
J. J. Archambault
Irving Kolodny, Vice Chairman
Len S. Corey Donald C. Fleckenstein Jay Forster Kurt Greene Joseph L. Koepfinger John E. May Donald T. Michael* A. R. Parsons J. P. Riganati Robert W. Seelbach Jay A. Stewart Clifford 0. Swanson Robert E. Weiler
James H. B e d John T. Boettger J. V. Bonucchi Edward Chelotti Edward J. Cohen *Member emeritus
acousto-optic effect. the local acceptance angle is arcsin dn2(r> - nl where n ( r ) = local refractive index n2 = minimum refractive index of the cladding The sine of the local acceptance angle is sometimes referred to as the local numerical aperture. See: power-law index profile. Note: The term coherent bundle is often employed as a synonym. access coupler. results of thermal history and exposure to nuclear radiation. angle of deviation. optical cavity. the OH. active laser medium. See: laser. Note: The term is generally used in reference to prisms. gas. Note: Intrinsic components consist of tails of the ultraviolet and infrared absorption bands. angstrom (A). that emits coherent radiation (or exhibits gain) as the result of stimulated electronic or molecular transitions to lower energy states. or semiconductor. Extrinsic components include impurities: for example.ion . but it is not an SI (International System) unit. angular misalignment loss. alpha profile. 1A = optical waveguide coupler. See: critical angle. The optical power . power-law index profile. and defects: for example. Notes: (1) Acceptance angle is a function of position on the entrance face of the core when the refractive index is a function of radius in the core. A bundle of optical fibers in which the relative spatial coordinates of each fiber are the same at the two ends of the bundle. A unit of optical wavelength (obsolete). In an optical waveguide. See: modulation. aligned bundle. total internal launch numerical aperture. Half the vertex angle of that cone within which optical power may be coupled into bound modes of an optical waveguide. 5 m Note: The angstrom has been used historically in the field of optics. glass. Syn: coherent bundle. (2) Power may be coupled into leaky modes at angles exceeding the acceptance angle. A periodic variation of refractive index caused by an acoustic wave. such as crystal. A device placed between two waveguide ends to allow signals to be withdrawn from or entered into one of the waveguides. refraction. See: fiber bundle. See: reflection.and transition metal ions. assuming air interfaces.IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Fiber Optics absorption. the net angular deflection experienced by a light ray after one or more refractions or reflections. Note: The acousto-optic effect is used in devices that modulate and deflect light. acceptance angle. See: attenuation. The angle between an incident ray and the normal to a reflecting or refracting surface. In optics. that portion of attenuation resulting from conversion of optical power into heat. Syn: laser medium. liquid. In that case. The material within a laser. and should not be confused with phase coherence or spatial coherence. The angle of deviation is then the angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray. See: angle of incidence. See: reflection.
See: avalanche photodiode. Rayleigh scattering. See: extrinsic joint loss. Pertaining to a material whose electrical or optical properties are different for different directions of propagation or different polarizations of a traveling wave. the definition shall be given in terms of incremental attenuation as: intrinsic joint loss. Syn: axial propagation wave number. coefficient. attenuation results from absorption. attenuation coefficient. if otherwise. dielectric or metallic film (or several such films) applied to an optical surface to reduce the reflectance and thereby increase the transmittance. coupling loss. paraxial axis. distortion-limited operation. See: attenuation. See: attenuation coefficient. This assumes the attenuation coefficient is invariant with length. PIN photodiode. A thin. The condition prevailing when the received signal amplitude (rather than distortion) limits performance. propagation constant. avalanche photodiode (APD). propagation constant. attenuation is often used as a synonym for attenuation coefficient. transmission loss.. Defined by the equation axial propagation constant. In an optical waveguide. This assumes that a is independent of z . However. The rate of diminution of average optical power with respect to distance along the waveguide. scattering.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF loss caused by angular deviation from the optimum alignment of source to optical waveguide. tion coefficient. Note: As the reversebias voltage approaches the breakdown voltage. waveguide to waveguide. extrinsic joint loss. attenuation. Note: The real part of the axial propagation constant is the attenuation constant while the imaginary part is the phase constant. APD. spectral window. microbend loss.] - . material scattering. hole-electron pairs created by absorbed photons acquire sufficient energy to create additional hole-electron pairs when they collide with ions. axial propagation wave number. axial propagation constant. the real part of the axial propagation constant. the diminution of average optical power. See: dichroic filter. equivalently. Attenuation is generally expressed in decibels (dB). See: geometric optics. macrobend loss. attenuation constant. A light ray that travels along the optical axis. propagation constant. differential mode attenuation. From this equation. anisotropic. Note: In optical waveguides. 6 az = -10 log. gap loss. See: isotropic. waveguide scattering. attenuation-limited operation. Note: The ideal value of the refractive index of a single layered film is the square root of the product of the refractive indices on either side of the film. thus a multiplication (signal gain) is achieved. axial ray. Fresnel reflecSee: attenuation. equi- librium mode distribution. The propagation constant evaluated along the axis of a waveguide (in the direction of transmission). For a particular mode. antireflection coating. fiber axis. the ideal optical thickness being one quarter of a wavelength. The attenuation coefficient for the mode power is twice the attenuation constant. attenuation constant. See: photodiode. skew ray. meridional ray. expressed as dB/km. transmittance. attenuation constant. reflectance. leaky modes. axial or. See: bandwidth-limited operation. lateral offset loss. and other radiation. See: axial propagation constant. FE. See: attenua- tion. attenuation where P(z) = power at distance z along the guide P(0) = power at z = 0 a = attenuation coefficient in dB/km ifz is in km. or waveguide to detector. A photodiode designed to take advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrent.
See: radiant energy. beam diameter. See: transfer function (of a device). the far-field angle subtended by two diametrically opposed points in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis. A device for measuring radiant energy by measuring the changes in resistance of a temperature-sensitive device exposed to radiation. limits performance. (1) For beams that are circular or nearly circular in cross section. ter. The phase velocity of a wave in a birefringent medium thus depends on the polarization of the wave. See: core. The scattering of light into a direction generally reverse to the original one. See: fiber bandwidth. trapped mode. A device for dividing an optical beam into two or more separate beams. bound mode. For linear systems. See: cladding . The distance between two diametrically opposed points at which the irradiance is a specified fraction of the beam’s peak irradiance. the radiation will just equal absorption when thermal equilibrium is maintained. In the fabrication of an optical fiber.38 . a blackbody absorbs and radiates at the same rate. backscattering. bandwidth-limited operation is equivalent to distortion-limited operation. See: beam divergence. The condition prevailing when the system bandwidth. bandwidth. bandpass filter. The condition is reached when the system distorts the shape of the waveform beyond specified limits. Syn: guided mode. the power in bound modes is predominantly contained in the core of the fiber. In an optical waveguide. See: beam diameter.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 axial slab interferometry. See: Rayleigh scattering. k is approximately 1. See: emissivity. most commonly applied to beams that are circular or nearly circular in cross section. Signal transmission in both directions along an optical waveguide or other component. a mode whose field decays monotonically in the transverse direction everywhere external to the core and which does not lose power to radiation. baseband response function. See: birefringent medium. A totally absorbing body (which reflects no radiation). birefringence. rather than the amplitude (or power) of the signal. Syn: beamwidth. a layer that can be used to create a boundary against OH. beamsplitter. See: attenuation-limited medium). See: beam diame- p = imaginary part (phase constant) of the axial propagation constant n ( a ) = refractive index at r = a the core radius n ( 0 ) = refractive index at r = O k = free-space wavenumber 2 r / A A = wavelength.ion diffusion into the core. Specifically a mode for which n(a)k s p =s n(0)k where operation. bandwidth-limited operation. Note: Except in a monomode fiber. See: slab interferometry. often a partially reflecting mirror. blackbody. beam divergence. collimation. Generally. A material that exhibits different indices of refraction for orthogonal l n iear polarizations of the light. distortion-limited operation. linear optical element. only the maximum and minimum divergences (corresponding to the major and minor diameters of the far-field irradiance) need be specified. See: refractive index (of a tion. reflec- beamwidth. Boltzmann’s constant. barrier layer. Note: In thermal equilibrium. Fibers may exhibit birefringence. at which points the irradiance is a specified fraction of the beam’s peak irradiance. J/K. The number k that relates the average energy of a molecule to the absolute temperature of the environment. the angle subtended by the far-field beam diameter. reflectance. birefringent medium. 7 Bound modes correspond to guided rays in the terminology of geometric optics. See: optical filter. (2) For beams that are not circular or nearly circular in cross section. bidirectional transmission. bolometer. radiometry. far-field region.
