Jurongville Secondary School Secondary 3 Express Biology Notes Syllabus 5093 Name: _________________________ ( Class: Sec 3___ Chapter

1: Chapter 2: 1.1 • Characteristics of Living Organisms Cell Structure & Organization ) Date: ____________

Characteristics of living organisms Most living organisms show the following characteristics Description

Characteristics of Life Nutrition Respiration Excretion Growth Movement Sensitivity Reproduction Adaptability 2.1 • •

Cell Structure & Organization Cells are the basic unit of life Cells can exist o o Singly as independent organisms showing all the characteristics of life (eg. Amoeba) (called UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS) (Uni: one) As part of a MULTICELLULAR organism (Multi: many)  These cells are modified for specific functions (eg. Root hair cell, red blood cell, muscle cells, etc)

• The living matter in cells consists of Components Functions Nucleus • Contains hereditary material (Chromosomes) made of DNA • Acts as a control center for cell activities • Controls cell division Cytoplasm • Many chemical reactions of life in the cell occur here, especially special structures (organelles) within it. Cell Surface • Is a partially-permeable (or selectively-permeable) membrane Membrane • Prevents cell contents from flowing out • Controls substances entering or leaving the cell


Cells organelles found in the cytoplasm includes Functions • Rigid fully-permeable membrane • Provides mechanical support and protection to plant cells • Membrane-bound spaces containing chemicals that are either secreted, excreted or stored by cells • An organelle which contains a pigment (chlorophyll) and enzymes needed for photosynthesis • Releases energy during cell respiration

Cell Organelles Cellulose cell wall (Plant Cell Only!) Vacuole (Sap vacuole in plants) Chloroplast (Plant Cell Only!) Mitochondria

Differences between a typical animal cell & a typical plant cell
Animal cell Plant cell Cell membrane • Cytoplasm • Nucleus Vacuoles are small and many, Large single, central vacuole, contain no cell sap contain cell sap (made up of sugars mostly) No cell wall Contain cellulose cell wall No chloroplasts May have chloroplasts Around 10-20 microns across Around 40-100 microns across •



A step-by-step organization from simple atoms to a complex organism is shown


Multicellular organism


Organization of Living Organisms (Cells combining to improve their efficiency)

o Cell  Tissues  Organs  Organ systems  Organism
o o o Tissue: A group of similar and specialized cells working together to carry out a particular function. E.g. muscular tissue and xylem tissue Organ: Body part composed of several types of tissues working together to carry out a particular function e.g. heart Organ system: A system composed of several functionally related organs working together for a special function. E.g. Circulatory system, Digestive system.


Some specialized cell structures & their related functions o In unicellular organisms, one cell must be able to carry out all the functions of a living organism o In multicellular organisms, one type of cells is usually modified to carry out one main function. The appearance of the cell (called adaptation) will vary depending on what the main function is. o The following specialized cells are examples of how cells are adapted (or modified) in order to serve their functions Type Root hair cell Structure The outer part of the cell wall is in the form of long, tubular extension (the root hair), which • Is able to form very close contact with the soil water film surrounding many soil particles • Greatly increase the surface area of the cell available for uptake of water and ions • Xylem vessels are long and narrow tubes, stretching from roots, through the stem, to the leaves. They are stacked end to end like drain pipes • Xylem vessels are strengthened by the chemical lignin. As lignin builds up, it eventually kills the xylem vessels. There is thus no cytoplasm to block the flow of water and mineral salts. Function Absorption of water and mineral salts from the soil

Xylem vessel

Conduct water and mineral salts from the roots to the stem, leaves, flowers and fruits To provide mechanical support for the plant above the ground


Red blood cell

Muscle cell

Xylem vessels are part of the vascular bundles which runs through the stems of plants to help resists bending strains caused by winds • The cytoplasm in red blood cells contain haemoglobin, which combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin Haemoglobin + O2  Oxyhaemoglobin (at high oxygen level) • The cells are small and many, hence increasing large surface area for oxygen absorption • Each cell has a biconcave shape, making their surface area for absorption even larger • They are flexible, making them able to be pushed easily through small blood vessels (capillaries). • They are long and thin, allowing many to work side-by-side for greater force, or to form a contractile network of fibres • Each cell (or fibre) contains many smaller fibrils, each capable of contracting • Their cytoplasm contains many mitochondria which are responsible for releasing energy within a cell and needed to bring about muscular contraction

To carry oxygen around the body

To cause movement when they contract (muscles can only do work when they contract, never when they relax, and they can NEVER EXPAND) Mode of action Contract (become shorter) Relax (return to orig size)

Root Hair Cell Diagram: vessel:

Red Blood Cell Diagram:



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