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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN
THE GREAT MASTERS IN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE.
The following Volumes have been issued, price 5s. net each. BERNARDINO LUINI. By George C. Williamson, Litt.D., Editor of the Series. VELASQUEZ. By R. A. M. Stevenson. ANDREA DEL SARTO. By H. Guinness. LUCA SIGNORELLI. By Maud Cruttwell. RAPHAEL. By H. Strachey. CARLO CRIVELLI. By G. McNeil Rushforth, M.A., Lecturer in Classics, Oriel College, Oxford. CORREGGIO. By Selwyn Brinton, M.A., Author of "The Renaissance in Italian Art." DONATELLO. By Hope Rea, Author of "Tuscan Artists." PERUGINO. By G. C. Williamson, Litt.D. SODOMA. By the Contessa Lorenzo Priuli-Bon. LUCA DELLA ROBBIA. By the Marchesa Burlamacchi. GIORGIONE. By Herbert Cook, M.A., F.S.A. MEMLINO. By W. H. James Weale, late Keeper of the National Art Library. PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA. By W. G. Waters, M.A. PINTORICCHIO. By Evelyn March Phillipps. FRANCIA. By George C. Williamson, Litt.D. BRUNELLESCHI. By Leader Scott. MANTEGNA. By Maud Cruttwell.
REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. By Malcolm Bell. In preparation. WILKIE. By Lord Ronald Sutherland-Gower, M.A., F.S.A., Trustee of the National Portrait Gallery. TINTORETTO. By J. B. Stoughton Holborn, M.A. of Merton College, Oxford. GIOTTO. By F. Mason Perkins. EL GRECO. By Manuel B. Cossio, Litt.D., Ph.D., Director of the Musée Pédagogique, Madrid. DÜRER. By Hans W. Singer, M.A., Ph.D., Assistant Director of the Royal Print Room, Dresden. PAOLO VERONESE. By Roger E. Fry. GAUDENZIO FERRARI. By Ethel Halsey. Others to follow.
LONDON: GEORGE BELL & SONS
Buckingham Palace, London. The Ship builder & his wife. (1633) [Pg iv]
REMBRANDT VAN RIJN
BY MALCOLM BELL AUTHOR OF "SIR EDWARD BURNE-JONES: A RECORD AND REVIEW," ETC.
LONDON GEORGE BELL & SONS 1901 [Pg v]
In order to reduce the volume on Rembrandt, published in 1899, to the smaller dimensions demanded by the "Great Masters" series, it became necessary to dispense with some of the material included in it. This, it is hoped, has been done without seriously affecting the usefulness of the book. The story of the painter's life and work has been to some extent compressed, but everything essential has, it is believed, been retained. The chief omissions are the short descriptions of the pictures and the lists of the etchings, which, while occupying much space, were thought to be more suitable to a work of reference than to a handbook. The student who desires fuller information on these points will find it in the earlier volume. [Pg vi]
List of Illustrations Bibliography Chronological Table PART I.—REMBRANDT THE MAN
vii ix xiii
1637 The Hermitage 66 The Man with the Bittern. 1641 Dresden 30 Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels. Early Years (1627-1633) 48 VI.—REMBRANDT THE PAINTER V. about 1631 Cassel 12 Portrait of Saskia. about 1664 National Gallery.Chapter I. Days of Decline 32 PART II. Vienna 18 Rembrandt and Saskia. Art Education and Early Works 8 III. London 62 The Burgomaster Pancras and his Wife. Vienna 64 Portrait called Sobieski. The Authentic Etchings 93 Catalogue of Works 117 Index 157 [Pg vii] LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE The Shipbuilder and his Wife. 1636 Prince Liechtenstein. 1630-1632 Imperial Museum. Vienna 56 The Anatomy Lesson.—REMBRANDT THE ETCHER VIII. 1636 Prince Liechtenstein. about 1635 Dresden 24 Portrait of Rembrandt. 1633. 1630-1632 Imperial Museum. 1632 The Hague 58 Portrait of Jan Herman Krul. London 28 Portrait of Saskia. 1640 National Gallery. Birth and Early Years 1 II. 1634 National Gallery. 1639 Dresden 66 . 1632 Prince Liechtenstein. Years of Decline 71 PART III. 1633 Munich 60 Portrait of an Old Woman. about 1635 Buckingham Palace 62 Portrait of a Man. Vienna 56 Portrait of a Woman. The History of the Etchings 85 IX. 1636 The Hermitage 64 [Pg viii]Portrait of a Man. Days of Prosperity 16 IV. Frontispiece Buckingham Palace Portrait of Rembrandt's Mother. about 1628 The Hague 6 Portrait of Rembrandt's Father. 1635 National Gallery. about 1662 Louvre 44 Portrait of Rembrandt. London 46 Portrait called Coppenol. 1631 The Hermitage 54 Portrait of a Man. London 62 Danae. Vienna 64 Portrait of a Lady. 1633 Cassel 58 The Elevation of the Cross. Time of Prosperity 61 VII.
1644 A Girl at a Window. Baldinucci. 1797. Bredius." Munich. décrit et commenté par. London 72 Dulwich Gallery 72 Berlin 74 Cassel 74 Louvre 76 Berlin 78 Amsterdam 80 ETCHINGS The Numbers given are those of Bartsch's Catalogue Christ healing the Sick (74) Clement de Jonghe (272) The Three Trees (212) Rembrandt's Mill (233) Beggars at the Door of a House (176) The Shell (159) Jan Lutma (276) [Pg ix] 86 90 92 98 100 102 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amand-Durand. Bredius. 1645 A Winter Scene. 1899. Malcolm. A. 1864 and 1880. "Rembrandt van Rijn and his Work. Filippo. about 1640 Anslo consoling a Widow." 2 parts. Bode. "Les chefs-d'œuvre du Musée royal d'Amsterdam. Paris. A magazine published at Amsterdam. 1648 John the Baptist preaching. 1880. .Portrait of Elizabeth Bas. "Catalogue raisonné de toutes les estampes qui forment l'œuvre de Rembrandt et ceux de ses principaux imitateurs. 1656 The Syndics of the Drapers. N. 1661 Amsterdam 68 Berlin 68 Buckingham Palace 70 Brussels 70 National Gallery." Paris. "Studien zur Geschichte der holländischen Malerei." Brunswick. "L'œuvre complet de Rembrandt. Bell." Florence. A." 4to. "Die Meisterwerke der Königlichen Gemälde Galerie im Haag. Vienna. Bartsch. and de Roever. Charles. Blanc. W. "Œuvre de Rembrandt reproduit et publié par. 1890. 1641 The Lady with the Fan. 1686.. 1646 Christ at Emmaus. Bredius. A. "Cominciamento e progresso dell' arte dell' intagliare in rame. London. 1641 The Woman taken in Adultery. 1890. 1883." 2 vols. 1645 Portrait of a Rabbi. Adam. 1641 Portrait of a Man. Oud-Holland." Paris.
Chevalier de. P. Claussin." Harlem. G. 1877. "Autobiographie inédite. 1890. Hamerton. Chalon. "Catalogue raisonné de toutes les pièces qui forment l'œuvre de Rembrandt. Daulby." Paris. Édouard. "Les Musées de Belgique et de Hollande." Amsterdam." Leipzig. Amsterdam. Langbehn." Paris." Marseilles. London." Paris. Gersaint. Constantin. Henri. "Inleyding tot de hooge School der Schilderkonst." Library of the Academy of Sciences. Havard. W.Burger. "De groote Schoubourgh der nederlandsche Kontschilders. Dr. 1860. 1758." London and Liverpool. London. "Het Land van Rembrandt. Leipzig. London." London. 1871. Félibien. 1678. Hamerton. etched by. G. 1718-1719." 1666-1688." 1862. Works of Rembrandt. Dyk." Paris. "L'art et les artistes hollandais. 1886. 1894. "Catalogue raisonné de toutes les estampes qui forment l'œuvre de Rembrandt. "Supplément au Catalogue de Rembrandt. "Abrégé de la Vie des plus fameux peintres. Samuel van. "Entretien sur les Vies et les Ouvrages des plus excellents peintres. 1824.[Pg xi] Huygens. Arnold. 1854. G. 1745." Paris. "Etching and Etchers. "Beschryving van alle de Schilderyen op het Stadhuis van Amsterdam. P." Paris. 1858." Paris." Published anonymously.[Pg x] Claussin. "Rembrandt als Erzieher. E. "La femme de Rembrandt. . Eugène. and 1862. Kolloff. Rembrandt's Etchings. 1890. "A descriptive catalogue of the works of Rembrandt and of his scholars. Dargenville. 1828. 1880." included in Historisches Taschenbuch of von Raumer." Paris. "Les Maitres d'autrefois. 1868. Noel. 1822. Descamps. Chevalier de. "L'œuvre complet de Rembrandt décrit et catalogué par. Houbraken. 1751. "Vies des peintres flamands et hollandais. "Geschichte der holländischen Baukunst und Bildnerei. 1840. Portfolio. van. "Rembrandt's Leben und Werke. Busken-Huet. Leipzig. Humphreys. Dutuit. J. Daniel." Rotterdam. 1879. Eckhoff. John. Hoogstraten. Galland. Rembrandt's Etchings. Fromentin." Amsterdam. 1796.
1877. and French Painters. "Notes on the Etched Work of Rembrandt. Joachim de. Rovinski. Anton. L. Middleton. 1877." Berlin. von. 1892.[Pg xii] Schneider. Seymour Haden. 1641. son œuvre et son temps." 1699. Scheltema." Nuremberg. "L'œuvre gravé de Rembrandt. "Beschryving der Stad Leiden." Bonn. in the Kunst and Künstler. Original drawings by Rembrandt reproduced in Phototype. "Beitrage zur niederländischen Kunstgeschichte." Paris. Seidlitz. de. 1675-1683. 1895. Piles. "A descriptive Catalogue of the Etched Work of Rembrandt. Willigen. F. 1877. Herman." London. Springer. "L'œuvre gravé de Rembrandt. J. Sir Francis. C. van der. Emile. "Introductory Remarks to the Catalogue of the Etched Work of Rembrandt. Schmidt. Rembrandt van Rijn. 1892. Michel." Published in Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst. Sandrart. Madsen. 1890. Charles. "Academia nobilissimae artis pictoriæ. True and False. "Studier fra Sverig. Discours sur sa vie et son génie." Paris. H. . Riegel. 1882. St." Seymour Haden. Munich. 1829-1842." London. Weyerman. 1889-1892. selected for exhibition at the Burlington Fine Arts Club." Reproductions of all the states of all the etchings. "Rembrandt Hermannsz. "Handzeichnungen alter Meister in Königlichen Kupferstich Kabinet zu Munchen. "Catalogue raisonné of the Works of the most eminent Dutch. "Les artistes de Harlem. "Geschichte der niederländischen Litteratur. 1888." Paris. Leipzig. W. Karl. "Bilder aus der neueren Kunstgeschichte. Vosmaer. R. "The Etched Work of Rembrandt. 1886. Vol. Berlin. London." London. and Paris." Leipzig. "Abrégé de la vie des Peintres. J. Lippmann. C. 1877. J. Seymour Haden. Sir Francis. See Bredius." Copenhagen. "De Levens Beschryvingen der nederlandsche Konstschilders. London. H. II. "Rembrandt." The Hague. Middleton. 1866. "Rembrandt sa vie. C. Sir Francis. 1878. John. Flemish. 1749.Lemcke. Dr." 1870. Petersburg." Paris and the Hague. Campo. Orlers. Smith. Sa vie et ses œuvres. 1893." London. Dmitri." Leyden. "Rembrandt's Radirungen. 1880. Rembrandt und seine Genossen. Oud-Holland.
1622 1623 Went to Lastman's Studio. The Shipbuilder and his Wife. Expedition to Rochelle. Gerard Dou became his pupil. The Colony of Virginia established. Yver. Descent from the Cross (Hermitage). Dryden born. Ben Jonson died. Susannah at the Bath. 1634 1635 Rombertus born. and 1620 later Swanenburch's Studio. 1756. Moved to Saint Anthonie's Breestraat (about)." Leipzig. Portrait of Himself (Gotha). Truce between Spain and Holland. His father died. Abraham's Sacrifice. died. Milton's L'Allegro and Il Penseroso.[Pg xiii] CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE Year Events in Rembrandt's Life 1606 Born July 15th. Pierre. "Geschichte de Malerei. The Anatomy Lesson. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Prints of Rembrandt. The Pilgrim Fathers landed in New England. H. et Glomy. Gustavus Adolphus killed at Lutzen. Assassination of Buckingham." London. Principal Work Dated Important Historical Event Milton born. A. Presentation in the Temple. [Pg xiv] Married on June 22nd. Living on the Bloemgracht.Willshire. Puritan emigration to New England. Renewal of War with Spain. 1608 1609 1610 1612 1616 1618 Entered at Leyden University. Milton's Lycidas. Prince of Wales. Trial of Hampden. The Exchange at Amsterdam built.." Amsterdam. K. Helle. Wilson. Capture of Samson. "An Introduction to the Study and Collection of Ancient Prints. came to the throne. Woltmann. Published as by "An amateur. 1637 1638 Cornelia born. Prince Frederick-Henry became Stathouder. 1624 Returned to Leyden. Gersaint. Danae. Joseph interpreting his Dreams. 1625 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 First known pictures. 1636 Living in Nieuwe Doelstraat. Manhattan founded. Shakespeare died. St Paul in Prison." London. "Supplément au Catalogue raisonné de MM. and Woermann. Charles went to Spain. 1836. Charles I. T. Henry. 1877. W. Left Leyden for Amsterdam. . Christ and Mary Magdalen. Thirty Years' War began. Charter granted to Massachusetts.
War between Spain and England. Joseph accused by 1655 Potiphar's Wife. England. Oliver Cromwell. surrendered to the Scots. The Flagellation. Lucretia. Adoration of the Shepherds. Battle of Naseby. 1666 Portrait of J. Lord Protector. Resurrection. 1667 Portrait of an Old Man. Titus born. (Louvre). sold. William II. Holy Family (Hermitage). and Sweden. Cromwell died. Peace of Westphalia. 1662 Hendrickje (probably) died. Execution of Charles I. 1665 Titus awarded his property. her Nails. Hooft. John de Witt became Grand Pensioner. New York). the Vineyard. Death of Hampden. War between England and Holland. Massinger died.1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 Moved to Jode-Breestraat.. The Long Parliament met. An estimate made of Saskia's property. [Pg xv] Association formed by Hendrickje Portrait of Himself 1660 and Titus. Portrait of Anslo. Susannah and the Elders. 1663 Homer. Execution of Strafford. The Battle of Marston Moor. Cromwell refused title of King. An Old Woman cutting 1658 Pictures. No dated picture. Portrait called Van der 1653 Borrowed money in large sums. War between Holland and England Plague in London. 1657 Sale of his property ordered. Hendrickje Stoffels first heard of. 1654 Bathsheba (Louvre). No dated picture. Charter given to Royal Society. Treaty of the Hague. Battle of Worcester. The Civil War began. Fire of London. Noli me tangere. Portrait of a Man (Metrop. etc. Portrait of Bruyningh. de Decker. Mus. Peace between England and Holland. Christ at Emmaus. 1668 1669 [Pg 1] Titus' marriage and death. Birth of second daughter. Alliance between Holland. Finished two pictures for the Stathouder. The Syndics. 1661 The last known etching.. Rembrandt died. The Night Watch. Mazarin died. Jacob wrestling with the 1659 Angel. Charles I. Hendrickje's first daughter born. Cromwell pensioned Manasseh ben Israel. Deposition. Portrait of Elizabeth Bas. Saskia died. His mother died. Parable of Labourers in 1656 Declared bankrupt. Bathsheba. landed at Dover. Charles II. . Peace restored. Cornelia. Portrait of Catrina Hoogh. Woman taken in Adultery. became Stathouder. 1664 Moved to the Lauriergracht. No dated picture.
and other patient seekers. there is considerable uncertainty. were heaped together into a somewhat inconsistent midden-heap of infamy. For. laborious. and as this was before his birthday in that year the question arises as to whether the statement means that he was in his fourteenth year or that he had passed the fourteenth anniversary of his birthday. still remains in doubt or darkness. at all?" There were soon many workers in this untried field. . much-tried soul—one whom fortune. then and since obtained by others. van der Willigen. and who said of himself in the height of his prosperity. Bredius and Scheltema. It should. thus agreeing with Orlers' statement. and to all the thanks of the artist's admirers are due. patient. which makes the birth year 1603 or 1604. 24. the daughter of Willems of Suydtbroeck. the son of Hermann. states that Rembrandt. His drunkenness." Much concerning Rembrandt has been revealed by M. Michel's equally careful and critical marshalling of the facts. it is not honours I crave. and the investigation had not long been set on foot before the question took the form—"Is there any evidence. Even as to the date of his birth. on which is written. his luxury. unspoiled. and we begin at last to see him as he really was. but liberty. shown that on May 25th. not altogether without his own provoking be it frankly owned. and later writers for more than two hundred years accepted[Pg 3] his assertion without question. nay. and Neeltje. though well-nigh crushed. to add further to the mystification. a kindly. his avarice. not impeccable. no future historian of Rembrandt can hope[Pg 2] to advance beyond the threshold of his subject. the day of his birth not being in dispute. and if he be correct in this the choice must lie between 1607 and 1608. but intensely human. One by one the cobwebs of myth with which. was never subdued. however. so that the actual day itself must have been in 1605. Elzevier and Eckhoff. Rembrandt Hermanni Leidensis 14 jare oud. to inquire upon what evidence it had been first delivered. the master's image had been overwhelmed have been torn away. unstinted praise and well-earned fame. one whose courage sustained him to the last. Orlers. was born on the 15th of July 1606. Dr Bredius has. partly through malice. a burgomaster of Leyden. be observed that M. uncomplaining. in what is believed to be his own hand. Blanc reads the figures on the etching as 25. Vosmaer and his fellow-workers. 1620. Charles Vosmaer that his complete rehabilitation is to be credited. but much.REMBRANDT VAN RIJN CHAPTER I BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS Down to the middle of the present century the story of Rembrandt. de Vries and Immerzeel. by MM. was nothing but a mass of more or less ill-natured fiction. while if it was written after that day it would imply 1607. and it is bare justice to say that without availing himself freely of his researches and of M. and therefore while not only Rembrandt himself but many people who must have remembered his birth were still alive. more. but it is chiefly to M. whose one refuge against her flouts was in his art." If this was written before the 15th of July it would point to 1606 as his birth year. It was not indeed until his true rank among painters began to be properly appreciated that it occurred to anyone to ask whether this harsh judgment did not need revision. the son of Gerrit. nevertheless. if we take the latter and more obvious interpretation it would necessarily follow that the fourteenth anniversary was in 1619 and that he completed his first year on 25th May 1606. partly through ignorance. Rembrandt was entered as a student in the Faculty of Letters at the University of Leyden and his age is given in the same document as fourteen. good or bad. in a description of that town published in 1641. however. neglect and contempt in his later years as he had in the heyday of his career received. sorely buffeted. who met. but one who. his immorality. Mr Sidney Colvin reads the age as 27. In the British Museum there is a proof of an etched portrait of himself dated 1631 [B. 1631. while. as generally accepted. There is further and still conflicting evidence to be reckoned with. "aet. "When I want rest for my mind. 7].
in which case his birthday would have fallen in 1607. where he did so well what was asked of him that he was selected again for it some years later. called after the fashion of the time Harmen Gerritsz. The question must still remain an open one. . for on the 16th of September 1653. or Naval School. to which he himself added van Rijn. we may with safety conclude that the balance of probability is in favour of his date 1606. of his wife Saskia. He was a prosperous and respected man was Hermann. On a delightful pencil drawing on vellum. only one year before Orlers published his book. which indeed concerned him nearly. on the left the slow carts creaked to and from the town. If the visitor to Leyden." a simple statement. it is true. He was at the former date thirty-five or thirty-six. with nothing but the town ramparts and the gleaming moat between it and the wide champaign. there is an inscription in his handwriting "Dit is naer myn huysfrow geconterfeit do sy 21 jaer oud was den derden dach als wy getroudt waeren due 8 junyus 1633"— "This is a portrait of my wife when she was 21 years old. Such is the evidence upon this fortunately not very important point. facing the setting sun. which nevertheless contains a remarkable number of errors for so brief a document. was born. 3 of which Rembrandt was born. in the Berlin Museum. with plate and jewellery and house-plenishings and all things proper about him. then. while his stepfather[Pg 6] Cornelis. now are. and in this he gives his age on July 10th. in No. turns sharp to the right after crossing the second bridge. and it is small wonder that of the two great authorities. representing the ward of the Pelican. how should we expect him to be more accurate about one. and his share of the mill. close to where the buildings of the Zeemans-Kweekschool. but when we consider that Rembrandt's mother did not die until 1640. Vosmaer. and had been appointed by his fellow-citizens to a municipal office of importance. Besides his own residence. he can only declare that he is about forty-six. That he was uncertain we have happily positive proof. he will before long find himself on the west side of the town. Rembrandt could misdate an event so intimately connected with his life's chief joy. as one comes in from the country. shared the other half between them. and on traversing a third keeps again to the right and continues with that branch of the Rhine known as the Galgewater on his right hand. and the whirr of the stones grinding malt for making beer hummed through the open doors. his fifth and youngest child but one. Up against the sky rose two. as his son did after him. but the marriage took place on the 22nd of June and in the year 1634. but we know that he was at all times very vague as to dates and figures. in a triangular open space. and at right angles to it. the first accepts 1606 and the second 1607 as the true date. was twenty-one in 1633. signed by himself. the other a little to the left on the border of the Noordeinde. washed on two sides by the moat surrounding it. just inside the gate. 1634. On the left side of this. M. the 8th of June 1633. on his way from the station to the town. in giving his opinion as an expert in a trial concerning the authenticity of a certain picture by Paul Bril. on the third day after our marriage. and at a time when he had probably collected most of[Pg 5] his material. with his son Clæs. he owned houses within the town and gardens without. his wedding-day having been the 8th of October 1589. while in front the broad sails of windmills swung round. in which he lived. but of which he naturally had no personal recollection.Nor is 1607 without further support. or Harmen—the name occurs in both forms—the son of Gerrit. of which Rembrandt's father owned half. Saskia. where once stood the White Gate guarding the entrance of the high-road from the Hague. If. and that nothing is more likely than that he should have applied to her for details.[Pg 4] as twenty-six. It must have been a pleasant situation. the son of Clæs. he had been married fifteen years. Concerning the place of his birth there are no such doubts. Michel and M. On the right hand the slow barges crept up and down the river. Dr Scheltema discovered in the marriage register of Amsterdam the record of Rembrandt's official engagement to duly obtain his mother's consent to his marriage. ran a short street called the Weddesteeg. and at the time when this. one almost opposite the windows of the house. thanks once more to Doctor Bredius.
was a singular commingling of the two. to our eyes. the great master of writing. that when he came of age he might by his knowledge serve the City and Republic. for the art he professed. and his parents' ambitious scheme for his serving the City and Republic was as nothing beside his own irresistible desire to express himself in form and colour. and which he. at that time included among the fine-arts under the style of Caligraphy. which has already been noted in another connection. One thing at least we may [Pg 7]feel certain of. the lines of Virgil and Ovid were lifeless to him. The next fact we find chronicled is a passage in Orlers to the effect that his parents sent him to school to learn the Latin tongue. 1620. and consented to apprentice him. we are told. we may be sure. as a student in the Faculty of Letters. if we may judge by its frequent appearance in his portraits of her. and in fulfilment of this laudable ambition we find that entry on May 25th. knew so thoroughly and drew upon so often for inspiration. and possibly gave him his first lessons in drawing also. and its. in comparison with those of Lucas van Leyden. which she herself read so constantly. the Hague PORTRAIT OF REMBRANDT'S MOTHER (ABOUT 1628)] Rembrandt's childhood. gave up the effort to make a statesman of him. in preparation for the University of Leyden. But by this time. that it was at his mother's knee he began the study of the Bible.[Pg 8] CHAPTER II . somewhat childish pictorial perversions. where maybe Coppenol. He proved. We cannot even say where he learned to read and write. for neither of which exercises did he subsequently exhibit much affection. taught him. though of details we have none. Probably at home. by what means we know not. with its elaboration of curves and flourishes. the art craving was fully aroused. but an unwilling scholar. according to his wish. following in her footsteps.[Bredius Collection. yielding with a fortunate wisdom to the inevitable. and his elders. at least a comfortable one. to a painter to learn first principles from him. considering the condition of his father. was.
than for his conspicuous talents that he was selected. was not a success. The painter who was then chosen for the honour of first guiding the hand of the young Rembrandt. He had been. certain. by which honour he is nowadays almost alone distinguished. that it is unreasonable to suppose that his father should have returned to the attack. The experience of a young fellow-artist probably suggested the answer. but indeed these were all that were needed by one with such an overmastering personality. Now there is no doubt that it was in 1624 that this took place. A man of good[Pg 9] position. moreover. Certain it is. or against. He was able only to impart "the first elements and the principles" of his art to his young pupil. was not one of those whose names we nowadays inscribe on the roll of great painters. and was not to be put off by a diluted semi-Italian imitation of it. and returned to his family in Leyden "to study and practise painting alone and in his own way. of much account. Further facts go to prove this point. So successful was the process that Orlers describes his advance in craftsmanship as so swift and steady that his fellow-citizens were completely astounded by it. at any rate. He then went to a second master in Amsterdam. That Rembrandt did make considerable progress during the following three years is. and when his apprenticeship drew to an end the question arose as to what was to come next." to quote again the garrulous Orlers. that enrolment at the University—that is to say. and could already foresee the brilliant career to which he was destined. that when Jan returned from Lastman's studio to astound his townsmen with his precocity. was Jacob van Swanenburch. lasted three years. destined to ripen into warm friendship. is so precise. a man in the same rank of life as Hermann the miller. a fellow-citizen. . and the exotic and ill-adapted traditions and conventions of the school were not calculated to appeal to so ardent and eager a seeker after truth as Rembrandt. Lastman. the brother of another. and it was no doubt from the enthusiasm of Lievensz that the impulse arose which. one of the large group who had trudged to far-away Rome. however. so that the acquaintanceship between the two sons. but remained with him only six months. after a few months' trial. and so. sent Rembrandt also to study under Lastman. they apprenticed him to a painter. though a far better artist than Swanenburch. however. His first apprenticeship. truly. and of an engraver. and the only obvious conclusion is that his first apprenticeship did not commence before 1620. The father of Jan[Pg 10] was a farmer. "A Papal Procession in the Piazza of St Peter. the intimacy between him and Rembrandt became close. We may consequently assume that the final desertion of the Muses and enlistment in the cause of the Arts came after. He wanted to find nature. with so powerful an artistic inspiration and energy. and probably had business connections with him. About the time Rembrandt entered Swanenburch's studio Jan Lievensz. in a few years their names seem to have become as inseparable as those of Damon and Pythias. a year younger than Rembrandt. Vosmaer believes it was in 1619. and come under the influence of Elsheimer there. The experiment. and is to some extent the proverbial safe prophecy of one who knows. and it was probably more for personal reasons. entered upon his artistic studies while Rembrandt was still struggling with. but the assertion of Orlers that when his parents allowed him to abandon the unloved Latin. so that in either case the date of his leaving Amsterdam and returning to Leyden would have been some time in 1624. though he enjoyed at that time an incomprehensibly large measure of popularity and success. as Orlers tells us. remember in weighing this statement that it was written when that career was at its most brilliant stage. he packed up his paints and canvases. We must. the detested Latin. and came to an end therefore in 1623 or early in 1624. not before. Rembrandt wearied of it in six months. and because of his propinquity. doubtless began in early boyhood. Lievensz had remained with him two years. the son of one painter. however. of course. And." artistically speaking.ART EDUCATION AND EARLY WORKS The exact date of this first step on the road to fame is also still somewhat uncertain. in accordance with the rules of the Guilds of Saint Luke. in 1624. who had. returned from completing his studies in the studio of Pieter Lastman at Amsterdam. late in 1620 or perhaps early in 1621. he was not. judging by his only known picture.
The eldest brother. when he was only one-andtwenty. moreover. signing and dating both. and many commissions came to him thence. discovered in 1891 by Dr Worp of Groningen." mentions him in 1628. as indeed is still the case in some University towns that could be mentioned. if we may judge by the refined and sensitive face which looks out at us from the portraits believed to be his. of it. was enthusiastic concerning both. Arent van Buchel. Nor was this growing fame productive of mere empty praise. and finally impossible proceeding. in his "Res Pictoriæ. when he painted two still existing pictures. and Constantin Huygens. had been crippled by an accident. . The young artist's reputation as a portrait painter had. and on March 16th of that year a life-interest in the estate to the amount of 125 florins per annum had been formally established for his maintenance. and returned again to Leyden. Many causes probably combined to promote this change of residence. is certain. stayed long enough to do the work. and a merry one to boot. for he must have been a kindly and sympathetic companion to his children. The loss further brought changes into the family arrangements. inconvenient. From this time his reputation and that of Lievensz ripened rapidly. 292) is also a portrait of him. and ready enough to devote some of their superfluity to portraits of themselves and wives. for Orlers says that he worked incessantly as long as the light lasted. came to him and remained until he left Leyden for Amsterdam three years later. if M. with a pretty humour of his own. and written probably between 1629 and 1631. For a while he merely went over. and made nothing. again. Michel be justified in his conclusion that the etching of the bald man with a chain (B. Leyden. as far[Pg 12] back as 1621. who abandoned his trade of shoe-making to undertake it. "still beardless yet already famous"—an appreciation that was not to be without its favourable influence on Rembrandt's future. was a University town. or worse. his first pupil. The blow must have been a heavy one. and it was clearly desirable that one able and willing to satisfy their wishes in this respect should be upon the spot.That so indefatigable and untiring a worker as[Pg 11] Rembrandt did not waste time. but we know of nothing that he produced until three years later. but as the demands upon his time increased this must have proved a wasteful. while Amsterdam was a city of prosperous traders making more money than they knew how to spend or employ. or pictures of incidents and places. when once he was safely established in his father's house. Gerard Dou. where religion and philosophy were more thought of and more sought after than such a trifle as art. spread to Amsterdam some time before. In February 1628. On the twenty-seventh of April 1630 the first break in the united family circle was brought about by the death of his father. in a manuscript autobiography. so that the superintendence of the affairs of the mill fell to the second son Adriaen.