For light incident on a plane boundary between two regions having different refractive indices. See: cladding. A device that encourages the conversion of cladding modes to radiation modes. The center of the circle that circumscribes the outer surface of the homogeneous cladding. See: coherent. Cladding rays correspond to cladding modes in the terminology of mode descriptors. cladding buffer. as defined under tolerance field. tolerance field. (2) Brightness was formerly used as a synonym for the photometric term luminance and (incorrectly) for the radiometric term radiance.ln. See: fiber bundle. See: cladding. See: core. cavity. chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. the cladding modes are stripped from the fiber. tolerance field. in accordance with which a source appears to emit more or less light. An attribute of visual perception. cladding ray. normalized frequency. See: multifiber cable. a ray that is confined to the core and cladding by virtue of reflection from the outer surface of the cladding. that angle of incidence at which the reflectance is zero for light that has its electric field vector in the plane defined by the direction of propagation and the normal to the surface. See: optical cable. . leaky ray. The area in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation over which light may be considered highly coherent. degree of coherence. bound ray. mode. The dielectric material surrounding the core of an optical waveguide. phosphorus. radiometry. coherence area. core diameter. cable. and boron. cladding diameter. The propagation distance over which a light beam may be considered 8 preform. Cladding modes correspond to cladding rays in the terminology of geometric optics. cladding. tolerance field. normalized frequency. guided ray. chromatic dispersion. optical waveguide. See: fiber buffer. as a result. See: mode. Depending upon its type. the preform may be processed further in preparation for pulling into an optical fiber.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEF’INITIONS OF mode. See: clad- ding mode. Note: The CVD method is often used in fabricating optical waveguide preforms by causing gaseous materials to react and deposit glass oxides. See: radiance. See: bound mode. leaky mode. For propagation from medium 1 to medium 2. obsolete. See: optical cavity. A rapid change (as opposed to longterm drift) of the emission wavelength of an optical source. cladding ray. coherence length. A process in which deposits are produced by heterogeneous gas-solid and gas-liquid chemical reactions at the surface of a substrate. Chirping is often observed in pulsed operation of a source. refractive chirping. Commonly the coherence area is the area over which the degree of coherence exceeds 0. In an optical waveguide. optical cable assembly. guided ray. The length of the longest chord that passes through the fiber axis and connects two points on the periphery of the homogeneous cladding. Notes: (1) Usage should be restricted to nonquantitative reference to physiological sensations and perceptions of light. which form corresponding oxides after heating with oxygen or other gases. Typical starting chemicals include volatile compounds of silicon. See: guided ray. germanium. Brewster’s angle is arctan (n. A mode that is confined by virtue of a lower index medium surrounding the cladding. bundle. brightness. Often a material having a refractive index equal to or greater than that of the waveguide cladding. leaky mode. See: cladding. mode. See: dispersion. cladding mode. reflectance. cladding center. Brewster’s angle.88. cable assembly. unbound mode.) See: angle of incidence. unbound mode. index (of a medium). cladding mode stripper.
The process by which a divergent or convergent beam of radiation is converted into a beam with the minimum divergence possible for that system (ideally. . A basic principle stating that no passive optical system can increase the quantity Ln? where L = radiance of a beam n = local refractive index f Formerly called conservation o brightness or the brightness theorem. connector insertion loss. ding. core. See: cladding. The time over which a propagating light beam may be considered coherent. The linking of optical waveguides. cladding diameter. conservation of radiance. See: mode. core area. normalized frequency. A point on the fiber axis. the coher. optical waveguide. See: cladding. It is equal to coherence length divided by the phase velocity of light in a medium. spectral width. core. coherent radiation. See: insertion loss. The cross sectional area enclosed by the curve that connects all points nearest the axis on the periphery of the core where the refractive index of the core exceeds that of the homogeneous cladding by k times the difference between the maximum refractive index in the core and the refractive index of the homogeneous cladding. the distance between the center of the two concentric circles specifying the cladding diameter and the center of the two concentric circles specifying the core diameter. The distance parallel to the wave vector along which the wave may be considered coherent is called the coherence length. optical axis. approximately given by A$/cAX where A. See: Lambert’s cosine law. coupler. The area on the surface of a wavefront over which the wave may be considered coherent is called the coherence area or coherence patch. See: cladding. In practice. a parallel bundle of rays). coherence time.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 coherent.. coherent bundle. See: fiber axis. When used in conjunction with a tolerance field to specify core/cladding 9 coupling. The diameter of the circle that circumscribes the core area. end to end. concentricity error. Modes whose energies are shared. radi- coherent. coherence length. it is said to be phase or length coherent. See: clad- ence. See: optical waveguide coupler. if the wave has an appreciable coherence area. coherence time. phase velocity. ence area. homogeneous cladding. The central region of an optical waveguide through which light is transmitted. core center. core. Characterized by a fixed phase relationship between points on an electromagnetic wave. core diameter. it is said to be spatially coherent over that area. tolerance field. the regioyi of high coherence may extend only a finite distance. monochromatic. If the spectral linewidth of the source is AA and the central wavelength is A. core. core area. where k is a specified positive or negative constant I k I < 1. collimation. See: optical waveguide connector. core diameter. = central wavelength AA = spectral linewidth c = velocity of light in vacuum See: coherence length. See: mode coupling. ence length in a medium of refractive index n is approximately Azln AX See: degree of coher- geometry. tolerance field. connector. coupled modes. See: brightness. however. See: coherent. tolerance field. See: aligned bundle. hence a phase coherent beam may also be called time (or temporally) coherent. Note: A truly monochromatic wave is perfectly coherent at all points in space. if the wave has an appreciable coherence length.. degree of coherence. concatenation (of optical waveguides). The coherence length divided by the velocity of light in the medium is known as the coherence time. See: coher- ance. cosine emission law. See: beam divergence.
critical angle. See: macrobend loss. dielectric filter. The reciprocal of noise equivalent power (NEP). See: dichroic filter. A figure of merit often used to characterize detector performance. detectivity. Syn: multimode group delay. partially coherent for values less than 0. the light is totally reflected by the interface. See: noise equivalent power (NEP). the magnitude of the degree of coherence is equal to the visibility V of the fringes of a two-beam interference experiment where V = Imax . The variation in propawhere A = area of the photosensitive region of the detector (Af) = effective noise bandwidth gation delay that occurs because of the different group velocities of the modes of an optical fiber. D* = Note: Light is considered highly coherent when the degree of coherence exceeds 0. See: attenuation.88. When light propagates in a homogeneous medium of relatively high refractive index (nhig3 onto a planar interface with a homogeneous material of lower index (nlOw).88. One is at the output end of the full length of the fiber. dichroic filter.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF coupling efficiency. concern is with the cutoff wavelength of the second order mode. degree of coherence.Imin Imax + Imin Imax intensity at a maximum of the inter= ference pattern Imin intensity at a minimum = reflection. See: detectivity. See: coherence area. noise equivalent power. lateral offset loss. interference. See: interference filter. D* (pronounced “D-star”). cutoff wavelength. intrinsic joint loss. The variation in attenuation among the propagating modes of an optical fiber. A mirror designed to reflect light selectively according to wavelength. and incoherent for very small values. loss. coherence length. under specified biasing conditions. the critical angle is defined by arcsin (nlow/nhig. The power loss suffered when coupling light from one optical device to another. dAm/NEP differential mode delay. See: optical filter. The other is within 1 m-3 m of the input end. See: group veloc- ity. See: mode. That wavelength greater than which a particular waveguide mode ceases to be a bound mode. See: coupling loss. differential mode attenuation. flows in a photosensitive detector when there is no incident radiation. a high-pass or low-pass filter). curvature loss. insertion loss. See: angular misalignment loss. step index profile. mode. dichroic mirror. The external current that. density. An optical filter designed to transmit light selectively according to wavelength (most often. normalized to unit area and unit bandwidth. multimode distortion. refractive index (of a medium).J Note: When the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle. See: acceptance angle. See: chemical vapor deposition. dark current. gap loss. coherent. . defined as the reciprocal of noise equivalent power (NEP). cutback technique. angle of incidence. The efficiency of optical power transfer between two optical components. Note: In a single mode waveguide. access being had by Gutting back the test fiber. extrinsic joint Syn: specific detectivity. This is termed total internal reflection. CVD. See: optical density. total internal reflection. A measure of the coherence of a light source. A technique for measuring fiber attenuation or distortion by performing two transmission measurements. coupling loss.
to describe the process by which an electromagnetic signal is distorted because the various wavelength components of that signal have different propagation characteristics. limits performance. The term is also used to describe the relationship between refractive index and wavelength. diode laser. profile dispersion. near-field diffraction pattern. However. Note: Signal distortion in an optical waveguide is caused by several dispersive mechanisms: waveguide dispersion. The deviation of a wavefront from the path predicted by geometric optics when a wavefront is restricted by an opening or an edge of an object. A method of fabricating an optical waveguide by melting core and clad glasses in two suitably joined concentric crucibles and then drawing a fiber from the combined melted glass. and profile dispersion. diffraction may still be important for apertures many orders of magnitude larger than the wavelength. The diameter of the near-field radiation pattern is defined here as the full width at half maximum and the radiation angle at half maximum intensity. divergence. distortion-limited operation. the impulse response or resolution limit is equal to that predicted by diffraction theory. radiation tion pattern. See: D*. D-star. the signal can suffer degradation from multimode distortion. dispersion. for example. distortion. diffraction limited. See: beam divergence angle. material dispersion. dispersion. See: injection laser diode (ILD). electroluminescence. For linear systems. and profile dispersion. Syn: chromatic dispersion (Redundant). The condition is reached when the system distorts the shape of the waveform beyond specified limits. See: injection laser diode. The square of the product of the diameter of the near-field pattern and the sine of the radiation angle of the far-field pattern. profile dispersion. It is not truly a spatial volume but rather an optical volume equal to the product of area and solid angle. diffuse reflection. diffraction grating. diffraction. file dispersion parameter. material pattern. the signal suffers degradation from multimode distortion. See: dispersion. parallel. Note: Effective mode volume is proportional to the breadth of the relative distribution of power amongst modes in a multimode fiber. the slope of the curve relating output quanta to input quanta. A term used to describe the chromatic or wavelength dependence of a parameter as opposed to the temporal dependence which is referred to as distortion. A change in the refractive index of a material under the influence of an . distortion-limited operation is equivalent to bandwidth-limited operation. Note: In a multimode fiber. or (2) in focusing optics. waveguide dispersion. In addition. pro11 electro-optic effect. In an optical source or detector. rather than its amplitude (or power). A beam of light is diffraction limited if: (1) the far-field beam divergence is equal to that predicted by diffraction theory. Note: Diffraction is usually most noticeable for openings of the order of a wavelength. several dispersive mechanisms can cause signal distortion in an optical waveguide: waveguide dispersion. See: diffraction. See: attenuationlimited operation. See: mode volume. The term is used. See: beam divergence. Nonthermal conversion of electrical energy into light. intramodal distortion. effective mode volume. bandwidth-limited operation. See: reflection. material dispersion. multimode distortion. See: tee coupler. multimode distortion. directional coupler. The condition prevailing when the distortion of the received signal.IEEE TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS S M 812-1984 differential quantum efficiency. equally spaced reflecting or transmitting lines that mutually enhance the effects of diffraction to concentrate the diffracted light in a few directions determined by the spacing of the lines and the wavelength of the light. An array of fine. double crucible method. See: distortion. In addition. which is often (erroneously) referred to as multimode dispersion. See: chemical vapor deposition technique. See: far-field diffrac- distortion. diffraction. A change of signal waveform shape. One example is the photon emission resulting from electron-hole recombination in a p n junction such as in a light emitting diode. material dispersion parameter.
excess insertion loss. the length of multimode optical waveguide necessary to attain equilibrium mode distribution. (2) Electro-optic is often erroneously used as a synonym for optoelectronic. reference surface. See: radiation pattern. ferrule. Theoretically. See: diffraction. equilibrium length. equilibrium mode distribution length. The region. mode filter. mode coupling. Note: The far-field diffraction pattern of a source may be observed at infinity or (except for scale) in the focal plane of a well-corrected lens. See: blackbody. the optical loss associated with that portion of the light which does not emerge from the nominally operational ports of the device. FDHM. FET photodetector. packing fraction. in a particular direction is said to be evanescent in that direction. the optical loss associated with that portion excess insertion loss. Abbreviation for full duration at half maximum. See: equilibrium length. as would result from a worst-case. mode coupling. See: full width (duration) half maximum. In an optical waveguide coupler. Notes: (1) Typically. Syn: Fraunhofer diffraction pattern. then s is the radius of the circle. far-field radiation pattern. See: equilibrium length. The ratio of power radiated by a substance to the power radiated by a blackbody at the same temperature. lateral offset loss. See: far-field radiation pattern. caused by imperfect jointing). (2) Nonrigid materials such as shrink tubing may also be used for ferrules for special applications. gap loss. far-field pattern. In an optical waveguide coupler. individual fibers of a bundle are cemented together within a ferrule of a diameter designed to yield a maximum packing fraction. See: equilibrium length. or the output end of an optical waveguide) observed at an infinite distance from the source. equilibrium mode simulator. Note: The term is sometimes used to refer to the longest such length. mode. used to confine the stripped end of a fiber bundle or a fiber. For a specific excitation condition. See: equi- far-field diffraction pattern. See: equilibrium mode distribution. far from a source. See: far-field diffraction pattern. where the diffraction pattern is substantially the same as that at infinity. A device or optical system used to create an approximation of the equilibrium mode distribution. The far-field pattern of a diffracting screen illuminated by a point source may be observed in the image plane of the source. extrinsic joint loss. emissivity. far-field region. equilibrium mode distribution length. Syn: equilibrium coupling length. See: fiber bundle. equilibrium coupling length. The diffraction pattern of a source (such as a light emitting diode [LED]. A photodetector employing photogeneration of carriers in the channel region of a field-effect transistor (FET) structure to pro12 librium mode distribution. loss . Emissivity is a function of wavelength and temperature.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF electric field. injection laser diode [ILD]. See: optoelectronic. See: angular misalignment loss. evanescent field. Syn: steadystate condition. but without an accompanying phase shift. but undefined excitation. Notes: (1) Pockels and Kerr effects iare electro-optic effects that are respectively l n ear and quadratic in the electric field strength. equilibrium mode distribution. generally a rigid tube. A time varying electromagnetic field whose amplitude decreases monotonically. intrinsic joint loss. diffraction limited. a far-field pattern exists at distances that are large compared with s 2 / A where s = characteristic dimension of the source A = wavelength Example: If the source is a uniformly illuminated circle. The condition in a multimode optical waveguide in which the relative power distribution among the propagating modes is independent of length. See: optical waveguide coupler. That portion of joint loss that is not intrinsic to the fibers (that is. A mechanical fixture.
Note: Commonly applied to the duration of pulse waveforms. Fresnel diffraction pattern. Brewster’s angle. Fresnel reflection method. The line connecting the centers of the circles that circumscribe the core. See: fiber ual fibers are spatially aligned. a thin transparent film is sometimes used to give an additional Fresnel reflection that cancels the original one by interference. fiber axis. Syn: optical axis. reflectance. The term duration is preferred when the independent variable is time. packing fraction. frequency response. optical cable. as opposed to multifiber cables. The reflection of a portion of the light incident on a planar interface between two homogeneous media having different refractive indices. reflectance. as defined under tolerance field. which contain optically and mechanically isolated fibers. Such fibers are often referred to as optical waveguides to differentiate from fibers employed in noncommunications applications. permitting the fiber to slide in the buffer tube. An example is the endoscope. fiber bundle. refractive index. Usually used as a single transmission channel. bundle. A measure of the extent of a function. fused silica. An assembly of unbuffered optical fibers. or plastic. Notes: (1) Telecommunication applications of fiber optics employ flexible fibers.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 vide photodetection with current gain. optical fiber. Resultant transmission losses (on the order of 4% per interface) can be virtually eliminated by use of antireflection coatings or index matching materials. as in optical communications. full width (duration) half maximum. fiber buffer. index matching material. (2) Bundles used to transmit optical images may be either flexible or rigid. An example is the fiber optics faceplate used on some high-speed oscilloscopes. See: transfer function (of a device). Note: Cable fabrication techniques vary. The branch of optical technology concerned with the transmission of radiant power through fibers made of transparent materials such as glass. the specified value is onehalf the optical power at zero frequency. The lowest frequency at which the magnitude of the fiber transfer function decreases to a specified fraction of the zero frequency value. others resulting in a loose fit. providing mechanical isolation or protection or both. This is called an antireflection coating. permitting optical relay of an image. ferrule. Often. each of which provides a separate channel: Notes: (1) Bundles used only to transmit light. Notes: (1) Fresnel reflection occurs at the air-glass interfaces at entrance and exit ends of an optical waveguide. flux. In optical elements. photodiode. fiber optics. it is zero at Brewster’s angle for one polarization. ( 2 ) Various industrial and medical applications (typically high-loss) flexible fiber bundles in which individ- index profile. Given by the difference between the two extreme values of the independent variable at which the dependent variable is equal to half of its maximum value. some resulting in firm contact between fiber and protective buffering. are flexible and are typically unaligned. See: aligned bundle. See: near-field diffraction pattern. See: far-field diffraction pattern. *Obsolete Fraunhofer diffraction pattern. fiber optics (FO). A material that may be used to protect an optical fiber waveguide from physical damage. fiber bandwidth. 13 . (2) Fresnel reflection depends upon the index difference and the angle of incidence. The method for measuring the index profile of an optical fiber by measuring the reflectance as a function of position on the end face. Fresnel reflection. the spectral extent of emission or absorption lines. See: transfer function. See: tolerance field. (3) Some specialized industrial applications employ rigid (fused) aligned fiber bundles for image transfer. but shall contain aligned fibers. fiber. See: optical fiber. and the angular or spatial extent of radiation patterns. See: Fresnel reflection. See: antireflection coating. reflection. Either a single discrete fiber or a nonspatially aligned fiber bundle may be used for each information channel. multifiber cable.* Synonym for radiant power. Multiple buffer layers may be used for added fiber protection. See: pho- tocurrent.
graded index profile. fused silica. the waveform is where A is a constant and a is the pulse half duration [n"(r) - n 2 (U)]* at the l / e points. group index." See: coupling loss. fusion splice. merid14 where O(r) = the angle ray makes with the waveguide axis n(r) = refractive index n(a) = refractive index at the core radius Guided rays correspond to bound (or guided) modes in the terminology of mode descriptors. the amplitude is n . See: vitreous silica. geometric optics. Distinguished from a step index profile. A waveguide having a graded index profile in the core. (2) Velocity of the signal modulating a propagating electromagnetic wave. fused quartz.. See: mode. . multimode optical waveguide.. profile parameter. normalized frequency. That optical power loss caused by a space between axially aligned fibers. group index (denoted N ) . paraxial ray. See: full width (duration) half maximum. step index optical waveguide. Specifically. Gaussian beam. the reciprocal of the rate of change of the phase constant with respect to angular frequency. Note: The group velocity equals the phase velocity if the phase constant is a linear function of the angular frequency. For a plane wave of wavelength A. In an optical waveguide. or HE. fused quartz. a ray at radial position r having direction so that 0 s sin 8 (r) 6 where r = distance from beam center w = radius at which the amplitude is l / e of its value on the axis w = the beamwidth See: beam diameter. graded index optical waveguide. See: graded index profile. The lowest order mode of a waveguide. it is related thus to the refractive index: N = FWHM. it is commonly called "longitudinal offset loss. See: full width (duration) half maximum. Note: For waveguide-to-waveguide coupling. gap loss. the mode designated LP. In the time domain. refractive index. profile dispersion. step index profile. In fibers. the velocity of light in vacuum c divided by the group velocity of the mode. A beam of light whose electric field amplitude distribution is Gaussian. mode volume. power-law index profile. For a given mode propagating in a medium of refractive index n. ional ray. A splice accomplished by the application of localized heat sufficient to fuse or melt the ends of two lengths of optical fiber. material dispersion parameter.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF fundamental mode. physical optics. See: differential mode delay. ( 1 ) for a particular mode. optical waveguide. See: bound mode. group velocity. When such a beam is circular in cross section. See: axial ray. forming a continuous. The treatment of propagation of light as rays. A pulse that has the waveform of a Gaussian distribution. Gaussian pulse. See: vitreous silica. guided ray. parabolic profile.A(dn/dA) See: group velocity. single fiber. not as pure as vitreous silica. See: dispersion. guided mode. Note: Rays are bent at the interface between two dissimilar media or may be curved in a medium in which refractive index is a function of position. phase velocity. Any refractive index profile that varies with radius in the core. a ray that is completely confined to the core. optical axis. skew ray. Glass made by melting natural quartz crystals.
transfer funccuit. Denoting the presence of extraneous or foreign material. whose refractive index is nearly equal to the core index. See: graded index profile. trapped ray. superradiance. Characterized by a degree of coherence significantly less than 0. of the impulse response is often used to characterize a component or system through a single parameter rather than a function: injection fiber. The region of the electromagnetic spectrum between the long-wavelength extreme of the visible spectrum (approximately 0. either monolithic or hybrid.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 Syn: bound ray.7 pm) and the shortest microwaves (approximately 1 mm) . See: heterojunction. See: launching fiber. or coupler. used to reduce Fresnel reflections from a fiber end face. profile dispersion parameter. Note: Such modes correspond to skew (nonmeridional) rays. tolerance field. Sometimes called profile dip. the refractive index as a function of radius. index dip. often a liquid or cement. See: active laser medium. See: mode. transverse magnetic mode. semiconductor laser. mode. chirping. incoherent. See: injection laser diode. A decrease in the refractive index at the center of the core. See: refractive index (of a medium). A material. A laser employing a forward-biased semiconductor junction as the active medium. radiometry. The function h ( t ) describing the response of an initially relaxed system to an impulse (Dirac-delta) function applied at time t = 0. leaky ray. powerlaw index profile. used for coupling between optoelectronic devices and providing signal processing functions. parabolic profile.88. skew ray. A junction between semiconductors that differ in their doping level conductivities. urms. homojunction. In an optical waveguide. caused by certain fabrication techniques. ILD. and also in their atomic or alloy compositions. See: homojunction. tion. A junction between semiconductors that differ in their doping level conductivities but not in their atomic or alloy compositions. See: bound mode. degree of coherence. transverse electric mode. See: refractive index profile. hybrid mode. index matching material. See: fundamental mode. or as the inverse Fourier transform of the transfer function. impulse response. intensity. The root-mean-square (rms) duration. Designation for the fundamental mode of an optical fiber. mechanical splice. profile dispersion. heterojunction. profile parameter. Syn: diode laser. The total optical power loss caused by the insertion of an optical component such as a connector. index of refraction. injection laser diode (ILD). laser. See: root-meansquare (rms) pulse duration. index profile. See: Fresnel reflection. insertion loss. See: coherent. A mode possessing components of electric and magnetic field vectors in the direction of propagation. splice. integrated optical circuit (IOC). refractive index. composed of active and passive components. as a function of radius. Intensity is proportional to irradiance and may be used in place of the term irradiance when only relative values are important. infrared (IR). homogeneous cladding. HE. The square of the electric field amplitude of a light wave. inclusion. radiant intensity. That part of the cladding wherein the refractive index is constant within a specified tolerance. An optical cirNote: The impulse response may be obtained by deconvolving the input waveform from the output waveform. See: cladding. step index profile. See: irradiance. 15 .
See: interference. or both. See: dichroic filter. See: laser. Laser radiation may be highly coherent temporally. stimulated emission. lasing threshold. laser. See: active laser medium. See: chemical vapor disposition technique. A device intended to prevent return reflections along a transmission path. (2) LNA is one of the parameters that determine the initial distribu- . diffraction. distor- tion. See: active laser medium. isolator. Radiant power incident per unit area upon a surface. the interaction of two or more beams of coherent or partially coherent light. Note: The radiant intensity of such a surface is maximum normal to the surface and decreases in proportion to the cosine of the angle from the normal. or spatially. lateral offset loss. launch angle. injection laser diode. See: dispersion. Lambert’s cosine law. Sw: Lambert’s cosine law. 16 launch numerical aperture (LNA). The statement that the radiance of certain idealized surfaces. See: coherent. laser diode. See: injection laser diode. ion exchange technique. isotropic. that element is underfilled or the focus is other than that for which the element is specified. See: anisotropic. Notes: (1) LNA may differ from the stated NA of a final focusing element if. irradiance. known as Lambertian radiators. Syn: cosine emission law. An optical filter consisting of one or more thin layers of dielectric or metallic material. IR. intramodal distortion. crucible method. or Lambertian reflectors. interferometer. A method of fabricating a graded index optical waveguide by an ion exchange process. See: radiometry. In optics. The numerical aperture of an optical system used to couple (launch) power into an optical waveguide. See: Lambert’s cosine law. optical filter. A device that produces optical radiation using a population inversion to provide Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation and (generally) an optical resonant cavity to provide positive feedback. is independent of the angle from which the surface is viewed. A power loss caused by transverse or lateral deviation from optimum alignment of source to optical waveguide. laser medium. Power density is colloquially used as a synonym. expressed in watts per square meter. birefringent medium. Syn: transverse offset loss. degree of coherence. See: multimode distortion. intrinsic joint loss. That distortion resulting from dispersion of group velocity of a propagating mode. extrinsic joint loss. That loss. See: integrated optical circuit. An instrument that employs the interference of light waves for purposes of measurement. gap loss. waveguide to waveguide. for example. Note: The Faraday isolator uses the magneto-optic effect. profile parameter) mismatches when two nonidentical fibers are joined. Lambertian radiator. interference filter. See: angular misalignment loss. The angle between the light input propagation vector and the optical axis of an optical fiber or fiber bundle. See: launch numerical aperture. optical cavity. or waveguide to detector. caused by fiber parameter (for example. Pertaining to a material whose electrical or optical properties are independent of direction of propagation and of polarization of a traveling wave.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF interference. intrinsic to the fiber. It is the only distortion occurring in single mode waveguides. The lowest excitation level at which a laser’s output is dominated by stimulated emission rather than spontaneous emission. spontaneous emission. Lambertian reflector. interference. lateral offset loss. IOC. core dimensions. intermodal distortion. Lambertian sources. double graded index profile. See: infrared.
linear element. light ray. launch angle. See: light emitting diode. unbound mode. clad- ding ray. This region has not been clearly defined but. even if the waveguide is perfect in every respect. a mode for which [n2(a)k2. spectral width. cladding mode. launching fiber. may be considered to extend from the near-ultraviolet region of approximately 0. a ray at radial position r having direction so that n2(r). (2) In the geometric sense.7 pm. lightguide. as opposed to a continuous spectrum. a mode whose field decays monotonically for a finite distance in the transverse direction but which becomes oscillatory everywhere beyond that finite distance. The direction of a light ray is generally normal to the wavefront. See: optical waveguide. an optical source that emits one or more spectrally narrow lines as opposed to a continuous spectrum. optical spectrum. Syn: tunnelling mode. the core radius k = free-space wavenumber. custom and practice have extended usage of the term to include the much broader portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be handled by the basic optical techniques used for the visible spectrum. See: geometric optics.( Z / U ) ~ ] * where < Leaky rays correspond to leaky (or tunnelling) modes in the terminology of mode descriptors. leaky mode. (1) In a strict sense. See: bound mode. See: bound mode. Syn: injection fibers. (2) In the laser and optical communication fields. leaky mode. See: mode.4 pm to 0. See: photocurrent. See: monochromatic. See: incoherent. pigtail. an optical source whose active (emitting) area forms a spatially narrow line. ultraviolet p <n(a)k p = imaginary part (phase term) of the axial propagation constant 1 = azimuthal index of the mode n ( a ) = refractive index at r = a. light current. a ray for which geometric optics would predict total internal reflection at the core boundary. light. 2n//h. See: infrared (IR). Note: Leaky modes experience attenuation. through the visible region. A p n junction semiconductor device that emits incoherent optical radiation when biased in the forward direction. the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be perceived by human vision. Specifically. An emission or absorption spectrum consisting of one or more narrow spectral lines. and X = wavelength Leaky modes correspond to leaky rays in the terminology of geometric optics. leaky ray. LED. A fiber used in conjunction with a source to excite the modes of another fiber in a particular fashion. Syn: tunnelling ray. In an optical waveguide. as employed by most workers in the field. See: monochromatic. The path of a point on a wavefront. A linear element can be described in terms of a transfer function or an impulse response function. (UV). light emitting diode (LED). See: acceptance angle. A device for which the output electric field is linearly proportional to the input electric field and no new wavelengths or modula- mode. designated the visible spectrum and nominally covering the wavelength range of 0. leaky ray.(r/a)2cos2 + ( r ) ] where 8(r) = angle the ray makes with the waveguide axis n ( r ) = refractive index a = core radius +(r) = azimuthal angle of the projection of the ray on the transverse plane tion frequencies are generated.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE S 812-1984 M tion of power among the modes of an optical waveguide. spectral line. line spectrum. Note: Launching fibers are most often used in test systems to improve the precision of measurements.3 pm. In an optical waveguide. (1) In the spectral sense. Specifically. guided ray.n2(a)l sin2 8(r) s [l .n2(a) s sin2 8 (r) and [nz(r). line source. and into the mid-infrared region to 30 pm. 17 . but which suffers loss by virtue of the curved core boundary.
That dispersion attributable to the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of material used to form the waveguide. In an optical waveguide. Index matching material may be applied between the two fiber ends. rather than by thermal fusion. material dispersion parameter (M). distinguished from microbending. Magneto-optic materials generally. LNA. A ray that passes through the optical axis of an optical waveguide (in contrast with a skew ray.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF linearly polarized (LP) mode. See: mode. Pertaining to a change in a material's refractive index under the influence of a magnetic field. material dispersion. backscattering. seattering. A fiber splice accomplished by fixtures or materials. weakly guiding fiber. mechanical splice. and negative for wavelengths longer than A. In an optical waveguide. See: absorption. waveguide scattering. reflection. geometric optics. etc. paraxial ray. Such bends may result from waveguide coating. macrobending. packaging. Syn: curvature loss.5 p m range. loss. usually found in the 1. (2) Pulse broadening caused by material dispersion in a unit length of optical fiber is given by M times spectral linewidth (AA). Designation of the fundamental linearly polarized (LP) mode. See: group index.. extrinsic joint loss. microbend loss. M is zero at a specific wavelength )b. installation. Material dispersion is characterized by the material dispersion parameter M. In an optical waveguide. LP mode. material dispersion parameter. M(A) = -1/c (dN/dA) = A/c (d%z/dX2) where n = refractive index N = group index N = n . [See Note ()] l. See: fusion splice. microbending. See: Rayleigh scattering. macrobend loss. See: macrobending. skew ray. waveguide dispersion. microbending. See: linearly polarized mode. See: launch numerical aperture.A(dn/dA) A = wavelength c = velocity of light in vacuum Notes: (1) For many optical waveguide materials. macrobend loss. 18 . including typical telecommunication grade fibers. intrinsic joint loss. which does not).. except at A = &. See: axial ray. angular misalignment loss. where terms proportional to AA2 are important. mode. profile dispersion parameter. that loss attributable to macrobending. See: macrobend loss. The sign convention is such that M is positive for wavelengths shorter than A. See: macrobending.2 p m to 1. In an optical waveguide. A mode for which the field components in the direction of propagation are small compared to components perpendicular to that direction. are used to rotate the plane of polarization. cabling. linewidth. all macroscopic deviations of the axis from a straight line. lateral offset loss. longitudinal offset loss. optical waveguide splice. transmission loss. meridional ray. See: dispersion. See: absorption. See: microbend loss. See: gap loss. gap loss. insertion loss. differential mode attenuation. Note: The L' E description is an approximation which is valid for weakly guiding waveguides. material absorption. distortion. microbend loss. nonlinear scattering. microbend loss. that loss attributable to microbending. Macrobending usually causes little or no radiative loss. See: fundamental mode. In an optical waveguide. LP. waveguide scattering. material scattering. attenuation. microbend loss. material dispersion. Rayleigh scattering. numerical aperture. that part of the total scattering attributable to the properties of the materials used for waveguide fabrication. optical axis. magneto-optic. Note: Microbending can cause significant radiative losses and mode coupling. material scattering. sharp curvatures involving local axial displacements of a few micrometers and spatial wavelengths of a few millimeters. index matching material. See: spectral width.
one of those electromagnetic field distributions that satisfies Maxwell’s equations and the boundary conditions: The field pattern of a mode depends on the wavelength. Noise generated in an optical fiber system by the combination of mode dependent optical losses and fluctuation in the distribution of optical energy among the guided modes or in the relative phases of the guided modes. the exchange of power among modes. radiation is never perfectly monochromatic but. A controlled variation with time of any property of a wave for the purpose of transferring information. hybrid mode. See: mode coupling. transverse magnetic mode. mode scrambler. refractive index. reject. at best. See: multimode distortion. approximately given by V2/2 and (V2/2) [ g / ( g 2)1. Syn: mode mixer. See: mode scrambler. normalized frequency. equilibrium mode distribution. transverse electric mode. that distortion resulting from differential mode delay. multifiber joint. See: angular misalignment loss. fundamental mode. such usage. Syn: intermodal distortion. mode dispersion. unbound mode. monomode optical waveguide. The exchange of power may reach statistical equilibrium after propagation over a finite distance that is designated the equilibrium length. differential mode attenuation. 19 mode volume. cladding mode. mode (or modal) distortion.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 misalignment loss. Note: Frequently used to provide a mode distribution that is independent of source characteristics or that meets other specifications. In any cavity or transmission line. mode. See: equilibrium length. multimode distortion. Consisting of a single wavelength or color. See: mode. multimode distortion. See: interference filter. See: multimode distortion. respectively. step index profile. each of which provides a separate information channel. The number of bound modes that an optical waveguide is capable of supporting. mode volume. Note: The term multimode dispersion is often us&das a synonym. mode. modulation. lateral offset loss. displays a narrow band of wavelengths. See: bound mode. In practice. mode mixer. multilayer filter. monochromator. mode scrambler. is erroneous since the mechanism is not dispersive in nature. mode. modal noise. equilibrium mode distribution. monochromatic. In an optical waveguide. gap loss. mode stripper. linearly polarized mode. for step index and power-law profile waveguides + where g = profile parameter V = normalized frequency See: effective mode volume. single mode optical waveguide. leaky modes. See: cladding mode stripper. multimode optical waveguide. An optical cable that contains two or more fibers. (1) A device for inducing mode coupling in an optical fiber. and cavity or waveguide geometry. optical cable assembly. single multifiber cable. for V > 5. spectral width. See: distortion. differential mode delay. equilibrium mode simulator. or attenuate a certain mode or modes. mode coupling. See: coherent. In an optical waveguide. line source. See: fiber bundle. An optical splice or connector designed to mate two multifiber cables. See: mode optical waveguide. V number. (2) A device composed of one or more optical fibers in which strong mode coupling occurs. An instrument for isolating narrow portions of the spectrum. providing simultaneous optical alignment of all individual waveguides. A device used to select. mode (or modal) distortion. and the use of lenses. Syn: speckle noise. however. Note: Optical coupling between aligned waveguides may be achieved by various techniques including proximity butting (with or without index matching materials). power-law index profile. mode filter. . multimode laser.
See: far-field diffraction pattern. near-field diffraction pattern. given by where a = waveguide core radius A = wavelength in vacuum n. and n2 = the maximum refractive index in the core and refractive index of the homogeneous cladding. mode. See: diffraction. normalized frequency. (2) Some manufacturers define NEP as the radiant power that produces a signal-to-dark-current noise ratio of unity. mode volume. single mode optical waveguide. A dimensionless quantity (denoted by V ) . normalized frequency. See: refracted ray method. nonlinear scattering is usually not important below the threshold irradiance for stimulated nonlinear scattering. Notes: (1) Some manufacturers and authors define NEP as the minimum detectable power per root unit bandwidth. as is often true in fiber systems. Syn: Fresnel diffraction pattern. near-field region. NA. power-law index profile. (2) For an optical fiber in which the refractive index decreases monotonically from n. respectively In a fiber having a power-law profile. and for a given effective noise bandwidth. or aperture. (1) The sine of the vertex angle of the largest cone of meridional rays that can enter or leave an optical system or element. Note: May be either a graded index or step index waveguide. mode. as distinguished from far-field diffraction pattern. An optical waveguide that will allow more than one bound mode to propagate. Note: The pattern in the output plane of a fiber is called the near-field radiation pattern. para- bolic profile. because the units of power are watts.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF multimode group delay. near-field scanning. multiplied by the refractive index of the medium in which the vertex of the cone is located. when defined in this way. near-field radiation pattern. This usage is approximate and imprecise. The region close to a source. Syn: V number. the term is a mis20 4 - (3) Colloquially. The diffraction pattern observed close to a source or aperture. NEP has the units of watts/(hertz)*. but is often encoun- . Therefore. See: laser. See: photon. mode volume. A laser that produces emission in two or more transverse or longitudinal modes. See: bound mode. Direct conversion of a photon from one wavelength to one or more other wavelengths. the approximate number of bound modes is ( V z / 2 ) [ g / ( g + 2)]. power-law index profile. far-field diffraction pattern. The technique for measuring the index profile of an optical fiber by illuminating the entrance face with an extended source and measuring the point-by-point radiance of the exit face. multimode laser. At a given modulation frequency. detectivity. far- nomer. nonlinear scattering. step index optical waveguide. The diffraction pattern in this region typically differs significantly from that observed at infinity and varies with distance from the source. multimode distortion. the radiant power that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 at the output of a given detector. multimode optical waveguide. See: differential mode delay. See: radiation pattern. single mode optical waveguide. See: numerical aperture. noise equivalent power (NEP). the sine of the radiation or acceptance angle of an optical fiber. Generally measured with respect to an object or image point and will vary as that point is moved. wavelength. where g is the profile parameter. Note: Examples are Raman and Brillouin scattering. far-field region. numerical aperture (NA). multiplied by the refractive index of the material in contact with the exit or entrance face. radiation pattern. See: bound mode. This is misleading when dark-current noise does not dominate. near-field pattern. See: near-field radiation pattern. See: D*. In an optical waveguide. on axis to n2 in the cladding the numerical aperture is given by NA = field region.
the product of the geometrical distance and the refractive index. optical filter. See: optoelectronic. optical power. or fiber bundle in a structure fabricated to meet optical. See: preform. See: anisotropic. See: optical cable. optical repeater. See: fiber bundle. optical fiber waveguide. fiber optics. A casting consisting of an optical material molded into the desired geometry for grinding. In an optical waveguide communication system. for example. optical cable. transmittance. In an optical waveguide. A measure of the transmittance of an optical element expressed by: log. optical connector. in which any terminal can communicate with any other terminal. See: optical data bus. A transducer that generates an output signal when irradiated with optical power.. or cavity mirrors. See: fiber bundle. an optical density of 0. Any optical transmission channel designed to connect two end terminals or to be connected in series with other channels. whose elements are aligned to provide multiple reflections. and environmental specifications.T. See: transmission loss. or otherwise reconstructs it) and retransmits it. radiation pattern. made of dielectric materials.(l/T) or -log. reshapes. See: acceptance angle. Any filament or fiber. in the case of a digital signal. Distinguished from optical axis. See: optical link. or (in the case of optical waveguides) drawing to the final optical/mechanical specifications. optical link. 21 modulation. An optical fiber network. See: where ds is an element of length along the path. radiation angle.3 corresponds to a transmission loss of 3 dB. See: optical thickness. *Deprecated nds. Note: The higher the optical density the lower the transmittance. laser. Generally. In an anisotropic medium. end mirrors.(l/R) is called reflection density. an optoelectronic device or module that receives a signal. or where T is transmittance. optical path length = optical cable assembly.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 tered. An optical cable that is connector terminated. referred to as mirrors. A passive device in which power from several input fibers is distributed among a smaller number (one or more) of input fibers. See: optical waveguide coupler. optical cavity. A fiber. An element that selectively transmits or blocks a range of wavelengths. Syn: resonant cavity. meridional ray. See: active laser medium. optical cable assembly. transmittedreceiver modules) is included in the definition. optical axis. interconnecting terminals. See: star coupler. that guides light. an optical cable that has been terminated by a manufacturer and is ready for installation. The resonator in a laser is an optical cavity. Note: Optical path length is proportional to the phase shift a light wave undergoes along a path. optical path length. a direction of propagation in which orthogonal polarizations have the same phase velocity.* See: optical waveguide. optical detector.. optical cable. synonymous with jiber axis. See: radiant power. The analogous term log. If n is a function of position. optical coupler. See: optical waveguide. Optical density times 10 is equal to transmission loss expressed in decibels (dB). optical data bus. A region bounded by two or more reflecting surfaces. whether or not it is used to transmit signals. polishing. mechanical. See: fiber bundle. In a medium of constant refractive index n. optical fiber. optical fiber cable. optical blank. retimes. Syn: optical fiber cable. optic axis. Note: Sometimes terminal hardware (for example. optical density. amplifies it (or. optical waveguide. launch numerical aperture. optical combiner. optical conductor. multiple fibers. See: optical waveguide connector. .
multimode optical waveguide. group velocity. See: coherent. peak wavelength. power-law index profile.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF optical spectrum. single mode waveguide. optical time domain reflectometry. See: electrooptic effect. light. fiber bundle. See: index matching material. Generally. See: birefringent medium. PCS. times its refractive index. For a particular mode. core. light emitting diodes (LED). Useful in estimating attenuation coefficient as a function of distance and identifying defects and other localized losses. phase velocity. optical thickness. A method for characterizing a fiber wherein an optical pulse is transmitted through the fiber and the resulting light scattered and reflected back to the input is measured as a function of time. Pertaining to a device that responds to optical power. optical fiber waveguide. phase coherence. the angle 8 between the ray and the optical axis is small enough for sin 8 or tan 8 to be replaced by 0 (radians). A permanent joint whose purpose is to couple optical power between two waveguides. See: axial propagation constant. See: cladding. Syn: quadratic profile. the ratio of the aggregate fiber cross-sectional core area to the total cross-sectional area (usually within the ferrule) including cladding and interstitial areas. Syn: lightguide. output angle. generally a fiber designed to transmit optical signals. optically active material. A device whose purpose is to transfer optical power between two optical waveguides or bundles. tapered fiber waveguide. See: multifiber joint. Any device that functions as an electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducer. the electromagnetic spectrum within the wavelength region extending from the vacuum ultraviolet at 40 nm to the far infrared at 1 mm. See: Rayleigh scattering. Notes: (1) Photodiodes. phase constant. optical waveguide coupler. optical fiber. optical waveguide. See: ferrule. paraxial ray. See: spectral line. The imaginary part of the axial propagation constant for a particular mode. the ratio of the angular frequency to the phase constant. optical waveguide termination. or utilizes optical radiation for its internal operation. Note: For purposes of computation. Note: An optically active material exhibits different refractive indices for left and right circular polarizations (circular birefringence). optical waveguide coupler. optical detector. (2) Electro-optical is often erroneously used as a synonym. coherence time. (2) In optical communications. optical conductor (Deprecated). The wavelength at which the radiant intensity of a source is maximum. A power-law index profile with the profile parameter g equal to 2. usually expressed in radians per unit length. See: radiation angle. See: plastic clad silica. fiber optics. tee coupler. (1) Any structure capable of guiding optical power. A ray that is close to and nearly parallel with the optical axis. See: light ray. See: star coupler. The physical thickness of an isotropic optical element. injection lasers. See: infrared. parabolic profile. See: optical path length. multimode optical waveguide. optical waveguide preform. (2) A device whose purpose is to couple optical power between a waveguide and a source or detector. (1) A device whose purpose is to distribute optical power among two or more ports. optoelectronic. scattering. . See: axial propagation constant. See: graded index profile. In a fiber bundle. and integrated optical elements are examples of optoelectronic devices commonly used in optical waveguide communications. emits or modifies optical radiation. A material that can rotate the polarization of light that passes 22 through it. fiber bundle. optical waveguide splice. packing fraction. optical waveguide connector. profile parameter. spectral width. A configuration or a device mounted at the end of a fiber or cable which is intended to prevent reflection. See: preform. and that is designed to be connected and disconnected repeatedly.
. . used to couple power between it and the transmission fiber. The current that flows through a photosensitive device (such as a photodiode) as the result of exposure to radiant power.2 A ( r / a ) 9 r n(r) = SCL photoemissive effect. photocurrent. A diode with a large intrinsic region sandwiched between p. The production of a voltage difference across a pn junction resulting from the absorption of photon energy. photovoltaic effect. h = 6. plane wave. photon. Photodiodes are used for the detection of optical power and for the conversion of optical power to electrical power. power. PIN diode. (1) External photoelectric effect The emission of electrons from the irradiated surface of a material. photodiode.626 J * s. Notes: (1) a is often used in place of g. = nl(l . A short length of optical fiber. See: avalanche photodiode (APD). The voltage difference is caused by the internal drift of holes and electrons.IEEE TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS S M 812-1984 photoconductivity. power-law index profile. Photons absorbed in this region create electron-hole pairs that are then separated by an electric field. The conductivity increase exhibited by some nonmetallic materials. photoelectric effect. photon noise. The number h that relates the energy E of a photon with the frequency v of the associated wave through the relation E = hu. See: irradiance. The energy of a photon is hv where h = Planck’s constant n. the mobility of the carriers. plastic clad silica fiber. A class of graded index profiles characterized by the following equations: n(r) = n. may enhance or increase the current flow but is a distinct mechanism. Planck’s constant. See: dark current. permanently fixed to a component. and the length of time they persist in conducting states (their lifetime) are some of the factors that determine the amount of conductivity change. (2) For this class of profiles. photocurrent. Hence.n: 2n v = optical frequency See: nonlinear scattering. photodiode. this is sometimes called an alpha profile. (2) Internal photoelectric effect photoconductivity. multimode distortion is smallest when g takes a particular value depend23 physical optics. pigtail. See: launching fiber.and n-doped semiconducting regions. An optical waveguide having silica core and plastic cladding. The branch of optics that treats light propagation as a wave phenomenon rather than a ray phenomenon. = refractive index of the homogeneous cladding a = core radius g = a parameter that defines the shape of the profile. resulting from the free carriers generated when photon energy is absorbed in electronic transitions. thus generating an electric current in a load circuit. Syn: photoemissive effect. Planck’s constant. power density. See: irradiance. See: photon. radiant intensity. where n(r) = refractive index as a function of radius n. radiant power. such as that in an avalanche photodiode. See: photon.(l . A wave whose surfaces of constant phase are infinite parallel planes normal to the direction of propagation. A diode designed to produce photocurrent by absorbing light. as in geometric optics. Internal gain. The rate at which free carriers are generated. A quantum of electromagnetic energy.2A)+ r SCL where A = n2. See: quantum noise. See: photoelectric effect. See: photoelectric effect (external). = refractive index on axis n. PIN photodiode.
50%. (1) In an optical waveguide. See: cladding. and A is the refractive index constant. See: chemical vapor deposition technique. See: rootmean-square pulse duration. the logarithmic rate of change. as viewed from that given direction. When g increases without limit. = n. rootmean-square pulse broadening. See: parabolic profile. with respect to distance in a given direction. are. 24 radiance. Radiant power emitted into a full sphere (4n. refractive index profile. See: distortion. Sometimes it is defined with the factor (-2) in the numerator. Input and output quanta need not both be photons. the ratio of output quanta to input quanta. See: dispersion. that dispersion attributable to the variation of refractive index contrast with wavelength. See: graded index profile. per unit solid angle per unit of projected area of the source. propagation constant. See: radiometry. Operation wherein the minimum detectable signal is limited by quantum noise. step index profile. respectively. g profile parameter. refractive index profile. full width (duration) half maximum. Profile dispersion is usually characterized by the profile dispersion parameter. Note: The propagation constant is a complex quantity. The shape-defining parameter for a power-law index profile. N . power-law index profile. of the complex amplitude of any field component. See: dispersion. parabolic profile. An increase in pulse duration. and n . pulse length. A dA -. The material in intimate contact with the cladding surface. the refractive and group indices of the core. profile parameter. pulse duration.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF ing on the material used. The time between the lo%.A (dnJdA).NI A d A quantum noise. optical blank. radiant emittance. in a given direction. See: power-law index profile. For most materials. distortion. Radiant power. pulse distortion. . See: graded index profile. d n A is the refractive index of the homogeneous cladding. the profile tends to a step index profile. that dispersion attributable to the variation of refractive index profile with wavelength. Syn: radiant exitance.sr) by a unit area of a source. Radiance is expressed in watts per steradian per square meter. index profile. N . or l / e points is commonly used. profile dispersion. primary coating. this optimum value is around 2. Syn: photon noise. See: quantum noise. The profile variation has two contributors: (a) variation in refractive index contrast.. Often erroneously used as a synonym for pulse duration. n. or the full-duration-half-maximum pulse broadening. mode volume. preform. . defined by the following entry. quadratic profile. See: brightness. Note: Pulse broadening may be specified by the impulse response. ion exchange technique. quantum efficiency. step index profile. P(A) = pulse width. radiometry. radiance. In an optical source or detector. applied to preserve the integrity of that surface. the root-mean-square pulse broadening. See: impulse response. ( 2 ) In an optical waveguide. For an electromagnetic field mode varying sinusoidally with time at a given frequency. where contrast refers to the difference between the maximum refractive index in the core and the refractive index of the homogeneous cladding. profile. Often erroneously used as a synonym for pulse duration. A glass structure from which an optical fiber waveguide may be drawn. The time between a specified reference point on the first transition of a pulse waveform and a similarly specified point on the last transition. expressed in watts per square meter. quantum-noise-limited operation. conservation of where n. and (b) variation in profile parameter. profile dispersion parameter (P). pulse broadening. as is the rootmean-square (rms) pulse duration. Noise attributable to the discrete or particle nature of light.
radiation angle. reflectance. ray.IEEE TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS Std 812-1984 radiant energy. reflectance. mode. See: radiant emittance. Reflection from a smooth surface is termed specular. cladding. reflection. The reflectance of the surface of a material so thick that the reflectance does not change with increasing thickness. Note: The cone is usually defined by the angle at which the far-field irradiance has decreased to a specified fraction of its maximum value or as the cone within which can be found a specified fraction of the total radiated power at any point in the far field. See: critical angle. depending on the nature of the reflecting surface. Radiant power per unit solid angle. the manner in which it is excited. numerical aperture. reflectivity. Light scattering by refractive index fluctuations (inhomogeneities in material density or composition) that are small with respect to wavelength. Half the vertex angle of the cone of light emitted by a fiber. See: radiometry. expressed in watts per steradian. Reflectance may be defined as specular or diffuse. Notes: (1) Nearfield radiation pattern describes the radiant emittance (W * m-? as a function of position in the plane of the exit face of an optical fiber.* See: radiant power. leaky mode. waveguide scattering. See: irradiance. The science of radiation measurement. scattering. (2) Farfield radiation pattern describes the irradiance a s a function of angle in the far-field region of the exit face of an optical fiber. Specifically. Rayleigh scattering. radiant power. Energy that is transferred by way of electromagnetic waves. in communication applications. Formerly: reflection. Note: In certain cases the reference surface may not be an integral part of the fiber. radiation mode. optical waveguide connector. See: intensity. where A is the wavelength Radiation modes correspond to refracted rays in terminology of geometric optics. *Obsolete radiant incidence. See: reflection. whereas reflection from a rough surface is termed diffuse. and which exists even in the limit of zero wavelength. The prefix is often dropped and the term power is used. and the wavelength. or buffer layer surface. the intrinsic 25 where p = imaginary part (phase term) of the axial propagation constant I = azimuthal index of the mode n ( a ) = refractive index at r = a. refracted ray. reflectivity. See: light ray. expressed in joules. The basic quantities of radiometry are listed in Table 1. radiometry. radiant flux. the time integral of radiant power. near-field region. The scattered field is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength. For various fiber types. power. See: bound mode. the reference might be the fiber core. Relative power distribution as . The time rate of flow of radiant energy. a mode whose fields are transversely oscillatory everywhere external to the waveguide. 2rr/A. total internal reflection. radiant flux. the core radius k = free-space wavenumber. That surface of an optical fiber which is used to contact the transversealignment elements of a component such as a connector. The abrupt change in direction of a light beam at an interface between two dissimilar media so that the light beam returns into the medium from which it originated. (3) Radiation pattern may be a function of the length of the waveguide. Syn: output angle. radiant exitance. In an optical waveguide. reference surface. the radiation pattern. a mode for which a function of position or angle. See: acceptance angle. The ratio of reflected power to incident power. Note: In optics. generally expressed in decibels (dB). that is. See: ferrule. radiant intensity. frequently expressed as optical density or as a percent. See: radiometry. Sgn: unbound mode. See: far-field region. radiometry. See: material scattering. optical power. farfield region. Colloquial synonyms: flux. expressed in watts.
dispersion. irrespective of other parameters such as the reflectance of the rear surface. the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum to the phase velocity in the medium. Fresnel reflection. refraction.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF Table 1 Radiometric Terms Term Name Radiant energy Radiant Power Syn: Optical Power Symbol Quantity Energy Power Power incident per unit area (irrespective of angle) Irradiance per unit wavelength interval at a given wavelength Power emitted (into a full sphere) per unit area Power per unit solid angle Power per unit angle per unit projected area Radiance per unit wavelength interval at a given wavelength joule (J) unit Q 4 E E. See: refracted ray method. index profile. m-2 . a ray that is refracted from the core into the cladding. Sri . fused silica. (m-2 . numerical aperture. index matching material. refracted ray method. graded index optical waveguide. guided ray. sr-') . group index. linearly polarized mode. Denoted by A. Specifically a ray at radial position r having direction so that 1 - n2(r). 26 A = (n? .nz((a) s sin2 6 (r) (r/a)2cos2c$(r) where +(r) = azimuthal angle of projection of the ray on the transverse plane O(r) = angle the ray makes with the waveguide axis n ( r ) = the refractive index at the core radius a = core radius Refracted rays correspond to radiation modes in the terminology of mode descriptors. the maximum refractive index in the core and the refractive index of the homogeneous cladding. core. Syn: index of refraction. The bending of a beam of light in transmission through an interface between two dissimilar media or in a medium whose refractive index is a continuous function of position (graded index medium). step index optical waveguide. critical angle. m-' W W Syn: Radiant excitance Radiant intensity Radiance Spectral radiance I L . profile dispersion. m-2 W . . nm-' W . Denoted by n. refractive index (of a medium). See: clad- ding ray. sr-l . See: cladding. The technique for measuring the index profile of an optical fiber by scanning the entrance face with the vertex of a high numerical aperture cone and measuring the change in power of refracted (unguided) rays. leaky ray. In an optical waveguide. refracted ray. material dispersion. W Irradiance Spectral irradiance Radiant emittance W . optical path length. weakly guiding fiber. normalized frequency. respectively. N o longer in common usage. See: Syn: refracted near-field scanning method. power-law index profile.1) reflectance of the surface. a measure of the relative difference in refractive index of the core and cladding of a fiber. scattering. refractive index (of a medium). nm . refracted ray.nz") 2n where n1and n 2 are. refracted near-field scanning method. m-' LA (W . mode. given by reflectance. radiation mode. See: refractions. refractive index contrast. See: angle of deviation.
rms pulse duration. Note: There is often a (minor) inconsistency in referring to shot noise in an optical system: many authors refer to shot noise loosely when speaking of the mean square shot noise current (amp') rather than noise power (watts). generally expressed in amperes per watt or volts per watt of incident radiant power. step index profile. profile parameter. Syn: monomode optical waveguide. See: optical repeater. Here. See: axial ray. single mode operation occurs for normalized frequency V less than approximately 2. mode. Note: In practice. 27 . power-law index profile. An optical waveguide in which only the lowest order bound mode (which may consist of a pair of orthogonally polarized fields) can propagate at the wavelength of interest. material scattering. unbound mode. m : xf(z)dz Note: The term rms deviation is also used in probability and statistics. profile parameter. MI + 2)/g where g is the profile parameter.405-\/(g where M O = = S_"m f(x>dx l/Mof . Imprecise synonym for responsivity. the orthogonal polarizations may not be associated with degenerate modes. semiconductor laser.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 refractive index profile. regenerator. Syn: regenerator. It may also be regarded as the diffusion of a light beam caused by the inhomogeneity of the transmitting medium. In step index guides. the term is used in a more general sense. optical axis. See: optical cavity. the precise definition depending on the detector type. refractive index (of a medium).405. is unity. hybrid mode. geometric optics. responsivity. A special case of root-mean-square deviation where the independent variable is time andf(t) is pulse waveform. A single quantity characterizing a function given. Rayleigh scattering. For power-law profiles. root-mean-square (rrns) pulse broadening. waveguide scattering. meridional ray. powerlaw index profile. A ray that does not intersect the optical axis of a system (in contrast with a meridional ray). See: quantum noise. See: injection laser diode (ILD). regenerative repeater. multimode optical waveguide. this occurs when the normalized frequency V is less than 2. shot noise. root-mean-square (rrns) pulse duration. Noise caused by current fluctuations due to the discrete nature of charge carriers and random or unpredictable (or both) of charged particles from an emitter. by scattering. In optical system receivers. See: regenerative repeater. for f(z). repeater. sensitivity. resonant cavity. root-mean-square (rrns) pulse duration. skew ray. Note: Sensitivity is often used incorrectly a s a synonym. See: graded index profile. profile dispersion. root-mean-square (rms) pulse broadening. MO. profile dispersion parameter. root-mean-square (rrns) pulse duration. normalized frequency. The ratio of an optical detector's electrical output to its optical input. where the normalization. mode. See: root-mean-square (rrns) deviation. See: optical repeater. parabolic profile. paraxial ray. single mode optical waveguide. The change in direction of light rays or photons after striking a small particle or particles. See: leaky modes. The temporal rms deviation of the impulse response of a system. See: bound mode. See: impulse response. spectral width. A repeater that is designed for digital transmission. step index optical waveguide. the minimum power required to achieve a specified quality of performance in terms of output signal-to-noise ratio or other measure. The description of the refractive index along a fiber diameter. See: root-mean-square (rrns) deviation. nonlinear scattering. root-mean-square (rms) deviation. See: root-mean-square (rrns) pulse duration.
