RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN INDIAA MICROGRID APPROACH

Prateek Prasun, 3rd Yr,EnE, MIT Kislay Kishore,3rd Yr, EnE, MIT Arpit Agrawal,3rd Yr,EnE,MIT

I TRODUCTIO In an energy deficient country like India, the priority of supplying energy is given to the cities-the nodes of the economic development, while the ironic part is that India’s almost 70% population still lives in the villages. The electrification of villages is still a distant dream due to heavy costs incurred in installation of networks for transmission and distribution and huge power losses. Also the villages electrified till now have an erratic supply of electricity. The main idea presented in this paper emphasizes on the development of microgrids-a direct consequence of distributed generation approach, to improve the energy scenario in villages. However in light of the increasing focus on eco-friendly approach to almost everything, power generation shall be no exception. The focus of the generation will essentially be on use of renewable resources for power generation. Besides being a sustainable solution to the energy needs in rural areas, the clean way of generation will be welcomed by local communities and government. The need of independent units has been recognized here to accommodate distributed energy resources and renewable energy technologies on large scale. Different issues related to the deployment of renewable energy resources and possible enabling technologies are discussed here.

The idea is to use this administrative system to provide sufficient electricity supply to the rural areas. Karnataka.ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP OF INDIA As seen from the figure. so this paper intends to provide some suggestions at this level. . catering even to the most remote areas. the administration of India has been well divided into many sub-divisions. which in turn are divided into blocks-tehsils or taluks. A state in India is divided into districts. The villages are the units often getting the minimum and erratic supply of energy. The paper uses the microgrid approach to unite the villages at the taluk level to make them self sufficient. each comprising a number of villages. for example has 175 taluks.

It depends on the climate and geographical location. Distributed generation. or at least diluted. the availability of renewable resources is not uniform. the Microgrid concept involves small T&D network. batteries. the generation and corresponding loads can separate from the distribution system to isolate the microgrid’s load from the disturbance (and thereby maintaining high level of service) without harming the transmission grid’s integrity. The components of the Microgrid complement with each other thus reduce the dependence on the main grid. using the naturally available resources. This approach allows for local control of distributed generation thereby reducing or eliminating the need for central distribution. as was the distance that could be used between generator and consumer. The first power plants only supplied electricity to customers in the close neighbourhood of the generation plant. Since different types of resources are interconnected. The first grids were DC based. HYBRID SYSTEM Though fairly large in quantity. While the original concept of microgrids encompasses a wider network of infrastructure. which could be directly coupled to the DC grid. Easily inferred. and therefore. diversity in fuel and loading conditions can be achieved. but the idea behind it is not new at all. not the exception.a component of Distributed Generation Trends emerging in the power system suggest that the highly centralized paradigm that has dominated power systems for the last century may eventually be replaced. it includes all the advantages of the networking at mini scale. is a fairly new concept in the economics literature about electricity markets. Moreover. This small self-sufficient system would allow maximum extraction of the renewable power by coordinating control between the various renewable resources based power generation. and trying to be as simplistic and minimal as possible. Balancing demand and supply was partially done using local storage. the supply voltage was limited. local storage is also returning to the scene.MICROGRID.e. During disturbances. Along with small-scale generation. but at the same time. for the moment loosely defined as smallscale electricity generation. fulfilling the basic demands of energy. by an alternative. The importance of a hybrid system is evident as a solution of this problem . i. the paper here uses just the basic idea to deal with the electricity problem of the villages. The concept of the Microgrid supersedes all the advantages of a single generator. In the early days of electricity generation. distributed generation was the rule.