[Cassel Gallery PORTRAIT OF REMBRANDT'S FATHER (ABOUT 1631) The little coterie of artists, too, was on the verge of dispersal in any case, by the loss of Rembrandt's closest tie with it, Jan Lievensz. He had sold a picture of a man reading by a turf fire to the Prince of Orange, who had presented it to the English Ambassador, and he in turn had passed it on to that king of picture [Pg 13]lovers, Charles the First, who had been so well pleased with it that a pressing invitation to visit England had been sent to the painter, and accepted. Nor, probably, was it only the chance of obtaining more employment that attracted Rembrandt. The famous "Anatomy Lesson" bears the date 1632, and, even if the commission for it had not actually been offered during the preceding year, it may very well have been suggested in the course of conversation by the doctor who had added to his name, Clæs Pietersz, that of Tulp, taking it from a tulip which was carved on the front of his house, who figures so conspicuously in it. If this were so, it must have been evident to Rembrandt that to undertake so large and important a picture while living in another city would mean either risking the uniformity and continuity of his work, or settling down for a prolonged period in lodgings in Amsterdam, and this may well have confirmed his decision to at once establish himself there permanently. Finally, I like to fancy, though it certainly cannot be proved, that Rembrandt had already, in one of his flying visits to that city, met the girl upon whom, while she lived, the larger part of his life's happiness was to depend. The evidence is, it must be owned, slight, but is not altogether wanting. Among the pictures of the year 1630, and, according to M. Michel, even of 1628 and onwards, we find a series of portraits of a fair-haired girl with a round, full forehead, and rather small eyes and mouth, which Dr Bode believes to be portraits of the painter's sister Lysbeth, while M. Michel considers that some of the later ones are[Pg 14] really portraits of Saskia, urging the objection that many of them were undoubtedly painted after his removal to Amsterdam, whither there is not the slightest reason to suppose that Lysbeth accompanied him, what evidence there is pointing directly to the contrary. On the other hand, M. Michel admits that the type which is known to be Saskia blends almost indistinguishably with that supposed to be Lysbeth, and offers the distinctly dubious explanation that Rembrandt was, so to speak, so imbued with the features of his sister that he unconsciously transferred them to a large extent to the girl he loved. If, however, as we may quite reasonably suppose, Rembrandt had met and
admired Saskia during his first stay in Amsterdam, and continued to do so during his after-visits, the occurrence of her features in his work would be what we ought to expect. There was, on the other hand, but a single objection to the scheme—the parting with his mother; and to such an affectionate and home-loving nature as Rembrandt's the difficulty can have been no small one. Still, a man has to do a man's work in this life. Adriaen, his brother, and Lysbeth, his sister, were there to minister to her comfort, while Amsterdam was no great distance away; and though, doubtless, it was not altogether without tears that the widowed Neeltje consented to the departure of her youngest son, the decision was taken, and the consent yielded at last. Indeed, it was inevitable that so great and, at one time, so popular an artist should, sooner or later, gravitate to the capital of his country; for, since the decay of Antwerp, Amsterdam was without a rival[Pg 15] in the world for prosperity—the head-centre of commerce, the hub of the trade-universe. Sir Thomas Overbury, in 1609, describes it as surpassing "Seville, Lisbon, or any other mart town in Christendom." Evelyn, writing in 1641, says in his diary, "that it is certainly the most busie concourse of mortalls now upon the whole earth and the most addicted to com'erce." Neither tempest nor battle could check her energy; and throughout the long desultory war from 1621 to 1648 between Spain and Holland, her traders hurried to and from the enemy's ports, supplying her even with the very munitions of war to carry on the contest; while for all this accumulated wealth there was but a limited outlet. Necessities being superabundant, it must be either hoarded or expended on luxuries, and among these pictures held high place. Quoting once more from Evelyn, we find him writing on August 13th, 1641: "We arrived late at Roterdam, where was their annual marte or faire, so furnished with pictures (especially Landskips and Drolleries, as they call those clounish representations), that I was amaz'd. Some I bought and sent into England. The reson of this store of pictures and their cheapness proceedes from their want of land to employ their stock, so that it is an ordinary thing to find a common Farmer lay out two or three thousand pounds in this comodity. Their houses are full of them, and they vend them at their faires to very great gaines." So, for a time, the Dutch painters drove a thriving trade; and as Amsterdam was by far the richest city, to Amsterdam the successful painter must needs repair.[Pg 16]
DAYS OF PROSPERITY Some time then in 1631 the die was cast, and the removal accomplished. There is reason to believe that he went at first to stay or lodge with Hendrick van Uylenborch, a dealer in pictures and other objects of art. Among his first proceedings on his arrival, was one sufficiently characteristic of him and destined to be repeated only too often in the future. He lent Hendrick money, one thousand florins, to be repayable in a year with three months' notice. Soon after, if not before, this indiscreet financial operation, as it proved later, he found the suitable residence he had meanwhile been seeking, on the Bloemgracht, a canal on the west side of the town, running north-east and south-west between the Prinsen Gracht and the Lynbaan Gracht, in a district, at that time on the extreme outskirts of the town, known as the Garden, from the floral names bestowed upon its streets and canals. Here he settled to his work, and here in a short time fortune came to him. The enthusiasm aroused by "The Anatomy Lesson," when it was finished and hung in its predestined place in the little dissecting-room or Snijkamer of the Guild of Surgeons in the Nes, near the Dam, was immediate and immense. The artist leapt at once into the front rank, and became the fashionable portrait painter of the day. From three[Pg 17] portraits, other than those of his own circle, painted in 1631, and ten in 1632, the number rose to forty between that year and 1634; or, taking all the surviving portraits between 1627 and 1631, we have forty-one, while from the five
following years, from 1632 to 1636, there are one hundred and two. Commissions, indeed, flowed in faster than he could execute them, so Houbraken assures us, and the not infrequent occurrence of a pair of portraits, husband and wife, one painted a year or more after the other, tends to confirm this; so that those who wished to be immortalised by him had often to wait their turn for months together, while all the wealth and fashion of the city flocked to the far-off studio in the outskirts, the more fortunate to give their sittings, the later comers to put down their names in anticipation of the future leisure. From the beginning, too, pupils came clamouring to his doors, Govert Flinck and Ferdinand Bol, Philips Koninck, Geerbrandt van den Eeckhout, Jan Victors, Leendeert Cornelisz, and others, eager to pay down their hundred florins a year, as Sandrart says they did, and work with and for the lion of the day. Not Fortune alone, however, with her retinue of patrons, and Fame, with her train of pupils, sought him out; Love, too, came knocking at his portal, and won a prompt admission. To the many admirable works produced at this time I shall return later, but three of those painted in 1632 call for further notice now. One is an oval picture, belonging to Herr Haro of Stockholm, representing the half-length figure of a girl in profile, facing to the left, fair-haired, and pleasant-looking rather than pretty; the second, in[Pg 18] the Museum at Stockholm, shows us the same girl in much the same position, but differently dressed; while the third, in the collection of Prince Liechtenstein at Vienna, is a less pleasing representation of her in full face, wherein the tendency to stoutness and the already developing double chin detract from the piquancy of her expression and make her look more than her actual age, which we know to have been twenty at the time that these were painted. We have heard her name casually already, in connection with the arrangements for Rembrandt's marriage, when discussing the date of his birth—for this is Saskia van Uylenborch, a cousin of his friend Hendrick, which fact may haply have had something to do with that ready loan of a thousand florins. Though poor Rembrandt, be it said, was, unhappily for him, never backward with loan or gift when he had money to give or lend. Saskia was born in 1612 at Leeuwarden, the chief town of Friesland in the north, across the Zuider Zee, and at the time when Rembrandt met her was an orphan, her mother, Sjukie Osinga, having died in 1619, and her father, Rombertus, a distinguished lawyer in his native place, in 1624. The family left behind was a large one, consisting, besides Saskia, of three brothers, two being lawyers and one a soldier, and five sisters, all married, who, as soon as the worthy Rombertus was laid to rest, seem to have begun wrangling among themselves concerning the estate; the quarrel, chiefly, as it appears, being sustained by the several brothers-in-law, and leading shortly to an appeal to law.
had settled in Amsterdam in 1610. the young people soon came to an understanding. a minister of [Pg 19]the Reformed Church. and the marriage was only deferred till Saskia came of age. Prince Frederick-Henry. in token doubtless of the kindness and hospitality which he there met with. with all his fame. to confirm. The course of true love in this case ran smoothly enough. it ripened rapidly. while Rembrandt sprang from the lower middle class. if the acquaintance began in 1631. It was possibly even fixed for some date late in 1633. and. Constantin Huygens. in 1628 or earlier.[Liechtenstein Gallery. Saskia. Rembrandt soon became a welcome visitor to the Sylvius household. indeed. as the head of the Republic was officially entitled. Vienna PORTRAIT OF SASKIA (1632) Among the less close relations was a cousin Aaltje. at that time in Holland an emblem of betrothal. in 1634. on the death of his brother Maurice." now in the collection of Prince Liechtenstein. Michel's identifications of her. and Rembrandt. was only twenty-six. he was brought into business relations with the chief personage in the land. he etched. was the Prince's Secretary. and he. 266). and with them Saskia was in the habit of coming to stay. The union. Without accepting unhesitatingly all M. who in 1625. put into her hands a sprig of rosemary. not only in portraits and studies but in subjects. who. such as that one which is known as "The Jewish Bride. Rembrandt's increasing reputation and prospects of future prosperity. no difficulties were raised by Sylvius. it may have been. was of a good family.[Pg 20] Just at this time. painting Saskia yet again. was decided on. was unexceptionable. as has been said. when Saskia would have passed her twenty-first birthday. but he had already carved out for himself a rank above all pedigrees. whose earlier enthusiasm for Rembrandt's work we have already noted. who acted as Saskia's guardian. a portrait of the good old minister (B. Probably at the house of Hendrick. Saskia was twenty. coming from Friesland. and clearly found time in the intervals of his duties to continue his acquaintance with Rembrandt. then. had succeeded to the office of Stathouder. if that had been needed. for. there is no question that she sat to him several times during the two years 1632 and 1633. The attraction was mutual. acting in that quality as intermediary in his many dealings with artists. from a worldly point of view. The wedding. It was . Where and when Rembrandt first met her we do not know. who was married to Jan Cornelis Sylvius. it is true.
Gerrit van Loo. on June 22nd. and he commemorated the advent. however. In the spring of 1634. while in the future it proved a still more serious one. The picture was bought. by painting the bringer of it in the guise of Flora. as is more probable. so his passion for her led him to shower costly gifts upon her—pearls and diamonds. for eight days later. the sunshine returned again into his life. while Sylvius. On June 10th. professor of Theology. Saskia was not. he should have found some steady practical head to regulate his household affairs and introduce some order and economy into his haphazard ways. in a letter written early in 1636 the painter informs Huygens that one of the three. a child in his business relations with the world outside its doors. and so content was the Prince with his purchase that soon afterwards he commissioned three other pictures to complete the set. he had already developed so complete a confidence that. but we cannot help. as her representative. unfortunately for him in the end. Frank and joyous. though he had possibly never set eyes on him till he went north to his wedding. as the bride's cousin. engaged to give full consent before the third asking of the banns. between Leeuwarden and the sea. was lying ill. a secretary of the government. though offering to leave it to the Prince's generosity. Rembrandt. and afterwards by the minister Rodolphe Hermansz Luinga in the Anna-kerk. who was married to Gerrit van Loo. brocades and embroideries. in the extreme north-west of Friesland. for. at Bildt. or whether. Devoted to him. in whom. The exact date of this event is unknown. Saskia once more returned to Hiskia's to make preparation for the approaching day. Such. as long as he was there. in the completion of his happiness[Pg 21]. in that it led him to further extravagances. and the very fortune that she brought with her was[Pg 23] an evil. taking therein the part of the one who had stood by him and Saskia at the altar. but it cannot have been long delayed. and some time in May. the wife of Johannes Maccovius. we do not know. This untoward occurrence put an end to the possibility of an immediate marriage. discontentedly enough. for on the fourteenth he produced the necessary documents. promised to obtain his mother's permission. as recorded by Dr Scheltema. he was duly married. he needed some firm yet tender hand to check. Impossible to drive. hot-headed and impetuous as he was. With such guarantees of continued good fortune. she died. yet easy enough to lead. still existing in the British Museum. but in the autumn she was peremptorily called away to Franeker. while Rembrandt. while Rembrandt. The period of mourning was now at an end. in the presence of Gerrit and Hiskia van Loo. to necessitate longer delay. he gave him a full power of attorney to act for him in all affairs connected with the property in . and where. not to say obstinate. says as much in a letter to Huygens. appropriately enough. even at the time." for which. and Rembrandt began to arrange the more formal business matters. exactly one month later. his lavish impulses. on July 22nd. on November the ninth. "The Descent from the Cross. a giant in his studio. probably. he went in person. she yielded in everything. a town in Friesland. nothing that could serve to adorn her was too good or too expensive. His appeal was evidently received with[Pg 22] favour. indeed. as Dr Scheltema discovered. on his part. where her sister Antje. As her love for him led her to let him do always as he would. Rembrandt. toiled through the long winter months in his studio at Amsterdam. nevertheless. "The Ascension. recklessly generous and prodigal. feeling some doubts as to whether it was altogether the best that might have been for Rembrandt. no doubt. Furthermore. Whether he merely wrote to Leyden for this. and without a thought for what the future might bring forth. when Saskia was once of age. Hiskia. She would have been as happy in plain homespun. gold-work and silver-work. but in either case he wasted no time. without seeming too much to control. first by the civil authorities. Sylvius. there was nothing." is finished and the other two half done. and his will was her law. in which he invites him to come and inspect the companion picture. but strongwilled. and lived at Sainte Anne Parrochie. and prayed at the same time that the formal preliminaries might be cut as short as possible. and it was certainly at his suggestion that the Stathouder bought "The Raising of the Cross. but to give largely was in the nature of the man." now at Munich. As far as domestic happiness depending upon their relations with one another went. and Saskia went to spend the winter with another sister. there is every reason to suppose that this union was a thoroughly successful one.probably on his recommendation that the artist had painted in 1632 the portrait of his brother Maurice. he considers two hundred livres would be a reasonable price. must needs fling himself into the family quarrels and suits-at-law.
we find his name as a purchaser at the Van Sommeren sale. and at the same time. be it said. Nor. and had become by that time a perfect mania. when at a sale he saw anything he coveted. we find Saskia revisiting Sainte Anne Parrochie. after her father. as he explained. and subsequently at the baptism of the child. In the early winter. on December 15th. was it on her account alone that he scattered money broadcast. a Florentine. a Dane. having returned meanwhile to her home. in the summer of 1635. At any rate. however. But not even in this could he attempt to be business-like. a mark of kindly feeling the more notable in that she herself was about to become a mother. thus making sure of it. Bernard Keilh. had begun to influence him even in early days at Leyden. gives many interesting details anent Rembrandt. was christened Rombertus. and among them relates that. she gave birth to a son. who. armour and curious objects. From this sudden and violent partisanship still more trouble arose in due course. paying honour to his art. for the child did not long survive its birth. there is no doubt their happiness was supreme. like all that he experienced. and thereafter he reappears again and again as buyer at various[Pg 24] auctions. in a volume published in 1686. there were as yet no threatening clouds upon the horizon. to be with Hiskia during her confinement. in the Oudekerk. Rembrandt's delight in this small person is indicated by numerous sketches of him and his mother. and if for her sake he was energetically brewing the storm that was to burst upon him later.Friesland. Baldinucci. [Dresden Gallery REMBRANDT AND SASKIA (ABOUT 1635) . On February 22nd. but the happiness. he ran it up in one bid to a wholly impossible price. engravings. casts and statues. pictures. was short-lived. The Van Uylenborch family quarrels happily did not extend to the sisters. The impulse to collect works of art. For the time. 1635. amongst whom the most amicable relations appear to have prevailed. owing largely to the fact that his championship of Gerrit was soon after justified by his winning one of the many cases brought before the court of Friesland in the course of the prolonged dispute. which he obtained at first hand from one of his later pupils.
while the worthy though conceited Coppenol. and four for 1639. The losers in the action already mentioned. though his paying 637 florins the previous year for a book of drawings and engravings by Lucas van Leyden. This unceremonious dunning. and the broadly sympathetic nature of the man. might only indicate his habitual indifference to ways and means. Several dealers in objects of art. among them being Alenson. than one at himself alone would have done. is seen in the various pursuits of these. but. a house on the borders of the Binnen-Amstel. and we find him accordingly rushing headlong into the law-courts with an action for damages against one Albert van Loo. imitators of his style were springing up. in July 1638. while Tulp probably first introduced the medical element. Since there was some delay. Fellow-painters. he announces the completion of the last two of the Stathouder's commissions. a daughter. The strongest reason for supposing that he was in some financial embarrassment is found in his correspondence[Pg 27] at the beginning of the latter year with Huygens. in the heart of the city. at some time before his marriage. Abraham Francen. Writing in January from the Suijkerbackerij. though Huygens. in the course of the year 1634 seem to have nursed an especial grudge against Saskia. already referred to. was addressed. to relieve their[Pg 26] ruffled feelings. of his second child. judging by the number known to exist—a very imperfect test it need scarcely be said—the demand for these was beginning to fall off. declaring that "he and his wife were amply. there being seven for 1636. for the[Pg 25] artist must then have been at the height of his prosperity and fame. asserting that she had "dissipated her paternal inheritance in dress and ostentation. van de Cappelle and Jan Asselyn. though by proxy." There was. however. two for 1638. even superabundantly. for the public would have no other. after his mother. of a powerful Prince. moreover. The thrust at Saskia. and Anslo. angered him more. 1638. There can be small question that he believed it to be true. had removed from the Bloemgracht to Saint Antonies Breestraat. a special reason. Bonus. 530 florins for a picture of Hero and Leander by Rubens. provided for. Ruysdael and Berchem. had . and the jeweller. Jan Lutma. and only fifteen days later he presses for immediate payment of the 1244 florins due to him. died on November 19th. probably not. Clement de Jonghe. his home-life was passed in a circle of trusted friends. not long after the birth on July 1st. With ministers he was largely acquainted. and on January 5th. that he had not sufficient grounds for action. and Deyman. His studio was freely sought by pupils. had already given orders for the discharge of the debt. was concerned.Rembrandt. Rembrandt's championship of Gerrit van Loo in the family differences began about this time to bear troublesome fruit. and those we find are chiefly landscape painters—Roghman and van der Helst. too much truth in the story to render the scandal altogether stingless. He had decided to settle himself finally. 1638. or picked up in the course of business transactions. had been spreading abroad reports reflecting on her. christened at the Oudekerk on July 22nd. on the grounds that the money would be then extremely useful to him. together with the burgomaster Six. which aided so largely in raising him to the first place among portrait painters. four for 1637. van der Linden. close to the Nieuwe Markt. as we know. We know also that at the time he was getting from five to six hundred florins for his portraits. which may have accounted for this urgent need of ready money. while even these small numbers include three of himself. and others. does not seem altogether to indicate that superabundance of which Rembrandt boasted. probably through Jan Sylvius. since the court found. were among those who remained faithful to the last." Whether he was ever called upon to prove this statement does not appear. probably. whence the letter to Huygens. apart from any financial difficulties. on February 17th. as far as Rembrandt himself. who. and again. apart from his pupils. and one believed to be his mother. Henry Swalm. Cornelia. Throughout Holland. were among his friends—Pieter de la Tombe. It is doubtful how far he could have established its truth had he been required to do so. whither he had removed at an unknown date. 1639. and by 1636 had moved once more to the Nieuwe Doelstraat. were not conspicuous among them. at least. he renewed the appeal. in October of the same year. There can be no doubt that the change was an improvement. and. but there was. brought in by Hendrick van Uylenborch.
to Rembrandt at any rate. since Ferdinand Bol was sent. unhesitatingly accepting every suggestion made by them. One birth and three deaths mark the year 1640. painted subsequent to 1631. on July 29th. Michel supposes. since we know by various portraits. That Rembrandt. London PORTRAIT OF REMBRANDT (1640) An event arising out of the consequent settlement of the estate has given rise to the suspicion that. of another daughter. that either he visited her or she him with considerable frequency. however. should have practically forgone his due. to whom he was cordially attached. but the two reasons seem somewhat inconsistent[Pg 29] with the facts. to Leeuwarden with formal authority to take possession on her behalf. his mother. now Number 68. for 13. The name. The first.000 florins. in September or October. but it is again possible to take another point of view. was the arrangement completed than he authorised his brother Willem to sell his rights for what they would fetch. Rembrandt was in difficulties. the elder child bearing that name having died in the meantime. for its second bearer did not survive a month. he seems for once to have been actually eager to pay the money. and consented to take a small annual interest which he could. [National Gallery. The business was entrusted to Adriaen and Lysbeth. the redemption of which was to be postponed indefinitely. Of the other deaths the first was that of an aunt of Saskia. even though pressed for money himself. and from whom his residence in Amsterdam had only partially separated him.purchased from one Christoffel Thysz a house in the Joden-Breestraat. its burial being recorded in the Zuiderkerk on August 25th. a far heavier blow. and by May had discharged half the cost and taken possession. and Rembrandt. Though only one quarter of this sum had to be paid within one year. This may mean. as M. The inheritance of each child amounted to 2490 florins. then at all events. and a further 1600 remained to be divided later. as she bore the same name. that he wanted the money promptly. and certainly left her some property. contented himself with a mortgage on half the mill. however[Pg 28]. for by it he lost. on August 30th. in case . who was also christened Cornelia. who was possibly also her godmother. the rest being distributed over the following five or six. The other death must have been. No sooner. seems to have been an ill-omened one. yet wished to deal tenderly with a brother who was himself by no means beforehand with the world.
Finally. by selling his claim to some stranger. The great picture. when his affairs came to be inquired into. where Rembrandt subsequently purchased the place of her sepulture. possibly never enjoyed really good health again.750 florins. Lodewyck van Ludick and Adriaen de Wees. Jan van Loo. for there are express stipulations as to any further children she might bear. than it aroused a storm of vituperative criticism. nor did Fate rest content with dealing him this single blow. Rembrandt also. having acted so. estimated that his estate at the time of Saskia's death amounted to 40. who would certainly demand the full letter of his bond. she died within the following fortnight. 1642. Death. two enamelled bracelets. at a later date. but that. it must be considered as approximately correct. stated that Saskia had two large pear-shaped pearls. is quite reconcilable with what we know of him. "The Sortie of the Company of Banning Cocq. which forms the chief ornament of the Ryksmuseum at Amsterdam. dealers both. in the course of the same year. swore that between 1640 and 1650 Rembrandt's collections. . after the birth of Titus in September of that year. Titia died at Flushing[Pg 30] on June 16th. and at nine in the morning of June 5th. Poor Saskia was not destined to enjoy much longer her plate and jewellery. he should have at once undone the good he proposed. in fact. she made her will. two diamond earrings. two rows of valuable pearls forming a necklace and bracelets. while a jeweller. was thenceforth busy. were worth 11.000 florins. and Saskia herself. and the dwindling of Rembrandt's popularity. to Hendrick van Uylenborch." was no sooner completed. At this very time he was cheerfully accepting security for considerable sums of money lent. easily forgo. with his affectionate nature and almost morbid devotion to a home-life I need not dwell. a large diamond in a ring." better known under the inaccurate title of "The Night-Watch. and various articles of plate. in addition to the original one thousand florins. which appears to have been. and. without counting the pictures. Any other evidence concerning these presumed embarrassments is certainly against them. is hard to believe.necessity arose. The reasons for this I must defer till I come to the consideration of the paintings. 1641. She was not even then without hope of recovery. and though the estimate was made under circumstances calculated to incline him to exaggerate rather than diminish the amount. having entered the family. and in later years. By the following spring she was unmistakably failing. Upon what this loss must have meant to Rembrandt. the consequence. to some extent at least. and must only note the fact here. but the pitiful irregularity of her signature at the end of the document shows how forlorn this hope was. and was buried on the 19th of June in the Oudekerk.
[Pg 32] CHAPTER IV DAYS OF DECLINE . through the consideration of Saskia's relatives. her share of the estate was left to Titus and any other children she might bear. Ostensibly. on December 19th. had to be attended to. they were made as easy for him as well might be. principal and interest. to enter into possession of the estate without any estimate of its value being recorded. unless—an important exception as we shall find—he married again. and having the consent of Hendrick van Uylenborch. and his re-marriage by no means impossible. and doubtless did all that in him lay to comfort his doubly-stricken friend. however. but she expressly stipulated that he was not to be asked to provide any inventory or guarantees to anyone whatsoever. who had long been absent. and the property. though. though Rembrandt was still to enjoy the interest for life. He. came to settle in Amsterdam. doubtless through that over-mastering distaste for business to which I have had and shall have occasion to refer so often. wished to avoid this course. first in England and subsequently in Antwerp. She particularly forbade the interference of any Chamber of Orphans. left everything practically to Rembrandt. was to all intents his own.[Dresden Gallery PORTRAIT OF SASKIA (1641) One dim ray of consolation alone seems to beam through the darkness that overshadowed him. Rembrandt alone was to have control. in order that the share which might eventually revert to Titus should be accurately known. In that case half of the joint estate at the time of her death was to be put in trust for the child or children. and now aggravated by their intimate connection with his bereavement. for Rembrandt was but six-and-thirty. in especial that at Amsterdam. Saskia. It was obvious that the making at once of an inventory of all the property in his possession was the only right course to pursue. Lievensz. by her will. In the meantime the business[Pg 31] matters so loathed by him. obtained permission from the Chamber of Orphans. indeed. confident that he would properly educate Titus and start him in life.
He had ceased. gave Rembrandt warning. Christoph Paudiss.He was then starting upon the downward course which was leading him to utter ruin. That. it undoubtedly was so. survive long. though rumours to the contrary may well have reached their ears. she repudiated her will. far to seek for a reason for her explosion of temper in 1649 if she really believed her master meant to marry her. There is not. probably not long after Saskia's death. and many more. in reference to some otherwise unimportant disturbances of the neighbourhood by a drunken man. not even the respectable Burgomaster Six. who had been engaged. her pretensions seem to have been only the delusions of her disordered brain. and that her devotion to Rembrandt was not at all events self-seeking. as her portrait. I hesitate to subscribe. In the course of the following years. and thenceforth decried her former favourite with the more ignorant dispraise because of her equally ignorant pæans in the past. 1661. as to the relations between them. needless to say. though there was too good reason for the step. As long as she lived. however. and a pleasant-looking girl enough. of course. long before this church summons. unless he married again. neglecting the relations we know her to have had and bequeathing everything she legally could to Titus. as nurse to the infant Titus. nor do Rembrandt's friends. who was always delicate. he paid the sum of 2400 florins. on October 1st. at least. through evil fortune and ill-report. there was never any concealment or shamefacedness about the matter. before the Consistory of her church. apparently. "The Circumcision" and "The Adoration of the Shepherds. for on that very same October 1st. for in 1652 she gave birth to a child which did not." the very title he himself gave to Saskia. at that time. In 1647. however. and only shows how absolutely open the arrangement[Pg 35] was. the evidence to convict her must have been overwhelming. It is true that in 1654 she was summoned. While the connection was irregular. the future made abundantly evident. Cornelis Drost. who had decreed that he was the one painter to patronise. makes clear. never got them back. 1649. moreover. she made her will. Fashion. and this.[Pg 34] we find a certain Hendrickje Stoffels. have been no doubt. It was in vain that the Stathouder continued his patronage. 1650. to all appearance. To this belief. however. unfortunately. for in the course of the next year. and forbidden to communicate. How improbable it is then that in later years she should have deliberately perjured herself on the question when. came in time to hope that she might aspire to rank as his step-mother. was strictly accurate. She was at that time three-and-twenty. no doubt whatever. indeed.750 florins. severely admonished. was inevitable from their point of view. of Ransdorp. and that pupils from all Europe sought him out. I incline to the conviction that the description of her given in a lawsuit on October 27th. . on January 24th. Michiel Willemans. she had to be removed and placed in confinement in a madhouse at Gouda. In fact. Juriaen Avens." for which. Of the subsequent relations between her and Rembrandt there can be. for which Rembrandt advanced the expenses. it must be admitted. but there are circumstances not a few that point in the same direction. and to begin with. just double what he had paid before." as the phrase goes. since. the widow of one Abraham Clæsz. It is a little difficult to understand what right they had to formulate this demand. now in the Louvre. though his productive energy was unabated. his affairs grew ever more and more involved. seem to have looked askance upon it. if it were perjury. he had. "huysfrouw. and Franz Wulfhagen. to which he replied by an affidavit denying that their relations had ever been other than those of master and servant. and brought against him the equivalent of an action for breach of promise of marriage. Saskia's relations began to be alarmed. to attract the public. she remained attached to him. Samuel van Hoogstraten. indeed. Ulric Mayr. as we know that it was buried in the Zuiderkerk on August 15th. Within two years. in Westphalia. though this in itself is not to be despised. no idea of doing. There can. A certain Geertje Dircx. giving him a commission for two pictures. as his lawful wife. the property was virtually Rembrandt's own. We have not. At any rate. Nicholas Maes. and. and. on the twenty-ninth of September 1646. shook her fickle wings and flew off to others. It was in vain that the rising artists could not fail to perceive his transcendent merits. according to the will. giving evidence on Rembrandt's behalf. she is generally believed to have never asked or expected him to "make an honest woman of her. Bernard Keilh. somewhat tardily. another particle of direct evidence that it was so. Carel Fabritius. 1648. demanding that the valuation of the property at the date of her death should be ascertained without delay.[Pg 33] and Rembrandt replied that to the best of his belief it had been 40.
which was to be considered the equivalent of 400 florins. in a style not less finished than that of Six. claim any very subtle delicacy of taste for Rembrandt. I fear. but it seems more than strange that he should have given to an illegitimate child the name which had been borne by his mother and by two luckless infants of the dead Saskia. under whom he had been studying. and it seems quite incredible that the creditors should have been ignorant of. in which year Rembrandt took a second step on his road to bankruptcy by ceasing to pay either instalments of the sum remaining due for the house. By 1653 Rembrandt seems to have finally abandoned himself to the current which was drifting him so rapidly to wreck. however. on March 14th. or from his collection. if he had not married someone. in itself a somewhat significant circumstance. on leaving the studio of Backer. Rembrandt obtained the 1000 florins. Deyman the doctor. through François de Koster.[Pg 38] It was in vain that his friends seem to have developed a perfect mania for being etched or painted by him—Six and Tholinx. there can be no doubt that it was to the true and faithful Hendrickje. and. I venture to conjecture that we may still hope to hear some day of the discovery of proof that some time. or should have failed to produce. it appertained not to his race or time. and furthermore? to etch a portrait. For the remaining 3000 florins Rembrandt was to deliver pictures and etchings of that value. was able to establish. We cannot. With this temporary relief he in part paid off Thysz. if so. and for this amount the creditor obtained a mortgage on the house. after hesitating for awhile as to whether he should turn to Rembrandt or Van Dyck for further instruction. in fact. doubtless a smaller one. and three days later. his brother Adriaen had so managed to misconduct the . so wholly out of favour was Rembrandt's art deemed to be. but 1170 florins still remained to be paid. the half of the property at the time of Saskia's death three-and-twenty years before? Unless Rembrandt had married again[Pg 36] Titus would appear to have had no shadow of a claim to principal or interest. a young artist. to recover some of the large sums of money that must have been owing to him. and after trying. in the state of Rembrandt's affairs. Rembrandt. I have. and October when the child was baptised. a collector of works of art. Rembrandt. valued by Abraham Francen and van Ludick at over 3000 florins. Cornelia. the two Harings. that Jan de Baer. father and son—neither loans nor earnings could for long stave off the evil day. presuming that. At some time between 1650 and 1652 the pearl necklace which appears in so many of the pictures was sold to Philips Koninck. on February 1st. it is obvious that Rembrandt must have remarried. then in bankruptcy. chose the latter. He was professedly to sell him another. the large house in the Breestraat could only be an encumbrance to him. demanded that the title-deeds should be delivered to him first. The end was now drawing near. On January 29th he borrowed 4180 florins from Cornelis Witsen on the hopeless undertaking to repay it in a year. the guardian of Titus. but.375 florins. a second daughter was born. the secretary of Count Brederode of Vianen. however. been led to anticipate too far in the attempt to make this reasoning clear. before the Grand Council. probably between July when she was rebuked. for 4000 florins.In October 1654. How far this elaborate transaction was carried out is uncertain. Since Titus' claim was allowed. because his style was most durable. so important a piece of evidence in their favour. yet the case was fought out to the bitter end. his long-suffering landlord Thysz entered a claim for 8470 florins still owing to him. Taking all these facts together. with[Pg 37] a sharpness due probably rather to his lawyer than to himself. proposed to relieve him of it by a sufficiently curious arrangement. how came it that in 1665 Louis Crayers. of Dirck's brother Otto. As if ill-luck dogged the family. and was christened on October 30th. Indeed. Then. also repayable in a year. and must return to 1649. or even the interest upon it. apparently in vain. but we hear no more of the house or the portrait. was duly married to her. moved perhaps by the public disgrace of the girl once more about to become the mother of his child. his claim on behalf of his ward against Rembrandt's estate. was made to avert the crash. and handed over pictures and etchings of his own. for 20. he was to give Rembrandt the house and 1000 florins in cash. he borrowed a further 4200 florins from Isaac van Heertsbeeck. A certain Dirck van Cattenburch. Indications of the approaching disaster now follow thick and fast. One more effort. In 1651. he obtained from Six yet another loan on the guarantee of Ludowyck van Ludick.
Michel concludes. On May 17th. the house in the Breestraat was sold to one Pieter Wiebrantsz. in spite of the protests of Louis Crayers. Abraham Wilmerdonx. but. had to come to their assistance. and all that Titus possessed was left to Hendrickje and her daughter Cornelia in trust for him. two of whom were children. On December 25th. on condition that he did not employ it to pay his debts. The wheels of the law. and the commissioners authorised Thomas Jacobsz Haring. from the pictures in the studio to the saucepans in the kitchen. Rembrandt moved to the Crown Imperial Inn. a complete description of every room in the house. who had by then replaced Verbout as guardian of Titus. but want of space forbids any extended extracts from it here. that the end was hastened. and is full of interest. The other creditors. for 13. 1658. that they certainly did not. the unfortunate artist transferred his rights in the house to his son.business of the mill that he and the sister Lysbeth were also on the verge of ruin. taking advantage of Rembrandt's afore-mentioned failure to make an inventory at the time. the little family appears to have been a united and contented one. Soon afterwards he was formally declared bankrupt. from the fact that Rembrandt's daily expenses. The whole of the interest. the commissioners ordered the repayment to Witsen and van Heertsbeeck of the money they had lent. director of the East India Company. Rembrandt continued for some time to dwell in the house. more than eight times that amount might surely have sufficed for four people. In the meantime. and on July 25th and the following day an inventory was made "of paintings. a mason. M. many of them happy. The law seems to have moved slower in those days even than in these. furniture. the home in which he had passed eighteen years. and there are certain other arrangements of less importance concerning the disposal of the property on Cornelia's decease. were three or four florins. apart from the business worries. Several of these statements have already been referred to in this narrative. ground evenly and small. "upon compulsion. and. but for some reason the bargain was not completed. for him to put it to. on February 1st." The remainder was to go to Cornelia on her marriage or coming of age. and on the same day. as if to smooth over the slur upon his father's improvidence. which ran southwards from the Dam. in the midst of his own troubles. and rectified on November 22nd. Nevertheless. at the request of Henricus Torquinius. 20. Jan Pietersz. How united we discover from the will that Titus made on October 20th. and domestic utensils connected with the failure of Rembrandt van Rijn. or prices paid to. By that time Rembrandt's utter[Pg 39] incapacity for business was probably recognised even by himself. Whether Hendrickje. and a cloud of witnesses was summoned to give such evidence as they could concerning the possessions of the pair at the time that Saskia died. 1656. and. the sale of Rembrandt's property began in the very house where he was lodging. as it does." The inventory still exists. an officer of the Court. 1657. asserted his prior claim on the estate to the extent. in addition. a draper. to sell the effects of the bankrupt by auction. once started. protested loudly that the demand was much exaggerated. the official who had charge of the business. 1658. was to go to Hendrickje and Cornelia. according to Rembrandt's own estimate in 1647. and Cornelia went with him we do not know. the bankrupt in former years. but if the already-mentioned provision of 125[Pg 40] florins a year was considered sufficient support for the crippled brother. formerly living in the Breestraat near the lock of St Anthony. one Jan Verbout was appointed guardian to Titus in the place of Rembrandt. and a second purchaser came forward with an offer of . as such. it is to be feared. like Falstaff. Titus. but only a small portion of the goods was then sold. was his no more. and others. gave testimony as to property owned by. a handsome and commodious house. kept by one Schumann in the Kalverstraat. before the Chamber of Orphans. The worst had befallen. included in the records of the case.600[Pg 41] florins. Hendrick van Uylenborch. a most unlikely use. which had at one time been the Municipal Orphanage. A month later the law at last gave forth its pronouncement. The little family was temporarily broken up. in the event of Rembrandt's death. On January 30th. Small wonder.375 florins. and was then the customary place for holding auctions. giving. and all full of industry. The heirs of Christoffel Thysz were also paid. then. and Rembrandt. he provided that Rembrandt might draw a certain share. except. Nicholas van Cunysbergen.
[Pg 44] in spite of its being a Sunday. however. and how minutely finished had been much of his work. perhaps. As far as we know. and. to have been doubts as to his ability to pay. and Titus. the pictures. and in return should have board. and that would in all probability be a symptom of the same misfortune. from his proved incompetency for business. painted for them a large picture of the conspiracy of Claudius Civilis. in case of her death. but they certainly go to create a probability. 1661. who was a dyer as well as a painter. was allowed no share whatever in the profits. it was necessary that Hendrickje. In 1660. There appear. he was invited to carry on the work. Lieven Simonsz. It served. for example. of the portraits painted from that time onwards.218 florins. nor can we regard the supposition that the overstrained nerves were giving way at last as in any way unlikely when we reflect how incessantly Rembrandt had worked his eyesight. some even enormously. we get another glimpse of the law proceedings when Heertsbeeck was ordered to pay back the 4200 florins which the Court had formerly awarded him. Govert Flinck. be considered as furnishing absolute proof. That she recovered at that time we know from her . should have aid and assistance in the venture. larger than life. and each was to be entitled to a half share of the stock. in a house opposite a pleasure garden called the Doolhof. for Dr Bredius has gathered together a mass of evidence to show that a large proportion of the art-dealers in Amsterdam at that period came to disastrous financial ends. as was but right. As. It was. however. but on this occasion. but it is not wonderful that the creditors. but with the stipulation that. though Witsen was allowed to retain[Pg 42] his 4180. These two facts cannot. it became necessary to find someone to take his place. apparently proved too strong. Michel suspected that this might have been due to failing sight. 1660. in September. With all proper circumstance. all her property to Cornelia. Rembrandt. for it was probably van de Cappelle. though his father was to enjoy the income as long as he lived. It is pleasant to find that. engravings.000. partly. legalising an association between them. partly. he never executed any etchings after 1661. for the purpose of dealing in pictures. at any rate. It would be but one more burden of distress laid upon those heavily-laden shoulders. possibly through the efforts of his old friend Tulp. remain there long. were conspicuously. to keep out of the clutches of the creditors. A study. On December 15th of the same year Hendrickje made a final effort to restore to some extent the prosperity of the household. that. Rembrandt had never been much in favour with the town authorities. moreover. and as no one was more capable of giving this than Rembrandt. in all this tribulation. bringing in the ridiculous sum of 5000 florins. On August 7th. she made her will. should have been fierce in their protests. Titus was to inherit. who procured for him the commission to paint "The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild. many of which were undoubtedly executed by artificial light. many of his old friends still stood by him and endeavoured to help him to commissions. especially among the etchings. Finally. who saw all chances of their getting anything further vanishing into thin air. and M. who was not yet of age. Both he and she contributed everything that they possessed to a common fund. Probably not too well. having died. On May 5th. and certain allowances. no doubt. In truth. and the wolf from the door. this time in the Rozengracht. By this time there is some reason for supposing that yet another trouble was coming upon Rembrandt. engravings. Michel has conclusively shown. who had been treasurer in 1658 and 1659. and all the possessions that Rembrandt had collected with such loving care and at so great a cost were scattered to the four winds. at any rate. who knew nothing of such matters. as judicious an arrangement as could be made for Rembrandt's sake. to keep a roof over their heads. for it seems doubtful if the picture was ever seen in the place it was intended for. perhaps. who was engaged on the decoration of the Grand Gallery in the Town Hall. In 1661. and curiosities. The opposition. if not actually all. How far the association prospered we do not know.12. the story of the few remaining years is but a record of stroke after stroke. for 11. however. It did not. an old friend again came to his support. and other objects of art were sold by auction. informally established two years before. as M.[Pg 43] for we find them again settled down. and it was finally transferred to a shoemaker. the faithful Hendrickje was so seriously ill. lodging. of course. it was provided that he should make himself as useful as possible in furthering the interests of the firm. she entered on that day into partnership with Titus. reveals the fact that a large majority of them. leaving." which he so splendidly achieved. after his day's painting was ended.
conclude. conjectures that he was at that time under the necessity of providing for the burial of Hendrickje in the Westerkerk. no portrait of her known to have been painted after 1662. Michel believes. who had evidently not complied with the previous order of the Court in 1660. and then only indirectly. and that the sale was a sheer necessity. and the conjecture that she died that year is at least a plausible one. [Louvre. a reason for supposing it to have occurred in the autumn of 1662. from the scarcity of his works during these last years. and possibly general health. van Heertsbeeck's protracted struggle came to an end. we hear of the last pupil coming to Rembrandt. into the life of the poor broken old man. It was. whose youthful enthusiasm may have brought some brightness. for. On October 27th in that year Rembrandt sold the vault he had purchased in the Oudekerk. the echoes of the law courts still rumbled in his ears. Rembrandt had by then so completely dropped out of public ken. that we only get dim and fleeting glimpses of him. we hear of him moving to the Lauriergracht. On June 19th. were getting ever worse. a request which must have been connected with a foreknowledge of . Aert de Gelder. on December 22nd. we hear of her no more. which was no longer his parish church. at any rate. In 1664. in seeking an explanation. nevertheless. for. but the recovery must have been only temporary. an odd thing to do. Isaac Van Heertsbeeck. however. and again appealed. after this last appearance. that his eyes. M. 1665. so that he might be legally considered of years of discretion before the actual arrival of his twenty-fifth birthday. still farther to the south-east. perhaps. There is. Meanwhile. was[Pg 45] again commanded to refund the 4200 florins. On January 27th. we may hope. We may. Michel. since poor little Saskia lay there. and it is not until affairs draw him from seclusion that we learn more of him. as a witness in the case of the drunken man already referred to. however.appearance on October 27th. There is. and M. though we do not know the exact date of her death. Paris PORTRAIT OF HENDRICKJE STOFFELS (ABOUT 1652) In the course of the same year. and the Grand Council decided that by June 20th the money must be repaid. Rembrandt and Titus appealed to the law to anticipate the coming of age of the latter.
until. in favour of Louis Crayers. a poet who wrote eulogistic verses on the painter. 1669. in the grave. however. Of the next two years we know nothing. 8 October. downward path has ended. London PORTRAIT OF REMBRANDT (ABOUT 1664) .375 florins were allowed. [National Gallery. but when. "Tuesday. at the cost of thirteen florins. Leaves two children. Rembrandt stood by while the only grandchild he was to see was christened Titia. some years back. The note of merriment was. was opened. too quickly changed for one of dolour. at the foot of a staircase leading up to a pulpit on a pillar on the left-hand side as you go up the church. we learn that the long. and then again comes silence. as we learn from the record of his burial in the Westerkerk. opposite the Doolhof. that neither the man[Pg 46] nor the artist was entirely neglected. This meant that the rights of Titus to the full amount of his mother's fortune of 20. The first sounds that come again to us out of the darkness are those of wedding bells on the occasion of the marriage of Titus with his cousin Magdalena. but only 6952 florins remained. 1668. In March 1669. for ere the year was out Titus was dead.the decision delivered the next day. on November 5th. and of this. and. on September 4th." He was buried. the widowed Magdalena gave birth to a daughter. a coffin. We catch thereafter some murmurs of that business which he so hated. painter. not a trace of his ashes was to be found. on the Rozengracht. supposed to have been his. Rembrandt van Rijn. where all paths end. but it was something. in connection with the settlement of the respective shares which the little Titia and Cornelia were to draw from the remainder of the old association between their respective parents. slow. except that we learn from a portrait of Jeremias de Decker. It was but a scanty fraction of what he should have had. from an entry in the Doelboek. the registry of deaths in the Westerkerk. whose quarrel with Rembrandt years before had clearly been forgotten. June 20th. the daughter of Cornelia van Uylenborch and of Albert van Loo. and the little windfall may have had some part in the return of the family to the Rozengracht. Titus was authorised to take possession in his own name. on the twenty-second of that month.
and Titia to have had a happy home. three children. in the heart of her native town.[Pg 47] The subsequent history of the family may be briefly sketched." is in the Museum at Stuttgart [No. and beside them a dozen or so of coins. 1686. 1627.[Pg 48] [Pg 48] REMBRANDT THE PAINTER CHAPTER V EARLY YEARS (1627-1633) Of the blank spaces in the record of Rembrandt's career. and again on April 15th. acting on behalf of Cornelia. and below the down stroke. seated at a table. in the town of Batavia. and we can be sure of nothing until we come to the first known pictures signed by him. consisting of his full name.H. Lifting a candle in his left hand. It represents a wrinkled old man. surrounded by books. a smaller L. The work. C. and are heaped up in the background.[Pg 49] "St Paul in Prison. 1678. and he would have been an acute critic who could have foretold from it the lofty height to which the painter of it was to soar. It represents the saint seated in a straw-strewn dungeon. acting on behalf of the baby Titia. he throws the light of it upon a piece of money. Abraham Francen. and Christian Dusart. also named François. 1673. she married his son. one in 1695. his daughter-in-law Magdalena was also dead. 225]. for. 1725. Within a fortnight of Rembrandt's death. though promising. R. with one of the ever-varying forms of his signature. crossing the tail of the R. François would seem to have been a kindly guardian. much the same defects of timid execution as the last. leaving a fourth child. A pair of scales are in front of him. and on his left. on June 16th. named Hendrick. resting on a thick volume.. the other. on October 13th. the second an elaborate R followed by f. which Dr Bode suggests stands for Leydensis. one on December 5th. Papers and account books lie around him. and dated 1627. and underneath fecit. where. We will take first the picture discovered by Sir J. and presented by him to the Berlin Gallery. the old and faithful friend. combined in a monogram. Robinson about twenty years ago. who only survived her three years. Cornelia married a man named Suythoff. a jeweller. It is signed. their respective portions of the small inheritance. The other picture known to belong to this first year. and herself died November 22nd. stands a fat purse. called Rembrandt. Here she bore. she gave birth to two sons. with one of his curious mis-spellings. is in no way startling. and with him travelled to Java. and one in 1698. on July 14th. Here the track breaks off abruptly. Rembrand. with the sword that symbolises him. and presents much the same merits of close observation. followed by the date 1627. at the church of Slooten. The signature in this case is a double one: the first. . lighted by a single beam of sunlight. On the 16th and 18th of March. none is so long or so inexplicable as that which begins with his return from Amsterdam to Leyden in 1624. living in the KloveniersBurgwal. settled with François van Bylert. and buried also in the Westerkirk. meditating before writing. one in 1688.
presenting one of those effects of contrasted light and shade which he so loved that pseudoart slang has nicknamed them of late years Rembrandt effects. 1248]. he makes no attempt to invent the scene as it ought to have looked.L. Two are in the Mauritshuis at the Hague. as elsewhere. and a marked advance on all that he had done before. small as it is.H. the R." at Hinton St George. Dr Bredius. though at times it led him over the border of the simple into the absolutely ludicrous. and a long aquiline nose. but there are eleven others believed to have been painted about that time. of the other. Michel to be the identical picture to which Constantin Huygens referred in that eulogy which has been mentioned in the painter's life. It is a study of little more than the head." "A Head of a Boy. The shadows are a little dark. though bearing a forged signature and the impossible date 1641. with the date 1628. There is only one picture bearing the date 1629. into the thenceforth frequent combination R. he knew. of the one." all painted about that time. is a not too successful first attempt at a composition of several figures. but is there no longer. and he will not bate a jot of their terrors. 565]. completes the list. 591]. 181]. standing by a fire in a courtyard. at Stockholm [No. the contrasts are a little forced." painted on copper. but not . 208]. a "Portrait of a Boy." which was lent for a time to the Ryksmuseum at Amsterdam. 598] is supposed to be his elder brother Adriaen. A "Raising of Lazurus. the frankness of the handling so certain that. we find an instance of his habit of painting in accessories because they were picturesque and available. p. but it is of interest to the student as showing the sternly practical bent of Rembrandt's imagination. and here we find for the first time that blending of the features of the two earlier monograms." and a "St Peter. 6)." called Rembrandt's sister Lysbeth. is in the possession of Herr Karl von der Heydt of Elberfeld. resolute piece of work.H. One of them advances in fear and trembling. painted about that time." at Berlin. In the Cassel picture. were afraid of Samson. and M. a small "Portrait of Himself." at Cassel [No. in the Malay kriss thrust into Samson's belt.Three other pictures. "A Study of Himself.. the courage of the work are so remarkable that it is difficult to believe that it is of the same period as the previous pictures. The same features occur frequently in the earlier pictures and etchings. Here. quite regardless of their appropriateness. The other picture at the Hague [No. is considered by M. all undated. the intense craving for a strictly probable conception of the scene which. "Samson captured by the Philistines. with the L. It is that of a man with a[Pg 52] short peaked beard and grey moustaches martially brushed up. The second picture. and closely observed by soldiers[Pg 51] and servants. the breadth and vigour of treatment. showing a little more of the figure. signed R.H. the painter's father." at Gotha [No. but the power displayed is so great. more often gives that wonderfully impressive vitality and depth of feeling to his pictures. he aims not at all at heroic attitudes and over-dramatic effect. Here." in the collection of Mr Yerkes in New York. but probably by another hand. but endeavours to realise how it did look. 1628. while the other hides unequivocally behind the bed-curtains. There are three other "Portraits of Himself. carefully keeping Delilah between himself and the object of his dread. bearing the same monogram and date." "A Young Man Laughing. and a "Portrait of his Mother. Michel has made out a very good case for their being those of Harmen Gerritsz. one of which is believed by its possessor. 148] is a strong. A "Judas with the Price of the Betrayal. the little study has all the appearance of a life-sized picture.[Pg 50] There are again two pictures dated in the following year. especially in a photograph. attributed to Rembrandt." Seven other pictures are attributed to about that date. also." in the collection of Baron Arthur de Schickler of Paris." one lent by Dr Bredius to the Museum at the Hague [No. are attributed to this year or the next. two portraits supposed to be "The Painter's Father. which Dr Bode not unreasonably believes to represent "The Denial of St Peter. the other in the Museum at Nantes. wanting the true gradations. and a doubtful one of "A Young Girl. to be a "Portrait of Rembrandt's Mother" (see illustration. The Philistines. The first. A "Bust of Himself" [No. showing a man in full armour. There are also a copy of this. a "Philosopher reading by Candle-light. but of more importance are two small subject-pictures. There is less doubt about a portrait in the Ryksmuseum at Amsterdam [No.
it is signed. "Christ at Emmaus. with the full name Rembrandt however. the secondary softer illumination. but not dated. belonging to the Earl of Pembroke. and two which. his silhouette sharply cut against the radiance. is signed R." may be mentioned. from which the inhabitants are hurriedly escaping. Here. It represents an old man seated in a cave. There are eleven. have been painted before his removal." signed R. though bearing neither date nor signature. his change of residence. "The Countess of Desmond. in the Ferdinandeum at Innsbruck. Like the last. so frequently introduced in similar effects by Rembrandt. Beside him lie a cloth embroidered with gold. signed R. and begins to feel that he can do it. 1630. the source of the light is hidden. 1631. if M. his own.H. The other is "The Presentation in the Temple. is a sketch. at Hamburg. Of the others we know nothing that points either way. and the title of "A Philosopher in Meditation. which after. in the Six collection.H. of an unknown "Old Man" [No. in the background. Amsterdam." is probably his father. in the collection of Count Stroganoff. with the splendid freedom of later years. a bust of "A Young Girl. 209]." in the possession of Madame André-Jacquemart of Paris. alone.L." the brother of the painter's admirer Constantin. and one. A "Bust of his Father. Rembrandt was now beginning to find himself. not indeed. but with an assured confidence.[Pg 54] but known. at Cassel. refer to this growing confidence in himself the great increase in the number of pictures signed that year. as in most cases. The commissions that finally necessitated his establishment in Amsterdam showed him also. at Rotterdam [No. is the earliest example of that presentment of a group of figures lighted by artificial light. though called "Philon the Jew. on the further side of the table. the property of Mr Fleischmann. a reproduction of the "Portrait of his Father.L. are believed to have been painted about that time.. of "Joseph interpreting his Dreams. in front of which Christ is seated. 237]." signed with the full name Rembrandt. and one. is provided by the glow of firelight on two women engaged in cooking. is signed with the monogram R.L. and we may. The other. Six out of the seventeen pictures attributed to 1630[Pg 53] or thereabouts are signed and dated. as it stands on a table. bearing both date and signature. but undated. lifts up his hands in amazement. and lent by him to the Hague Museum. on the right of the picture. various gold vessels. as yet. broadly but expressively handled. He knows what he wants to do. that other people appreciated the fact." in the collection of Consul Weber at Hamburg. nor can we say with any certainty which pictures of that year were painted before. Four of these are portraits: one. What it is intended to represent is an unsolved riddle. The dry precision. The "Young Man with the Turban. Michel is justified in his belief that it is a portrait of Gerard Dou. his later complete grasp of subtle transitions being still imperfectly developed. one. His hand moves easily about its appointed task. . and other objects of value. 1630. is of doubtful import. we may suppose." the property of Dr Bredius. and the effect is to some extent marred by the harshness of the contrasts of light and shade. One of the two subject-pictures. in the collection of Count Andrassy at Buda-Pesth." at Windsor." though convenient to identify it by. must also. was probably among the former. resting his head upon his right hand. and another "Portrait of an Old Woman" resembling somewhat in features the picture at Wilton. while a different portrait of the same. perhaps. On the left.dated. for some mysterious reason as.H. The second. seated in the centre. The remaining eleven pictures are studies or portraits. in profile to the left. presumably. the timid carefulness have disappeared. two signed. but is not dated. to which Rembrandt was so partial. has not otherwise much significance. of which the old woman. At what time in 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam we have no means of judging. of "Maurice Huygens. In the distance is seen a town in flames. while his left rests on a large book. At his feet one of the disciples kneels. 814]. one." in the Hermitage at St Petersburg [No.
145]. from which circumstance the picture has obtained the name of "The Prophetess Anna". The number of pictures known or believed to belong to each of the four preceding years. one is a copy. alone. This is signed with the initials R. on which lie pieces of armour." in the Hermitage at St Petersburg [No. but seven others bear the three. is an example of a propensity. taking the average of each period.H. a book. when he was new to Amsterdam. twenty-six. are.]. 828C.. gaming for her the fanciful titles "Judith" or "Minerva. twelve.H. Of the last class. Paris. and reading.[Hermitage. the other is a small figure of "Diana Bathing. R. The same over-marked arrangement. . 579]. in succession. the second. seated by a table. Of the two undated pictures. 1632. and twenty-seven. in the Museum at Stockholm [No. very nearly thirty. a young woman in a rich dress." bears yet another version of the painter's name. wearing a semi-oriental dress. to a far less degree. a picture of a man reading. and twenty. Warneck." in the Ryksmuseum. nine. formerly in the Beresford-Hope collection. A "Holy Family. Petersburg PORTRAIT CALLED COPPENOL (1631) Of the first class. 234]. we find that the first would give a little more than eleven pictures per annum. at Oldenburg [No. thirty. said to be his mother. including the portrait of Gerard Dou. while other arms. forty-two. respectively. or." at Munich [No. to over-compose his pictures." at the Hague [No." long called "Coppenol. is also observable in the pyramidal group in the otherwise splendid "Presentation in the Temple. "Zachariah receiving the Prophecy of the Birth of John the Baptist. hang on the wall above her. known as "St Anastasius. though. a portrait. already mentioned. 166]. Albert Lehmann. Rembrandt[Pg 56] increased his annual production marvellously. decorated with a gorgon's head. and the "Portrait of a Merchant. so that it reads [Pg 55]Rembrant. signed Rembrandt. the numbers for the four succeeding years are. four." in the collection of M. 808]. was a year of extraordinary energy. of the "Portrait of his Father. which he never thoroughly shook off. St." has only vague traces of the initial R. bears the full name Rembrandt. Paris. Once satisfactorily established in Amsterdam. and a lute. The mysterious figure at Berlin [No.L. interlaced." in the collection of M. the d being absent in this case. in especial. including a shield.
[Imperial Museum. Vienna PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN (1630-1632) . Vienna PORTRAIT OF A MAN (1630-1632) [Imperial Museum.
Twelve others represent actually or conjecturally known individuals. with van Rijn added. is undoubtedly "Martin Looten. 232]. in three of which the d is missing. van Rijn." his wife. and another pair. if. indeed. while one has the plain initial R." at Buckingham Palace. to represent "Dr Tulp. There are obvious signs that the hand that could already move with such courage and freedom. in the collection of M. is signed Rembrandt H. believed. fantastically called "Grotius. one. There is also a portrait at Brunswick [Pg 57][No. while.L. Paris. in the Imperial Museum. alone bearing the date. when so much was at stake. yet still note a surprising variety in the form the signature takes. but the life and expression in the various heads is. so excellent. the success or failure of which could scarcely help having a marked influence on his future career."[Pg 58] I have left to the last. The other four include the two of "Saskia. The result is a little stiff in consequence. Thirty-four of the pictures are portraits. and all but two of these are also dated. In producing this. is "The Good Samaritan". and her Daughter. Portraits again took up much of his time in 1633. 823]. a vast increase in the number of signed pictures. and two men. in Frankfort [No. among them the two companions to the portraits of the year before. and "Margaretha van Bilderbeecq. even in that busy year. One." and "Suzanna van Collen. 183]. 212] almost certainly represents "Coppenol. partial at least. The painter's masterpiece. as is probable. was hampered by a return. which is also one of a pair. we cannot but perceive. was not altogether at his ease. with his son Caspar. the portraits of "Christian Paul van Beersteyn. and ten others have the same." the companion of which was painted next year." and one. a certain "Joris de Caulery. He was so anxious to do his best that the spontaneity. with. escaped in the process. though the picture of the wife was not painted until two years later.We find also. with good reason. they represent the painter's father." a merchant of Amsterdam. the great work of that year. and six of them form pairs representing husband and wife— namely. One." his wife. the addition van Rijn. 182]. R. 1557]. moreover." and "Volkera Nicolai Knobbert." and an admirable picture in Captain Holford's collection." formerly in the collection of the Princess de Sagan. but two of these. the Caligraphist. though these four are only believed to belong to that year. the famous "Anatomy Lesson. when the mere satisfying of himself was in question. in matrimonial groups. Rembrandt. and nine are signed with the full name. that he only found time for three small figure subjects. One at Cassel [No. forming a sort of transition with the other group. represents "Pluto in his Chariot carrying off Proserpine. he found time once to paint his own portrait.L. to his earlier timidity. his Wife. in the possession of Mr Havemeyer of New York." already mentioned in the Life. and a third. . one said to be "Matthys Kalkoen. that it is impossible to regard it without delight and admiration. Vienna." in the Wallace collection. Nine of them bear the monogram. two as his sister. however. conspicuous in most of his work." So engaged was he on portraiture." at Dresden [No. while the third at Frankfort [No.H. "Willem Burchgraeff. is the "Shipbuilder and his Wife. is a somewhat indifferent rendering of "David playing the Harp before Saul. Pereire. they were painted that year. and the work somewhat dry and frigid. of a man. another. No less than thirty are signed. in the Wallace collection. for none is dated.." at the Hague. must have been painted earlier. whose wife was also not painted till the following year. for the first time. two as his mother. the second at Berlin [No. the largest and most ambitious work he had yet attempted. nevertheless. an unknown Man and his Wife. at the same time. if." quite the most successful of Rembrandt's rare appeals to classical mythology for inspiration. as would also be the case with four others more doubtfully described. "Burgomaster Jan Pellicorne.
" in the collection of Prince Jousoupoff. 213]. "Lysbeth van Rijn. the oval portrait in the Louvre [No. two of "Saskia"—one at Dresden [No. and from only one of these. . 412].H. the other eleven being signed with the full name. "A Head of a Girl. Warneck at Paris. one. including one of "Jan Herman Krul. only one is the monogram R.[The Hague THE ANATOMY LESSON (1632) [Cassel PORTRAIT OF JAN HERMAN KRUL (1633) There are thirteen other signed portraits of that year.. 1556]. called however." which belonged to the late Baroness Hirsch-Gereuth—and two of himself. Out of these [Pg 59]twelve signatures. one. and the other in the collection of M." at Cassel [No. is the d missing.L.
and only "The Descent from the Cross" is inscribed with what appears to be C." There is. without troubling a jot as to the minor detail of correct costume. but by the fact that he repeated it on a larger scale during the following year. a very delicate sentiment of pathos in it. in the Louvre. in the first. 327]. 2541]. 1631. indeed. "The Elevation of the Cross" [No. The last. Yet so curiously capricious was he in adding or withholding date and signature that neither has a date. seems to be Rembrandt's self. wearing a doublet and soft flat cap. Rlembrant f. So. to get the true and expressive actions of his personages. in later years." belonging to M. with the tense figure wrung with anguish. nevertheless. van Rijn. "The Descent from the Cross" [No. may almost certainly be attributed to that year. which we found in "The Presentation in the Temple. while the centurion on horseback superintending the carrying out of the sentence is a frank Turk as to his headgear. But the great event of the year must have been the patronage which came to him from Prince Frederick-Henry. Glasgow. a nondescript for the rest of him. being too obviously built up into that high pyramidal form. slants right athwart the picture. while displaying many of the same qualities. to concentrate his light upon the chief figure. and another. another "Philosopher in Meditation. 326]. a small picture described as "Petitioners to a Biblical Prince. and that Rembrandt himself was content with it. resulting in the purchase of two pictures. "An Entombment. merits and defects alike. [Munich Gallery THE ELEVATION OF THE CROSS (1633) . In both we see Rembrandt at his most characteristic—his determination to tell his story clearly. 2540]. suffers indeed from that over-composition already noticed. The other. not even yet free of some exaggeration. were transferred to Munich. since its companion. in all probability." in the Hunterian Museum. the cross. and "A Philosopher in Meditation" [No.Three subject-pictures also belong to that year. so a soldier wears a more or less[Pg 60] classical helmet and breastplate over a sleeved doublet unknown to Rome. though undated. is more deliberately composed. Léon Bonnat of Paris. is signed R. after passing to the gallery at Düsseldorf." also in the Louvre [No. and stands out against the murky sky and dim surrounding crowds with startling incisiveness. the keynote of his theme. a man behind is dressed in the peasant's ordinary garb of Rembrandt's day. both of which. is shown not only by his correspondence with Huygens on the subject. So the four men occupied in raising it display an almost passionate energy.
" in the collection of Duc d'Arenberg at Brussels. without any immediate purchaser in prospect. at Cassel [No." belonging to the executors of the late Sir F. belonging to Baron Gustave de Rothschild." and two other pairs. bear only the most general resemblance to him. bears no date. he had leisure enough to paint this large picture." in the Wallace collection. has been called both "Queen Artemisia receiving the Ashes of Mausolus" and "Cleopatra at her Toilet. 1559]. to Malmaison. and one in a helmet. and "The Minister Alenson" and "His Wife." One at the Louvre [No. and one now in America." both signed Rembrandt. The one at Dresden [No. long known as "The Burgomaster Pancras and his Wife. no less than seven of them are. and the "Old Lady. Among the portraits are the pair to the one of "Dr Tulp. 800]." his wife. at Buckingham Palace. which. Schloss. and. however. contains. The other. also in the Hermitage [No. There are only two "Portraits of Himself" dated 1635. in the Prado at Madrid [No." There is also a doubtful "Tobias restoring his Father's Sight. must also be regarded as dubious. 1544]. 775]. Lastly. and two at Berlin [Nos." but there are two others attributed to about that time. and a third at Cassel [No." would seem to be. and one of "Saskia. portraits of the painter and his wife (see illustration.[Pg 61] CHAPTER VI TIME OF PROSPERITY (1634-1642) At the one hundred and twenty-nine pictures produced during the succeeding nine years I can only glance hastily. is "The Incredulity of St Thomas. A second. are unmistakably so. but the "Portrait of Rembrandt as an Officer. a "Portrait of Himself in a Cuirass. A replica of "The Descent from the Cross. whence it passed to the Hermitage [No. "Martin Daey" and "Machteld van Doorn. a companion to a "Portrait of Saskia. and it remained in fact on his hands until the enforced sale in 1656." belonging to M. which. There are also four subjects. 808 and 810]. Paris. but removed by Napoleon I. 801]. and one probably belonging to that year." and a third. 214]. 2553]. "Portraits of Himself. There are eighteen works dated 1634. Cook." at the Hague [No." called "The Jewish Bride." is less certain. . 215]. It is of interest historically as showing that high as Rembrandt's reputation stood at the time. He furthermore painted a portrait of "Saskia disguised as Flora." formerly in the Cassel Gallery. without doubt. 149]. 812]. two large and highly finished pictures. and believed to have been painted in or near that year. p." in the National[Pg 62] Gallery [No. or are called. but it is a matter of doubt whether the last figure of the date is 4 or 6. one of "A Young Girl. Paris. and. 24)." in the Hermitage at St Petersburg [No. Schneider. a very similar picture in the collection of M. There are eight dated portraits. in addition. supposed to represent "Rembrandt and Saskia. there is an undated "Prodigal Son." at Bridgewater House. in spite of the signature.
[National Gallery. London PORTRAIT OF AN OLD WOMAN (1634) [Buckingham Palace THE BURGOMASTER PANCRAS AND HIS WIFE (ABOUT 1635) .
" in the National Gallery [No. and "A Young Woman. as in the picture at Dresden [No. quite the least satisfactory of the series. is entirely at variance with the classical tradition." in the Pitti [No. 60]. but she is first of all. "The Sacrifice of Abraham. 381]. and "Samson threatening his Father-in-law. indeed. one "A Rabbi." at Berlin [No. ungainly peasants. and beyond all. 350]. or of the latter as a fat and extremely hideous baby boy blubbering in terror as he is howked upwards—no more dignified[Pg 64] phrase will express it—by his shirt-tail in the claws of an eagle. In subjects the artist on two occasions went out of his way to court failure in attempting to represent classical subjects. there are nine dated portraits. 216].[National Gallery. was not in a happy vein this year in his treatment of subjects." at the Hague [No. His Christ is always more the Son of Man than the God Incarnate. and Callisto. His Virgin Mary has none of the delicate beauty conceived for her by Italian painters. and one "A Man. His apostles have none of the heroic dignity of Michael Angelo's. Diana. Three other subject pictures." for the artist to bring home to us." in the Hermitage [No. Only two of the portraits bearing dates are in public galleries. 802]. But this lack of wish or power to idealise. was. serve only to reveal the limitations of the artist's imagination without disguise or compensation. 328]. and the representation of the former as coarse. Rembrandt. Both the "Samson . 792]. this persistence in the search for the true and neglect of the beautiful. 1558]. of which one formed a further addition to the collection of Prince Frederick-Henry. are also in public galleries: a little sketch of "The Flight into Egypt. 579]. London PORTRAIT OF A MAN (1635) Apart from these." at Hampton Court [No." or "The Rape of Ganymede. Seven pictures only bear the date 1636. though it may occasionally result in details somewhat shocking to the reverent mind. [Pg 63]and five subject-pictures. nevertheless. the type of motherhood. as in the picture belonging to Prince Salm-Salm of Anholt." at Cassel [No. painted in or about that year. devoted fishers of men.—"The Ascension. while two others of about the date are the "Portrait of Himself. well adapted to set forth the humanising side of Scripture incidents. yet they are without question devout." now at Munich [No. There are no great fundamental ideas beneath the story of "Actæon. with the spirit of which he was utterly out of sympathy. together with six portraits and one subject of about the date. The homely truthfulness of his art.
leaving only two sixes. which.overpowered by the Philistines. is attributed to that year. was most probably painted that year. [The Hermitage DANAE (1636) . an extreme exaggeration of pose. and Lord Derby's "Belshazzar's Feast." in the collection of Count Schönborn at Vienna. are seriously marred by a distinct melodramatic element in the conception. in the "Danae. gesture. On the other hand." if it be Rembrandt's." at the Hermitage [No. we find the most pleasing study of the nude the painter ever made. though the first and third figures of the date have disappeared. 802]. though unsigned. which. and expression.
" in the collection of Prince Jousoupoff." in the Louvre [No. Vienna PORTRAIT OF A LADY (1636) The four remaining pictures are portraits. from which the last figure of the date is missing. forming a pair. the genuineness of the signature is not above suspicion. as far as the[Pg 66] angel is concerned. belonging to Lord Ashburton. One." in the Louvre [No. applies to the rendering of the same subject at the Hague [No. belonging to Prince Liechtenstein of Vienna. the "Portrait of Henry Swalm. must have also been painted that year. 147]. The "Ecce Homo. No such question." belonging to Baron Gustave de Rothschild. Two portraits.[Liechtenstein Gallery. "A Saint. 811]. the "Portrait of Himself. that of another "Minister" at Bridgewater House.S. Vienna PORTRAIT OF A MAN (1636) [Liechtenstein Gallery. to Lord Kinnaird. that of a "Portrait of Himself. U. 705]. another.. Pittsburg." in the Hermitage [No." belonging to the Earl of Yarborough. "Saint Paul. a "Portrait of an Old Lady. and also a woman. In the following year we find him for the first time attempting pure landscape. one of himself. led him to the border-line between the ungraceful and the ridiculous. a young man and his wife. one. however. 2536]." at Antwerp [No. 798]. Other pictures probably dating from that year are a "Standard Bearer. but in one case. two. belonging to Dr Bredius. as is "The Angel quitting Tobit." in the National [Pg 65]Gallery [No. to Mr Byers. also signed and . 813]. for it is a sketch for the etching of that date. or to the "Portrait of a Man. 2554]. is in the possession of Herr Georg Rath at Buda-Pesth. a woman. and one of a "Young Woman" lacing her bodice. 1400]. and the "Portrait of an Oriental.A. said to be Rembrandt." belonging to Captain Heywood-Lonsdale." also in the Hermitage [No." in the Hermitage [No. with scarcely less absurdity. and in that of "Susannah and the Elders. there is some doubt about the correct reading of the last figure. in which once more Rembrandt's desire for actuality has. signed and dated." and now. if not before. The remaining work is "The Parable of the Master of the Vineyard. 1637 is inscribed on eight pictures. once absurdly called "Sobieski. an entirely imaginary composition." at Vienna." formerly in the collection of Earl Dudley. are also attributed to that year.
was a figure subject. 2544]. St." is in the Czartoryski Museum at Cracow. of no great interest: the only other pictures dated 1638 being a "Portrait of an Old Man. 1560]." in Buckingham Palace. but. a magnificent piece of work. and distant city are at least as much insisted on as the figures. for the garden." in the Louvre [No." at Brunswick [No.dated. in which he has to some extent compromised by introducing some small figures illustrating the "Parable of the Good Samaritan." the great canvas in the Dresden Gallery [No. "Christ and Mary Magdalene at the Tomb. Petersburg PORTRAIT CALLED SOBIESKI (1637) . tomb. may also be included in the transition pictures between landscape and subject. and a "Bust of a Man in Armour. The important picture of the year. 237]. [Hermitage. though the figures are made of more importance. "Samson propounding his Riddle to the Philistines. apart from its technical qualities. however.
Jules Porgès. signed and dated. 2542]." belonging to Herr Georg Rath." at Cassel [No. There are six pictures dated 1640—four subjects and two portraits—one of himself in the National Gallery [No. 249]. unsigned. are reasonably brought about. "An[Pg 68] Effect of Storm. a life-sized full-length figure of "A Man. and an "Entombment" [No. was "The Good Samaritan" dressing the wounds of the injured man. 672]. now with the others at Munich. which M." at Brunswick [No. is a study rather than a picture. in the Boymans Museum at Rotterdam [No." belonging to the executors of the late Sir F. 236]. Cook. a "Saving of Moses. Michel doubts.. (see ill. in both of which. The only other subject treated that year. . that of "Alotte Adriaans. and several portraits." better known as "The Gilder. Other portraits are the so-called "Lady of Utrecht. a "Resurrection" [No. known as "The Concord of the Country. but what no one can quite decide. 217]. 28). the most noteworthy of which is the one of "Elizabeth Bas" in the Ryksmuseum at Amsterdam [No. 238]. the charming version of "The Holy Family" in the Louvre [No. for "The Slaughter-house. though equally marked." containing a rather confused mass of detail and incident. and the mysterious allegory. in the collection of M." in the Victoria and Albert Museum. known as "The House of the Carpenter. the concentration of light on a small portion is so intense as to suggest the lime-light of a theatre. if the date and signature are genuine. 330]. p. three pure landscapes. 1561] as much a portrait as a study." at Vienna [No. and the famous one of "Paul Doomer." belonging to Mr W. however. [Pg 67]and the "Man with the Bittern" at Dresden [No. 1141]." where the contrasting light and shade." and a so-called "Portrait of Rembrandt's Mother." now in the possession of Mr Havemeyer of New York. a study of "Dead Peacocks. 329]. The subjects include the Duke of Westminster's beautiful "Salutation" and the "Expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael. C. Other pictures supposed to have been painted about the same time are a "Good Samaritan"." in which the figures play a part quite subordinate to the landscape.[Dresden Gallery THE MAN WITH THE BITTERN (1639) Two more pictures were completed for the Stathouder in 1639." lent by the family Van Weede van Dykveld to the Amsterdam Museum. one in the Wallace collection. all obviously meaning something. Cartwright. at one time erroneously called "Burgomaster Six.
the mother of Burgomaster Six. is one of a very few. and all are portraits except the great "Offering of Manoah and his Wife. 1562]. the admirable "Lady with the Fan" being at Buckingham Palace. Two of the portraits form a pair now widely sundered. 397]." at Dresden [No.Six pictures again bear the date 1641." on the other hand. 1563]. having passed from Lady Ashburnham to Berlin." at Dresden [No. while her husband has strayed away to Brussels [No. wherein we are distressed once more by the artist's unfortunate conception of an angelic being. The "Portrait of Anna Vymer. which is still in the possession of the descendants of the subject. [Amsterdam Gallery PORTRAIT OF ELIZABETH BAS (ABOUT 1640) . The remaining picture is a portrait of a Young Woman. The portrait of "The Minister Anslo"—a marvel of life-like expression and superb painting—is a sad example of art treasures which have been allowed to leave England of late years. if it be not the only one. called "Saskia.
and a perfect craze for being painted in groups animated one and all. Mrs Alfred Morrison's "Portrait of Dr Bonus". not a mere row of wax figures in a booth. and each expected to get his money's-worth. Each member subscribed his share. and when he had finished. This limited production was probably due to the fact that a large share of his time must have been taken up by his largest and most famous work. The careful restoration by M. since it is a sketch probably made for the etching which was certainly executed then. and no one would care to read the names which. 235]. The galleries are full of these "Doelen" and "Regent" pictures by great and little masters. while the "Christ taken from the Cross. And indeed it is difficult not to sympathise with the poor amateur soldiers who had paid to be painted. and when their descendants removed it from the Doelen to the Hotel de Ville they cut it down ruthlessly on either hand to make it fit a smaller space. highly localised daylight of Rembrandt. for they left it to blacken with dirt and smoke. and that the sortie is taking place by daylight. . and he meant it to be a picture and alive. and "An Old Man." for many years known as "The Night-watch. would have hailed with delight the creation of such a masterpiece by one of themselves. Hopman has. To all such considerations Rembrandt was gloriously indifferent." at Buda-Pesth [No. There is one subject in the Hermitage [No. after a kind. and a comically stiff and formal collection of effigies was often the result. They had their revenge. Holland at that time abounded in Guilds and Companies. nor is the reason far to seek. "The Sortie of the Company of Francis Banning Cocq." in the National Gallery [No. Boards of Management of this or that Hospital or charitable Institution. 1777] long known as "The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau. however. as a copy by Lundens in the National Gallery [No. the subscribers cried aloud in wrath and consternation. civil and military.[Berlin ANSLO CONSOLING A WIDOW (1641) The dated pictures of 1642 are few. so the painter was expected to distribute his light and[Pg 70] his positions with an impartial hand. He was painting a picture of an event in real life. One would have supposed that such devoted art-patrons as the Dutch people of that time. has been established beyond cavil. failing to move the domineering painter. Even if they could have known. of late years. to be sure. not to be immortalised. altered all this. may belong to the same year. the condensed. they caused to be inscribed upon an escutcheon in the background so that they might get some return for their florins. Jules Porgès of Paris. since their worthy citizen-faces were not to be discerned in it. Lord Iveagh's "Portrait of a Woman". and would have showered praises and commissions upon its creator. There are also four portraits: one of "A Rabbi. they would have cared very little for the fact that their picture was to rank in after years among the most famous in the world." because time and careless usage had so blackened it that the original illumination was nearly obscured. and the figures appeared to be dimly visible by artificial light. 43]." but now recorded in the catalogue as "The Reconciliation of David and Absalom". The very contrary seems to have been the fact." belonging[Pg 69] to M. 289] makes evident. and dreary objects many of them are.
[Buckingham Palace THE LADY WITH THE FAN (1641) [Brussels Gallery PORTRAIT OF A MAN (1641) [Pg 71] .
" and the fancifully named "Constable of Bourbon. There are three portraits of himself: one at Weimar." at Dresden [No. and there is a portrait. 812]. in the collection of Morris K." at Downton. Jessup of New York. at Berlin [No.[Pg 72] The next year has very small results to show. according to M. bears. one belonging to Prince Henri of the Pays Bas. ought to be included among the portraits. There are two pairs." in the collection of Herr Thieme at Leipzig." now in America. 807]." Earl Cowper's "Young Man. which." in the Hermitage [No. Another of the same subject. a forged signature. was painted about that time. It is doubtful whether the "Old Woman weighing Money." incorrectly called Six." belonging to Mr Schloss of Paris. and is regarded by him as very doubtful. the "Old Woman. [National Gallery. but "The Holy Family. and "The Dutch Admiral" and "His Wife.CHAPTER VII YEARS OF DECLINE (1643-1658) There is still no lack of portraits in 1643. 1565]." and "The Lady with the Fan. however. "The Gentleman with the Hawk. There is one subject-picture. signed but undated. called "Rembrandt's Mother. support the belief in the sudden unpopularity of Rembrandt were there not five other years for which we can now find only five pictures. at Carlsruhe [No. Michel decline to admit among Rembrandt's works. 238]. but there can be no question about the "Young Man in a Cap and Breastplate." or the "Man. called Saskia." painted for Jan Six." at Grosvenor House. and several with fewer. is but conjecturally a work of this year. and now in the National Gallery [No. Michel. and might. All the five of 1644 are signed. The only signed subject of the year is the "Bathsheba at her Toilet. The other "Old Man. is probably only a study. London THE WOMAN TAKEN IN ADULTERY (1644) . one. Three are portraits: Captain Holford's "Man with a Sword. and the "Portrait of a Man. 45]. taken by itself." in the same gallery [No. "The Woman taken in Adultery. 1564]." in the collection of Mr Armour." in the Steengracht collection at the Hague. in the possession of Consul Weber at Hamburg. Dr Bode and M.
219]. and the same remark applies to the "Portrait [Pg 73]of Himself." belonging to Mr Beaumont. 331]. 1647 is inscribed on only five pictures. called at one time "Manasseh ben Israel. 47]. Two are the portraits called "Nicholas Berchem. C. At Berlin. which is doubtful. and one of "J. Lacroix at Paris. The Hermitage has one portrait [No. and a small one of "An Old Man. Fine also is "The Tribute Money." in the Museum [No. it . 806]. are undated portraits of about this time. while the "Man reading by a Window." at Buckingham Palace. but as it exactly resembles the etching of that year. and "An Old Man. in the collection of Baron van Harinxma. a work of that year. is dated 1646. both undated." in the Carlsberg Glyptotek at Copenhagen. one of "A Rabbi. 805]. the little sketch of "An Old Man Seated. 169]." in the Six collection." in the collection of Captain Holford. is little more than a sketch." belonging to Mr Humphry Ward. also. in all likelihood. are two of the five dated portraits of that year. 820]. one at Oldenburg [No. is more careful in treatment. A fourth of "Dr Bonus. but the companion picture. though much more summarily handled. one of "Christ bound to the Column. and one in the collection of Mme." belonging to the executors of the late Sir F." at Berlin [No." at Grosvenor House. 828A]. and one at Munich [No. rather than portraits." at Cassel [No." at Leeuwarden. and "An Orphan Girl of Amsterdam." now in the United States. Another landscape." in the collection of Herr von Carstangen at Berlin. First and foremost is "The Holy Family. was." A "Portrait of a Young Girl. 206]. "A Winter Scene. if it be really a Rembrandt. There are also four subject-pictures bearing the same date. The "Daniel's Vision. two of "The Adoration of the Shepherds. There are. "Tobias' Wife with the Goat" [No." called "The Woodchopper. Cook. are probably works painted for the purpose of study. The "Portrait of a Lady. is an undated subject." at Cassel [No." in the Dulwich Gallery [No." one in the National Gallery [No. furthermore." in the Hermitage [No. painted originally for Six. 218]. as is a "Portrait of a Young Man." at Dresden [No. and the "Holy Family. which." and "His Wife. is not dated. two landscapes. 796].[Dulwich Gallery A GIRL AT A WINDOW (1645) There are four subject-pictures dated 1645." in the collection of Herr von Carstangen. Sylvius. differing entirely in arrangement. though the last figure of the date is wanting. 1571].
attributed to it.is. 2550]. Léon Bonnat of Paris." at Bridgewater House. with its contrasted effects of firelight and moonlit night. on the other hand. [Royal Museum. in its truth and delicacy is the "The Shepherds reposing at Night. Two undated studies also belong to about that time. 292]. A small picture of "Christ on the Cross. with much reason." in the[Pg 74] Berlin Gallery [No. is one of the most ungraceful and undignified spectacles that even Rembrandt's stern realism ever produced. There are. "Hannah teaching the Infant Samuel to read. No known portrait bears the date 1648. Berlin PORTRAIT OF A RABBI (1645) ." at the Louvre [No. and "The Good Samaritan" [No. 2537]. Enchanting. 2539]. a small head and shoulders of "Susannah. 828E]." belonging to M." in the collection of Herr Carl Hollitscher at Berlin. four dated subject-pictures: two at the Louvre—"Christ at Emmaus" [No. and the "Woman bathing. and one." in the collection of the Earl of Derby. "Susannah and the Elders. There is only one subject. though one of "A Young Painter with Papers and Crayon." in the National Gallery of Ireland. A large picture of "Joseph's Coat. is believed to belong to about that year.—one. however." at Copenhagen [No." signed Rembrandt 164—. was also probably painted about this time. a different version of "Christ at Emmaus.
1653 has only one. Two only. 1566]. 791]." is at Brunswick [No. There are also in private hands. two portraits in those of M. 1649. 220]. and one." in the Emperor Frederick Museum at Berlin. There is a "Portrait of Himself." in the National Gallery. "The Ruin." wrongly entitled Van der Hooft. We may be sure. Edinburgh. 2551]. is but a copy of the picture at Munich [No. and others. called "The Metamorphosis of Narcissus. 822]. "Pallas" [No." in the collection of the Marquis ." in the Hermitage [No. 795]. Dated pictures of the year 1650 are rare." at Dresden [No. 818]. third. Bonnat's." at Cassel [No." in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire. 805 and 806]. may also belong to the year. "The Old Man." and "The Young Woman in Bed. The only other undated pictures which call for special mention are two landscapes: the "Mill. 804]." at Cassel [No." belonging to M. one of which. from the date on which the two last figures are missing." in the Louvre [No. The next two years are very deficient in dated[Pg 76] pictures. the picture. and fifth are signed. is one of the two that has no dated picture. Here again we may safely accord to the seemingly empty year some of the undated pictures of the period. belonging to the Earl of Brownlow. which include six portraits. "The Sons of Jacob bringing him Joseph's Coat" [No. 1251]. Of these there are several in public galleries: "The Slaughter-house." seated in a chair. 286]. "Tobit and his Wife. dated the following year [Nos. however. for "The Entombment." at Strasburg." at Leipzig. "An Old Woman.[Cassel Gallery A WINTER SCENE (1646) The succeeding year. a portrait in M. The subject-picture "Christ and Mary Magdalene in the Garden. "The Disgrace of Haman" [No. 560]. for M. and five pictures in the Hermitage: "Abraham entertaining the Angels" [No. 2547]. for it is very similar to the two pictures. touched up by Rembrandt." at Amsterdam [No. and the "Portrait of Bruyningh. the "Bust of an Old Man. 809]. are dated 1652. that some of the large number of unsigned pictures attributed to about that time were undoubtedly[Pg 75] painted in the course of it. the "Old Man." at Glasgow [No. and were it not for the "Portrait of Marshal Turenne. The same number of pictures is dated 1651." at the Hague [No. Jules Porgès' "Old Woman" is only supposititiously of that date. and three subject-pictures. which has recently been doubted—we should have to regard it as utterly barren. the "Portrait of Himself. 235]." in the same collection [No." is in the Hermitage [No. and "Hannah teaching Samuel to read" [No. none of which is dated. Jules Porgès. and "The Girl with a Broom." in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. "His Brother. belonging to the Duke of Devonshire." in the Louvre [No. 330]. Rodolphe Kann of Paris. though the second. are of about that year. Four are portraits: one of himself. "An Old Man. but the picture of "Hendrickje Stoffels." at Panshanger. belonging to Herr Mendelssohn of Berlin." the Duke of Abercorn's "Deposition. which must have been painted that year—if indeed it be his. "The Man with a Baton. the portrait of "His Brother." called "Noli me tangere. 793]. 221]. 707]. and a "Head of Christ. "The Portrait of a Man.
" now in the Ryksmuseum at Amsterdam. [Louvre. only two of which we can even suppose to have been commissions—the companion pictures of "An Old Man. 397A]. Michel declares to be forged." and "An Old Woman. 1250]. and one in the Hermitage [No." at Brussels [No. the signature and date of which. 584]. and the companion pictures of "A Young Man. doubted." and "An Old Woman. mostly of small size. and the one at Glasgow [No." at Cassel [No. Of the portraits. and two pictures of "Joseph accused by Potiphar's Wife. 705]. M. [No. while "The Young Servant"[Pg 77] is at Stockholm [No. and "The Woman bathing. 225]. the "Portrait of an Architect. was an unusually prolific one. is undated. though belonging to the period. Most. "An Old Man with a Beard. 224]. "An Old Jew. however. the fire of 1723 has left only a fragment. one of himself." one in the collection of M." "An Old Man. Paris CHRIST AT EMMAUS (1648) The dated pictures of 1654 are nine portraits and two subjects. 1656. the other in that of the Earl of Crawford. There are also two undated "Portraits of . The same may be said of the portraits dated 1655. 2546]. is at Munich." at the National Gallery [No. "Bathsheba. 828E]." at Dresden [No. for "The Flight into Egypt." and "A Young[Pg 78] Woman. The portrait at the Louvre [No. 810. the second of which is alone dated." at the Louvre [No. including "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Johannes Deyman. one at Berlin [No." differing only in details. 54]. painted about that time. being one. the two others bearing dates being studies of his son "Titus. by Dr Bode." belonging to Madame André-Jacquemart of Paris. and the rest of the undated heads." at Cassel. 2548]. The dated picture at Glasgow [No." at Stockholm [Nos. unfortunately. were studies painted because his still restless energy would not allow him to be idle." at Copenhagen [Nos. Rodolphe Kann. 2549]. the other. 1567]. is rather a study of armour than a picture. if not all of these. of which. are simply sketches or studies. a copy of one at Cassel [No. 273 and 274]. like the undated "Man in Armour." in the Louvre [No. however. however.of Lansdowne. "An Old Woman. 333]. and 825]. 706]. the "Portrait of Arnold Tholinx." besides the two old women being in the Hermitage [Nos. 581 and 582]. which is known as "Tobias and the Angel" from the figures in the foreground. the only subjects being "The Slaughter-house. 794]. 823." at Buda-Pesth. the year of his actual bankruptcy. [No.
may belong to the following year.—but he stiffened his back and worked on undismayed. though in each the last figure of the date is missing. the other to Lady de Rothschild." It may also include the "Rabbi. 828K]. and "Jacob blessing Joseph's Sons. the other at Vienna [No." belonging to M." in the collection of the Earl of Ilchester." a mere fragment of a larger picture. 181]." Few facts are more admirable in Rembrandt's checkered career than the noble struggle he maintained against misfortune and neglect. and one at Cassel [No." while two "Old Men. 799]. is undoubtedly a model." belonging to Lord Penrhyn. at Dresden [No." belonging to Mr Schaus of New York. That he suffered there can be no doubt—the careworn face and whitening hair of the later portraits reveal it all too clearly. The portrait. There are. and Lord Wimborne's seated figure of "St Paul.Davidoff at St Petersburg. called "An Admiral." painted about that time—one belonging to Lord Iveagh." belonging to M." one belonging to Lord Ashburton. 2545]." in the Hermitage [No. and that of "Six. doubtless commissions. two pictures belonging to about that date—"The Denial of St Peter." one of which is in the Pitti Palace [No. Rodolphe Kann. belonging to Mr Sellar. and an "Old Man. Both are "Portraits of Himself. may be[Pg 79] a portrait. "An Old Woman cutting her Nails." in the National Gallery [No. a "Christ. 227]. besides "The Preaching of St John the Baptist. 222]. though it includes the "Portrait of Catrina Hoogh." in the possession of Count Orloff." in the collection of M." at Buckingham Palace." at Frankfort [No." known as "The Lady with the Parrot." at Berlin [No. however." at Cassel [No. one is a "Portrait of Himself. 190]. 12]. Sedelmeyer at Paris. Of three signed pictures. 1142].Himself. 1568]. and "An Angel. and "Pilate washing his Hands. a "Portrait of a Boy." at Belvoir Castle. two more are "Portraits of Himself." now belonging to Mr Yerkes of New York. are presumably models. Rodolphe Kann. One. while a . 1144]. and one. which is otherwise lacking in important works. "The Adoration of the Magi. Berlin JOHN THE BAPTIST PREACHING (1656) 1658 would seem to have been still more disastrous. The subjects include one of Rembrandt's infrequent incursions into classical story in "Baucis and Philemon receiving Jupiter and Mercury. 1657. moreover. is probably a "Portrait of Titus. In addition to these portraits there are two large subject-pictures—"The Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard." in the Louvre [No. or perhaps both of these. also at Vienna [No. 1569]. Of the unsigned works of that time. and one. and two believed to have been. and only the "Young Man. a "Portrait of an Old Woman. one. Of 1659 there are six pictures fully dated." in the Six collection were. [Royal Museum. of "A Man sketching in a Book." one at Bridgewater House." at Dresden [No.
and include a pair of portraits. but of a not altogether unsuccessful one. strong face that had met and supported so much care. And yet in the next year he painted the finest work he ever did. the other to Count Stroganoff. eighteen being portraits. There is nothing in his story to account for it. and "A Man in a Red Cloak." signed Rembran. the man is still strong in body. and in two cases there is some doubt as to the last figure. 811]. There are also two subject-pictures. the eyes weary. 2543]. Captain Holford's portrait of a young man supposed to be "Titus". and to "A Pilgrim at Prayer. belonging to the Duke of Buccleuch. husband and wife. A severe illness seems the[Pg 81] only possible explanation. "The Capuchin. "Head of Christ. 166]. in the collection of M." . though brief. [Amsterdam Gallery THE SYNDICS OF THE DRAPERS (1661) To 1660 a large number of pictures is attributed. perhaps. belonging to the Duke of Buccleuch.dated one. The third is the "Venus and Cupid. as far as it can be made out against the dark background." belonging to M. firm in mind. The portrait of the year before. both at Berlin. There are ten pictures bearing the date 1661. Maurice Kann. one. is of a doubtful authenticity. A second painted about the time is "The Circumcision." we know to have been painted that year. and others. 243]. shows us a man bearing some traces indeed of a struggle with adversity. the resolution of the man have gone out of him—he seems. Three others are also portraits—"An Old Man. Neeld. The hair is thin and white. belonging to Prince Jousoupoff. one with the full date is in the Louvre [No. the "Merchant. "The Standard-Bearer. The character has been developed rather than shaken in the strife. recuperation. The same doubt as to classification applies to the "St Matthew." in the National Gallery [No. In the two pictures now under consideration we find a change truly startling. one signed." belonging to Colonel Lindsay. and three with neither date nor signature. Of the other two portraits. the hair. 2538]." at the Louvre [No. is uncertain. the greatest of the many great puzzles offered to us in the course of his history. and two other figures in monks' robes. the strength. one belonging to Lord Wemyss. since Dr Bode believes it to represent Hendrickje Stoffels and her daughter Cornelia." belonging to the Earl of Feversham. though fully signed and dated. to have broken at last." also in the Louvre [No. The pictures painted about that year are numerous. Two of the dated portraits are of himself." formerly at Warwick Castle but now transferred to America. "The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis. if it should not rather be counted among the portraits. "Moses breaking the Tables of the Law" [No. Both are of extreme interest in their bearing on the personal history of Rembrandt. but with the last figure of the date missing. Maurice[Pg 80] Kann at Paris. is still untouched by the hand of time. while the date on "The Portrait of an Old Woman. he has sunk suddenly into old age and weakness. But it is in the character conveyed that the chief transformation is perceived. and one with a doubtful date belongs to Sir A. 828]. followed by a remarkable." in the National Gallery [No. and "Jacob wrestling with the Angel" [No. but it is. yet it is beyond question Rembrandt himself. the face is wrinkled. stout as he was. is a magnificent representation of the grave. one. D. Of these only four portraits are dated. and one. Of these. 2555]. however. coming under the head of subject-pictures." belonging to Earl Spencer.
46). It belongs to Dr Bredius. nicknamed." in the Wallace collection." belonging to the Earl of Northbrook. and the same may be said of a portrait called "Hendrickje Stoffels. again. complete the list of[Pg 82] subjects. And now the tale is nearly told. 232]. New York [No. 1664." at Amsterdam [No. 1143].belonging to Consul Weber at Hamburg. is found on but one canvas." in the Hermitage [No." belonging to M. and the "Portrait of Himself. 797]." at Dresden [No." in the possession of Lord Wantage." at Amsterdam [No. All other works of that year are." in the[Pg 83] Metropolitan Museum. the other belonging to Count Raczynski at Posen. though three others—"Esther." at Brunswick [No. signed Rembrandt f. p. 1570]. are believed to date from that year. signed but undated. and two of himself—one at Vienna [No. indeed. or possibly even the next and last. The "Portrait of an Old Man. appears on three portraits—"A Youth. 1666. Two figures of "Christ. is the other of which no known picture survives. Léon Gauchez of Paris. 44). the others being one of a man with a knife in his hand. one of himself. a "Portrait of an Old Man. a large "Family Group. "A Man.. 237]. however.. from the date on which the last figure is missing.." at Downton. 452]—were in all probability painted either that year. 821]. 827]." belonging to the King of Roumania. and "Jeremias de Decker. and "David playing before Saul" were also painted about that year. p. eclipsed by the artist's masterpiece. 221] (see ill. Maurice Kann. 1252]. 823B] (see ill. in the collection of Mr Charles Morrison." a poet who was one of Rembrandt's rare clients in his later years. "A Woman. to which we can otherwise accord only one. but[Pg 84] as the attempt to fully consider all the work that Rembrandt did would far exceed all reasonable limits of space. 1247]. and "The Prodigal Son." in the Museum of Épinal. a "Portrait of an Old Man. One. the "Portrait of an old Woman. the "Man" in the collection of M. but "The Unmerciful Servant." belonging to Lord Ashburton. after having risen to the foremost place among his fellow-craftsmen in Holland. There are a pair of portraits. 1667. at the Hermitage [No. 1668 occurs but once. which may have been painted that year. belong to about that time. Haman. There is still a considerable number of pictures to which no very approximate date can be assigned. 584]. another "Old Woman. There is only one "Portrait of Himself. "The Death of Lucretia. A portrait. fell a victim to the always unaccountable change of fashion that has cast a blight upon many another . or the succeeding one." in the National Gallery [No." belonging to Lord Leconfield. The very next. absolutely the last known work of his. which. "The Jewish Bride. is dated 1665. 274]. Rodolphe Kann. and the misnamed "Jansenius." in the Grand-Ducal Museum at Darmstadt. however. "Rembrandt's Cook. the "Woman" in that of M." one at Aschaffenbourg. the record is a thin one. if it alone remained in existence. would compel us to place Rembrandt in the very highest rank of painters—"The Syndics of the Drapers. and Ahasuerus." at Berlin [No. I must reluctantly leave the reader who would seek further to such assistance as the catalogue of pictures at the end of this volume may afford him." in the National Gallery [No. and f. the one before. and one in the Uffizi [No. with the date 1663. A picture of "Homer reciting his Poems" alone bears part of a signature. After that eventful year. on "The Flagellation." in the Hermitage [No." belonging to Lord Kinnaird. The next year is little better. REMBRANDT THE ETCHER CHAPTER VIII HISTORY OF THE ETCHINGS We have seen how Rembrandt the painter.. in that of Herr von Carstangen at Berlin. and is lent by him to the Museum at the Hague [No.
" that having been. and in the inventory of the property left by the first of these at his death. and the equivalent. since another copy was sold the year before at the Palmer sale for eleven hundred and eighty. like Falstaff s men in buckram. was hardly excessive—some nine pounds. have thought could some seer have succeeded in making them believe that. who has left in writing on the back of it. but the facts show clearly that he never did. still in existence. Houbraken mentions Clement de Jonghe. What. had swelled to seven engravings. little more than a hundred years later. Dutuit paid cheerfully for it eleven hundred pounds. and there is good reason for supposing that the portraits of Jan Uijtenbogaerd and Jan Cornelis Sylvius with their inscriptions and laudatory verses. CHRIST HEALING THE SICK. to some extent. would the gossips. Now." to which he may possibly have attached the value of a hundred guilders. (B. that M. according to the story. that such highly-finished works as the larger "Raising of Lazarus. The amount. "Christ healing the Sick." "Christ preaching. and." "The Good Samaritan. and thence the tradition and the name arose. and Pieter de la Tombe." "The Three Crosses. Anthony. whose shrewd yet kindly face is found among the gallery of portraits etched by Rembrandt. It is scarcely probable. 74) (1649-50) Still.man. but it is not therefore to be hastily concluded that Rembrandt himself ever made any important addition to his income by the sale of them. were carried out without any subsequent attempts on Rembrandt's part to profit by them. This is the familiar title of the etching. which were definitely valued at one hundred guilders. Indeed. after his death. in certain. the sum the artist obtained for a single proof. was informed that the famous proof was exchanged with a Roman merchant. that very same proof with old Jan Zoomer's writing still upon it would be competed for so fiercely at public auction. that we come to consider his etched work. He exchanged a copy. in 1858. even if he had obtained it. published in 1751. were intended for sale among the followers and admirers of the two eminent ministers. with his friend Jan Zoomer. though perhaps limited." "Christ healing the Sick. though this piece of evidence must be abandoned. 1679. Gersaint." which[Pg 86] has been known for many years as "The Hundred Guilder Print. we may fairly conclude that part at least of their collections appertained to their stock-in-trade. "Given me by my intimate friend Rembrandt in exchange for 'The Pest' of M. though there is not a particle of evidence for even this. on February 11th. Jan Pietersen Zoomer. from[Pg 87] the fact that Clement de Jonghe and Zoomer were art-dealers. From the first the products of his needle seem to have been appreciated and sought after. landscapes in especial. by Helle and Glomy. circles. we have. but the fact remains that we can only assert with any confidence that two out of all the etchings were . there would seem to be no doubt that the etchings were admired even in his lifetime. as having made collections of his etchings. while even that was not a record price. a different tale to tell. the chief foundation of the belief can be shown to be frail and untrustworthy." "The Three Trees. we find a list of seventy-four plates etched by Rembrandt." and others. indeed. when making the catalogue. one wonders. however. who gasped amazed at such a price.
though signed by Rembrandt "cum privilegio. there seems little doubt that he never himself regarded them with any very serious consideration. In the case of a portrait. with the most complete indifference as to whether they were calculated to enhance his reputation or not. of Barnard. without any thoughts of fame or profit. . and he signed and dated them. For.[Pg 90] Silvestre. therefore. until even a small representative collection of them is a luxury for the very rich alone. would be given to fellow-artists. prices more often regulated by the rarity of the state than by its special artistic merits? Perhaps some of them were put into circulation by the firm of Hendrickje and Titus. Fawkener. Whence. for many years. and it was inevitable that the making of collections could not go on satisfactorily for long. While Gerard de Lairesse in his Groote Schilderboek. according to the custom of the day. "The Descent from the Cross. which has already been explained in telling the story of the artist's life. and their consequent increase in price—struggles and increasings. and executed under his directions. no mention of the plates in the inventory of the sale. or intelligence enough to foresee that they might some day prove of value. that for these alone. and Lord Aylesford in England. so that before long the need for some catalogue to establish at any rate the preliminary basis of an agreement on disputed points became an absolute necessity. Others. 1660. Cracherode. though it is significant in this connection. unless we can accept the theory suggested before. They were for him only steps in his onward progress. which we find recorded in the inventory. again. Many undoubtedly came from the sixty portfolios of leather. the four illustrations to Manasseh ben Israel's work. published in 1714." was estimated at no more than four hundred florins. and that to Der Zeeværts-Lof. which. since we found in the proposal made by Dirck van Cattenburch. certainly. which have gone on augmenting without intermission to the present day. that Rembrandt's eyesight was failing. Coypel. there is a note in Rembrandt's hand showing that it was one of four presented by him to the minister. they were given as presents to any sympathetic soul who had enough taste to appreciate them for their merits." Houbraken was recording the struggles of collectors to get possession of his etchings. where they had lain from the day when Rembrandt. third and fourth states for which collectors pay such surprising prices. done in 1634. In a very large number of cases." and neither of these. that an etched plate "not less finished than that of Six. for on one of the first portrait of Sylvius. in 1654." as issuing from his studio. It was. having learnt the lesson or attained the effect he desired. was worked upon by him to any great extent. Sloane. In the eighteenth century there were already famous collections of the etchings: such as those of de Burgy and van Leyden in Holland itself. He did them because he wanted to do them. were doubtless commissions. in the most haphazard and capricious way. an absolutely perfect one of all the differing states unobtainable by a many times millionaire. and Mariette in France. that at the very time when etchings were most needed he ceased to produce them. was condescendingly assuring a listening public that Rembrandt's paintings were not "absolutely bad. unless there was some sort of general agreement as to what was and what was not to be included in them.expressly made for publication. Piedra Gloriosa. considering the amount of work entailed. we know that he gave proofs to his sitter as the work went on. the various proofs now in existence. was not magnificent. and it is therefore possible that this pathetic little association for the support of a broken-down artist may have found it profitable in a small way to issue new impressions of these earlier completed plates. When we have recalled the partnership formally[Pg 88] entered into between Hendrickje and Titus on December 15. it may be asked. was he judged worthy of remark. such[Pg 89] as Lievensz. I suspect. but the payments were probably not large. by the inevitable irony of fate. we have come to the end of the reasons for concluding that the artist made money by his etching needle." and the "Ecce Homo. of Marolles. at any rate. the first and second. had flung them carelessly aside to go on to some further problem. then. There is. The numerous other portraits. who etched also. or left them unsigned and undated. good and bad alike.
if unsatisfactory: there is not. M. His manuscript. Vosmaer. leaving 365. in 1877. accepted 260. A year later Adam Bartsch. and bought by les Sieurs Helle and Glomy. however. collated and again translated into English. Charles Blanc. in 1756. raised the number again to 353. for he treated alike the .Gersaint was the first to make the attempt. while M. but added others. from Bartsch. Vosmaer. publishing in London in 1836. de Seidlitz. under the title of "an amateur. were the foundation of an amended catalogue by Daniel Daulby. will only admit 71 as being certainly by Rembrandt." while owning his obligations to Bartsch." with additions and corrections. an art-dealer in Amsterdam. it may well be asked by the bewildered amateur. The Chevalier de Claussin. reduced these to 329. Middleton. there never has been. and many that are not his bear forged ones. and employed them all together or separately as he listed. counted 353. struck out 10. making 369. (B. published there a catalogue in two octavo volumes. and. obtained and collated the opinions of all the best living authorities. Middleton. as they call themselves upon the title-page of the volume in duodecimo which. CLEMENT DE JONGHE. published in that city a "Supplément. with an additional 42 which might be. An English translation of this was published by T. there must be some criterion to hold by. Legros. Pierre Yver. Forty years later these two works. but to what extent he carried his over-generosity is still a matter of dispute. was put up for sale. have rejected some of the etchings which he accepted. There is no style to judge by. The subject cannot help us. writing in 1824. rejected 6. though without acknowledgment. after an ample discussion of doubtful points. for Rembrandt had half-a-dozen styles at least. but died before his task was finished. and included others which he ignored. The answer is simple. and four years later. and Wilson. in the 1880 edition of his work. after making the "necessary augmentations" of Gersaint's material. they published at Paris in 1751. The signature is no guide. or 113 at the most. he may well say. in the following year. 272) (1651) There is no doubt that Bartsch was too generous in[Pg 91] his admissions. though Wilson. keeper of the prints in the Library at Vienna. and borrowing freely. in 1890. which to this day remains the chief standard of appeal. Jefferys in London the following year. What. and others. adopting heroic methods of criticism. Charles Blanc. is the reason of these surprising differences? Surely. published in London and Liverpool in 1796. for many beautiful works of his have none. there never can be.
the second in strength. though the one in full face (B. we cannot go on to assert definitely that therefore it is not his. if not actually the first. and to the student it is well worth careful study through a lens. the elaboration of the modelling in the one being often replaced by a single significant line. masterpieces of the art that have never been equalled. whoever she may be. the forms are[Pg 94] expressed with greater freedom. The first excels in delicacy. furthermore. and. The seemingly toothless mouth is slightly open above the strong square chin. wears a large white hood shading her forehead. we are reasonably safe in concluding that the two etchings dated 1628 were. . for while producing. through carelessness. (B. but the shadows are somewhat forced. Both are called Rembrandt's mother. or perhaps ill-health. regarded in this light. 354). indifference. over and over again. but admirably expressive of the varied forms. 354) is slighter and broader in handling. The second (B. especially in the hollow of the cheek and on the right temple. with the exception of the prominence of the cheekbone. which results. seem to portray a woman much more advanced in years than his mother was at that time. is in shadow. and the strong light falling on the left side of the head brings into relief the wrinkles by the nose and at the corner of the mouth. The right side of her face. We can only decide each for ourselves that such or such a plate is in no way worthy of Rembrandt. 212) (1643) [Pg 93] CHAPTER IX THE AUTHENTIC ETCHINGS In the entire absence of any evidence to the contrary.most sacred incidents and the grossest improprieties. 352) seems to represent a woman in a much humbler station of life than the stately old lady in the other (B. and the soft fleshy forms of the cheek and jaw. turned out and left for future ages stuff which most far inferior men would have obliterated there and then.[Pg 92] he at other times. Legros. The merit of the work is no less dubious ground for judgment. The work is simple and straightforward. but. and the roundness and solidity of the little head are excellent. THE THREE TREES. while both. In the first the kindly old lady. they are truly astonishing. Yet the dash and surety of the line-work is very fine. in an excessive and unpleasant blackness. among the very first he ever did. unless we have the courage of M.
101). 88). 90). He was again his own model twice in 1631—one. a subject which had a singular fascination for the artist. the excellent portrait of "Manasseh ben Israel" (B. a splendid little study of "A Mountebank" (B. and a sheet of sketches. only three impressions being known. one said to be "His Father" (B. the work having been carried out under his supervision by some unknown pupil. 320). There are fifteen dated etchings of the year 1630. There are also two "Portraits of his Mother" (B. being the most elaborately finished piece of work he had yet attempted. including a very pleasing head of Saskia (B. are the only others . distinguished as the one with the angel. the central figure of which was borrowed from Durer. 24). which came so utterly to grief in the biting. the first of several pictures of "St Jerome" (B. 269). 69). however." otherwise known as "The Little Jewish Bride" (B. is included among the disputed etchings. Among these are no less than six portraits or studies of himself. which is more notable for a vivacious "Portrait of Johannes Uijtenbogaerd" (B. For subjects both the Old and[Pg 96] New Testaments supplied inspiration. 338). very doubtfully identified as his mother. that it was at once abandoned. and a skilful piece of chiaroscuro. though everything that should be is expressed. and one subject. and a second undertaken. the first for a decidedly seventeenth-century Dutch rendering of "Joseph and Potiphar's Wife" (B. 292 and 294). 365). and another. "The Pancake Woman" (B. 121). "The Good Samaritan" (B. which M. 138). 268) would be difficult to match. and various small heads. 351). and others. 164). One. with pearls in her hair (B. was not altogether a success. though they are to a considerable extent atoned for by the dignified Jacob. nor are[Pg 97] the faces in an etching of that year. though not a portrait. for the first time. A spirited note of "An Old Beggar Man conversing with a Woman" (B. including an excellent "Portrait in a fur cap and light dress" (B. very broadly and strongly etched. 17).The only etching actually known to have been executed in 1629 is the first of many portraits of himself (B. is certainly a likeness of her. Three also bear the date 1633. 39). which brought Saskia into his home. a badly overbitten "Portrait of Himself" with a scarf round his neck (B. 124). 348 and 349). "Abraham dismissing Hagar" (B. 20). a useless device. rather. a charming little revelation of domestic contentment. superbly executed. 19). Another equally important plate bearing this date. by Sir Seymour Haden. and worked upon in places with two needles fastened side by side. which. "A Young Woman Reading" (B. the very human interest of Rachel. "An Old Woman" etched no lower than the chin (B. 345). 2). 102). "St Jerome" (B. but marred by the revolting hideousness of the faces. 152). "The Descent from the Cross" (B. and M. 51). though not by himself. 279). a crowded and unsatisfactory composition. were the subjects treated in 1635. There are only three dated etchings of 1632—a little figure called "The Persian" (B. 81). attempted a composition with several figures—"The Presentation in the Temple" (B. to which he never again resorted. 342). a humorous sketch of amazed bewilderment. He also. Another charming piece of work. and the simple earnestness of Joseph himself. was also very possibly studied from Saskia. 91). "Christ driving the Moneylenders from the Temple" (B. owing to insufficient biting. the second for the earliest treatment of a favourite subject "Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus" (B. executed about the same time.[Pg 95] with a broad hat and mantle (B. and a "Portrait of Himself with a Mezetin Cap and Feather" (B. which is. a model of direct etching from nature wherein there is not a superfluous line. The year 1634. 129). also naturally enough brought her portrait into the list of etchings. the "Martyrdom of St Stephen" (B. 263) though made after his death. a boldly-handled piece of work. full of movement and expression. including two profiles of the same "Bald Man" (B. 1636 has only four etchings to show—"The Prodigal Son" (B. 1637 has only one etching of importance. "Rembrandt and his Wife" (B. Michel has given sound reasons for believing to be Rembrandt's father. and the group of "The Rat-killer" (B. 30). 37) much less absurd. Rembrandt's unfortunate lack of the sense of beauty is nowhere so glaringly made manifest as in the preposterous "Adam and Eve" (B. but for sheer skill in craftsmanship the "Young Man seated in Meditation" (B. 347). The "St Catherine. 28) of 1638. make up the number. Michel believes it to have been the companion plate to one of Rembrandt (B. however. rejected. and an admirably etched study of expression known as "Rembrandt with haggard eyes" (B. a brilliant little sketch of a "Blind Fiddler" (B. with some singularly bad drawing in it. of the brothers listening to "Joseph relating His Dreams" (B. 7). owing apparently to bad grounding. 97).
and the perfection of the chiaroscuro are beyond praise. of a long series of landscapes. are the most important of the remainder. which. and the grand and very rare "Portrait of Anslo" (B. 257). is admirable alike in conception and execution. It is no matter for wonder. 226). and "The Angel departing from Tobit and his Family" (B. the elaborate study known as "Rembrandt's Mill" (B. alone share the date with it. 133). 61). A little night-effect. 43).[Pg 98] A return of energy. "The Schoolmaster" (B. and justify the somewhat bold assertion that beyond this the etcher's art cannot go. 21). 82). and the effect very excellent. His interest or his leisure would indeed appear to have been exhausted for some time. the only etchings of 1642 were three sacred subjects. 105). that this splendid plate seems to have absorbed most of the time he could devote to etching that year. 265). The transition from the loving care bestowed upon the splendid study of the gnarled and shattered willow-tree in front. therefore. the magnificent "Death of the Virgin" (B. one of the most entirely satisfactory of the etchings. and the "Landscape with a Cottage and Mill Sail" (B. the wholly effective yet unforced arrangement of the composition. "The Raising of Lazarus" (B. REMBRANDT'S MILL (B. so that the contrasts of light and shade are strong. and two of them. through the more broadly yet quite adequately expressed foliage behind it on the left. There is only one etching dated 1644. a landscape [Pg 99]with figures. 220). distinguished as being in Rembrandt's dark manner. to our certain knowledge. 233) (1641) 1643 has only two signed etchings. are dated 1640. among them. 209). and the fine "Portrait of Himself leaning on a Stone Sill" (B. "The Baptism of the Eunuch" (B. mere sketches. all small. the first three. "The Beheading of St John the Baptist" (B. There are four subjects from scripture—a "Virgin and Child in the Clouds" (B. 225). marked 1641. seated reading at a table in a room lighted only by one window high up in front of him. with conspicuous success. 212). 92). with the exception of the unfortunate angels hovering above. to the . A superb combination of pure etching and dry-point dates from 1645—the "View of Omval. one called "Jacob and Laban" (B. 99).of the year. since only two small etchings. The finished plate represents "St Jerome" (B. 271). from which year we have twelve dated plates. In the following year he achieved. in which his inability to perceive the absurd and undignified is once again demonstrated in the inflated petticoat and foreshortened legs which are all that is seen of the angel. for a little sketch of "A Jew in a High Cap" (B. 72) and "The Descent from the Cross" (B. but both are masterpieces of out-door work—"The Hog" (B. however. and the justly-renowned "Three Trees" (B. attaining by straightforward simplicity the full pathos of the scene. With the exception of a "Bearded Man seated at a Table in an Arbour" (B. 118). 233). near Amsterdam" (B. 128). and "An Old Man with a divided Fur Cap" (B. 157). called "The Shepherd and his Family" (B. the most ambitious etching he had yet attempted. both for perfection of workmanship and beauty of effect. 98). The truthfulness and variety of attitude and expression. the beautiful "Cottage and Barn" (B.
170). is always to some extent a mis-application of the art. 231). 21). there is much to admire and study in these two portraits of "Six" (B. and "Ephraim Bonus" (B. more than once degraded his talents. 22). (B. as if pausing on his return from visiting a patient. and a third. with his right hand on the banister. 176) (1648) In 1648 he once more undertook a "Portrait of Himself" (B. The next few years are singularly devoid of dated etchings. shows a precise adaptation of the necessary means to the desired end. rich velvet cap flung carelessly on one side of his long curling hair. 278). A second landscape of that year is a study of a boat-house. and his self-satisfied . An outline sketch of the "Repose in Egypt" (B. would have been enough to stamp him as the finest known exponent of the art. one of those frank improprieties to the perpetration of which Rembrandt. 196). and of a profound mastery of technical methods. a masterly little sketch from nature. a subject known as "Ledikant" (B. 34). "A Man seated on the Ground" (B. this etching cannot easily be over-estimated. the Jewish physician. a reversed reproduction of the picture in the Six collection already referred to. had no other line of Rembrandt's etching come down to us. which. with their feathered caps and embroidered cloaks. 186). however successful. regarded as attempts to express the full tonality. with the freedom of his time.slight yet all-sufficient treatment of the river and landscape beyond it on the right. Time and trouble have told upon him. their flowing locks and brushed up moustaches. 1647 has only two. descending a staircase. 285). the one known as "Six's Bridge" (B. are the only subject-etchings of that year. of a thorough grasp of the essentials and rejection of superfluities. a very different presentment from the earlier ones. BEGGARS AT THE DOOR OF A HOUSE. and a direct study from the nude model. 208). from our modern point of view. There are three from 1646—a small sketch[Pg 100] of "An Old Beggar Woman" (B. 58). known as "The Grotto" (B. Still. which is further remarkable for the absence of any portraits or studies of heads. and it is pathetic to contrast the proud elegance of the Rembrandt of 1639 (B. and a more highly finished "Abraham conversing with Isaac" just previous to the projected sacrifice (B. As an example of the utmost expressiveness with the fewest necessary means. a deliberate sacrifice of its special advantages. his fine clothes. both highly-finished endeavours to realise a wholly pictorial effect—an endeavour which. in order to attain an object more easily and efficiently obtainable in other ways.
generally Titian. a masterpiece of composition and workmanship. real or supposed. with the steep cliff on the left. in his plain. In 1650. and. the excellent "Village with a Square Tower" (B. but to the absolute rightness and appropriateness of the comparatively few that are used. his once airily [Pg 101]upturned moustache trimmed short. on the other hand. which has given rise to a question as to whether Rembrandt was about that time on his travels to some place unknown. 236) lying broadside on athwart the foreground. and he bears his two-and-forty years but badly. for the elaborately-finished effect. including four landscapes. and a fourth etching is "The Marriage of Jason and Creusa" [Pg 102](B. and it is satisfactory to know that this marvellous little plate. THE SHELL (B. and the sketch of "A Canal with a Large Boat" (B. it would be rash to found any conclusion on the resemblance. indeed. it has also strengthened. in popularity with the purchasers of reproductions. Among all the portraits of Rembrandt. . we have six. He has grown stout. if there is no longer in his eyes the look of undoubting self-approval. broad-brimmed hat. 159) (1650) Another splendid example of that year is the "Beggars at the Door of a House" (B. It has all the rich effect of a highly-laboured piece of work. comes third. high. This hilly distance. published that year. and dark working blouse. and a wiser self-confidence born of trials and labours past and overcome. certainly bears no resemblance to anything in his ordinary surroundings. and the Italian-looking tower in the centre. his throat hangs in puffy folds below his chin. 126). 217).air. There is no etching which we can definitely assign to 1649. The crispness and firmness of the drawing are quite magnificent. middle-aged man. penetrating gaze of observation. made to illustrate his friend Jan Six's tragedy of Medea. to which he again turned his attention after an interval of five years. according to M. soberly-clad. but there is nothing in it to assure us that it was done from nature. with this grave. however. with its big tree and high-gabled cottages. as usual with him. 235). but if his face has aged. chiefly interesting from the background. not to the multiplication of lines. 218). the "Canal with Swans" (B. 176). and as we know that he more than once adapted a landscape from some Italian master. square-topped. is due. a composition of many figures. which is. his nose has coarsened. as he saw himself when he sat drawing from the mirror in front of him. there is none which makes one feel so strongly that here. one is face to face with him. 112). yet a careful study of it shows how simple and direct are the means actually employed. there is still the same keen. These are "A Village by the High-Road" (B. Amand Durand. His cavalier curls are cropped. it will be found. in which. the dainty tuft upon his chin is gone. the attempt to convey the classical spirit was scarcely successful. simple and unsensational as it is. Yet another masterpiece of the same year is "The Jews' Synagogue" (B. he has learned as well as suffered.
but which. afterwards sub-divided—"Jacob's Dream. and. a "Circumcision" (B. again. who. and as. one landscape. which is equally attractive in the first state against a plain white background. the fault cannot well be overlooked or condoned. "The Flight into Egypt" (B. the finest specimen of work in pure dry-point ever produced. a drawing of the subject. 159). it has serious and obvious defects. he ever did. without any regard to where light and shade would have been. The swirl of the broad-winged angel swooping down from behind on Abraham. The sixth etching of that year. and one of the two. nevertheless. furthermore. "The Goldweigher's Field" (B. it degenerates to a mere scrawl—displaying. it has to be admitted. "Clement de Jonghe" (B.A remarkable instance of patient and loving care is seen in the "Shell" (B. has little of interest or beauty to recommend it. "The Game of Golf" or Kolf (B. contains a great deal of bold and expressive drawing. yet putting such vitality. 63). for which he etched four subjects on one plate. 36). himself leads His mother. on the other hand." "The Combat of David and Goliath. showing Joseph carrying a lantern. is yet another instance of Rembrandt's contentedly signing a work which would disgrace a man without a tithe of his genius. again. but this. caring little about detail. 272). 89). an unusual amount of grace. presenting with much vividness the actions of surprise on the part of the two disciples and of the serving-man descending the stairs in front. or at any rate was then. in which[Pg 104] the figures are clumsily and unpleasantly thrown into relief by a band of shadow closely following their outlines in very naïve fashion. with the two large trees on the left and the dense wood in the centre." "Nebuchadnezzar's Dream. turning half backwards as He walks to speak to her. "Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus" (B. A far more satisfactory production. however. 60). known as the one with the cask and net. 1655 saw Rembrandt employed once more as an illustrator. for Rembrandt. may have been added by some[Pg 103] other hand. which might as well be adduced in evidence of his foreign travels as that of four years before. and there is. in especial. that even bad drawing passes unnoticed. 222). such genuine. and one portrait. especially that of the Virgin Mary. are disagreeably ugly and vulgar. is known as "The Goldweigher". led by His father. but to 1654 belong eight. however. much animation in the young Christ. 55). perhaps. 125). has. while the last to be noted. and omitting them where he wanted light. an astonishingly truthful and minute study of still life. Still fewer etchings were produced in 1652. "Christ appearing to the Disciples" (B. but. a landscape. undeniable. Rembrandt has failed to rise to any sense of the sublimity or dignity of Christ. in this example. though handled with freedom and boldness. is a sketch in outline with a little tentative shading here and there. which. with its bold drawing and coarse yet effective handling. if it be authentic—and no one else that I know of disputes it—renders any test of genuineness by workmanship impossible. grasping his left arm just above he elbow to hold back the knife. an unwonted amount of indifferent and inexpressive drawing. generally known in England as the "Vista" (B. the larger "Christ disputing with the Doctors" (B. human feeling into it. and in the second against a nearly black one. indeed the best of the year. 87) is. and is one of those plates which. In this case. a very high degree of probability that the drawing was by Titian. and the plate is otherwise an indifferent piece of work. . 47). "Abraham's Sacrifice" (B. is another of those bold and rapid sketches in which Rembrandt seems to have dashed at his subject and realised it by sheer force of energy. like all the work of 1654. but the other. 83). The Virgin in "The Holy Family with the Serpent" (B. a sketch of "The Holy Family crossing a Rill during the Flight into Egypt" (B. of the same year. seven of which are subjects from the New Testament. indeed. as so often elsewhere. 53). shading where he wanted shadows." by his friend Manasseh ben Israel. if not the best. 1653 is. for there is one subject. no more than a sketch. but the types of the heads. one of the best. but here. and leading the ass bearing the Virgin and Child through the night. The figures are full of movement. etched by Rembrandt. and there is." and "The Vision of Ezekiel" (B. is. is due to the fact that it is borrowed from Mantegna. 234)—so called from the view including the country-house of his friend Uijtenbogaerd. is "The Descent from the Cross by Torchlight" (B. the book being one entitled "Piedra gloriosa ò de la estatua de Nebucadnezar. the treasurer. he sits in full face in the[Pg 105] very centre of the picture. it has evidently been so closely copied from an unknown original that there can be no doubt that there is somewhere. is only a sketch—in places. 35). in which we have another instance of an altogether foreign landscape. "Jesus and His Parents returning from Jerusalem" (B. whose portrait. a blank as far as dated etchings are concerned. 65). During 1651 he devoted himself once and once only to each class of work.
"A Woman with her Back turned sitting cross-legged . and. Three figures of nude women." to distinguish it from the etching of his father "The Old Haring. Rembrandt never worked better. 276) (1656) [Pg 107] In 1657. 205). that. 200).—"Abraham entertaining the Angels" (B. yet neither over-laboured nor careless. unfinished. How broad and easy. The only highly-finished work of the year is the "Portrait of Thomas Jacobsz Haring" (B. (B. Another equally bold work in outline is "Christ before Pilate" (B. 94). "A Woman preparing to dress after Bathing" (B. 29). and the sittings periods of mutual enjoyment. In this. and a so-called "Negress lying down" (B. are dated 1658. is the handling." There are only two etchings dated 1656.while with his right[Pg 106] he removes Abraham's right hand from the eyes of the resignedly kneeling Isaac. in regarding the result. 199). 275). while 1659 was marked by two very diverse subjects. 107). known as "The Young Haring. and "Jupiter disguised as a Satyr discovering the sleeping Antiope" (B. the last dated portrait we have. as far as we know. and the splendid "Portrait of Jan Lutma" (B. Throughout 1660 Rembrandt would seem to have left his etching needle to rust in idleness. It is impossible to look on this and doubt that it is an admirable likeness of a delightful old man. he executed only one etching. 276). and that the angel has no forearm. With what a shrewd humorous expression he sits in that high-backed armchair. with its wonderful crowd of figures in the foreground relieved against the platform on which Christ and Pilate stand surrounded by soldiers. "A Woman sitting with her Feet in Water" (B. 76). and chiefly notable for the fine study of a tree which it contains. we ignore the fact that Abraham is left-handed. JAN LUTMA. "St Francis praying" (B. in which yet again we have forced upon us the incapacity of Rembrandt's mind to evolve an acceptable supernatural figure. carried away by the vigour of the actions and the sound breadth of the work. but he resumed it once more in 1661. 203). which figures in so many of Rembrandt's portraits at that time. is marvellous. surmounted by lions' heads. and one cannot but feel convinced. and produced a study of the nude. The startled surprise of Abraham is amazingly true. "St Peter and St John at the Gate of the Temple" (B. he reached the highest pitch of excellence he ever attained. the work was a labour of love. to both artist and sitter.
"The Draughtsman" (B. 207). 80). and "A Portrait of a Boy" (B. more remarkable for energy of action then accuracy of drawing. To the year itself probably belongs a landscape "A large Tree by a House" (B. oddly included in the usual classifications among the portraits. 79). "The Bull" (B. "A Sketch of a Tree" (B. There are one hundred and one etchings generally accepted as Rembrandt's to which no date can positively be assigned. we can only hope that they were not over-critical. and to it or to the following year "The Virgin mourning the Death of Jesus" (B. . 74)." in all probability Rembrandt's mother (B. for he stands gazing at the spectator with a superb air of ludicrous conceit. deformed little man. dating from 1635 or 1636. while to 1641 are generally assigned two sketches of lion-hunts (B. and a "Portrait of Himself in a flat cap and slashed vest" (B. and the "Landscape with a ruined Tower" (B. 188). A sheet of sketches (B. Four scripture subjects are. outside his family circle. 130). and of various unknown old men and old women. and by a remarkable series of sketches of beggars and peasants. 277). or later out of gratitude for their good offices." who stands between his knees (B. Portraits of known originals are those of "Jan Asselyn" (B. altogether. the other the famous Hundred Guilder print. "Diana bathing" (B. the assigned dates ranging between 1633 and 1636. dwelling only on those of special importance. nicknamed by his contemporaries the little Crab. and with this the list of authentic dated etchings is brought to a close. by others a year or two later. twenty-eight etchings dating between 1640 and 1650. 228). 202). dating anywhere between 1630 and 1640. 343). it was undertaken to ingratiate himself with people so important to him." known as "The Virgin with the Linen" (B. which is worthy of remark as showing how rapidly Rembrandt mastered all the available styles of etching. are placed by some a year or two earlier. The scripture subjects of this decade include an oval "Crucifixion" (B. turned in three-quarter face to the right. "Dr Faustus" (B. a fellow-artist. "Jesus Christ healing the Sick" (B. however. and "The Triumph of Mordecai" (B. of doubtful date. dating from 1638 or 1639."[Pg 109] There are. 201). a sketch of "The Flight into Egypt" (B. for it must be confessed that this exercise in pure dry-point is about as bad an example as could be found. though an indubitable fact. 372). believed by some authorities to represent "Abraham caressing Isaac. with whose family Saskia was staying before her marriage. that of the minister "Jan Cornelis Sylvius" (B. all told. and a magnificent one of the same "Jan Sylvius" (B. we have the first portrait. 253). holding an Arrow in her right Hand" (B. 26). 33). devoted. "The Flute-Player" (B. one. and "A View of Amsterdam" (B. Of approximately the same date is[Pg 108] a masterly portrait of "An Old Lady. 219). "A Village with a River and Sailing Vessel" (B. many of which deserve more attention than we can spare them. If. a vigorous "Battle-Scene" (B. her hands lightly folded in her lap. that it was etched from a study in 1645 or 1646. 49). altogether excellent as an example of well-directed line. 310). seated at a table. are chiefly characterised by a number of small portraits of himself. 270). is noteworthy for the charming "Head of Saskia" included in it. as undoubtedly an admirable presentment of himself as he appeared about 1638. so full of life and movement that it is hard to believe. A little later. are. The earlier years.[Pg 110] seven or eight years after the death of the minister. the beautiful "Landscape with a Man sketching" (B. 54). a dwarfed. but almost certainly of some year between 1640 and 1650. while two. dating between 1632 and 1640. About 1631 we find the first study from the nude. and we must be content to review them somewhat hastily. a beautiful little "Crucifixion" (B. slightly but beautifully etched. 280) with whom Rembrandt had so conspicuously failed before. to a coarse and unshapely figure. 115 and 116). 266).upon a Bed. as we may imagine. and how subtly and skilfully he combined them. In the debatable land between the late forties and the early fifties there are two magnificent works. but lack of space forbids our considering them at length. a "Holy Family. Other landscapes. 40). forty-eight etchings attributed with every probability of correctness to the years before 1640. dating from 1634 or 1635. There are. to which we can definitely attach a name. 210). than that year. and "An Old Man caressing a Boy. whose personal failings evidently did not weigh on him. 117). 62). from 1628 or 1629 to about 1635. 85). 223). 367). and "The Presentation in the vaulted Temple" (B.
"The Nativity" (B. and 1650. and "The Presentation in the Temple" (B. a subject from contemporary life. 283). was originally dated 1631. while all the certain plates of that year are signed with a monogram. the "Landscape with an Obelisque" (B. Vosmaer and Wilson making it 1648. while the small "Portrait of Coppenol" (B. in which. 273). As. 57). M. but they are nearly all worthy of more space than can be devoted to them. 45). and the no less admirable "Peasant with Milk Pails" (B. whether in painting or drawing. but the device of relieving the face of the woman by a dark and impossible shadow on a building in the background. known as the little La Tombe. "The Sportsman" (B. 213). the second a work in dry-point throughout. There remain seventeen. but beautifully and minutely finished in an exquisitely delicate fashion. 1632 and 1645. with a signature and date which Middleton reads 1645. 221). "Christ and the Samaritan Woman" (B. and by Middleton to 1647. at any rate. "Jesus Christ entombed" (B. apart from details. Thus the clever little sketch of "Two Beggars walking towards the right" (B. 144). 96). 70). the 3 having subsequently been altered by Rembrandt into a 5. 11). 227). scarcely more than a sketch. whose long and faithful friendship with the painter has been referred to in the Life. and "A Sheet of Sketches" (B. and a very indifferent "St Peter" (B. and a pathetic little composition of "Christ's Body carried to the Tomb" (B. is scarcely a happy or successful one. A third plate bearing a date. but by another to as far away as 1651. further identified as being in Rembrandt's dark manner. a hurriedly executed night effect. is drawn with precision and delicacy. 123). bring the tale of etchings to which an approximate date may be assigned to a conclusion. A figure of "A Nude Woman sitting by a Dutch stove" (B. is an exquisite little composition expressed with the utmost simplicity compatible with the desired result. belong to the earlier year is indicated by the fact that it is signed Rembrandt in full. Five are portraits. Michel to 1641 or 1642. and degenerates into sheer carelessness. but full of the sentiment of helpless blindness. "The Repose in Egypt" (B. known as "The Old Haring. concerning the probable dates of which conjectures vary so widely. 42). 67)." There are nine scripture subjects of the period. 195). Michel. 224). 41). it certainly belongs to one of the earlier years. 1631 and 1641." long known as Rembrandt. a strong and unhesitating piece of work. is dated so indistinctly that it has been read as 1630. 232). however.Only eighteen of uncertain date are placed between 1650 and the end of Rembrandt's career as an etcher in 1661. 364). has been dated 1629. who. "The Star of the Kings" (B. 101) of 1632. "Christ preaching" (B. dating from 1657 or 1658. Another dated plate is "The Bathers"[Pg 113] (B. which. one of "A Youth. however. 50). "A Sheet of Sketches with a head of Himself" (B. the plate came into the possession of the dealer of that name. because. from about the middle of the decade. and "Tobit Blind" (B. One is a landscape. 84). of about the same time. but that the etching does not. but undoubtedly his son Titus (B. a portrait in dry-point of "Dr Arnoldus Tholinx" (B. of which only three copies are known. the first to bear the full name being the "St Jerome" (B. and the "Three Crosses" (B. and cannot guess with any prospect of success. Other plates of equally uncertain date are five landscapes—the exquisite "Landscape with a Flock of Sheep" (B. "The Canal" (B. though the hands are less well expressed than usual with Rembrandt. has been attributed by one to 1632. dating between 1632 and 1640 according to Vosmaer. is the mysterious allegorical one "The Phœnix" (B. concerning the interpretation of which the authorities differ. 86) is a powerful and effective etching dating probably from the early fifties. probably among the last of the etchings. this rapidity of work has been carried too far. 370). 1634. though. "The Cottage with white Pales" (B. the face of the king is somewhat too simply expressed. another "Beggar leaning upon a Stick" (B. by M. 211). 110). a less admirable one of "Abraham Francen" (B. Of the seven subjects from the New Testament two are of the first importance. on the other hand. the large one of "Coppenol" (B. As to the why and wherefore of such an incomprehensible error on the artist's part. it is signed with a monogram. 113). the former being an etching heightened by dry-point. 1631. delighted in bringing out with care the full character revealed by them. and the "Landscape with a Cow drinking" (B. two[Pg 111] from the Old Testament. a second night effect. 46). 78). from 1652 according to Middleton. the arrangement of the masses of light and shade is good. 75). 162). while a fourth. it is supposed. 197). a portrait of "A Goldsmith at[Pg 112] his Work" (B. according to M. 284). that it is safer to admit we do not know. Vosmaer 1655. but was probably not considered by Rembrandt as finished. also assigned by Vosmaer to some date between 1632 and 1640. and 1648. 237). Three are scripture subjects—"The Adoration of the Shepherds" (B. Michel and Middleton 1658. In "Christ in the Garden of Olives" (B. of which it would be impossible to speak too highly. 282). "King David at Prayer" (B. he offers no conjecture. representing a party of boys . and one of Jacob Haring (B. 274).
from a first sketch of an idea. he may follow the artist's sure and rapid development. Of the drawings I propose to speak very briefly. their qualities are such as to appeal almost exclusively to the artist. such a volume as we may hope some day to see written. but for such another presentment of the hurried." He will further perceive. he is prepared to undertake the trial and judgment of each for himself. He will. one of interest to experts and collectors alone. and must therefore strike an answering chord in the breasts of his fellow-men. and so directly opposite[Pg 114] in many cases are their opinions that it is certain no finality can ever be hoped for. weak old man not yet inured to the perpetual darkness that has fallen on him. not for the purpose of creating a thing beautiful in itself. we must wait for a second Rembrandt—and the wait is likely to be long. or an object struck his eye. blind or indifferent to superficial beauties. The reader who desires to enter upon this thorny ground must content himself with pinning his faith finally to one or another recognised authority. having first thoroughly studied the undisputed etchings. unless. that he is unapproachable. helpless groping for the door by a blind. which does not pretend to be a full one. in especial. with little or no appeal to the variety of line and tone obtainable in etching. and to treat them properly would take a volume in itself. so much as in expressiveness that his pre-eminence lies.carrying a large illuminated star through the streets of a town at Epiphany. as was first pointed out by Sir F. dating either from 1641 or 1652. In the second place. that he so incomparably excels. until he finds him master of every method the art permits. In the first place. Beginning with the early etchings of himself or the members of his family. Drawing often carelessly. application of acid or scraping of copper. far more than in the strength and direction of line. It is in this perceiving and revealing the true inwardness of the matter. grasps the essentials. furthermore. who wishes only to know and appreciate what Rembrandt beyond question did do. M. is the last to be mentioned of the undisputed etchings. and could only be treated to any advantage at considerable length. Rembrandt's impetuous energy did not lend itself to the production of the minute and elegant drawings characteristic of so many Italian masters. and straightway he jotted it down with whatever came the handiest in the simplest possible manner consistent with the necessity that the note so made should subsequently recall to his memory the idea or object. It is. gets straight to the heart of the matter. through and apart from the mere accidents of environment. He may trace the progress of his work. he. Seymour Haden. and without doing so he can never rightly understand it. to the high perfection of such an elaborate portrait as that of "Burgomaster Six. discover. The less ambitious reader. The British Museum alone contains ninety authentic drawings and a considerable number of more or less doubtful ones. often mere drawings on copper. and abiding by his decision. and feels clearly and records frankly and simply all that speaks to the fundamental humanity in himself. It is in the mental qualities more than in the manual. how during the following ten he began more and more to supplement his work with additions in dry-point. . In them he will find ample justification for the high position to which Rembrandt as an etcher has been elevated by his successors in the art. will be wiser to confine himself to a study of the undisputed plates. DISPUTED ETCHINGS AND DRAWINGS At the question of the disputed etchings we have not space even to glance. their name is legion. masterly as that often is. and how during the[Pg 115] last ten years he to a considerable extent expressed himself by means of the point alone. sooner or later find himself differing on one point or another with every previous writer on the subject. in which case he will. depth of shadow or brightness of light. 42) there is not a detail of the technique which other men could not have done as well. nevertheless. An idea crossed his mind. how during the first ten years he confined himself almost entirely to pure etching. In such a plate as the "Blind Tobit" (B. that it is not in technique. if he compares Rembrandt's etched work with that of other masters. without doubt. He made the drawing for the sake of what it had to tell him. dashed off on the copper in one sitting. It is a delicate and difficult one.[Pg 116] Michel gives a list of nearly nine hundred.
[No. ACADEMY. transmuted by his own genius into gems of reticent perfection. Study of Rembrandt with his Mouth open. FRANZ XAVIER MEYER. S. Mountain Landscape. 43⅕ × 37⅕. 17⅗ × 13⅕. Portrait of Rembrandt. VIENNA. P. C. Where a number is given. CATALOGUE OF WORKS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE GALLERIES IN WHICH THEY HANG The following abbreviations are used in this list. 1635. C. Portrait of an Old Man with a white beard. C. = panel. Portrait of a Woman. it is the number of the Catalogue of the Gallery. Landscape. 269. S. S. The dates given must in some cases be accepted as approximate only. Young Girl at her Toilet. perhaps. GALICIA. 8⅘ × 6⅘. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY BUDA-PESTH. 29⅖ × 20⅖. P. briefly. jotted down on the spot. PRAGUE. 6]. COUNT TARNOWSKI. ANDRASSY. P. S.Most attractive. Portrait of Rembrandt. P. 1632. C. 1630. 1636. C. ACADEMY. are the numberless little sketches of landscapes. S. 1636. 46 × 53⅖. 1634. and an intuition of the salient points. S. 1655. CRACOW. 1629. but with extraordinary truth and vivacity. P. 1632. COUNT KÖNIGSWARTER. 23⅗ × 17⅗. 1632. P.] TARNOWITZ. CZARTORYSKI MUSEUM. An Old Man. 17¾ × 25¼. 1655. C. 1630. P. 19⅗ × 15⅕. 1638. 58 × 54. P. 21⅕ × 17⅕. 1639. P. S. Polish Horseman.—S. Slaughtered Ox. thus [No. 28⅖ × 21⅘. PRINCE LUBOMIRSKI. PRINCE LIECHTENSTEIN. S. Portrait of a Young Woman. P. FERDINANDEUM. COUNT NOSTITZ. 1640. 1638. S. [Pg 118] INNSBRUCK. 23 × 17½. 36⅘ × 28⅘. 22 × 28⅗. COLLECTION OF COUNT J. Companion to above. and always with a sense of balance and proportion. . to the amateur. S. Head of an Old Man. [No. 235. Portrait of a Woman. COLLECTION OF MR GEORGE VON RATH. = signed. S. S. 1660. Portrait of Saskia. S. 1640. 39⅕ × 28⅘. Portrait of a Man. S. called the Jewish fiancée. S. just the simple everyday scenes that caught his eye during his daily walks. C. = canvas. Portrait of Himself.] Repose of the Holy Family.
C. 1144. 50½ × 38. 1637.] The Woman taken in Adultery. P. MUSEUM. 5⅗ × 5⅗. P. 32 × 24⅘. 850. 397. S. 1634. [Pg 119] IMPERIAL MUSEUM.] St Paul.] Portrait of an Old Jew. known as "Portrait of a Burgomaster.] Portrait of a Rabbi. 672.] Portrait of a Jew Merchant. Samson captured by the Philistines. 47. 1646. Portrait of Rembrandt's Mother. [No. 1641. 72.A Philosopher reading by Candlelight. 295. 53 × 41. 13 × 11. 54.] Portrait of an Old Woman. C. 32½ × 25½. [No. 39 × 31½. 1139. 27 × 21. C. 45⅕ × 32⅖. [Pg 120] MUSEUM. P. 1657(?). 28⅖ × 28⅘. C. Copper. 1658. [No. 1666. 30 × 26. COUNT MERODE-WESTERLOO. Portrait of a Man.] Portrait of a Man. 50⅖ × 44. 51. [No. 1631. [No. [No. 33 × 27½. [No.] Portrait of an Old Lady. 237. [No. 39 × 32¾. [No. [No. 1400. 705. P. 24 × 18¼. P.] Portrait of Himself. [No. 294. 1654. 397a.] COUNT SCHÖNBORN-BUCHHEIM. [No. 1655. P. P. 221. C.] Portrait of a Woman. C. P. P. 26¼ × 23¼. 243. 55⅗ × 43⅗. NATIONAL GALLERY. [No. 25 × 22. Portrait of a Man. 50½ × 38. [No.] Portrait of Rembrandt.] BRITISH ISLES LONDON.] BRUSSELS. BELGIUM ANTWERP. 34½ × 25½. Study of an Angel. [No. 1636. [No. 20 × 16⅖. S. 1640. A very doubtful picture. DUC D'ARENBERG. C. [No. [No. C. 1143. STRASSER. P.] The Young Fisher.] Portrait of Rembrandt. [No. 95⅕ × 114⅘. [No. S.] Young Man Singing. [No. [No.] Portrait of an Old Man. C. P. S. Grisaille. S. 1674. S. P.] Portrait of a Woman. 190. 19⅕ × 15⅗. C. 1654.] Portrait of Himself. P. 1668. 22 × 34. C. C. 1664.] Adoration of the Shepherds. 10⅖ × 9⅖. [No.] Saskia. C. 1659. 21⅜ × 17¾. S. 36⅖ × 28. 1644. 293. 1636. 1142.] . 27⅗ × 28. 1675. 1658. 166. S. A. P. 9⅓ × 7⅗. S." S. 1659. S. 1141. 163—. 1639. 1660. 36⅖ × 28. 42 × 33⅕.] A Woman Bathing. [No. C. 30⅛ × 22½. 45. C. [No. Portrait of an Old Woman. S. C. [No. Tobias curing his Father's Blindness. P. 23⅖ × 19⅕.] Landscape. S.] Portrait of a Burgomaster. C. 1635. 1630. S. St Peter repenting in Prison. [No. C.] Portrait of a Monk.] Christ taken down from the Cross. 1636. Portrait of Henry Swalm. 9⅓ × 7⅕ [No. 43. 1140. 775. 44⅘ × 33⅗. 1627. S. S. S. C. S.] Ecce Homo. [No.
53½ × 40½. 26 × 20. Woman with Flowers. Portrait of a Young Negro. 41. A Boy. CAMBRIDGE. 706. C.G. [No. 9¾ × 8.] A Jewish Rabbi. 15½ × 12. [No. 13½ × 19. S. P. The Slaughter-house. 24½ × 21. P. P. 16—. A Young Woman in Bed. 1660. C. 1634. S. Suzanna van Collen. NATIONAL GALLERY. [No. C. [No. 60 × 77. Said to be Louis van der Linden. Portrait of a Rabbi. [No. 28 × 24. Wife of Pellicorne. 48.] EDINBURGH. 1657. The Circumcision.] The Adoration of the Magi. P. CORPORATION GALLERIES. 8½ × 6. S. P. P. S. [No. 26 × 20. Portrait of Himself. S. Portrait of Burgomaster Pellicorne and his Son Caspar. known as the Countess of Desmond. S.[Pg 121] HERTFORD HOUSE COLLECTION.] Portrait of a Lady.] Portrait of Rembrandt. P. P. 1660. 154. Portrait of Himself. 1658. [No. S. C. P. 9 × 8. S. 1647. Lent by the Duke of Abercorn.] Tobias and the Angel. P. 1632. P. Portrait of Rembrandt. 174. 20 × 24.] Descent From the Cross. S. P. 1650. 54 × 46⅖. FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 30 × 38⅞. C.] Christ and Mary Magdalene at the Tomb. 1661. 25 × 19. 1631. 8 × 6¾.] GLASGOW. 18 × 25. formerly called a portrait of William III. S. S. Oval. [No. 32 × 26½. 714. 11¼ × 9. P. Portrait of Himself. ALTHORP PARK. 28 × 20. P. C. 27 × 21½. 1640. An Old Woman. P. 31 × 25. 30. P. 41 × 33. 1664. 38 × 35½. [No.] A Man in Armour. S.] The Burgomaster Pancras and his Wife. 48 × 40½. 70½ × 86¼. S. 131. [No. . 1641. 23½ × 18. 1633. 189. A Young Man.] Study of an Old Man. 1635. 44 × 65. Portrait of Titus. S. 1631. C. 1655. 705. C. [No. P. 27 × 23. P. 1650. P. S. Entombment. 26½ × 22. 381. NATIONAL GALLERY. 26 × 20. 23½ × 19½. P. 1635. 70 × 77½. and her Daughter. 709. 707. S. [No. The Shipbuilder and his Wife. 24 × 18. 1650. 1632. [No. 25 × 19¼. Portrait of a Boy. 12⅘ × 16. S. 1632. S. 1633. Landscape. 164—. [No. P.] Jeremiah mourning over the Destruction of Jerusalem. THE EARL SPENCER. 711.] A Young Girl at a Window. C.] HUNTERIAN MUSEUM. The Unmerciful Servant. 1632. A Young Man. C. 1631. C. C. S. 710. Portrait of a Young Man. [No. C. P. 1633-1635. 1654. Shepherds reposing at Night. S. S. C.] WINDSOR CASTLE. 21½ × 28½. P.] [Pg 123] DULWICH COLLEGE. [No. [No. DUBLIN. P. Portrait of an Old Man.] [Pg 122] HAMPTON COURT. 206.] Portrait of Rembrandt. 115. 1640. C. [No. 152. K.] The Painter's Study. BUCKINGHAM PALACE. 1645. [No. S. 1640. known as the Black Archer. 1638. Copper. 61 × 48¼. 162. 61 × 48. 16. C. Called Rembrandt and Saskia. [No. 1660. 29½ × 26. The Good Samaritan.
S. 1635. 1658. D. His Mother in a Hood. C. 1653. C. EDINBURGH. 1660. The Holy Family. Portrait of a Man-at-Arms. 1637. DRAYTON MANOR. 1632. Portrait of an Old Woman. R. 29 × 24. A Monk reading. C. P. C. 1643-1645. 30 × 25. BOUGHTON KNIGHT. 45 × 38. The Finding of Moses. Abraham receiving the Angels. P. Portrait of a Man. Portrait of Rembrandt. 1659. 51⅗ × 39⅗. BELVOIR CASTLE. CANFORD MANOR. C. Isaac and Esau. 29½ × 24½. [Pg 124] BOWOOD. Portrait of a Young Woman. A Young Man. NEELD. 1630. 40 × 31½. 14⅖ × 12⅕. LORD ASHBURTON. P. A very doubtful picture. DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE. S. THE GRANGE. GOSFORD HOUSE. 56 × 39. P. 8 × 9½. S. GLASGOW. WIMBORNE. 1648. HINTON ST GEORGE. 34 × 40½. The Mill. St Paul. S. 23½ × 20." S. C. 24 × 30½. P. S. GRITTLETON. called Rembrandt's daughter. A Merchant. 1661. Portrait of a Man. 1633. oval. P. S. Portrait of a Jew. DOWNTON CASTLE. P. ALRESFORD. CHARLES MORRISON. Landscape. C. 30 × 25½. LORD WIMBORNE. CHATSWORTH. CASTLE HOWARD. P. 22½ × 27. C. BROOM HALL. 26 × 19⅕. WILLIAM CHAMBERLIN. S. 1635. 15 × 12. A. 30 × 25. S. BRIGHTON. The Cradle. Portrait of Rembrandt. About 1650. [Pg 125] RICHARD SAUNDERSON (in 1836). Portrait of Saskia. THE EARL OF CARLISLE. . SIR ROBERT PEEL. C. 32 × 26. S. P.Rembrandt's Mother. 1660. said to be Peter Cornelius van Hooft. Portrait of an Old Man. ASHRIDGE PARK. 1665. Life-size. K. THE EARL POULETT. THE EARL OF FEVERSHAM. P. S. 31 × 26½. C. C. S. Portrait of a Man. 26 × 20. Bart. C. 34 × 29½. P. DUKE OF RUTLAND. the poet. P. 27 × 23. 10⅕ × 8⅗. Portrait of Lieven Willemsz van Coppenol. 1654. 14 × 11. 1660. 1635. DUNCOMBE PARK. known as "Rembrandt's Cook. Portrait of a Burgomaster. MARQUESS OF LANSDOWNE. Portrait of a Man. P. 48 × 37½. About 1658. 1660. 55 × 52½. Portrait of a Rabbi. 18⅘ × 23⅗. LORD ELGIN. WILLIAM BEATTIE. 39½ × 33. S. 164—.G. S. DUNFERMLINE. C. EARL OF WEMYSS AND MARCH. 1629. Portrait of a Man. Portrait of a Young Artist drawing. BASILDON PARK. S. said to be Cornelius Jansenius. C. SIR A. Study of Himself. P. THE EARL BROWNLOW. ARTHUR SANDERSON. Portrait of an Old Woman. 1635.
36 × 29½. St Francis Praying. THE EARL OF DERBY. C. Hannah hearing the Young Samuel repeat his Prayers. S. . ALFRED BEIT. 16 × 14. Oval. 23 × 19½. 36½ × 29. S. K. 40 × 32½. 1660. C. P. 31 × 25½. S. 1631. C. Rembrandt's Father. Portrait of the Painter. S. C.G. 48½ × 38½. 1655. aged 18. Portrait of Rembrandt. S. ALEXANDER. 52 × 38. [Pg 126] LONDON. S. C. 1634. 1645. 43 × 34. Study of an Old Man. C. A Rabbi. 36½ × 29. MONTAGUE HOUSE. Portrait of a Man. 1651. L. 1637. C. EARL OF ELLESMERE. Doubtful. W. 1645. CAPTAIN HEYWOOD-LONSDALE. CARTWRIGHT. K. P. 1628. 1637. S. Portrait of Titus. 54 × 50½. CAPTAIN G. a Minister. 28 × 21. Martin Looten. Portrait of Rembrandt.G. DEVONSHIRE HOUSE. 1648. 1647. Portrait of a Young Man. S. 1632. Portrait of a Burgomaster. C. P. KEDDLESTON HALL. The Feast of Belshazzar. Margaretha. Portrait of Titus. Portrait of Saskia. [Pg 127] BARONESS BURDETT-COUTTS. [Pg 128] DORCHESTER HOUSE. C. C. 39 × 34. S. A Young Woman. 26½ × 20¾. K. An early work. Portrait of an Old Man. A Young Woman. 165—. 1640. 1655. C. 1635. S. 1652. 1655. LORD SCARSDALE. WENTWORTH B. THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE. or. S. incorrectly called the wife of Jan Sylvius. 29 × 24½. 31½ × 26. Doubtful Rembrandt. S. S. C. S. 1659. 65 × 81½.G. 8¾ × 6¾. Burgomaster Six. 29½ × 24½. C. 27½ × 21.G. C. C. W. 48 × 38. C. Tulp. P. The Painter's Sister. W. S. 28½ × 25. 1636. 16 × 18. The Tribute Money. 25 × 20. S. Portrait of an Old Woman. Daughter of Dr. BERENS. An Old Man. 1660. Portrait of Rembrandt. THE EARL OF CRAWFORD. A Man with a Sword. 27 × 20½. S. C. 1632. 34 × 27. Portrait of his Wife. 22½ × 18½.G. 1633. GEORGE C. A Forest Scene. REV. C. THE EARL OF DERBY. P. S. P. HOLFORD. 1645. 49 × 40. P. BEAUMONT. 1655. K. FLEISCHMANN. Joseph's Coat. 24 × 18 BRIDGEWATER HOUSE. S. Dead Peacocks. P. 1655. C. 25 × 33½. 1635. R. 1628. C. ALEXANDER HENDERSON. P. DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH.Portrait of a Boy. S. FITZWILLIAM. K. P. Portrait of a Lady. S. C. Rembrandt's Mother. P. 1635 or 8. S. B. 1644. P. KNOWSLEY HALL. 23⅕ × 18⅘. An Old Man. F.
C. C. Portrait of Dr Bonus. 1640. The Dismissal of Hagar. C. 1635. VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 1642. 1650. (Collection sold in 1898. P. . S. An Old Man. P.G. [No. 1661. P. 30 × 25⅖.LORD FRANCIS PELHAM HOPE. C. LORD WANTAGE. C. COLONEL LINDSAY (1893). S. 11½ × 16. 1633. S. THE EARL OF HOPETOUN. An Old Man. 27 × 22½. Abraham dismissing Hagar and Ishmael. 22 × 18½. A Young Man. 51½ × 40. 32½ × 42. 42 × 36. P. Portrait of Saskia. C. 1642. C.] S. 29½ × 25. 37½ × 29½. P. MRS ALFRED MORRISON. 28 × 23. DUKE OF NEWCASTLE. Portrait of a Woman. Portrait of a Very Old Woman. [Pg 130] STEPHEN TUCKER. 1640. 1640. HUMPHRY WARD. 1636.) A Lady and Gentleman. EDWARD H. S. 1663. Portrait of Catrina Hoogh. Portrait of Rembrandt. 23 × 17. Portrait of an Old Woman. 25½ × 19½. 1635. 40 × 33. SCOTT. C. 1667. Portrait of an Orator. Portrait of an Old Man. W. S. 63 × 50. 45 × 37½. COLONEL STERLING. Rembrandt's Mother. 49½ × 38½. 8½ × 11. Landscape. 26⅘ × 21⅗. SIR CHARLES TURNER. 26 × 22½. C. DUKE OF WESTMINSTER. C. Portrait of Rembrandt. S. 51 × 42. [Pg 129] LESSER (1893). MRS OWEN ROE. Oval. C. 35 × 28. 1656. LORD PENRHYN. 8⅖ × 7⅕. GROSVENOR HOUSE. 1635. S. R. Portrait of a Girl. C. P. MRS JOSEPH. Rembrandt's Father's Mill. C. 1657. S. Portrait of Rembrandt. C. Portrait of a Man. LORD IVEAGH. The Ship of St Peter. T. 26 × 20½. S. LADY DE ROTHSCHILD. C. K. S. S. 20 × 14¾. 27 × 21. JAMES REISS Landscape. S. The Angel departing from Tobit. P. P. The Salutation. S. HUDSON. 15 × 20½. P. 1646. S. C. 1660. THE EARL OF NORTHBROOK. THE EARL OF ILCHESTER. C. C. Portrait of a Man. Portrait of an Old Woman. 1658. 1630 or 1658. S. 41 × 30. P. 33.
Portrait of Rembrandt. P. 83. Portrait of a Lady. C. C. Cedar panel. Portrait of the Painter's Sister. S. NOTTS. Portrait of a Youth. S. NEW HALL. C. S. 9 × 7. S. Portrait of a Lady. 51 × 66. 15½ × 11½. 113 × 94. 1639. P. 44 × 37½. 1632. 14. 1634. 29 × 24. Oval. 16¼ × 21¼. The Painter's Sister. Portrait of a Man.] S. 44 × 37½. 19. Portrait of a Saint. 1650. Wife of Elias Van Trip. Tobit and His Wife. P. S. 1644. Portrait of a Man. 15. Girl with a Rosebud. S. THE EARL OF PEMBROKE.] P. 27 × 21. S. 28½ × 25. PRESENT OWNERS UNKNOWN. Portrait of Rembrandt. P. 20 × 17. MUSEUM. [NO.] S. C. THE EARL COWPER. Landscape. 49 × 39½. 24½ × 28. DUKE OF PORTLAND. RICHMOND. NEW CARLSBERG GLYPTOTEK. S. 25½ × 22.] S. S. INCHTURE. PANSHANGER. 1635. WOBURN ABBEY. 1636. The Prodigal Son. Portrait of Nicholas Berchem. Sketch of a Man's Head. 29½ × 23. 27 × 21. 12½ × 9½. S. A Lady with a Fan. Portrait of Rembrandt. 1649. [NO. 28½ × 25½. 43 × 38. BODENHAM. P. . Landscape. P. 1647.G. 1632. 1666. WELBECK ABBEY. THE EXECUTORS OF THE LATE SIR FRANCIS COOK. 1637. 1645. 29 × 24. 1643.Portrait of a Gentleman with a Hawk. C. 13½ × 10½. LORD KINNAIRD. 1643. WILTON HOUSE. PETWORTH. C. C. Man Reading. 32 × 25.] 1654. 17 × 14. C. 36 × 30. C. S. K. Portrait of a Young Woman. 1661. DENMARK. P. Portrait of an Old Woman. Portrait of a Lady. 32. ALFRED BUCKLEY. P. P. 34½ × 30½. HENRY WILLETT. [No. 1635. 1631. 1632. Head of a Man. S. A very doubtful picture. S. Cedar panel. Head of a Boy. [Pg 131] THE EARL OF YARBOROUGH. SIR MATTHEW WILSON. Portrait of an Old Man. COPENHAGEN. S. Portrait of Marshal Turenne. Study of an Old Man. P. C. 1647. P. C. Portrait of his Wife. S. Portrait of Rembrandt. COPENHAGEN. 1635. 25 × 18½. 25 × 18½. 1634. [No. PERTHSHIRE. 1631. the daughter of Jan Wils. C. S. 40½ × 35. Oval. COUNT MOLTKE. Portrait of an Old Lady. P. C. P. P. Oval. 39 × 61. [Pg 132] ROSSIE PRIORY. DUKE OF BEDFORD. C. 14 × 18½. P. [No. 20]. [No. Portrait of Alotte Adriaans. An Old Woman Reading. 44½ × 42. LORD LECONFIELD.
1661. [No. Salon Carré. Grand Gallery. 1640. 273. 24⅘ × 19⅕. Portrait of Nicholas Ruts. 2553. [No. [No. C. Portrait of a Young Woman. LÉON GAUCHEZ. Portrait of a Rabbi. 33⅕ × 26⅖. 27⅕ × 21⅕. P. Grand Gallery. Jean Six at a Window. 2555. or a Woman bathing. Christ at Emmaus. [No. Portrait of an Old Man. C. 2543. 29 × 25. 8⅘ × 7. Salon Carré. P. Bathsheba. 87⁄25 × 939⁄50. 7 × 5⅖. 1648. S. P. C. Grand Gallery. C. 1632. [No. P.] S. MME.] S. 1658. 2549. 2547. 1661. 2537. 101. 2539. 46 × 34½. P. [No. 2536. 44 × 35⅕.H. Grand Gallery.Christ at Emmaus. LÉON BONNAT. Portrait of a Man. Portrait of Rembrandt. [No. 1656. P. 1660. . Portrait of a Man. P.] S. C. 16⅖ × 13⅗. [Pg 133] Portrait of a Young Man. C. 2554. 274. 56⅘ × 56⅘. 45⅗ × 54.] S. 1650. Grand Gallery. P. P. 32 × 24⅘. ÉPINAL. 1655. Venus and Cupid.] S. Salle Lacaze.] S. [No. Portrait of a Young Man. Grand Gallery. PRINCE DE CHALAIS. [No. P. [No. 1633. P. 1660. C. Salon Carré. 1647. Portrait of an Old Woman. 1656. 2541. C. Portrait of Rembrandt.] S. Salon Carré. Head of an Old Man. Salle Lacaze.] S. 38⅖ × 32⅖. 1631. 44⅖ × 34. A Philosopher in Meditation. 2544.] S. 23⅕ × 18. 2552. PARIS. P.] P. 2548. [No. 2542. MUSEUM. S. P.] 1661. Tasters in a Cellar. P. P. MUSEUM. C. 1634. P. ANDRÉ-JACQUEMART. [No. [No. [No. 522. 45⅗ × 32. attributed to van Vliet. [Pg 135] Portrait of Lysbeth van Rijn. Portrait of Rembrandt. FRANCE. Salle Lacaze. A Philosopher in Meditation. 29 × 25. P. 30⅖ × 25⅕. 10 × 8⅘. [No.] 1628. Paper on panel 15⅗ × 16⅘. Salle XV. 27⅕ × 20⅘. [No. C. 2538. 1648. Grand Gallery.] S. P. R. Very doubtful. P. 37⅗ × 27⅗. 2545. Grand Gallery. 26 × 20⅖. Petitioners To a Biblical King. S. Saint Matthew. 29⅕ × 24⅖. 2546. MARQUIS BONI DE CASTELLANE. 1648. PARIS. 1633. NANTES.] S. [No. 2540. [No. P. 1637. 2550. 1655. S. C. C. 19⅘ × 25⅕. Portrait of Rembrandt's Father. 1650. Figure of Susannah. about 1652. 1651. 11⅗ × 13⅕.] S. 36 × 22⅖. [No. 10⅖ × 7⅗.] Companion to the last. 11⅕ × 9⅕. 11⅖ × 10⅗.] S. 28⅘ × 24. [Pg 134] The Good Samaritan. [No. Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels.] 1655. Christ at Emmaus.] 1633. C. 1629. [No. [No. A Woman Bathing.] S.] S.] 1647. 10 × 8. 1637. Salon Carré.] S.] S. Grand Gallery. 292. Oval. 33½ × 42½. P. The Angel Raphael leaving Tobit. [No. S. Grand Gallery. [No. Portrait of Rembrandt. The Slaughter-house. THE LOUVRE. 22 × 17⅗. 1638. C. Portrait of a Man. 2551. 27⅕ × 26. The Carpenter's Home. [No.] S. Grand Gallery. 1654. Oval. Portrait of Arnold Tholinx. 1633. Portrait of an Old Man. 1656.
18⅗ × 14⅘. P. Portrait of a Man. Head of Christ. 82⅘ × 52⅘. Head of an Old Man. 39⅕ × 31⅕. Portrait of Titus. 1633. Portrait of a Woman holding a Book. S. 30 × 24⅖. P. 52⅕ × 65⅗. 1658. 1639. Portrait of his Sister. 1660. 1642. [Pg 137] Portrait of a Rabbi. P. Portrait of a Man. 1650. P. BARON ALPHONSE DE ROTHSCHILD. 8⅘ × 7⅕. DURAND RUEL. C. 38⅕ × 50. 36⅖ × 29⅘. P. Portrait of Anthoni Copal. C. 22⅖ × 17⅕. 1649. 1664. 1657. P. 46⅖ × 39⅕. S. 1655. 22⅖ × 19⅕. DE ROTHSCHILD. 25⅗ × 17⅕. BARONESS HIRSCH-GEREUTH (THE LATE). 29⅘ × 24⅗. Head of Christ. Portrait of Rembrandt's Brother. 1655. LEOPOLD GOLDSCHMIDT. 10 × 7⅘. C. 1633. 15⅖ × 12⅖. S. 20 × 24. Zachariah receiving the Prophecy of the Birth of John the Baptist. P. P. 1650. MME. P. 1659. P. between 1666 and 1668. Wife of the man. S. 1636. 37⅕ × 29⅕. 50⅖ × 40. C. S. JULES PORGÈS. S. C. Oval. Portrait of an Old Woman. S. S. BARON N. P. HARJES. Old Woman cutting her Nails. COUNTESS EDMOND DE POURTALÈS. C. Portrait of a Young Woman. S. The Standard-Bearer. with Swans. 1633. 50 × 42. 22⅖ × 17⅕. ALBERT LEHMANN. 1633. Portrait of Cornelia Pronck. P. Portrait of a Woman. P. 1668. 1652. . 17⅗ × 13⅕. Portrait of a Boy. Portrait of an Old Woman. Wife of Martin Daey. C. A Man in a Red Cloak. P. 23 × 17⅗. HENRY PEREIRE. 1632. S. C. C. An Old Woman meditating over a Book. BARON GUSTAVE DE ROTHSCHILD. C. Old Man With a White Beard. PAUL MATHEY. S.Lucretia. 1645. S. The Good Samaritan. S. Portrait of Martin Daey. P. 33⅕ × 26⅘. 1635. Portrait of a Young Man rising from a Chair. 82⅘ × 52⅘. 50 × 40. RODOLPHE KANN. 24 × 18⅘. [Pg 136] MAURICE KANN. or Saskia. C. 1634. Landscape. Portrait of Machteld van Doorn. 31⅗ × 23⅗. Portrait of a Rabbi. BARON ARTHUR DE SCHICKLER. C. C. 1663. P. 10⅖ × 8. 1655. C. S. C. Called Rembrandt's cook. 1632. 1632. 24 × 18⅘. C. 30⅗ × 23. S. BARONESS NATHANIEL DE ROTHSCHILD. 25⅕ × 23⅕. LACROIX. S. David playing before Saul. S.
] S. S. S. Old Man. Portrait of Saskia. C. CHARLES SEDELMEYER. SCHLOSS. 54⅘ × 46⅖. 12⅕ × 16⅘. [No. HENRI SCHNEIDER. TOURS. 805. M. 1635. 1633. [No. 1629. C. Oval. Study of a Young Boy.] 1662. [No. 44 × 32⅘. [No. C. P. 9⅕ × 7⅘. 806. Judith. P. 7⅕ × 6⅘. DUTUIT. Diana bathing. 1654-56. Study of an Old Man. [No. 22 × 18⅖. 32⅘ × 26. 1631. Portrait of an Old Man. Portrait of His Father. 1634. 1630. ROUEN. An Old Rabbi. C. [No. P. 808. P. C. C. [Pg 140] Jacob Wrestling with the Angel.] S. Portrait of a Rabbi. 26⅘ × 21. 1643. Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels. 8⅘ × 7⅖. BERLIN GALLERY. 8 × 10⅘. [No. S. 34⅘ × 26. 1645. 51⅕ × 72. 828 H. 828 D. [No. P. 802]. 10⅖ × 8⅖. 828 E. Study of a Rabbi. 1634. 66⅘ × 54. Moses breaking the Tables of the Law. The Wife of Tobias with the Goat. P. 1643. P.] S.] S. 1659. P. P. C. C. C. 1647. 811. C.] S. 1654.] S. The Rape of Proserpina. [Pg 138] A. C. 11⅖ × 9⅕. DR MELVIL WASSERMANN. 71⅕ × 52⅘. 828 J. 1627. The Money-Changer. Joseph's Dream. S. P. 1634.] 1631. P. P. 1650 To 1655. [No. [No. MUSEUM. C. 1633. 828. 62⅖ × 51⅗. 1631. 1645.] S. 828 K. 38⅖ × 46⅖. Rembrandt. 828 C.] S. or Minerva. formerly called The Duke of Gueldres. P. 1659. . 1628. E.] 1650. The Wife of Alenson. 32⅖ × 21⅗. 1645. P. CHARLES WALTNER.] A copy of the one in the Museum at Nantes. [No. C. 31⅗ × 41⅕. P. Susannah and the Elders. P. 8⅕ × 7. 20⅖ × 14⅘. [No. S. 22⅘ × 18⅘. 823.] 1655. 73⅗ × 89⅗. 1641. P. 810. 1656. 10 × 7⅗. 23⅗ × 19⅕. Samson threatening his Father-in-law [No.] 1634. 437.] 1632. 8 × 10⅘. [No. S. C. 28⅘ × 23⅕. Portrait of the Minister Anslo consoling a Widow. [No. 71⅕ × 52⅘. C. [No. 828 B. Daniel's Vision. P.Judas with the Price of the Betrayal. Rembrandt laughing. 41½ × 34. Study of his Father. [Pg 139] GERMANY. 6 × 4. Pilate washing his Hands. 25 × 31. S.] S. 33⅕ × 31⅕. 1634. Portrait of Rembrandt. Rembrandt. [No. P. 828 F. [No. Joseph accused by Potiphar's Wife. ROYAL MUSEUM.] S. 828 A. 1655. Hans Alenson. [No. WARNECK. 30⅖ × 36⅖. 812. John the Baptist preaching. Portrait of Saskia.] S. 1656.
208. 216. 8 × 6⅖. [No. Portrait of Rembrandt. [No. P. An Old Man. 1635.] S. Portrait. 1645. An Old Man. A Young Woman. 235. 28⅘ × 38. [No. [No. P. 28⅘ × 23⅗. 26⅘ × 20⅗. 1634. C. [No. 1630. P. 221. Portrait of Bruyningh.] S. Actæon.] S. C. 24 × 19⅗. MUSEUM. Holy Family. 49⅕ × 37⅗. 52 × 44. 1633. Christ on the Cross. 212. BERLIN. 23⅗ × 19⅗. 32 × 25⅕. 1646. [No. C. P. 236. 47⅕ × 38. CARLSRUHE. [No. 17⅗ × 14⅖. P. St Paul in Meditation. [Pg 142] A Man. P. The Ruin. 1632. [No. [No. 26⅖ × 34⅖. 238] S. 218. P. Portrait of a Family." S. The Risen Christ. 27⅕ × 22⅕. Rembrandt. BRUNSWICK. An Old Woman. 20⅘ × 28⅘. S. [No.] S. 215.] S. [No. P. 219. [No. 210.] S. 214. 232. [No. P.] S. [No. [No. C. Sylvius. 20 × 15⅗. MARTIUS. 1635. Saskia. [No. P. 1651. Noli Me Tangere.] S. P. 1665. VON CARSTANGEN. 31⅗ × 25⅗. 1632. 32⅘ × 25⅕. and Callisto.] 1631. 26⅖ × 21⅕. C. C. [No. S. EMPEROR FREDERICK MUSEUM. ROYAL MUSEUM. SANS-SOUCI.ALTFRANKEN. Rembrandt's Brother. 26 × 31⅗. 1651. Portrait of a Young Girl.] S. 25⅖ × 19⅕.] 1635. P. P. 50⅖ × 66⅗. An Old Man. COUNT LUCKNER.] S. C. 1635. GRAND DUCAL MUSEUM.] S. CARL HOLLITSCHER. 1668. 217. P. Rembrandt. P. [No.] 1634.] 1627. Portrait of a Man. P. 213. 18 × 26⅘. 79⅕ × 48⅖. 1646.] S. 1639. [No. 1646. .] Called "The Woodchopper. 238. P. 209. P. ASCHAFFENBOURG. 1628. 1661. 1640. 14 × 9⅗. BONN. Portrait of Himself. C. The Capture of Samson. 211.] S. 1640. 26⅖ × 22⅖. 233. Rembrandt. 39⅕ × 28. [No. P. Christ at the Column. 1634. 1650. 1652. 32⅘ × 27. GRAND DUCAL MUSEUM. ANHOLT. 13⅗ × 11⅕. P. 1650. [Pg 141] JAMES SIMON. ROBERT VON MENDELSSOHN. S. 1645.] S. S. S. Diana. 40 × 31⅕.] S. S. C. 220. 1632. 39⅕ × 30⅘. PROFESSOR G. Portrait of a Woman. C. 25⅖ × 19⅕. 42 × 36. 1638. A Winter Landscape. CASSEL. Stormy Landscape. [No. C. 237. Jan Herman Krul. S. 6⅖ × 8⅘. PRINCE OF SALM-SALM. 1648. P. An Unknown Man. Portrait of J. said to be Coppenol. 29⅗ × 23⅗. Portrait of Saskia. C. C. P. 1633. S.
C. BARON A. [Pg 144] Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard. P. 64 × 52⅘. [No.] S. [Pg 143] Rembrandt and Saskia.] S. [No. 1630. 1656. P. P. 45⅗ × 54. [No. COLOGNE. C. 38⅘ × 27⅗. 1655.] 1657. C. 39⅕ × 32⅘. 36 × 31⅕. 1567.] 1654. [No. 1632.] 1666. 182. Old Woman weighing Gold.] S. MUSEUM. C. 1630. 1564. [No. [No. 50⅖ × 70⅖. [No. Portrait of a Man. [No. 227. 347. Portrait of Margaretha van Bilderbeecq. Copper. 48 × 36. 27 × 21. An Old Man. FRANKFORT. [No.] 1656. The Denial of St Peter. The Woman taken in Adultery. David playing before Saul. P.] Willem Burchgraeff. 30⅘ × 25⅗.] S. or Geometrician. 1641.] S. 1557. 37⅗ × 29⅕. 34⅕ × 26. A Man. C.] S. 1640. C. 183. 68⅗ × 52. 347. P. An Old Man. C. 1656. 1563. Portrait of Rembrandt.] 1645. GOTTCHALD. 52 × 44. P.] S. 1562. S. ROYAL GALLERY. 32⅘ × 28⅖. 24⅘ × 20. [No. 40 × 30⅘. C.] S. C. . [No. P. C. C. Rembrandt. The Entombment. LEIPZIG. 1638. A Lady. 1571. ALFRED THIEME. 1653. 7⅕ × 5⅗. [No. 1661. ELBERFELD. [No. An Architect.] S. 1556. P. 1633. P.] S. 45⅕ × 36. 1629.] C. 29⅕ × 23⅗. The Sacrifice of Manoah. [No. 48⅖ × 35⅗. [No. KUNST-HALLE. 69⅗ × 80. C. C. VON OPPENHEIM.] S. [No. A Young Girl. CONSUL WEBER. 1635. 225. [No. P. 1560. C. Maurice Huygens. Saskia holding a Pink. 30⅘ × 26⅘. S. GOTHA.] Oval. P.] S. 1633. 8 × 6⅔. 1570. 1559. 21 × 17⅗. An Old Man. The Marriage of Samson. [No.Man in Armour. 1635. MUSEUM. 1655.] S. C. 1657. S. 181. C. 181. The Man with the Bittern. 1566. 1641. 1654. The Good Samaritan. Presentation in the Temple. DRESDEN. 1643. 1668.] S. An Old Man. A Young Man. C. [No. Rembrandt. [No. [No. P. 1628. 61⅕ × 54⅘. 1659. S." [No. The Capture of Ganymede. 8 × 6. An Old Man with a Beard. 1661. 8⅕ × 6⅘. KARL VON DER HEYDT. 1633. 224. Saskia. Study of an Old Man. 22 × 17⅗. 8⅘ × 6⅘. 10⅖ × 8⅖. 1569. P. GRAND-DUCAL GALLERY. 226. 35⅘ × 27⅖. known as "The Watch. 44⅘ × 39⅗. JULIUS O.] S. 12⅖ × 15.] S. 1568. [No.] 1656. HAMBURG. 8⅖ × 7. P. [No. Rembrandt. The Flagellation. Jacob Blessing Joseph's Sons. 1558. 26⅘ × 22⅖. S. [No.] S. 182.] P.] S. [No. 223. C. 1639. C. [No. 1565. DARMSTADT. 222. C. [No. STÆDEL ART INSTITUTE.] 1655. 1635. A Pilgrim at Prayer. [No. 96⅖ × 114. 37⅗ × 30⅘. 1644. S.
1631. 32⅘ × 26⅘. A Man Laughing. AUGUSTEUM.] S. [No. 6 × 4⅘. 1654. 37⅗ × 28. 1629. [No.] 1628. P.] 1633. [No.] S. St Paul in Prison. [No. The Elevation of the Cross. [No. S. 1634. 1650. STUTTGART. MUSEUM. [No. Room XIV. 25 × 18⅗. DR MARTIN SCHUBART. Portrait of Rembrandt.] S.] S. Room XIV. 1644. 1632. C.] S. P.] S. Rembrandt. 33⅗ × 25⅕. 330. Saint Paul. An Old Man. P. OLDENBURG. NORDKIRCHEN. . P. WEIMAR. [No. MUSEUM. 148. 1639. 26⅗ × 20⅖. 1630. 1632.] S. 855. Rembrandt As an Officer. or the painter's mother.] S. SCHWERIN. 1643. 1646. P. Rembrandt [No. 325.] S. S. 1633. 1627. 167. S. C. 22⅘ × 18⅘.] 1656. 1631. STRASBURG.] 1628.] S. [No. The Ascension. An Old Man. 333. 1633. 328. The Prophetess Anna. P. 1661.Portrait called the Constable of Bourbon. 35⅗ × 26. C. [No. [No.] 1629. 1629. [Pg 145] MUNICH. P. 324. [No. MUSEUM.] 1630. The Descent from the Cross. [No. ROYAL MUSEUM. P. C. 22 × 18. 298]. 38⅘ × 28⅘. Portrait of a Turk. C. C. in armour. An Old Man. 15⅗ × 12⅘. 14⅘ × 11⅗. P. P. Rembrandt's Father. 11⅗ × 16. Holy Family. [No. 64⅘ × 86⅖. 36⅘ × 26⅘. Christ. 24 × 19⅕. [No. 24⅖ × 18⅖. 145. 149. COUNT ESTERHAZY. 1631.] S. [Pg 147] The Anatomy Lesson of Professor Pieterszoon Tulp. Room XIII. [No. 854. C. C. GRAND DUCAL MUSEUM. [Pg 146] POSEN. THE HAGUE. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 556. 38⅖ × 28⅘. 39 × 32⅗. MAURITSHUIS. [No. 327. holding a scroll. 1636. 77⅕ × 52. 146. C. 326. C. 24⅖ × 19⅕. [No. 23⅗ × 17⅗. [No. [No. S.] 1645. NUREMBERG. An Old Man. 331. 36⅖ × 29⅗. The Entombment. Rembrandt's Mother. C. 7 × 5.] S. 1632. 329. 169.] S. [No. C. The Resurrection. The Presentation in the Temple. P. 37⅕ × 27⅗. P. P. [No. HOLLAND. 166. MUSEUM. Landscape. 577. 1629. 28 × 23⅕. Room XIV. P. Rembrandt. [No. 1630. 565. COUNT EDWARD RACZYNSKI. 1633. P. S.] S. An Old Man. 18⅘ × 15⅗. 24⅘ × 18⅘. GRAND DUKE OF SAXE-WEIMAR. A Young Man.] 1638. P. Room XIV. [No. ROYAL GALLERY. 24 × 19⅕. 27⅕ × 20⅘. A Young Girl. 225. 598. Room XIV. C. An Old Man. METZ. Room XIV. C. Room XIV.] S. S.
P. 34 × 26⅘. C. 42⅖ × 32⅖. 1644. [No. 1654. 1247. 1658. 29 × 25. BARON VAN HARINXMA THOE SLOOTEN. 1249]. S. 5¼ × 3¾.] S. [No. [No. 20⅘ × 30⅖. 1637. Room 13. Room 13.] S.The Flight Into Egypt.] 1629. 1647. 451. Cardboard.] 1650. P. Portrait Believed To Be Rembrandt's Brother Adriaen. 449. 147. 1663. 28⅘ × 23⅕. DR BREDIUS. C. 22 × 19⅕. 20 × 15⅕. 24⅔ × 19⅕. S. Widow of Admiral Swartenhout. 143⅗ × 174. P. S. Mythological Subject. A Woman. 1661. 60. 10⅖ × 8⅕. [No. 40 × 32.] S. The Jewish Bride. 7⅗ × 6. 15⅕ × 14. P. BRERA. An Old Man. C. Elizabeth Bas [No. Called "the Night Watch. 1629. [No. S. PRINCE HENRI DES PAYS-BAS. DR C. 1246]. 28⅘ × 23⅕. Rembrandt. C. 44 × 40. 1660. BOYMANS MUSEUM. UFFIZI. 560. C. Joseph Interpreting His Dreams. 46⅖ × 35⅕. Known As the Lady of Utrecht. C. P. [No. Rembrandt's Sister. The Peace of the Country. [No. ITALY. 1251. C. D. 43⅕ × 32⅘. Portrait of an Old Man. C. [No. . 18⅘ × 15⅗. 1642. 16. [No.] S. S. P. 1630.] S. 1643. [No. 23⅗ × 18⅘. Room D. Rembrandt's Father. P. 1641. 1656. LEEUWARDEN. 1636. 1630. A Woman at Her Toilet. 238.] S. 1252. MILAN. Oval. C.] S. The Sortie of the Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq [No. 31⅕ × 26⅖. C. Room B. 1632. THE HAGUE. P. S.] S. P. Study of an Old Man. 1250. C. 584. RYKSMUSEUM.] S. 552. F. Rembrandt. Room XIV. Room XIV. Portrait of Rembrandt. 1639. Room XIV. Burgomaster Six. 1650. SIX COLLECTION. P. 1640. P. 1665. [No. Room XIV. Room 6. SIGNOR FABRI. 74 × 109⅗.] S. C. The Toilet of Bathsheba. [Pg 148] The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Johannes Deyman.] 1635.] S. P. 1630. [No. 1248. 47⅕ × 65⅗. Head of a Boy. 1637. 40 × 52⅘. 237. [Pg 149] ROTTERDAM. P. 29⅗ × 40.] S. Portrait of Rembrandt. Portrait of Ephraim Bonus. 21⅗ × 18⅖. 24⅘ × 20⅘.] 1666. A Woman Praying. FLORENCE. 40⅘ × 33⅕. PITTI PALACE. HOFSTEDE DE GROOT. 1640. 9⅖ × 8⅕." S. P. 7¾ × 6. C. 1643. Homer Reciting His Poems. [No. 29⅕ × 22⅖. 452. Portrait of Rembrandt's Father. Room 5. Susannah at the Bath. Room XIV. A Young Lady.] 1655. [No. [No. [No. Anna Vymer. 579. [No. STEENGRACHT COLLECTION. AMSTERDAM. The Syndics of the Drapers. C. SCHEURLEER. C.
C.] S. Hannah Teaching the Infant Samuel to Read. C. [No. 822. [No. SINAIA. C. 1668. 46⅘ × 36⅖.] S.] S. [No.] S. P. 799. 795. 53⅕ × 42⅘. C. [Pg 151] Rembrandt's Mother. [No. The Descent From the Cross. Portrait of an Oriental.] S. 1636. An Old Woman. called Sobieski.] S. [No. P. 806. 798. [No. Portrait of a Man. P. Girl with a Broom. 1637. The Sacrifice of Isaac.] S. erroneously called Manasseh Ben Israel.] S. 35⅕ × 28⅘. The Sons of Jacob showing him Joseph's Coat. 43⅕ × 34⅖. 807. C. 74 × 82.] S. ST PETERSBURG. [No. 94 × 76. 1651. 801. 805. 1636. 30⅖ × 22⅖. An Old Jew. [No. 1631. 43⅗ × 33⅗. Portrait of Jeremias de Decker. P. 827. The Incredulity of St Thomas.] S. [No. 1654. Portrait of a Man. 1630. 791. C.] S. 45⅕ × 36⅘. C.] S. [No. The Prodigal Son. 38⅘ × 26⅗. [No. Pallas. 817.] S. 1654. and Ahasuerus.] S. 28⅘ × 22⅖. Haman.1777. 1634. [No. 792. An Old Woman. 820. [No. 43⅗ × 36⅘. C. [No.] S. 819.] S. An Old Man. 61⅘ × 67⅕. P. P. Portrait of a Man. A Young Man. 104⅘ × 100. The Jewish Bride. 28 × 20⅘. THE HERMITAGE. Esther. 804. 63⅕ × 46⅘. 39⅗ × 30⅖. [No. 1656. 892. 77⅕ × 53⅕. 50⅘ × 46⅘. P. Danae. An Old Man. 793. Portrait of Rembrandt's Father. 12⅖ × 16⅘. 1650. C. An Old Man. [Pg 150] RUSSIA. [No. [No. 1634. 48⅗ × 65. An Old Jew. [No. [No.] 1650. [No.] S. C. 818. 30 × 24⅗. P. 821. [No. . C. C. C. the Poet. 828].] S. 1634. Young Woman trying on an Earring. St Peter's Denial. 825. 797.] S. [No.] 1660. [No.] S. [No. 829. 1645. The Disgrace of Haman. 46⅘ × 37⅗. 1650. 20⅖ × 16⅘. C. 14⅖ × 10⅖. 812.] S. 1645. 61⅕ × 67⅕.] S. 1666. 29⅗ × 25⅕.] S. 29⅗ × 25⅕. C.ROUMANIA. The Holy Family.] 1654. 1654. 51⅗ × 44⅘.] S. 813. [No. 823. [No. C. C.] 1654. C. 1642. [No. 1657. 40⅘ × 34⅘. 1650. [No. 1654. P. [No. 31⅗ × 24⅖. C.] S.] 1669. The Reconciliation of David and Absalom. [No. C. 808.] S. The Parable of the Master of the Vineyard. S. [No. 814. 42 × 38⅘. C. C. P. C. Joseph Accused by Potiphar's Wife. 800. 16 × 14⅕. C. 1635. [No.] 1650. 43⅗ × 33⅗. 46⅘ × 36⅖. 22 × 20⅖.] S. [No.] S. 50 × 40⅖. 1661. An Old Woman. 809. 1654. 810. 811. [No.] S. 824. 794. C.] S. 28⅖ × 22⅖.] S. [No. 1656. 28⅖ × 24⅖. THE KING OF ROUMANIA. 815. 1643. C. C. [No. An Old Woman. 1637. Portrait of a Man. 826. [Pg 152] A Young Woman. 796. [No. 1655. Abraham Receiving the Angels. C. 1643. P. 1634. A Young Man [No.
PRINCE JOUSOUPOFF. Head of a Young Boy. S. 1633. P. 722⁄25 × 617⁄25. Susannah and the Elders. S. 1637. A Young Man. 1660. C. 32⅘ × 39⅕. A Lady With an Ostrich Feather. 1660. C. 33 × 39⅗. PRINCE OF LEUCHTEMBERG. Rembrandt. [No. 108]. 1643. P. 30 × 24⅘. COUNT A. W. ORLOFF-DAVIDOFF. Christ. 1660. C. 4319⁄25 × 38⅘. [Pg 153] COUNT S. STROGANOFF. A Philosopher in Meditation. S. 1630. P. 23⅖ × 18-2⅗0 A Young Monk. S. 1660. C. 32⅖ × 26⅘. SPAIN. MADRID. PRADO. Queen Artemisia receiving the Ashes of Mausolus. [No. 1544.] Otherwise Known As Cleopatra at her toilet. S. 1634. C. 56⅘ × 61⅕. SWEDEN. STOCKHOLM. ROYAL MUSEUM. A Young Girl. [No. 591.] 1630. P. 23⅗ × 24⅘. St Anastasius. [No. 579.] S. 1631. P. 24 × 19⅕. Saskia. [No. 583.] S. 1632. C. 28⅘ × 21⅗. Study of an Old Man as St Peter. [No. 1349.] S. 1632. C. 32⅘ × 24⅘. An Old Man. [No. 585.] S. 1633. The Young Servant. S. 1654. C. 31⅕ × 25⅕. An Old Man. [No. 581.] S. 1655. C. 35⅗ × 29⅕. An Old Woman. [No. 582.] S. 1655. C. 35⅗ × 29⅕. The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis. [No. 578.] 1661. C. 78⅖ × 123⅗. [Pg 154] VANAS. COUNT AXEL DE WACHTMEISTER. A Young Man. S. 1632. P. 25 × 18⅖. A Young Man. 1643. C. 42 × 36. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. CHICAGO. ARMOUR. Portrait of a Man. S. 1643. C. 33⅗ × 26⅘. P. C. HANFORD. An Accountant by a Table. C. 40⅘ × 32. NEW YORK. W. H. BEERS. Rembrandt's Father. 1632. C. 30 × 24⅘. ROBERT W. DE FOREST. Head of a Young Man. 25½ × 19½. H. O. HAVEMEYER. Portrait of Christian Paul van Beersteyn, Burgomaster of Delft. S. 1632. Portrait of Volkera Nicolai Knobbert, wife of Beersteyn. S. 1632. Portrait of Paulus Doomer, called "The Gilder." S. 1640. P. 29⅕ × 21⅗.
A Woman, aged 87. S. 1640 or 1646. C. 27⅗ × 24. [Pg 155] ROBERT HOE. Young Gipsy holding a Medallion. 1650. C. MORRIS K. JESSUP. Portrait of a Young Man, erroneously called Six. Portrait of his Wife. METROPOLITAN MUSEUM. A Man. [no. 277.] 1640. C. 30¾ × 24¾. An Old Man. [no. 274.] S. 1665. C. 27⅝ × 24⅜. The Mills. [no. 276.] C. 21½ × 26¼. The Adoration of the Shepherds. [No. 278.] P. 24⅜ × 207⁄16. J. PIERPONT MORGAN. Portrait of Rembrandt. C. 43½ × 33½. R. MORTIMER. Portrait of a Young Man putting on His Armour. 1634. C. 40⅖ × 33⅗. W. SCHAUS. Portrait of an Admiral, erroneously called "Van Tromp." 1658. P. 36 × 29¾. CHARLES STEWART SMITH. St John. Oval. S. 1632. P. 25 × 19. [Pg 156] C. T. YERKES. The Raising of Lazarus. 1628. P. 16⅘ × 14. Joris de Caulery. S. 1632. Portrait of a Rabbi. 1635. P. 25 × 20⅘. Philemon and Baucis. S. 1658. P. 21⅗ × 27⅗. PHILADELPHIA. P. A. B. WIDENER. Portrait of Saskia. 1633. P. 23⅗ × 18⅕. PITTSBURGH. A. M. BYERS. Portrait of Saskia. S. 1636. P. 31⅖ × 26⅖. SAN FRANCISCO. WILLIAM H. CROCKER. Portrait of a Young Boy. P. 16⅖ × 14. UNKNOWN OWNERS. A Young Man, Called Tulp. S. 1634. P. 28⅘ × 20⅖. Portrait of a Young Woman. S. 1634. P. 28⅘ × 20⅖. A Man, called Matthys Kalkoen. S. 1632. C. 44⅘ × 36. Portrait of Saskia. S. 1634. Portrait called "The Dutch Admiral." S. 1643. Portrait of a Lady. S. 1643. An Orphan Girl of Amsterdam. S. 1645. C. 64 × 33⅗. "The Standard-Bearer." 1662. C. 56 × 58. Portrait Called Six. S. C. 48 × 36⅘. [Pg 157]
Abraham caressing Isaac (etching), 108 Abraham conversing with Isaac (etching), 99 Abraham dismissing Hagar (etching), 96 Abraham entertaining the Angels, 75;
(etching), 106 Abraham's Sacrifice, 64; (etching), 105 Actæon, Diana, and Callisto, 63 Adam and Eve (etching), 96 Admiral, Portrait of an, 79 Adoration of the Magi, The, 78 Adoration of the Shepherds, The, 32, 73; (etching), 112 Adriaen, Rembrandt's Brother, 12, 14, 28, 38; Portrait of, 51 Adriaans, Alotte, Portrait of, 67 Alenson, the Minister, 25; Portraits of, and his wife, 61 Amsterdam, prosperity of, 14, 15 Amsterdam, View of (etching), 109 Anatomy Lesson, The, 13, 16, 58; ill., 58 Anatomy Lesson of Dr Deyman, The, (1656), 77 Angel, An, 78 Angel quitting Tobit, The, 65; (etching), 98 Anna, 55 Anslo, the Minister, 25; Portrait of 68; ill., 68 Architect, An, 77 Artemisia receiving the Ashes of Mausolus, 62 Ascension, The, 20, 64 Asselyn, Jan, 25; Portrait of (etching), 109 Baptism of the Eunuch, The (etching), 98 Bartsch, Adam, 90 Bas, Elizabeth, Portrait of, 68; ill., 68 Bathers, The (etching), 112 Bathsheba (Louvre), 76 Bathsheba at her Toilet, 71 Battle-Scene (etching), 109 Baucis and Philemon receiving Jupiter and Mercury, 79 Beersteyn Christian Paul van, Portrait of, 56 Beggars at the Door of a House (etching), 101; ill., 100 Beggars, etchings of, 101, 112 Belshazzar's Feast, 64 Berchem, Nicholas; Portraits of, and his wife, 73 Bilderbeecq, Margaretha van, Portrait of, 58 Blind Fiddler, The (etching), 95 Bonus, Dr Ephraim, 25; Portraits of 69, 73; (etching), 100 Boy, Portrait of a (Hinton St George), 51;
79. The. Maurice Kann). 62 Collen. Head of (M. Suzanna van. 46. 96. 110. André-Jacquemart). 52. 39. 112 Circumcision. 106 Christ bound to the Column. Joris de. 112 Cornelia. 102 Canal with Swans (etching). 67 Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis. 96 Christ Entombed (etching). 41. 54. Willem. The (etching). 57 Christ. The. ill. 32. 81 Christ appearing to the Disciples (etching). 81 Cattenburch. The. 111 Christ taken from the Cross.. 87 Caulery. 37. (etching). 104 Christ and the Samaritan Woman (etching). Petersburg). ill. 87. (M. (etchings). 111 Christ at Emmaus (Mme.. 87. 68 Christ's Body carried to the Tomb (etching). (Aschaffenbourg). 72 Coppenol. 80 Christ. Van de. daughter of Rembrandt and Hendrickje. 78. 73 Christ disputing with the Doctors (etching).(Belvoir Castle). 56 Concord of the Country. 51. 74. ill. 103 Christ driving the Money-Lenders from the Temple (etching). 57. 85. 47 Cottage and Barn (etching). 25 Capuchin. 103 Christ and Mary Magdalene at the Tomb. head of a. (etching). 58 Canal. Dirck van. 112 Canal with a Large Boat (etching). 110. 81 Constable of Bourbon. Portraits of. Rudolphe Kann). 75 Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus (etchings). 109 Bruyningh. The (etching). 103 Cleopatra at her Toilet. Portrait of. 25. 86 Christ in the Garden of Olives (etching). 74 Christ preaching (etching). The. (Copenhagen). 98 . 6. (Louvre). 109 Burchgraeff. 81. Half-length portraits of [Pg 158] (St. Portrait of. 55. 76 Bull. 66 Christ and Mary Magdalene in the Garden. Portrait of. 74. 76. 111 Christ on the Cross. 102 Cappelle. Portrait of. 35.. 74 Christ before Pilate (etching). 111 Christ healing the Sick (etching).
98. Gerard. The.. The (etching). 25. Portrait of. 109 . 55 Draughtsman. 111 David playing before Saul (Frankfort). (Munich). 72 David and Absalom. 61 Danae. (etchings). Portrait of. 87 Elevation of the Cross. 108. 110 Flagellation. 35. 64 Daniel's Vision. 60. 83 Etchings. 54. 83 Flight into Egypt. The (The Hague). 62. 83 Dead Peacocks. 95. 93. Machteld van. The (Glasgow). 76 Crayers. 115 Dutch Admiral and his Wife. 45. Dr (etching). The. Martin. 59. 105 David at Prayer (etching). (etching). 59. 64. 68 David and Goliath. Rembrandt's first pupil. 54 Deyman. (etchings). The. 90. 67 Doorn. 88. 91. Haman. The. Portrait of. ill. 60 Entombment. and Ahasuerus. 108 Flute Player. authentic etchings. Jeremias de. 66. The Countess of. 65. 85. ill. 113. The (etching). 55. 109 Drawings. Dr. 115 [Pg 159] Family Group (Brunswick). 97 Decker. 107 Dircx. Portrait of. disputed etchings. 20. 68 Death of the Virgin. The. 40. The (Duke of Abercorn). 77. 83 Faustus. (Buda-Pesth). 61 Dou. (etching). Rembrandt's. Portrait of. catalogues of. 33 Doomer Paul. 76 Esther. (Dresden). 110 Daey. 45 Crucifixion. The (etching). Geertje. early appreciation of. 38 Diana bathing. Louis.Cottage with white Pales (etching). qualities of the etchings. 64.. 71 Ecce Homo. the various states. 112 Cradle. The. 57. 75 Descent from the Cross. 11. Reconciliation of. Combat of (etching). 114. (1665). 103. The (etchings). 83 Deposition. 105 Desmond. 87.
Thomas Jacobsz. A (etching). 82. 27. Porgès). 67. (Louvre). 75 Goldsmith at his Work. 11. (St Petersburg). 81. Jacob. The (Munich). 67 Girl. 67. 53. The (etching). 110 Haring. partnership with Titus. 6. (Cassel). 41. Portraits of (Louvre). 66. 20. 94. 72. Aert de. 55. 105 Gelder. 110 Frederick-Henry. Abraham. see Gerritsz Heertsbeeck. 74. 111 Goldweigher. The (etching). The (etching). 38. her will. 44. 40. (Berlin)... 66. Portrait of (etching) 106 Harmen Gerritsz. ill. 52. 71 Gerritsz. The (etching). 103 Good Samaritan. her relations with Rembrandt. The (etching). 45 Hendrickje. (etchings). (etching). (St Petersburg). The Disgrace of. The (Wallace Collection). 57. (circa 1640). commissions to Rembrandt. 103 Holy Family with the Serpent. (Cracow). 75 Haring. 67 Haman. 11. Expulsion of. 55. Portraits of. 71. her death. 108 Holy Family crossing a Rill during the Flight into Egypt. The. 12. (M. 25. 98 Holy Family. her children. 75 Hannah teaching Samuel to read (Bridgewater House). 95 Grotius. 57. 44 Gentleman with the Hawk. 34. The (etching). Head of a. 47. 103 Goldweigher's Field. 104 . The. Portrait of (etching). 44. 35. Isaac van. 44 Hog. Rembrandt's father. 38. (etchings). 36. 88. Harmen. 59 Game of Golf. 99 Hagar and Ishmael. Prince (Stathouder). 74. 34. 54. 32. 44. Portrait of (etching). (Louvre).Francen. 59 Girl with a Broom. ill. 73. 42. 57 Grotto. 35. 39. 87. 95 Gilder. (Downton). 76.
Jan Herman. 97 Jews' Synagogue. 86. 67 Hundred Guilder Print. 83 Jewish Bride. (etching). Catrina. Constantin. 112 Landscape with a Man sketching (etching). 71 Lady with the Parrot. Volkera Nicolai. 78 John the Baptist. 57 Knobbert. The (Buckingham Palace). 90 Joseph accused by Potiphar's Wife. 73.. A (etching). 70. 19. 76. 53 Jacob and Esau. 97 John the Baptist preaching. Portrait of (etching). 112 Landscape with a ruined Tower (etching). 11. Matthys. 77 Joseph and Potiphar's Wife (etching). Portrait of. 51 Judith. 58 Lady. 25. The. Portrait of. 85. 78 Jacob wrestling with the Angel. 107 Kalkoen. 20. 109 . 74 Judas with the Price of the Betrayal. The. 110 Huygens. 78 Landscapes by Rembrandt.Homer reciting his Poems. 104 Jew in a High Cap. 109 Landscape with an Obelisque (etching). 66. The. 112 Landscape with a Flock of Sheep (etching). 87. 98.. 109 Landscape with Cottage and Mill Sail (etching). 105 Jacob's Sons bringing him Joseph's Coat. 27 Huygens. 61. ill. Portrait of. 68. (Amsterdam). ill. Clement de. 67. Beheading of. 82 Hoogh. Portrait of a (Capt. 55 Jupiter and Antiope (etching).. 73 Lady of Utrecht. 109 Large Tree by a House (etching). Portrait of. The (etching). 98 Jacob blessing Joseph's Sons. (Grosvenor House). The. ill. 96 Joseph interpreting his Dreams. 97 [Pg 160] Joseph's Coat. Reconciliation of. 98 Landscape with a Cow drinking (etching). The (Prince Liechtenstein). 67 Lady with the Fan. 75 Jansenius. 102.. Portrait of. The Little (etching). 80 Jacob's Dream (etching). (St Petersburg). Maurice. 78. 103. Holford). 58. 101 Jewish Bride. 97 Jonghe. 78 House of the Carpenter. 68 Jacob and Laban (etching). ill. 53 Joseph relating his Dreams (etchings). 82 Jesus and His Parents returning from Jerusalem (etching). 85. 56 Krul.
72 Man with a Baton (Louvre). 78 Man with a Sword (Capt. 9. Jan. Portraits of a (Vienna).. (Brussels). 28. 76 Minerva. Holford). 10 La Tombe. Portrait of. Rembrandt's Sister. 89 Lion Hunt. 13. 85. 98 Manasseh ben Israel. 81 Mordecai. 100 Man in an Arbour (etching). (Cassel). ill. figures of. his "Piedra Gloriosa. Martin. 105. The Triumph of (etching). Kann). (Prince Jousoupoff). 64. 9. 65. 77. 14.. 57 Lucretia. 56. 51. 75 Mill. 66. 25. Jessup). 81 Man in Armour (Brunswick). (Earl of Brownlow). The. Portraits of.. 68 Marriage of Jason and Creusa. 77 Man in a Red Cloak (M. (Mr M. The (etching). (St Petersburg). 79 Metamorphosis of Narcissus. 11.Lastman. 38. ill." 87. 66 Man seated on the Ground (etching). A (etchings). 55 Minister. 100 Lievensz. 75 Man with the Bittern (Dresden). 71. K. 82 Lutma. 68. (etching). (Glasgow).. Portrait of a (St Petersburg). 70. The. ill. ill. 82. 67. Portrait of (etching). 67. Portrait of a (National Gallery). 56.. Pieter. ill. Portrait of. 96 Manoah and his Wife. 79 Man reading by a Window (Copenhagen). (Mr Armour). 82 Man and his Wife. (Lord Feversham). 106. Portrait of a. 58 Man. 101 Merchant. Pieter de. Death of. 106 Lysbeth. 109 Looten. 55. 80 . Kann). 111 Ledikant (etching). 71. The. 76. 64. (Prince Liechtenstein). 57. 12. 72. 30. The Offering of. Jan. (M. 65 Monks. (Cassel). 25. 73 Man sketching in a Book (Dresden). 63. 110 Moses breaking the Tables of the Law.
(Dresden). Rembrandt's Mother. (Duke of Devonshire). Portrait of an (Berlin). 82. The (etching). An. Portrait of an. (St Petersburg). 79. Schloss. (Buda-Pesth). (Épinal). 78. 105 Negress. View of (etching). 107 [Pg 161] Neeltje. 73.. 71. 78. (Earl of Yarborough). (Nat. 75. (Lord Wantage). 76. 100 Old Jew (St Petersburg). (Brussels). 79. (M. (Lady Cook). 94 Old Beggar Woman (etching). 108 Old Woman Sleeping (etching). Porgès).Moses. (M. 73. 2. 76. 82. 61. 77. The Saving of. (Louvre). (New York). 95. 73. (Pitti). (Stockholm). 74. Lindsay). 69. 75 Old Man caressing a Boy (etching). (M. 96 . 108 Old Beggar Man conversing with a Woman (etching). 69 Noli me tangere. 96 Nativity. A (etching). (Strasburg). 30. 97 Old Woman. (Leeuwarden). 14. 66. 111 Nebuchadnezzar's Dream (etching). 28. Gallery). (etchings). 65 Oriental Heads (etching). 76. 82. 62. (St Petersburg). 76. (Earl of Northbrook). Portraits of an (Wilton House). see Rembrandt's Mother Night-Watch. 75 Pancake Woman. (Cassel). A (etching). Portrait of an (National Gallery). 72 Pallas. 48. 105 Old Woman weighing Money (Dresden). 67 Mountebank. (Col. see also Old Woman Old Man. 81. 75. Paris). (Stockholm). 71 Omval. 71. The (etching). 76 Old Lady. 53. 83. Portraits of. 99 Oriental. 127 Orphan Girl of Amsterdam. ill. 65. Kann). The. 53. 7. 76. 77. 83 Old Man with a divided Fur Cap (etching).
87. The (etching). 3. apprenticed to Swanenburch. 9. 59 Philosopher reading by Candlelight. date of birth discussed. 16. 83. early extravagance. . 72. (Louvre). 59 Philon the Jew. The (Hamburg). 27. 74. 16. (TheHague). 62. 52. [Pg 162] financial difficulties. 26. (M. 94. ill. (etchings). 17. 29. 60. The. family quarrels. 112 Pellicorne. 10. 49 Phœnix. 128 Raising of the Cross. The. 10. and his Wife. 19. his first child. his friends. Burgomaster Jan. 28. the Anatomy Lesson. (etching). The (etching). 51.. 5. 53 Philosopher in Meditation. (Nat. A. 53. 2. 68. 78 Pilgrim at Prayer. 95 Rembrandt. Gallery). meeting with Saskia. 7. ill. 23. 62 Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard. return to Leyden. 81 Pluto carrying off Proserpine. 96 Rabbi. 26. 8. 63. 24. his father. (etchings). 78. early portraits. 62. The (etching). 113 "Piedra Gloriosa. 63 Rat-Killer. A (Hampton Court). The (etching). Porgès). 20 Raising of Lazarus. A (Stroganoff Collection). birth and death of two daughters. marriage. removal to Amsterdam.. 78 Parable of the Master of the Vineyard. 13. birthplace.Pancras. 6. entered as a student at Leyden University." Rembrandt's illustrations to. 11. (Berlin). 57 Presentation in the Temple. (Duke of Devonshire). 22. Portrait of. Burgomaster. 105 Pilate washing his Hands. 25. 55. 87. 23. 13. 109 Prodigal Son. 111 Presentation in the Vaulted Temple. 56 Persian. The. under Lastman at Amsterdam. 98 Rape of Ganymede. 65 Peasant with Milk Pails (etching). The. 95 Petitioners to a Biblical Prince.
see Gerritsz Rembrandt and his Wife (etching). (Wallace Collection). (Pitti). 36. Portraits of himself— (Count Andrassy). (Leipzig). 78. death of Saskia. 67. (Lord Ashburton). 51. 28. (Lady de Rothschild). 65. (Carlsruhe). 82 Rembrandt's Father. 71 Etchings. 43. 83. 98. 100. (The Hague). 94. 63. (Herr von Carstangen). relations with Hendrickje Stoffels. (The Hague). (etchings). 79. (Berlin). 95. his last pupil. 49. 53. 79. 67. 82. 79. 43. 71. 75. 82. 78. 61.birth of Titus. ill. 83. 51. ill. 72. 65. 75 "Rembrandt's Cook" (Downton). 46. (Louvre). (Lord Ilchester). 75. 55. Gallery). 96 Rembrandt's Mother. 46 Rembrandt. (Gotha).. 80. death of Rembrandt. (Bridgewater House). 71. Portraits of. 40. (Vienna). 95. (Cassel). 41. fresh commissions. (Heywood-Lonsdale). 30. 44. decline of prosperity. 71. (Weimar). (Lord Kinnaird). (Prince Henri of the Pays Bas). 61. 57. 32.. failing sight. (Sir A. 38. 78. 75. 80. (Herr Mendelssohn). . (Nat. 39. 58. 3. (Duke of Buccleuch). 108 Rembrandt's Brother. (Uffizi). Portrait of (Berlin). 51. bankruptcy. 61. Neeld). D. 75. 80. (Warneck Collection). 97. 61. 79. (Cambridge). 108 Rembrandt's Mill (etching). 30. (Lord Iveagh). sale of his property. 35. (Buckingham Palace). death of Hendrickje. 78. 34. 79. 61. 49. 44. (Munich). 65. 83. 6. 93.
The (etching). ill. 22. 95. 27. 17. (Six Collection). 31. 108. 96 St Thomas. Schloss).. 50 Samson overpowered by the Philistines (Count Schonborn). The. A. 65 St Anastasius. (St Petersburg). 34. her birth and family. 64 Saskia. 54 St Catherine (etching). 112 Resurrection. 57. 99. 102. 75 Saint. (Berlin). 78 St Peter and St John at the Gate of the Temple (etchings). 19. (etchings). 22. 98.. 79 St Paul in Prison (Stuttgart). 61. pencil drawing of (at Berlin). 98 Six. 114 Six's Bridge (etching). (M. 62 Salutation. The (etching). 61. 71. 30. 24. 58. C. (Lord Wimborne). ill. 97 St Francis praying (etching). ill. 66 Samson threatening his Father-in-Law. Burgomaster. 18. marriage. 100. 96. 25. (etching). Portrait of. 64 Samson propounding his Riddle to the Philistines. first meeting with Rembrandt. 24. 107 St Jerome (etchings). death. 81 St Paul (Vienna). The. 79. 38. 49 St Peter.. (Buckingham Palace). 4 Schoolmaster. 98 Repose in Egypt (etchings). 112 St Peter. 62. 113 St Matthew. 102 . The Martyrdom of (etching). (etching).ill. (St Petersburg). (Cassel). 62. her character. The Denial of (Elberfeld). children. The. 95. 18.. 66 Robinson. her will. Sir J. 107 St Stephen. 18. Rembrandt and Saskia (Dresden). 65. 62. 51. Incredulity of. Portraits of (Dresden). Early Portraits of. 99 Shell. 14. 30. 52. 48 Ruin. 61. 67 Samson captured by the Philistines (Berlin). 1635..
ill. (in America). 112. sheets of (etchings). ill. 42. 77 Sobieski.Shepherds reposing at Night. 98. 46. (Capt. ill. 46. 80 Tholinx. 92 Titia. his will. 87. (Earl of Crawford). 21. 30. de Rothschild). (Vienna). 38. 72 . see Hendrickje Storm.. The (etching). 81. 65. Hendrickje. 38. 25. (Louvre). marriage. 110 Three Crosses. 111 Three Trees. 109 Syndics of the Drapers' Guild. Sketch of a (etching). 18. 79. 110 Standard Bearer. 74 Swalm. 113 Stoffels. 47 Titus. 65 Swanenburch. (Glasgow). 73 Susannah. 66 Sortie of the Banning Cocq Company. Jan Cornelis. 25. Portrait of. Rembrandt's Granddaughter. death. 87. 81 Star of the Kings. 69 Sportsman. partnership with Hendrickje. 72. The (Baron G. 8 Sylvius. Jacob van.. The (Herr Rath). 87. 115 Tree. The. Portraits of (M. The (etching). The. 65. The (etching). 58. (etchings). Portrait of. (Berlin). Frontispiece [Pg 163] Sketches. 30. The. Kann). 77. (etching). 43. 33. 66. The (etching).. Holford). 75 Tobit Blind (etching). 65. 39. 109 Tribute Money. Arnold. 62 Tobias' Wife with the Goat.. an Effect of. 75. (etching). Portrait of. Henry. 111. 77. Study of. 67 Susannah and the Elders (Prince Jousoupoff). 76 Tobias restoring his Father's Sight. 108. 77. 74 Shipbuilder and his Wife. 72 Tobit and his Wife. ill. 110 Tobias and the Angel. 46. 35. 82. Rembrandt's Son. 88. 113 Slaughter-house.
Dr. Marshal. 74 Woman. 25. 71 Young Man laughing. 31. 72 Woman by a Dutch Stove (etching). 103 Unmerciful Servant. (Copenhagen). 47 Uylenborch. The (etching). Jan. 68 Winter Scene.. 102 Vista. 26. 41. and see Old Woman Woman bathing (Louvre). ill. Albert. (Nat. The (etching). 69. 52 Young Man with the Turban. 73. 107 Woman with her Feet in Water (etching). Portraits of. 53. 57 Turenne. 23. (M. 29. Saskia van—see Saskia. 87. 51. Magdalena van. 22. The (etching). 40 Uylenborch. 102 Village with a River and Sailing Vessel (etching). 82. 74. wife of Titus. 109 Village with a Square Tower (etching). 25. 72. Gerrit and Hiskia. Van Loo. 103 Vymer. 78 Young Man and his Wife (Prince Liechtenstein). Portrait of a (Earl Cowper). (Lord Kinnaird). (Mr Humphry Ward). 81 Virgin mourning the Death of Jesus. Portrait of. (Lord Iveagh). Kann). 46 Van Loo.. 82 Uylenborch. (Bridgewater House). 96 Young Painter with Paper and Crayon. 96. 73. 76 . Portrait of a (Mr Byers).. 21. 72 Young Man. ill. 64 Young Man in a Cap and Breastplate (Dresden). 77. 72. 16. Portrait of. ill. 13. 64. 61. The. 76 Woman taken in Adultery. 105 Village by the High Road (etching). Portrait of a (Stockholm). (The Hague). 74 Uijtenbogaerd. 64. (Dulwich). 107 Woodchopper. The (etching). 107 Woman with an Arrow (etching). 111 Woman preparing to dress after Bathing (etching). The. 109 Virgin and Child in the Clouds. (Louvre). 74 Young Servant (Stockholm). 46. 54 Young Man seated in Meditation (etching). 73 [Pg 164] Young Girl. 25 Venus and Cupid. Gallery). Portraits of (etchings). A. Hendrick van. Anna. The. 98 Vision of Ezekiel.Tulp. 72.
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