material dispersion. steady-state condition. the speckle pattern will also change with time. mode volume. A wavelength region of relatively high transmittance. radiometry. A refractive index profile characterized by a uniform refractive index within the core and a sharp decrease in refractive index at the core-cladding interface. spectrum. multimode optical waveguide. approaching infinity. tee coupler. The method for measuring the index profile of an optical fiber by preparing a thin sample that has its faces perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. Note: Examples of spontaneous emission include: (1) radiation from a light emitting diode (LED). specifically the difference between the wavelengths at which the magnitude drops to one half of its maximum value. spectral line. specular reflection. step index profile. expressed in watts per steradian per unit area per wavelength interval. See: aligned bundle. The ratio of emitted optical power of a source to the input electrical power. . spatially coherent radiation. This method may be difficult to apply when the line has a complex shape. See: critical angle. spectral width. g . where AA is obtained according to (1) or (2). star coupler. A measure of the wavelength extent of a spectrum. See: optical waveguide splice. monochromatic. See: injection laser diode. See: insertion loss. 28 . Syn: transmission window. differential mode attenuation is experienced. A passive device in which power from one or several input waveguides is distributed amongst a larger number of output optical waveguides. See: D". A narrow range of emitted or absorbed wavelengths. andf(A) is a suitable radiometric quantity. radiometry. Responsivity per unit wavelength interval at a given wavelength. Irradiance per unit wavelength interval at a given wavelength. speckle pattern. An optical waveguide having a step index profile. See: optical spectrum. splice. spatial coherence. Syn: axial slab interferometry. speckle noise. See: coherent. Note: This corresponds to a power-law profile with profile parameter. Notes: (1) One method of specifying the spectral linewidth is the full width at half maximum (FWHM). See: irradiance. If the relative modal group velocities change with time. See: coherent. modal noise results. See: interferometer. See: modal noise. step index optical waveguide. and measuring its index profile by interferometry. A power intensity pattern produced by the mutual interference of partially coherent beams that are subject to minute temporal and spatial fluctuations. spatially aligned bundle. splice loss. stimulated emission. source efficiency. Radiation emitted when the internal energy of a quantum mechanical system drops from an excited level to a lower level without regard to the simultaneous presence of similar radiation. See: root-meansquare (rms) deviation.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF slab interferometry. (3) The relative spectral width (AA/ A) is frequently used. surrounded by regions of low transmittance. See: coherence length. expressed in watts per unit area per unit wavelength interval. spontaneous emission. superradiance. in addition. Radiance per unit wavelength interval at a given wavelength. See: step index spectral irradiance. See: modal noise. See: reflection. See: radiance. See: equilibrium mode distribution. light emitting diode. graded index profile. dispersion. (2) Another method of specifying spectral width is a special case of root-mean-square (rms) deviation where the independent variable is wavelength (A). See: optical combiner. See: line source. Note: In a multimode fiber. line spectrum. spectral width. spectral responsivity. See: responsivity profile. If. specific detectivity. line spectrum. a speckle pattern results from a superposition of mode field patterns. and (2) radiation from an injection laser below the lasing threshold. spectral window. spectral radiance.
total internal reflection. temporally coherent radiation. but not radiation modes. core. See: spontaneous emission. characterized by moderate line narrowing and moderate directionality. See: optical waveguide. See: cladding. step index optical waveguide. See: critical angle. The total reflection that occurs when light strikes an interface at angles of incidence (with respect to the normal) greater than the critical angle. function. spon- TM mode. H c f ) is taken to be the ratio of output optical power to input optical power as a function of modulation frequency. Notes: (1) For an optical fiber. total internal reflection. See: transverse magnetic mode. the second (smaller) circle is the largest circle that fits within the core area. Syn: tapered transmission line.Ad. H c f ) . superluminescent light emitting diode (LED). refractive index (of a medium). the annular region between the two concentric circles of diameter D AD and D . The field components of the wave may exist (in principle) throughout space (even to infinity) but become negligibly small within a finite distance from the interface. (3) When used to specify the core size.AD. stimulated emission. The complex tapered transmission line. respectively. the magnitude of HU) and the phase of tee coupler. + concentricity error. Note: The circles of definition 2 need not be concentric with the circles of definition. the transfer . See: lasing threshold. superradiance. homogeneous cladding. See: coherent. A wave that is guided by the interface between two different media or by a refractive index gradient in the medium. tap. bounded by lower index materials. threshold current. The first circumscribes the core area. (2) For a linear system. 29 H c f ) . stimulated emission. The amplitude and phase responses are. optical waveguide. Note: This process is generally distinguished from lasing action by the absence of positive feedback and hence the absence of welldefined modes of oscillation. the region between two curves (frequently two circles) used to specify the tolerance on component size. surface wave. See: spontaneous emission. See: transverse electromagnetic mode.TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS IEEE Std 812-1984 normalized frequency. See: transverse electric mode. in an optical waveguide lbelong to a class known in electromagnetic theory as surface waves. Amplification of spontaneously emitted radiation in a gain medium. See: coherent. Note: All guided modes. capable of guiding light. (1) In general. the second (smaller) circle is the largest circle that fits within the outer surface of the homogeneous cladding. taneous emission. tapered fiber waveguide. TEM mode. A transparent dielectric film. An optical waveguide whose transverse dimensions vary monotonically with length. See: tapered fiber waveguide. TE mode. equal to the ratio of the output to input of the device as a function of frequency. A passive coupler that connects three ports. An example is the radiation from an injection laser diode above lasing threshold. 3. See: laser. the annular region between the two concentric circles of diameter d + Ad and d . temporal coherence. See: coherent. time coherence. stimulated emission. See: star coupler. thin film waveguide. Radiation emitted when the internal energy of a quantum mechanical system drops from an excited level to a lower level when induced by the presence of radiant energy at the same frequency. The driving current corresponding to lasing threshold. transfer function of a device. The first circumscribes the outer surface of the homogeneous cladding. An emitter based on stimulated emission with amplification but insufficient feedback for oscillation to build up. (2) When used to specify fiber cladding size. A device for extracting a portion of the optical signal from a fiber. tolerance field.
Note: The transverse propagation constant for a given mode can vary with the transverse coordinates. See: mode. The ratio of transmitted power to incident power. Note: In a planar dielectric waveguide (as within an injection laser diode). See: spectral window. transverse electric (TE) and TM modes correspond to meridional rays. vitreous silica. See: attenuation. at a given wavelength. V number. See: transmittance. Note: In optics. transverse electric (TE) mode. a common form of which is given by the fiber transversely to its axis. No longer in common use. transmittance. Any mode that is not a bound mode. See: impulse response. mode. optical density. See: guided ray. See: infrared. Formerly called transmission. See: leaky mode.IEEE Std 812-1984 IEEE STANDARD DEFINITIONS OF function and the impulse response h ( t ) are related through the Fourier transform pair. light. transverse propagation constant. Generally. transmission window. transverse magnetic (TM) mode. The method for measuring the index profile of an optical fiber or preform by illuminating the fiber or preform coherently and transversely to its axis. Glass consisting of almost pure silicon dioxide (SiOz). trapped mode. See: bound mode. unbound mode. See: antireflection coating. irrespective of other parameters such as the reflectances of the surfaces. generally expressed in decibels (dB). Syn: fused silica. See: lateral offset loss. tunnelling ray. optical density. transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode. Total loss encountered in transmission through a system. A mode whose electric field vector is normal to the direction of propagation. frequency response. . See: light. See: leaky ray. a leaky or radiation mode of the waveguide. The method used to measure the index profile of an optical fiber by placing it in an interferometer and illuminating 30 tunnelling mode. mode. A mode whose magnetic field vector is normal to the direction of propagation. transmissivity. excluding the reflectance of the surfaces of the material. In an optical waveguide. transmittance. The propagation constant evaluated along a direction perpendicular to the waveguide axis. frequently expressed as optical density or percent. trapped ray. See: meridional ray. transmission loss. See: meridional ray. A computer is required to interpret the pattern of the scattered light. See: normalized frequency. See: propagation constant. See: interferometer. See: fused quartz. leaky mode. Often Hcfj is normalized to H ( 0 ) and h ( t ) to which by definition is H ( 0 ) Syn: baseband response function. transverse offset loss. the field direction is parallel to the corecladding interface. See: scattering. transmission loss. visible spectrum. transverse interferometry. where f is frequency. reflection. ultraviolet (UV). A mode whose electric and magnetic field vectors are both normal to the direction of propagation.04 pm. cladding mode. a computer is required to interpret the interference pattern. transverse scattering. Syn: radiative mode. The region of the electromagnetic spectrum between the short wavelength extreme of the visible spectrum (approximately 0. Note: In an optical fiber.4 pm) and 0. The transmittance of a unit length of material. in communications applications. See: bound mode. TE and transverse magnetic (TM) modes correspond to meridional rays. the intrinsic transmittance of the material. and examining the far-field irradiance pattern.
weakly guiding fiber. waveguide dispersion. waveguide scattering. The provision of two or more channels over a common optical waveguide. scattering. material dispersion. See: material scattering. the dependence is on the ratio (a/ where a is A). distortion.ength as a consequence of the geometric properties of the waveguide. for circular waveguides. 31 . the channels being differentiated by optical wavelength. Rayleigh scattering. Scattering (other than material scattering) that is attributable to variations of geometry and index profile of the waveguide. profile dispersion.IEEE TERMS RELATING TO FIBER OPTICS Std 812-1984 wavefront. See: spectral window. the locus of points having the same phase at the same time. multimode distortion. A fiber for which the difference between the maximum and the minimum refractive index is small (usually less than 1%). core radius and X is wavelength. See: dispersion. For each miode in an optical waveguide. In particular. the term used to describe the process by which an electromagnetic signal is distorted by virtue of the dependence of the phase and group velocities on wavel. nonlinear scattering. window. wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).
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