this approach would mean greater peak load capacity. Cost proves to be the major deterrent factor in its exploitation. solar energy is not utilized to its potential. SOLAR ENERGY Though being the primary energy source. This approach ensures smoother supply of energy. India. Capitalizing on these two strengths. the hybrid approach here involves combining bio-gas and solar energy for power generation. also has a strong agricultural base. The key features of the idea are: • Ensuring continuous and quality supply of electricity to each household for at least 18 hours a day. The availability of solar energy for a large part of the year and the large amounts of agricultural wastes makes the combined use of solar energy and energy fron biomass a viable option. thereby ensuring electricity supply in cloudy weather and/or some duration of night. the integration of solar energy and that from wind would compliment each other quite well. • Installation of stand alone street and community lighting systems making use of PV cells and LED units to optimize energy usage. payback period is over the energy can be utilized profitably. But with the proper government support once the The molten salts stored in the two tanks pictured here amidst the rows of troughs at power plant will allow solar energy to produce electricity even at night.which advocates use of multiple renewable resources for power generation. etc. Apart from improving the reliability of the system. a tropical country. winddiesel system. • Installation of electricity generation units by the procedure of heat exchange from salts absorbing solar energy to the water tanks to generate steam and thus electricity. Technically as well as economically the hybrid generation is more viable than relying upon one particular technology. . These salts are easily available through the fertilizers and have the capacity to store heat for atleast 7-8 hours. Various energy forms have been integrated to form a hybrid system like the solar-wind system. In case of a microgrid approach where the power generation is comparatively low.

. the potential of biomass energy in India is 16. The raw materials for the biogas plants will be locally available saving the transportation costs. Stirling Engine The middle-temperature Stirling engine transforms thermal energy into mechanical work and this 0 already at temperatures of 150 C. India is in the fourth position in generating power through biomass and with a huge potential. BIOMASS E ERGY Villages being the agrarian nodes. there’s still a lot of scope of exploitation of biomass energy for the general usage in rural areas. poultry droppings. there is plenty of raw material for generation of energy from biomass. slaughter waste etc. schools and other institutions. Once the technology is improved the irrigation pumps can be upgraded to use bio diesels. water waste from agro industry. Globally.sewage. is poised to become a world leader in utilization of biomass. June 2004. • Large parts of wasteland if available can be used for solar furnace construction but only if the option commercially viable. The raw materials for the production of biogas are: cow dung.Godrej GBC Publication. and the installed capacity is 630MW. These plants would be integrated into the hybrid system to provide continuous supply of energy for commercial purposes like agriculture. The basic infrastructure of course constitutes floating dome biogas plants. According to the CII. hospitals. So. Stand alone street light.000MW (excluding cogeneration). night soil and This would incorporate introduction of newer yet cheaper technologies like gassy fires which would complement the conventional sources of energy like diesel.

It is powered by unconcentrated solar radiation and thus works independent of the Hot-oil storage tank. and sharing the load. It becomes an integral part of the hybrid system. supplementing the solar energy setup.Sunpulse can pump water from up to 60 m depth. The mechanical work generated by the Stirling engine can also be used for corn milling. Sunpulse is a low-temperature Stirling Engine to pump water. Part of the pumping system is a hydraulic ram which in combination with Sunpulse . to pump water or for cooling. The Stirling engine provided with 50 kWh of heat energy generates electricity of about 1 kWhe for about 10 hours. The system pumps about 4 cbm/h water from 10m depth.

• Provide help for self-help to people in need of clean water. etc. The cooperative structure could be enlarged by further economic activities such as food production and distribution. The cooperative possesses the installation and is responsible for maintenance and funding the venture. Of course. deforestation. so that a decentralized and independent development based on self-help is supported. The renewable energy • Support local economies to make health. prosperity and education attainable in all regions • And.Economic Implementation: The technologies mentioned in the paper can be manufactured for the most part locally. This fosters local economic development and acquisition of technical knowledge. They suggest an innovative method to address the current electricity shortage problems in the rural areas. techniques play an important role in the sustainable development. preserve ethnic and ecological values • Top employ profits generated for making the mission independent and sustainable. efficient government help and proper co-ordination among the villages and taluks would be a necessity to make this a distinct possibility. can be embarked upon. CO CLUSIO The above mentioned ideas would make the development of villages an integral part of the development plans of the country. energy and food. the buying power of the local community is increased and a low-cost energy supply provided. . at the same time. We hope. Jobs are created in the region. that by this paper. a viable path to electrification and the resultant modernization of villages Advantages: • Reduce the dependence on fossil energies • Slow down the exploitation of limited resources. as a consequence the dependence from abroad is diminished.

3) Microgrids and Distributed Generation Robert H.leonardo-energy.Chris Marnay & Ryan Firestone 5) Wikipedia & different internet data references. Lasseter. - 4) Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality. (S. IEEE) Micropower.References1) Infrastructure for Sustainable Development using Renewable Energy Technologies in India.by David www. IEEE. Fellow. Khaparde. . Senior Member. A.org. 2) Chapman.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful